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Water and the Future of the San Joaquin Valley, Event Briefing

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object(Timber\Post)#3711 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(71) "eventbriefing-water-and-the-future-of-the-san-joaquin-valley-022219.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(7) "1619166" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(9141) "Water and the Future of the San Joaquin Valley February 22, 2019 Supported with funding from the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the TomKat Foundation, the US Department of Agriculture, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Water Foundation An interdisciplinary research team Ellen Hanak PPIC Economics Alvar Escriva-Bou PPIC Engineering Brian Gray PPIC Law Sarge Green CSU Fresno Engineering Thomas Harter UC Davis Hydrology/Climate Jelena Jezdimirovic PPIC Economics Jay Lund UC Davis Engineering Nat Seavy Point Blue Conservation Ecology/Biology Josué MedellínAzuara UC Merced Economics Peter Moyle UC Davis Biology 2 …with important direction from many valley experts Chuck Ahlem Eric Averett Ashley Boren Paul Boyer Kimberly Brown Karen Buhr Peter Carey Michael Carbajal Emmy Cattani David Cehrs Vito Chiesa Joe Choperena Greg Coleman Daniel Cozad Pamela Creedon Vernon Crowder Terry Erlewine Tommy Esqueda Melissa Frank Michael Frantz Noel Gollehon Abby Hart Ann Hayden Maria Herrera Matt Hurley Michael Hurley J. Paul Hendrix Trevor Joseph Jonathan Kaplan Adam Livingston Karl Longley Joe MacIlvaine Cannon Michael Sarah Moffatt Daniel Mountjoy Soapy Mulholland Mike Olmos Dave Orth Lorelei Oviatt Brian Pacheco Stephen Patricio Jeff Payne Bill Phillimore Katie Pranek Jon Reiter Jesse Roseman Jonathan Vaughn Josh Viers Walter Ward Kathy Wood-McLaughlin Stuart Woolf 3 The San Joaquin Valley is at a pivotal moment  California’s largest farming region faces unprecedented challenges and inevitable change  Much at stake for region’s economy, public health, environment  Most promising approaches – Increase flexibility – Provide incentives – Leverage multiple benefits  Increased cooperation, coordination will be key  State, federal governments can provide vital assistance 4 The valley relies on groundwater overdraft to deal with its long-term water imbalance  30-year valley-wide deficit (1988-2017): 1.8 maf/year 5 The valley is ground zero for implementing the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act  Most of the valley’s groundwater basins are critically overdrafted  Consequences are dry wells, sinking lands, reduced supplies for droughts  Most basins must adopt plans by 2020, achieve sustainability by 2040  Attaining balance means more recharge, less water use, or both  Impacts will vary across the region 6 Valley agriculture faces linked challenges on water, air, and habitat quality  Nitrate in groundwater – Risks to drinking water  Salinity in west-side soils and groundwater – Limits crop productivity  Poor air quality – Could increase with more land fallowing under SGMA – Dairy industry will need to tackle methane emissions  Highly altered natural environment – Conflicts over land, water management 7 Outline  Balancing water supplies and demands  Addressing groundwater quality challenges  Fostering beneficial water and land use transitions 8 Many approaches to reduce overdraft Groundwater overdraft Delta imports 19% 11% 16.7 maf 70% Local supplies Average annual net water use (1988–2017) Supply management options • Capture and store more local runoff • Increase local runoff • Increase Delta imports • Reduce exports to other regions • Reuse and repurpose local supplies Demand management options • Reduce net farm water use • Reduce net urban water use • Reduce net water use for open space, wetlands • Reduce losses from water infrastructure • Increase flexibility 9 Many approaches to reduce overdraft Groundwater overdraft Delta imports 19% 11% 16.7 maf 70% Local supplies Average annual net water use (1988–2017) Supply management options • Capture and store more local runoff • Increase local runoff • Increase Delta imports • Reduce exports to other regions • Reuse and repurpose local supplies Demand management options • Reduce net farm water use • Reduce net urban water use • Reduce net water use for open space, wetlands • Reduce losses from water infrastructure • Increase flexibility We examined approaches shown in red 10 Supply options vary greatly in potential yield…. 