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object(Timber\Post)#3711 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(13) "R_1108EVR.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "394525" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(89451) "Adaptation of California’s Electricity Sector to Climate Change Edward Vine Supported with funding from Next Ten, Pacifi c Gas and Electric Company, and The Nature Conservancy This report is part of a larger PPIC study, Preparing California for a Changing Climate. Other reports in this collection are available at http://www.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=755 . November 2008 The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decisionmakers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California's future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a private, nonprofit organization. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Thomas C. Sutton is Chair of the Board of Directors. Copyright © 2008 by Public Po licy Institute of California All rights reserved San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the so urce and the above copyright notice is included. Research publications reflect the views of the author s and do not necessarily reflect the views of the staff, officers, or Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. Contents Summary iv  Acronyms v  Acknowledgments vi  Introduction 1  1. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR 2  Impacts on Electricity and Natural Gas Demand 2  Impacts on Generation Capacity 4  Hydroelectric Generation 5  Other Renewable Energy Sources 6  Thermoelectric Generation 7  Impacts on Electricity Sector Infrastructure 8  2. INSTITUTIONS AND REGULATORY STRUCTURE: ENERGY AND CLIMATE 11  State Energy Agencies 11  Water Resource Planning Institutions 11  Investor-Owned Utilities 12  Local Governments 12  Laws and Regulations Considering Climatic Factors 13  3. ADAPTATION STRATEGIES 15  Reducing Peak Demand Increases 15  Improving the Generation System’s Ability to respond to Peak Demands 17  Enacting Mitigation Policies that Enhance Adaptation Potential 18  Increasing RD&D to Support Energy Sector Response 19  4. CONSTRAINTS TO ADAPTATION 22  Financial and Economic Barriers 22  Institutional Barriers to Business Decisions 22  Political Barriers 23  Informational, Social, Attitudinal, and Behavioral Barriers 23  Summary and Conclusions 24  References 25  About the Author 29  Summary Climate change is likely to pose considerable new challenges to California’s electricity sector. On the one hand, as the second largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in California, this sector will be a primary target of efforts to reduce emissions under California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (Assembly Bill (AB) 32). At the same time, the sector will need to adapt to changing demand and supply cond itions resulting from climate change. AB 32 goals could be more difficult to meet if there is reduced hydroelectric generation or increased use of carbon-based back-up generation in extreme heat events. This report focuses on the adaptation challenges of an important component of the energy arena: electricity demand in the reside ntial and commercial sectors and electricity supply (natural gas is briefly mentioned as a secondary topic). The primary challenge to California’s electricity sector will likely be the increase in demand for air conditioning as a result of rising temperatures. In addition, re newable energy sources, which are an increasing share of the electricity portfolio, are particul arly vulnerable to climate change. (Notably, hydroelectric sources – a key resource for m eeting peak demands – are challenged by the declining snowpack). Many of the key players – including state regulatory agencies and the investor-owned utilities which serve most of the state’s cust omers – have been actively considering the implications of climate change. Because electricit y generation accounts for nearly 30 percent of GHG emissions, this sector has been a target of the state’s efforts to reduce emissions. Fortunately, many of the same tools can simultaneously improve the sector’s resilience to a changing climate. Demand management strategies and supply diversification are both important strategies. Local governments can play a central role in encouraging the adoption of more energy efficient building codes and the use of more re newable sources, such as solar energy. The positive steps taken by many local government s are encouraging. Steps to increase public awareness are an important, often missing component, however. Increases in research, development, and demonstration to improv e system resiliency and develop new energy conservation tools are also needed. Acronyms AB Assembly Bill ARB Air Resources Board Cal-ISO California Independent System Operator CEC California Energy Commission CEQA California Environmental Quality Act CICS California Institute for Climate Solutions CPUC California Public Utilities Commission CSAC California State Association of Counties DWR Department of Water Resources EEM energy-efficient mortgage IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LCC League of California Cities LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design MGPD million gallons per day MW megawatts PG&E Pacific Gas and Electric PIER Public Interest Energy Research PV Photovoltaic RD&D research, demonstration and development RPS Renewable Portfolio Standard SCE Southern California Edison SDG&E San Diego Gas & Electric T&D transmission and distribution USBR United States Bureau of Reclamation vi Acknowledgments I would like to thank the following people for providing information or advice for the preparation of this report: Cal Broomhead (Cit y and County of San Francisco), Merwin Brown (California Institute for Energy and Environmen t), Lloyd Cibulka (California Institute for Energy and Environment), Guido Franco (California Energy Commission), Gary Freeman (Pacific Gas & Electric Company), Marshall Hunt (UC Davis Western Cooling Efficiency Center), Norm Miller (Lawrence Berkeley Natio nal Laboratory), Evan Mills (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Joe O’Hagan (Califor nia Energy Commission), Wendy Pulling (Pacific Gas & Electric Company), Sue Ti erney (Analysis Group), and Lorraine White (California Energy Commission). I would also like to thank the reviewers of an earlier version of this report: Guido Franco, Evan Mills, Wendy Pulling, and Michael Teitz. Finally, I am indebted to Louise Bedsworth, Ellen Hanak, and Lynette Ubois of the Public Policy Institute of California who made this report more inte lligible than I could produce. Introduction The energy sector is among the most resilient of all U.S. economic sectors in terms of responding to changes within the range of histor ical experience (e.g., changes in energy prices, market conditions, policy changes, financial variab les, and weather) (Bull et al. 2007). Climate change is likely to pose considerable new challenges to this sector. On the one hand, as the second largest source of greenhouse gas emissi ons in California, the energy sector will be a primary target of efforts to reduce emissions under California’s Global Warming Solutions Act (Assembly Bill (AB) 32). At the same time, the sector will need to adapt to changing demand and supply conditions resulting from climate chang e. AB 32 goals may not be met if there is reduced hydroelectric generation or increased use of carbon-based back-up generation in extreme heat events. This report focuses on the adaptation challenges of an important component of the energy arena: electricity and natural gas demand in the residential and commercial sectors and electricity supply. The report begins with a review of the impacts of climate change on the electricity sector in California – principally an increase in demand for air conditioning as summers become hotter, combined with greater difficulties meeting these peak demands through hydropower. Following an overview of the role of various institutions and regulatory structures that can or should play a role in c limate-related policy, the report then discusses the types of adaptation strategies that will be needed as a result of climate warming. Given its impressive investment resources and experience with risk management (e.g., water variability and availability risks due to fl oods and droughts), the energy sector has the potential to be a leader in adaptation initiative s. On the whole, the study finds that electricity sector’s institutions are well-placed to handle adaptation challenges. Although much remains to be done, both public and private entities are addressing three critical dimensions of adaptation: improving awareness of the problem, directing anal ytic capacity to find solutions, and taking action where it is needed. 