11 …and in affordability for valley farming New supplies can affordably fill about 25% of overdraft 12 Flexibility is key to managing farm water demand  Inflexible water use is very costly  Local water trading slashes costs 13 Flexibility is key to managing farm water demand  Inflexible water use is very costly  Local water trading slashes costs  Valley-wide surface water trading cuts costs further 14 Flexibility is key to managing farm water demand  Inflexible water use is very costly  Local water trading slashes costs  Valley-wide surface water trading cuts costs further  Trading + new supplies also cuts land fallowing 15 A portfolio approach can minimize regional economic losses  Gradually ending overdraft (“glide path”) can also help 16 Priorities for action 1. Assess infrastructure needs, modernize operations 2. Incentivize recharge on farmland 3. Develop local water trading rules 4. Clarify how much water is available for recharge 5. Facilitate approvals for trading and banking projects 6. Coordinate to maximize benefits 17 Outline  Balancing water supplies and demands  Addressing groundwater quality challenges  Fostering beneficial water and land use transitions 18 Groundwater quality must be addressed while implementing SGMA  Three new areas of focus – Providing safe drinking water – Managing nitrogen loading – Managing salt balance  Potential synergies, but also trade-offs, in tackling these issues alongside SGMA CV-SALTS meeting Source: cvsalinity.org 19 The valley is a hot spot for California’s safe drinking water crisis 20 Dairies face special challenges in managing manure 21 Better approaches are needed to manage salts 22 Tools to balance groundwater supplies and demands can affect groundwater quality 23 Priorities for action 1. Provide safe and reliable drinking water • Consolidate, aggregate systems • Provide technical support • Mitigate dry wells • Ensure funding 2. Coordinate water quality and quantity management 3. Implement new technologies to manage pollutants, especially for dairies 4. Provide regulatory flexibility to manage nitrogen, salt loading 24 Outline  Balancing water supplies and demands  Addressing groundwater quality challenges  Fostering beneficial water and land use transitions 25 Changes to water and land present new challenges, opportunities  Ecosystems under stress  Water becoming scarcer  More land available, but with less revenue  Threats of land retirement: dust, pest, weeds  Potential for multi-benefit approaches: healthy soils, habitat, solar, recharge, flood protection, recreation Rivers Wetlands Drylands 26 Current planning efforts only account for 1/3 of land likely to be fallowed  The goal should be to steward all idled lands 27 Priorities for action: Planning  Involve many local parties, including county and city planners  Regional scope would enable more synergies One example of a regional approach Source: Huber et al. (2010) 28 Priorities for action: Flexible regulatory approaches  Large landscape, multi-species permitting  Simplified, streamlined permitting  Protect landowners from regulatory risk – Safe harbor – Relax prime farmland retirement restrictions Kern Water Bank Source: Maven’s Notebook 29 Priorities for action: Funding and incentives  Redirecting, pooling funding sources will be key – Water, land, energy use fees – State, federal grants and credits  Many farmers will also need other incentives (e.g., keep rights to water from fallowed lands for use on other lands) Atwell Island Land Retirement Program Source: Jezdimirovic 30 Cost-effective approaches are essential for stewarding lands on a large scale River Partners’ San Joaquin River restoration project Source: River Partners 31 Priorities for action: Technical support, R&D  Much experimentation will be needed  RCDs are ideal partners, but too limited in coverage, underfunded  Other key “honest brokers”: NGOs, UC extension, USDA technical assistance 32 Effective and equitable solutions will require cooperative approaches  Problems can’t be solved farm-by-farm  Many opportunities to tackle multiple problems at once and get multiple benefits  Broad-based partnerships will be key  State, federal agencies can play vital roles 33 Thank you 34 Notes on the use of these slides These slides were created to accompany a presentation. They do not include full documentation of sources, data samples, methods, and interpretations. To avoid misinterpretations, please contact: Ellen Hanak (hanak@ppic.org; (415) 291-4433) Thank you for your interest in this work. Water and the Future of the San Joaquin Valley February 22, 2019 Supported with funding from the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the TomKat Foundation, the US Department of Agriculture, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Water Foundation" } ["___content":protected]=> string(215) "