1 It bears noting at the outset that adaptation to climate change and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions are closely tied in the el ectricity sector. Mitigation efforts are focusing on increased efficiency and demand management and on the development of renewable electricity sources that emit less carbon into the atmosphere. Some of these same policies – particularly increased efficiency and demand management – are also important components of the adaptation toolkit. At the same time, climate change will increase the vulnerability of some renewable, low-emissions sources of electricity (particularly hydropower), potentially creating some conflicts between adaptation and mitigation goals. 1 See Moser and Luers (2008) for a general discussion of adaptive response challenges and the importance of these three factors. 1. Climate Change Impacts on the Electricity Sector California’s electricity sector faces three main challenges as a result of a changing climate. The primary challenge will be responding to the increase in energy demand as a result of increasing temperatures. Currently, air condit ioning is the main driver of increased peak summer demand for electricity in California, and warmer temperatures will raise the demand for air conditioning. A second challenge is the ability of the electricity generation system to adapt to changing climatic conditions. Some renewable power sources – particularly hydropower – are especially vulnerable to clim ate change. Third, climate change poses risks to transmission and distribution networks and other elements of electricity infrastructure. Impacts on Electricity a nd Natural Gas Demand Miller et al. (2007) analyzed the relationship among climate change, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California through the use of atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. These analyses indicated that extreme he at events in California will increase rapidly, exceeding the rate of increase in mean temperature. 2 The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles may increase from the present-day value of 12 days per year up to 96 days per year by 2100. In other words, current heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer. The prospect of additional and longer heat waves could hav e a significant impact on electricity use in buildings due to increased air-conditioning loads. Natural gas is used in homes for heating, and the use of natural gas in buildings is expected to decrease as winter temperatures become more moderate. However, natural gas is also used for generating electricity in power plants: if more electricity is needed in the summer as a result of increased temperatures, then the cost of natural gas may increase if demand exc eeds the supply of natural gas. One of the earliest studies on the effects of climate change on regional electricity use was conducted in California (Baxter and Calandri 1992). This study found that although climate change will affect energy demand for both he ating and cooling, the increased demands for cooling substantially outweigh the reductions from lower heating needs, particularly in a scenario with higher temperatur e increases. More recently, using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios of climate chan ge from three climate models downscaled for California, Franco and Sanstad (2006) found a high correlation between the simple average daily temperature and daily peak electricity demand in the California Independent System Operator (Cal-ISO) region, which comprises most of California. They projected an increase in energy demand over the century, depending on the amount of warming (Figure 1). Under a high emissions scenario, peak demand could increase 19.5 percent above the 1961 to 1990 baseline by the end of the century. 2 Extreme heat events are defined as days with te mperatures above the 90th percentile for a given baseline period.. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 2005‐2034 2035 ‐2064 2065 ‐2099 Increase  in  peak  summer  energy   demand  relative  to  1961 ‐1990 Figure 1: Projected increase in peak summer energy demand under high and low emissio n scenarios, relative to 1961 to 1990 baseline Source: Franco and Sanstad, 2006. In 2004, 30 percent of California peak demand was attributable to residential and commercial air conditioning use alone (Calif ornia Energy Commission 2004). With long-term climate change, not only will those who already have air conditioning use it more often; additional homes and businesses will install cooling systems. If there is insufficient capacity to meet increased peak energy demands, California could face a greater probability of brownouts and blackouts during the peak demand period. Nationally, the number of significant weather- related incidents to the electricity system ha s grown significantly since the mid-1990s: for example, from five in 1995 to 55 in 2006 (Mills 2008). During the July 2002 heat wave, there was an all-time single day record electricity dem and of 52,863 MW (compared to a typical daily demand of around 40,000 to 45,000 MW duri ng that summer), and several regions within California were without power from hours to days. 3 In addition to public health risks, power outages can incur serious economic problems (LaCommare and Eto 2004). These findings suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during fu ture peak electricity demand periods, which will be both more frequent and longer-lasting. However, these potential impacts may be reduced or avoided by behavioral adaptation strategies: for example, raising the air conditioner thermostat in the summer (Miller et al. 2007). 4 Although climate-related increases in ener gy demand will affect household and business energy costs, studies suggest that these increases would not exceed a few percentage points from a statewide perspective (Mendelsohn, 2003 ; Franco, 2005; Franco and Sanstad, 2006). Of course, increased costs may be much harder to bear for low-income households, who may face 3 In addition to being without power due to gene ration, transmission and distribution problems, households also suffer more air-conditioning br eakdowns at higher temperatures (Mills 2008). 4 In the Miller et al study (2007), changing the thermostat by ten degrees could reduce projected increases in electricity demand by roughly one third for inland cities and by as much as 95 percent for cooler coastal cities. difficulties keeping cool during hot summer spells, suggesting an increased need for special programs targeted to these groups. As discussed below, direct temperature-driven impacts on energy costs may be exacerbated by climat e impacts on energy supply, particularly hydroelectric generation capacity. Impacts on Generation Capacity Electricity providers will likely be challenged to meet these increases in peak demands. This challenge will arise both because of direct climate effects on generation infrastructure as well as limits on current infrastructure capacity. Although the most vulnerable component of the energy sector is hydroelectric power, other renewable sources and thermoelectric power sources may also be vulnerable. In 2006, the prim ary energy sources generating electricity used in California were natural gas, large hydro, co al, and nuclear energy (Figure 2). Just over one- fifth of the total volume is imported from out- of-state, including all coal-based electricity and some hydroelectricity. Natural Gas 41% Large Hydro 19% Coal 16% Nuclear 13% Geothermal 5% Wind 2% Solar 0% Small Hydro 2% Biomass2% Figure 2: California’s Electricity Mix 2006 Source: California Energy Commission, 2007c. Hydroelectric Generation Hydroelectric power plants contribute about 20 percent of the electricity generated by California’s in-state power plants and are an important component of the state’s power portfolio (Franco 2005). The hydroelectric capacity in California is over 14,000 MW (Aspen Environmental Group and M.Cubed 2005). Hydropower’s ability to be dispatched quickly on hot summer afternoons to meet peak load, its low cost, and near-zero emissions are particularly valuable characteristics. Much of California’s h ydropower system is part of a broader multi-use system, with power generation facilities at dams that also serve water supply, flood control, recreation, and other beneficial uses. This is also the case for the Pacific Northwest and the Colorado River Basin, which supply hydropower to California. Because of these potentially competing needs, hydropower production may be preempted or at least constrained under changing climate conditions. Hydropower generation is sensitive to the amount, timing, and geographical pattern of precipitation as well as temperature (which affects the share of precipitation that falls as rain or snow and the timing of mountain snowmelt). Re duced stream flows are expected to jeopardize hydropower production in some areas. It is al so expected that less water will be available for hydroelectric generation in the spring and su mmer months, when demand is highest. In addition, there is a high likelihood that chan ges in precipitation and runoff patterns will not only jeopardize hydropower production in some areas but also lead to changes in broader water policies. Earlier snowmelts, particularly if coupled with heavy stream flows, could result in water being diverted from h ydropower facilities to avoid dama ge to the dams and released from reservoirs to avoid flooding. Earlier sn owmelt will increase the demand for reservoir space for flood control. Thus, the already existing conflict between water supply, flood control, and hydropower production will likely be exacerbated by climate change. Two studies evaluated hydropower generation in the state under different climate scenarios. One study concluded that under a “wet” type of climate change, with significantly increased precipitation, there would be substantial increases in the annual amount of electricity generated in hydroelectric power plants in the state (Lund et al. 2003). On the other hand, if precipitation remained the same or decreased slig htly, there would be substantial reductions in the amount of electricity generated, and the de creases would be more pronounced during the summer. This scenario would translate into reductions of about 30 percent in annual hydroelectricity generation by the end of this century. The second study estimated a loss of hydropower generation of about 10 percent per year by the end of this century for a relatively dry scenario (Vanrheenen et al. 2004). The Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) Company has been evaluating the impact of climate change on hydroelectric generation for several years (Freeman 2003, 2007, and 2008; personal communication with Wendy Pulling, June 25, 2008). PG&E is concerned that if a rising snowline trend continues, then generation loss is likely to occur with increasing frequency, overshadowing the benefits of having runoff shif t to earlier in the winter period (Freeman 2008). Even relatively small changes in in-state h ydropower generation result in substantial extra expenditures for electricity, which then needs to be purchased from other sources. For example, a 10 percent decrease from the current average in-state level of hydropower generation would result in an additional $350 million per year in net replacement costs (Franco and Sanstad 2006) 5. Out-of-state sources of hydropower ar e also likely to become less available or more costly. Currently, hydropower imports from the Pacific Northwest provide 7 to 10 percent of California’s peak load on high load days (between 4,000 to 7,000 MW of power) (Aspen Environmental Group and M.Cubed 2005). At some point in the future, California may not be able to count on large transfers of h ydropower from this region, given the expected increase in local demand and the decreased ability to generate electricity in the summer months in the Pacific Northwest. For example, the Nort hwest Power and Conservation Council released its fifth power plan in May 2005 and indicated that climate change may have a significant impact on hydropower in the Pacific Northwes t (Northwest Power and Conservation Council 2005). A more recent analysis of the potential impact of climate change on hydropower generation in the Pacific Northwest shows that the average annual hydropower production could potentially decrease by as much as 15 percent by 2020 and 30 percent by 2050 compared to baseline hydropower production (Markoff and Cullen 2008). Similar problems may affect hydroelectricity supplies from the Colorado Rive r, although its contribution to California is significantly less than the contribu tion from the Pacific Northwest. 6 Other Renewable Energy Sources Since the early 2000s, California has placed an increased emphasis on the development of renewable energy sources other than hydroele ctric power, such as solar, wind-based, biomass, and geo-thermal generation. 7 Excluding large hydroelectric generation, renewable energy production accounted for approximately 11 percent of total electricity production in California in 2007 (Califor nia Energy Commission 2007b). 8 This share is expected to increase to 20 percent by 2010 under the state’s renewable energy policy. Because renewable energy depends directly on ambient natural resources such as hydrological resources, wind patterns and intensity, and solar radiation, it is likely to be more sensitive to climate variability than fossil energy stems. Renewable energy systems ar e also vulnerable to damage from extreme weather events because of their exposure to th e natural elements (e.g., wind for windmills and solar radiation for solar panels). The issues vary for different renewable energy sources. Solar energy. Photovoltaic (PV) electricity gene ration and solar water heating are suitable for most of California, with current deployment primarily in off-grid locations and rooftop systems. Solar radiation – the energy so urce for these systems - may be affected by climate change. Preliminary results from one stu dy found that in most of the U.S., increased CO 2 concentrations were associated with increased cloudiness, resulting in decreased levels of daily global radiation availability in the range of 0 to 20 percent (Pan et al. 2004). The most noticeable decrease was in the western U.S. during fall, winter, and spring. 