Water and the Future of the San Joaquin Valley, Event Briefing

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D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the TomKat Foundation, the US Department of Agriculture, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Water Foundation An interdisciplinary research team Ellen Hanak PPIC Economics Alvar Escriva-Bou PPIC Engineering Brian Gray PPIC Law Sarge Green CSU Fresno Engineering Thomas Harter UC Davis Hydrology/Climate Jelena Jezdimirovic PPIC Economics Jay Lund UC Davis Engineering Nat Seavy Point Blue Conservation Ecology/Biology Josué MedellínAzuara UC Merced Economics Peter Moyle UC Davis Biology 2 …with important direction from many valley experts Chuck Ahlem Eric Averett Ashley Boren Paul Boyer Kimberly Brown Karen Buhr Peter Carey Michael Carbajal Emmy Cattani David Cehrs Vito Chiesa Joe Choperena Greg Coleman Daniel Cozad Pamela Creedon Vernon Crowder Terry Erlewine Tommy Esqueda Melissa Frank Michael Frantz Noel Gollehon Abby Hart Ann Hayden Maria Herrera Matt Hurley Michael Hurley J. Paul Hendrix Trevor Joseph Jonathan Kaplan Adam Livingston Karl Longley Joe MacIlvaine Cannon Michael Sarah Moffatt Daniel Mountjoy Soapy Mulholland Mike Olmos Dave Orth Lorelei Oviatt Brian Pacheco Stephen Patricio Jeff Payne Bill Phillimore Katie Pranek Jon Reiter Jesse Roseman Jonathan Vaughn Josh Viers Walter Ward Kathy Wood-McLaughlin Stuart Woolf 3 The San Joaquin Valley is at a pivotal moment  California’s largest farming region faces unprecedented challenges and inevitable change  Much at stake for region’s economy, public health, environment  Most promising approaches – Increase flexibility – Provide incentives – Leverage multiple benefits  Increased cooperation, coordination will be key  State, federal governments can provide vital assistance 4 The valley relies on groundwater overdraft to deal with its long-term water imbalance  30-year valley-wide deficit (1988-2017): 1.8 maf/year 5 The valley is ground zero for implementing the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act  Most of the valley’s groundwater basins are critically overdrafted  Consequences are dry wells, sinking lands, reduced supplies for droughts  Most basins must adopt plans by 2020, achieve sustainability by 2040  Attaining balance means more recharge, less water use, or both  Impacts will vary across the region 6 Valley agriculture faces linked challenges on water, air, and habitat quality  Nitrate in groundwater – Risks to drinking water  Salinity in west-side soils and groundwater – Limits crop productivity  Poor air quality – Could increase with more land fallowing under SGMA – Dairy industry will need to tackle methane emissions  Highly altered natural environment – Conflicts over land, water management 7 Outline  Balancing water supplies and demands  Addressing groundwater quality challenges  Fostering beneficial water and land use transitions 8 Many approaches to reduce overdraft Groundwater overdraft Delta imports 19% 11% 16.7 maf 70% Local supplies Average annual net water use (1988–2017) Supply management options • Capture and store more local runoff • Increase local runoff • Increase Delta imports • Reduce exports to other regions • Reuse and repurpose local supplies Demand management options • Reduce net farm water use • Reduce net urban water use • Reduce net water use for open space, wetlands • Reduce losses from water infrastructure • Increase flexibility 9 Many approaches to reduce overdraft Groundwater overdraft Delta imports 19% 11% 16.7 maf 70% Local supplies Average annual net water use (1988–2017) Supply management options • Capture and store more local runoff • Increase local runoff • Increase Delta imports • Reduce exports to other regions • Reuse and repurpose local supplies Demand management options • Reduce net farm water use • Reduce net urban water use • Reduce net water use for open space, wetlands • Reduce losses from water infrastructure • Increase flexibility We examined approaches shown in red 10 Supply options vary greatly in potential yield…. 