5 This assumes a price of $0.10 per kWh. 6 The Hoover Dam provides 626 MW of power to California (CEC 2003) 7 As described below, under the Renewable Portfolio St andard (RPS), first adopted in 2002, utilities are required to increase the share of renewables to 20 percent by 2010. 8 Geothermal (4.7%), biomass ( 2.1%), small-scale hydr oelectric (2.1%), wind (1.8%), and solar (0.2%) (CEC 2007d) Wind energy. The use of wind energy is growing rapidly in California. Wind power generation is susceptible to variations in ambi ent temperatures, humidity and precipitation. The primary determinants of wind power availability are wind speed statistics (e.g., mean wind speeds and gustiness). Wind speeds are subject to natural variability on a wide range of time scales, and they may be affected by climate change. One modeling study found that the U.S. will see reduced wind speeds of 1.0 to 3.2 percent in the next 50 years, and 1.4 to 4.5 percent over the next 100 years (Breslow and Sailor 2002). Another model suggested reductions in mean wind speeds on the order of 10 to 15 percent (Breslow and Sailor 2002). Considering that wind power generation is a function of the cube of the wind speed, these decreases in wind speed correspond to potential reductions in wind power generation on the order of 30 to 40 percent. Yet there remains a great deal of uncertainty regarding how wind fields will change in the future. For example, in one study linking ge neral circulation model output to local weather in a doubling of carbon dioxide scenario, the wi ndier conditions were found in one part of California (Santa Clara and Amador counties) wh ile less windy conditions were reported in another region (Humboldt County) (Fried, Torn and Mills 2004). Increased variability in wind patterns could create additional challenges for accurate wind forecasting for generation and dispatch planning, for the siting of new wind farms, and for the integration of wind with the utility grid (Bull et al. 2007). Biomass-based energy. Biomass from trees, municipal wast e, and crop residues is found in abundance in California and represents a si gnificant renewable energy resource. California’s current use of bioenergy as a source of electric power represents a small fraction of what is technically feasible: approximately 30 million dry tons of technically recoverable solid biomass resources each year (enough to power some 3 million homes) (California Energy Commission 2006a). Given the state’s goals to increase th e use of biomass-based energy, climate change impacts on biomass are of concern (Bull et al. 2007). For example, for wood and forest products, there may be short- or long-term impacts from timber kills and long-term impacts from changes in tree growth rates. For agricultural biomass, there may be changes in food crop residue and growth rates of crops produced sp ecifically for energy production. Thermoelectric Generation Despite the recent emphasis on renewable sources, California still relies heavily on thermoelectric power generation, particularly gas-fired plants (roughly 41% of in-state generation) and nuclear plants (13% ). Thermoelectric generation is water intensive; on average, each kWh of electricity generated via the steam cycle requires approximately 25 gallons of water (Bull et al. 2007). Power plants (136,000 million gallons per day (MGPD)) rank only slightly behind irrigation (137,000 MGPD) in terms of fr eshwater withdrawals in the United States (US Geologic Survey 2004). 9 Interestingly, in California, fres hwater withdrawals for power plants are significantly lower (352 MGPD) with irriga tion (30,500 MGPD) representing almost 80 percent of total freshwater withdrawals. If changi ng climatic conditions alter historical patterns of precipitation and runoff, this may complicate operations of existing thermoelectric power plants as well as the design and site selection of new units. 9 Power plants consume a substantially lower share of water withdrawals than other sectors, however, with much of the water going back into the system after it is used by the plants. Elevated water temperatures may affect thermoelectric generation. For California’s nuclear power plants that use once-through cooling with ocean water, the cooling water supply should not be a problem. However, if ocean wa ter temperatures rise, then these power plants may have difficulty in meeting existing wa ter temperature discharge limits (Personal communication with Joe O’Hagan, Calif ornia Energy Commission, July 3, 2008). 10 The thermal discharges have long been considered to be potentially the most severe impacts of once-through cooling systems (California Energy Commission 2005d). For gas-fired power plants that use once-through cooling, the discharge water impact s are also of concern (Personal communication with Joe O’Hagan, July 3, 2008). Impacts on Electricity Sector Infrastructure Two key aspects of electricity sector infrastr ucture are the siting of power plants along the coast and the transmission and distributi on (T&D) network. Although both types of infrastructure face potential clim ate-related impacts, the issues appear to be more significant for the T&D network. For power plants located along the coast, concerns have been raised about possible effects of sea level rise and coastal storm su rges. However, neither issue appears to be particularly threatening in Califor nia. In contrast to other coastal states, increased storm surges are not expected to affect California’s coastal power plants, with the exception of the Diablo Canyon nuclear facility. 11 Theoretically, rising sea level mi ght make also it more difficult for power plants to get the fresh water they need for once-through cooling. In 2005, 21 California coastal power plants (generating capacity of 23,910 megawatts (MW)) that use once-through seawater for cooling were located along the entire length of the State from Humboldt Bay to San Diego Bay (Figure 3). 12 However, it appears that very few existing coastal plants are at risk. With increased awareness of possible sea level change, the construction of new power plants along the coast will be designed to account for this possible impact. The transmission and distribution system may be affected to different degrees by several aspects of climate change – sea level rise, incr eased temperatures, and increased frequency and size of wildfires. At currently predicted rates, sea level rise is expected to have very minimal consequences on existing T&D lines over the ne xt century. Given the likely relatively slow increase in sea level, raising transmission lines would not be difficult, but could be costly (Personal communication with Merwin Brown, California Institute for Energy and Environment, July 23, 2007). For future T&D lines, planners can take into account sea level change by constructing higher lines or, where possible, movi ng the lines to others areas. 10 These discharge-related issues are commonly referr ed to as 316(a) impacts because they are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. 11 The Diablo Canyon cooling water intake often gets clogged due to debris from storm surges, forcing the plant to shut down. Although the plant itself is well above sea level, greater impacts on the intake may occur with sea level rise, increasing the frequency and duration of power reductions (Aspen Environmental Group and M.Cubed 2005; O’Hagan 2007). 12 There are many small power plants along the coast th at use cooling towers or do not require water for steam condensation ( O’Hagan 2007). Figure 3. Major coastal power plants that use once-through cooling of seawater, 2005 Source: California Energy Commission, 2005d Note: Since 2005, at least one plant has been taken off-line (Hunters Point Power Plant, in 2006). Several new PG&E plants will use dry cooling (without water) (personal communication with W. Pulling, June 25, 2008). The trend towards increased temperatures is not expected to significantly affect the transmission and distribution of electricity in the long term (Personal communication with Merwin Brown, July 23, 2007.) The amount of current a line can carry is determined in part by the ambient air temperature: the higher the temperature, the lower the maximum current. Theoretically, higher temperatures would mean lower levels of peak power capacity for the T&D system. On the other hand, because of the relatively slow pace of temperature increase expected, the conservative engineered margins used could absorb additional thermal load. However, in the short term, sudden increases in temperatures (e.g., heat waves) may affect the T&D system. For example, in the July 2006 heat wave in California, over 80,000 customers in the Los Angeles Department of Wate r and Power’s service territory lost power for days as 860 distribution line transformers (worth about $1 million) malfunctioned or stopped working (Bernstein 2006). Similarly, in Northe rn California, 1.2 million PG&E customers lost power in the July 2006 heat wave as 1,150 distribution line transformers failed (Jurgens 2006). PG&E reported that heavy electricity use heat ed the transformers and warmer-than-normal air failed to cool them: this tripped circuit breakers , broke fuses and burned the insulation, causing short circuits inside the transformers. The increased frequency and intensity of wildfires expected with climate change may have a significant impact on the transmission an d distribution of energy. For example, on October 21, 2007, the Acton Fire in Southern California caused the Southwest Powerlink transmission system to go out of service. The foll owing day, the state’s electrical grid operator – Cal-ISO – declared an emergency when the Santia go Fire in Orange County caused two more high-voltage transmission lines to trip off-line. To reduce stress on the power grid, Cal-ISO asked two utilities (San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE)) to reduce their electrical load by a total of 500 MW. By October 23, the fires had knocked out multiple transmission lines in the San Diego area, causing Cal-ISO to request voluntary energy conservation in San Diego. Over the course of that week, more than 24 transmission lines were knocked out of service, and by October 24, Sa n Diego was being served by only one 230 kV transmission line. At the same time, two units of the San Onofre nuclear power plant had been temporarily out of service for maintenance reason s, and a complete loss of off-site power would have caused the nuclear plant itself to automa tically trip off-line. In order to maintain systemwide reliability, SDG&E started planning for rolling blackouts, which did not occur as the Southwest Powerlink was brought back into service. All in all, nearly 80,000 SDG&E customers (of a total of 1.4 million) lost power in San Diego, more than 1,500 utility poles were burned, and at least 35 miles of overhead wi re were damaged (San Diego Gas & Electric 2007). 2. Institutions and Regulatory Structure: Energy and Climate The energy sector involves many actors who will need to respond to the challenges posed by climate change. This includes state institutions that oversee energy planning decisions and facilities, water resource inst itutions that manage the state’s hydroelectric facilities, as well as the electric utilities and other private sector actors. In addition, local government decisions can have a large effect on the demands placed on the energy system – a central tool for reducing the vulnerability of the system to increases in summer temperatures. State Energy Agencies California has had a long history (over 30 year s) in public planning and decision-making on energy matters. The California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) have been the key policy leaders in deciding which energy supplies (power plants and distributed generation) get built and which energy programs (energy efficiency, demand response, renewable ener gy, distributed generation) get funded and implemented. In addition to setting general policy and ener gy targets and goals for public utilities, the CEC is responsible for developing and impl ementing the state energy building codes and appliance standards. The CEC has also been play ing a leading role in California’s research efforts on climate change, through its own Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program and the California Climate Change Center, a virtual, multi-site research center launched in 2003 (Franco et al. 2003 and Franco 2005). These efforts are aiming to develop the tools and data necessary for in-depth policy relevant analyses of climate-related issues for numerous sectors in addition to energy. 13 The CEC’s PIER program is also very active in conducting research on energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies and services. The CPUC also recently established its own research program on solar energy. While the California Air Resources Board (ARB) is the lead state agency in implementing AB 32, this agency has deferred to the CEC and the CPUC for providing ARB information and recommendations in the energy field. Water Resource Planning Institutions The operation of the hydroelectric system is of key concern to the CEC and the Department of Water Resources (DWR) in the planning of water and energy resources. While approximately 36 percent of hydroelectric gene ration is controlled by the investor-owned utilities, approximately 27 percent of generation is owned by water project operators (the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation’s Central Valley Project and DWR’s State Water Project), and approximately 35 percent is owned by municipalit ies, with the remaining hydropower capacity owned by irrigation districts. 13 For more details, see http://www.clim atechange.ca.gov/research/index.html DWR and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) have formed a working team to address water resources-related issues of climat e change. This team will coordinate with other state and federal agencies in providing and re gularly updating information to the decision making processes on potential risks and impact s of climate change, flexibility of existing facilities to accommodate climate change, and possi ble mitigation measures (e.g., Brekke 2007). Investor-Owned Utilities California’s three investor-owned utilities – PG&E, SCE and SDG&E - are responsible for acquiring and delivering 68 percent of the electr icity to the state’s business and residential customers (California Energy Co mmission 2007c). These companies are already sensitive to weather as a factor in earnings performance, and they utilize weather risk management tools to hedge against risks associated with weather-rela ted uncertainties. They have been involved in planning for capacity additions, assuring system reliability, and selecting sites for long-lived capital facilities. They are concerned that rela tively small changes in temperature (and demand) can affect their total capacity need s, especially in peak periods. Given the importance of hydroelectric generati on, any changes to this resource are of utmost concern. For example, PG&E’s water management team is aware that climate change is occurring (e.g., reduction of moun tain snowpack and more intense winter runoff events) and is planning for how to best work with runoff chang e in terms of best hydroelectric scheduling practice (Freeman 2003, 2007). PG&E is investigat ing improved methods for data collection and analysis that will help its adaptation capabilitie s (Freeman 2003). In one research project, PG&E is evaluating how aquifers (an important source of water for hydroelectric generation) can be recharged with land-based