11 …and in affordability for valley farming New supplies can affordably fill about 25% of overdraft 12 Flexibility is key to managing farm water demand  Inflexible water use is very costly  Local water trading slashes costs 13 Flexibility is key to managing farm water demand  Inflexible water use is very costly  Local water trading slashes costs  Valley-wide surface water trading cuts costs further 14 Flexibility is key to managing farm water demand  Inflexible water use is very costly  Local water trading slashes costs  Valley-wide surface water trading cuts costs further  Trading + new supplies also cuts land fallowing 15 A portfolio approach can minimize regional economic losses  Gradually ending overdraft (“glide path”) can also help 16 Priorities for action 1. Assess infrastructure needs, modernize operations 2. Incentivize recharge on farmland 3. Develop local water trading rules 4. Clarify how much water is available for recharge 5. Facilitate approvals for trading and banking projects 6. Coordinate to maximize benefits 17 Outline  Balancing water supplies and demands  Addressing groundwater quality challenges  Fostering beneficial water and land use transitions 18 Groundwater quality must be addressed while implementing SGMA  Three new areas of focus – Providing safe drinking water – Managing nitrogen loading – Managing salt balance  Potential synergies, but also trade-offs, in tackling these issues alongside SGMA CV-SALTS meeting Source: cvsalinity.org 19 The valley is a hot spot for California’s safe drinking water crisis 20 Dairies face special challenges in managing manure 21 Better approaches are needed to manage salts 22 Tools to balance groundwater supplies and demands can affect groundwater quality 23 Priorities for action 1. Provide safe and reliable drinking water • Consolidate, aggregate systems • Provide technical support • Mitigate dry wells • Ensure funding 2. Coordinate water quality and quantity management 3. Implement new technologies to manage pollutants, especially for dairies 4. Provide regulatory flexibility to manage nitrogen, salt loading 24 Outline  Balancing water supplies and demands  Addressing groundwater quality challenges  Fostering beneficial water and land use transitions 25 Changes to water and land present new challenges, opportunities  Ecosystems under stress  Water becoming scarcer  More land available, but with less revenue  Threats of land retirement: dust, pest, weeds  Potential for multi-benefit approaches: healthy soils, habitat, solar, recharge, flood protection, recreation Rivers Wetlands Drylands 26 Current planning efforts only account for 1/3 of land likely to be fallowed  The goal should be to steward all idled lands 27 Priorities for action: Planning  Involve many local parties, including county and city planners  Regional scope would enable more synergies One example of a regional approach Source: Huber et al. (2010) 28 Priorities for action: Flexible regulatory approaches  Large landscape, multi-species permitting  Simplified, streamlined permitting  Protect landowners from regulatory risk – Safe harbor – Relax prime farmland retirement restrictions Kern Water Bank Source: Maven’s Notebook 29 Priorities for action: Funding and incentives  Redirecting, pooling funding sources will be key – Water, land, energy use fees – State, federal grants and credits  Many farmers will also need other incentives (e.g., keep rights to water from fallowed lands for use on other lands) Atwell Island Land Retirement Program Source: Jezdimirovic 30 Cost-effective approaches are essential for stewarding lands on a large scale River Partners’ San Joaquin River restoration project Source: River Partners 31 Priorities for action: Technical support, R&D  Much experimentation will be needed  RCDs are ideal partners, but too limited in coverage, underfunded  Other key “honest brokers”: NGOs, UC extension, USDA technical assistance 32 Effective and equitable solutions will require cooperative approaches  Problems can’t be solved farm-by-farm  Many opportunities to tackle multiple problems at once and get multiple benefits  Broad-based partnerships will be key  State, federal agencies can play vital roles 33 Thank you 34 Notes on the use of these slides These slides were created to accompany a presentation. 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