cloud seeding for increa sing daily outflow from springs in all years, including anticipated future multi-decadal aquifer outflow droughts (Freeman 2007). The company is also assessing the su sceptibility of its transmission and distribution network to sea level rise and increased risks of flooding in area s such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. In addition to their ongoing work on evaluating the risks of increased fires and heat storms, PG&E is conducting an institutional risk management re view process, where climate change has been identified as one of the “enterprise risks.” Through this process, PG&E will be tracking the scientific analysis of climate change in Californi a and using that science as a starting point for potentially developing appropriate tools, me thodologies, programs, and policies (personal communication with W. Pulling, December 20, 2007 and June 25, 2008). PG&E is currently at the initial stages of this risk analysis. Local Governments Local governments can express their legally enforceable policies through required general plans and zoning codes (California Energy Commission 2007a). Although state law does not require general plans to address energy, some cities and counties have adopted an “energy element,” which specifies local policies regarding energy use and efficiency. By 2006, 56 general plan included energy elements (California Energy Commission 2007a). Some local governments have also enacted sp ecific ordinances to promote energy efficiency or renewable energy: e.g., retrofit conservation ordinances and solar access ordinances. Furthermore, the publicly owned utilities (owned by municipali ties and special districts), which provide electricity to 22 percent of the population (California Energy Commission 2007c), play an important role in promoting energy efficiency, renewable energy, and distributed generation, similar to investor-owned utilities. Although the state has very limited land use au thority, the policies it develops in regard to new infrastructure, utility funding, environm ental review, and housing allocation are all leverage points that the state can use to assist local governments in growing in an energy- efficient and climate-friendly manner. Most rece ntly, the state Attorney General has used the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) as a lever to require local government to consider climate change in their general plans. Laws and Regulations Consid ering Climatic Factors AB 32 was signed into law by Governor Schwarzenegger on September 27, 2006. This Act commits the state to reduce global warming pollution back to 1990 levels by 2020 through a concerted effort to deploy clean energy technolo gies and other emission reduction strategies. The coal and natural gas burned to generate el ectricity and the natural gas used directly in homes and businesses represent approximatel y 36 percent of the state’s GHG emissions (California Energy Commission 2006b). Accordingl y, the California Climate Action Team has identified numerous strategies to reduce emissions from the energy sector, including energy efficiency, renewable energy, and cleaner power plants to reduce emission s from the electricity and natural gas sectors. 14 The ability to meet the AB 32 goal s may be jeopardized if there is reduced hydroelectric generation or increased use of carbon-based back-up generation in extreme heat events. A number of key energy legislation and de cisions (in addition to building codes and appliance standards) have been enacted in rece nt years that, while not designed to address climate change, will affect how the energy sector will respond to AB 32 and how the sector is able to adapt to climate change (Table 1). For the most part, this portfolio of measur es will simultaneously work to reduce the production of greenhouse gases (mitigate) and to improve California’s ability to adapt to the increased pressures on the energy sector from c limate change. In contrast, one piece of recent legislation is likely to pose tradeoffs between these two goals. SB 1368, signed into law in 2006, sets GHG emissions standards for electricity impo rts into California, in an effort to limit the carbon footprint of the state’s overall electric ity use. These import restrictions could limit California’s flexibility to respond to peak de mand increases, which may already be reduced because of a loss of in-state hydropower. The constr aint might be particularly felt if California’s future hydroelectric imports are also reduce d because of climate impacts in the Pacific Northwest and the Colorado River basin. 14 “Cap and trade” – whereby emissions producers are “capped” at certain levels of emissions and allowed to trade emissions permits - is one of the general mechanisms being discussed as a way of enhancing the efficiency of reductions. Table 1 - Climate-related energy legislation and programs Year Policy Description 2002 Renewable Portfolio Standard (SB 1078) Requires 20 percent of electricity generation be renewable by 2020 2003 Energy Action Plan Joint effort by the CPUC, CEC, and the California Power Authority to create a unified energy policy for California. Emphasized energy efficiency and called for acceleration of the RPS. 2004 Executive Order S-20-04 “Green Building Initiative” that requires the state government to reduce its own electricity demand 10 percent by 2010 and 20 percent by 2015. All new, renovated, and build-to-suit leased state buildings will meet LEED standards. 2006 Million Solar Roofs $2.9 billion incentive program for homeowners and building owners to install solar electric systems. Executive Order S-06-06 Established biomass production and use targets for California SB 1368 Sets GHG emission standards for electricity imported into California 2007 AB 1470 Incentives for installation of 200,000 solar water heaters by 2017. AB 2021 Requires municipal-owned utilities to prepare 10-year energy efficiency goals and use load ordering similar to the investor-owned utilities 2008 Green Building Standards Code Green Building Standards Commission adopts green building standards for residential and commercial construction, with mandatory compliance by 2010. 3. Adaptation Strategies The preferred adaptation strategy for California’s electricity sector should consist of a portfolio of strategies, including mitigation, ad aptation, technological development (to enhance both adaptation and mitigation), and research (on climate science, impacts, adaptation and mitigation). Adaptation and mitigation should follow the guiding principle of “resilience” – enhancing the capacity of the system to operate under a range of future environmental and socio-economic conditions that can be anticipat ed as possible and plausible but that cannot be predicted with certainty (Franco and Sanstad, 2006). Accordingly, the energy sector can adapt to climate change vulnerabilities and impacts by anticipating possible impacts and taking steps to increase its resilience: e.g., by diversifying supply sources and investing in technological change to further expand its portfolio of demand and supply options (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007). Given its impressive investment resources and experience with risk management, the energy sector has the potential to be a leader in adaptation initiatives, whether related to reducing risks associated with extreme events or coping with more gr adual changes such as water availability (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007). On the other hand, adaptation actions are un likely to approach their full potential for cost-effective risk reduction without deliber ate investments of policy, management, and financial resources. While many energy sector strategies are relatively inexpensive, some involve high capital costs, and social acceptanc e of climate-change response alternatives that might imply higher energy prices could be limited. Finally, adaptation prospects are likely to depend considerably on the availability of info rmation about possible climate change effects to inform decisions about adaptive management. Making that information available to energy policymakers will be a key effort in California’s adaptation response. Reducing Peak Demand Increases The electricity system can respond to increases in peak demand in two primary ways: by reducing the magnitude of increased peak demand through energy efficiency programs and by increasing the resiliency of the energy produc tion system to respond to these peaks. Fortunately, California’s state and local govern ment institutions and utility companies have extensive programs (information, education at all levels, ranging from kindergarten to university, marketing, and financial incentives) to promote the use of high efficiency air conditioners. In addition, alternative technologica l solutions to air conditioners (e.g., the use of natural cooling) are being studied in the public sector (e.g., CEC’s PIER program). For example, in some areas of California where air conditione rs are used for only a few hours in the summer (during hot, peak demand days), these households do not need to use an air conditioner if the house is designed and built with energy efficiency principles in mind (e.g., thermal mass, use of natural cooling, well insulated, se aled ducts, evaporative coolers, 15 etc.). 15 In the future, advanced multiple stage evaporat ive coolers have the potential to reduce annual electricity consumption by 80 percent ( Personal communication with Marshall Hunt, UC Davis Western Cooling Efficiency Center, December 9, 2007). While these units do use water, onsite water use is Complementing the air conditioning strategy is the use of higher levels of insulation (e.g., ceiling, wall and floor) and higher levels of window glazing in both the new and existing housing stock. Fortunately, California’s buildin g code (Title 24) has had a long history in making the new residential and commercial building stock more energy efficient. The existing stock is also getting more attention: for example, the CEC issued a report on recommended strategies to increase energy efficiency in existing buildings (Ca lifornia Energy Commission 2005a). Another strategy for adapting to the increased energy demand resulting from higher temperatures is the planting of trees to shade homes and buildings, the painting of reflective surfaces for roofs and pavements, and the construc tion of roofs that reflect heat to reduce the heat island effect in urbanized areas. In the non-residential sector, customers in California have been investing in energy efficiency measures that not only save ener gy but also help to reduce peak demand: for example, insulation of the building shell (ce ilings, walls, basements), adjustable speed drive motors for air-conditioning and processes, high efficiency chillers, and more efficient lighting. Public information programs can also play a la rge part in mitigating the effects of energy demand increases. Some of the most direct st rategies have been phone trees to alert people about possible heat waves, public education pr ograms, cooling centers, and heatwave early warning and response systems to reach the most vulnerable (Kovats and Ebi 2006; Palecki et al. 2001; Weisskopf et al. 2002; Ebi et al. 2004). With respect to energy use and demand, the state’s Flex Your Power program and utility programs have alerted consumers on when to turn off (or reduce their use of) selected appliances (includi ng air conditioning) during peak periods and to run this equipment on off-peak periods. California’s utilities have been the leaders nat ionally in promoting energy efficiency (Vine et al. 2006). Since 1975, the energy saving s from the utilities’ energy efficiency programs and from the state’s building and appliance st andards have supplanted the need for a minimum of 24 new, large-scale (500 MW) power plant s (California Energy Commission 2005c). In addition to involving local government, the utility programs include manufacturers, retailers, distributors, and energy service companies (ESC Os). Since 2000, PG&E has been focused on climate change issues. In addition to advocati ng for the regulation of GHG emissions at the federal level, they have been reporting thei r GHG emissions as a charter member of the California Climate Action Registry since 2004 (personal communication with W. Pulling, June 25, 2008). More recently, they introduced the Climate Smart TM Program that provides a voluntary option for PG&E customers to reduce their personal impact on climate change. PG&E calculates the amount needed to make the GH G emissions associated with the customer’s personal or business energy use “neutral” and will add this amount to their monthly energy bill; 100 percent of the Climate Smart payment goes directly to funding new GHG emission reduction projects in California. 16 almost offset with kWh savings that saves the water th at it takes to produce kWh. In addition, water use for cooling can be easily offset wi th plumbing fixtures, distribution layout, landscape choices, and super- low water use appliances. Finally, low cost water storage units with the ability to use rainwater are also being evaluated for widespread use. 16 See http://www.pge.com/about_us/envir onment/features/climatesmart.html The financial sector has been actively involved in energy efficiency by promoting energy-efficient mortgages (EEMs). The EEMs offe r homebuyers bigger loans or discounts if they make energy-efficient improvements, or if their new home meets certain efficiency standards. As an example, Citigroup Inc.’s mortga ge division offers $1,000 off the closing costs on EEMs, Bank of America Corp. offers $1,000 off the closing fees for Energy Star qualified homes, JPMorgan Chase & Co.’s mortgage division offers $500 off the closing costs for homes insulated with a high-efficiency spray foam, an d the Indigo Financial Group allows consumers to borrow more money to finance energy-efficient upgrades (Muñoz 2007). The demand response programs are most effect ive when there is real-time pricing. Real- time pricing is being addressed in regulatory pr oceedings at the CPUC, and the infrastructure is being laid with the installation of advanced (smart) utility meters that provide information about what energy is costing at particular time s during the day. SDG&E has a one-year trial program designed to measure the financial impact of time-of-use programs. SCE has been field- testing advanced meters and plans to start large scale meter installations in January 2009 through June 2012. And PG&E has been insta lling advanced meters since 2007 and hopes to install 10 million advanced meters by 2012. Finally, planning at the local and regional level can be conducted to anticipate storm and drought impacts, improve forecasting of the im pacts of global warming on renewable energy sources at regional and local levels, and establis h action plans and policies that conserve both energy and water. For example, the Cities of San Francisco, Santa Cruz, and Berkeley have each added an environmental expert to their staffs sp ecifically to help reduce GHG emissions, and the San Diego Foundation is working with local and regional government in looking at climate change impacts in San Diego over the next 40 years. Improving the Generation System’s Ability to respond to Peak Demands For energy production, the adaptability of the system will be enhanced i f future installations can be designed with built-in fl exibility to accommodate the span of potential climate impacts. Possible adaptation measures in clude technologies that minimize the impact of increases in ambient temperatures on power pl ant equipment and technologies that conserve water use for power plant cooling processes. To meet the increased energy demand for air conditioning, onsite or locally-based renewable energy systems (e.g,. as part of a “microgrid”) may become particularly interesting: for exampl e, the installation of a small wind generator next to a building or the placement of photovol taic arrays on exterior parking structures. Energy sources in the future may also be integr ated increasingly with buildings (e.g., zero energy new homes): for example, new roofs and walls with materials incorporating photovoltaic cells. Sources of more electricit y on hotter days could include pumped storage, 17 new plants to increase storage capacity, or thermal energy storage 18 in buildings (typically less expensive than pumped storage). 17 Pumped storage is a hydroelectric source of power in which electricity is generated by the use of water that has been pumped into a reservoir or a holding tank at a higher altitude (height). 18 Thermal energy storage refers to a number of technolo gies that store energy in a thermal reservoir for later reuse. In the context of this discussion, the principal application is the production of ice or chilled water at night, which is then used to cool buildings during the day. Regarding the hydroelectric system, the management of water reservoirs can be substantially improved with the use of mo dern probabilistic seasonal and short-term hydrological forecasts and numerical decision support tools. These management tools will result in an improved capacity to better cope with long-term increased climate variability and change (Georgakakos et al. 2005; Carpenter and Georgakakos 2001; Yao and Georgakakos 2001). Reservoir operation strategies are further di scussed in the accompanying report on water resource management (Hanak and Lund, 2008). Enacting Mitigation Policies that Enhance Adaptation Potential As noted above, California has been a lead er in implementing energy legislation and policy that affect how the public and private sector will manage climate change. In the coming years, California is expected to continue this leadership role. Local governments in California have also been national leaders in preparing for climate change by implementing policies that primarily have a mitigation focus but will also provide adaptation benefits (Table 2 describes San Francisco’s efforts). For example, building en ergy efficient buildings will reduce the amount of energy needed, and streamlining the solar ph otovoltaic permit process will increase the amount of renewable energy. In a warmer clim ate, less reliance on the utility grid (through either reduced energy use or more use of onsite renewable energy) is an effective adaptation strategy, since the grid will be more vulner able to potential brownouts and blackouts. The League of California Cities (LCC) and many individual cities in the state have endorsed the U.S. Conference of Mayors Climate Protection Agreement, which commits signatories to meet the Kyoto Protocol targets (reduction of emissions by 7 percent below 1990 levels by 2012). 19 Some local governments have even gone further. For example, the City of Berkeley’s voters passed a measure in November 2006 that pledges an 80 percent reduction in GHG emissions by 2050, comparable to th e California goals set forth in Governor Schwarzenegger’s Executive Order in 2005. Both the LCC and the California State Association of Counties (CSAC) have adopted guiding princi ples on climate change (League of California Cities, 2008; California State A ssociation of Counties, 2007). Table 2. Recent Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitig ation Policies by the City of San Francisco • 2002 – The City passed a resolution committing to reduce carbon emissions by 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2012 – this goal goes beyond the Kyoto Protocol objectives. • 2004 – The City required all new municipal constr uction and major renovation projects to achieve a LEED Silver certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. • 2006 – The City streamlined the solar photovoltaic permit process – permits can be issued over the counter, without the de lays of in-house reviews • 2006 – The City established a priority permitting process for LEED Gold certified building projects. One concrete step that local governments can ta ke is to waive fees for solar installations. Two years ago, none did; now at least 14 juri sdictions hand out building permits for solar power to homeowners for free (Rogers 2007). Cities such as San Jose, Walnut Creek and Novato 19 http://www.usmayors.org/climateprotection/agreement.htm have also streamlined their rules so much that their planning departments now issue most permits in a few minutes, a process that once took weeks. Another initiative that local governments ca n take is to pass energy ordinances that require more energy-efficient bu ilding practices than required by the state (i.e., CEC). For example, the City of Santa Barbara recently passed an energy ordinance that tightens energy standards by 10 percent every five years and ma kes buildings 20 percent more energy efficient than state standards (Licata 2007). Increasing RD&D to Support Energy Sector Response While existing technologies are available for Ca lifornia to use as part of its adaptation response, there is a need to develop a portfolio of robust energy efficiency technologies as part of a major research, demonstration and developm ent (RD&D) effort. Unfortunately, for several decades, there has been a disturbing trend away from investment in energy technology – both by the federal government and the private sector (Nemet and Kammen 2007). In fact, the U.S. invests about $1 billion less in energy RD&D today than it did a decade ago (which was also low compared to earlier investments). Fortunately, in California, key agencies have realized this necessity and have committed funds to support RD&D, much of which can be linked to climate change mitigation and adaptation. For example, the CEC’s PIER Program has conducted (and continues to conduct) in- depth climate-related studies that will be of part icular interest for the energy sector, including : • Development and exploration of probabil istic California climate projections for impact and adaptation studies • Development of higher resolution regional model tools to explore effects of climate change and land use change • Demonstration of probabilistic seasonal forecasts, to improve the management of water reservoirs in the state • Installation of climate reference stations to track and, if possible, detect climatic changes in the state • Enhancements to the CALVIN water system model to investigate potential adaptation measures under a wide variety of scenario (see Hanak and Lund, 2008). The funding authorization for the electricity portion of the PIER program of $62.5 million per year sunsets at the end of 2011 – just four short years from now. Support of PIER and other similar R&D programs needs to be cont inued to determine where new data collection and analysis is needed. Having robust capabilitie s to detect climate-related changes in systems that affect energy production and use may facilitate timely and appropriate responses (Tierney 2007). This could include identification of import ant climate change-related factors (e.g., trends in changing wind patterns, in heating and cooling degree days), along with efforts to collect and analyze different data than in the past. Accessing and analyzing such information will be important for assuring that demand and load fore casts remain reasonable for future conditions as heating and cooling degree days change. In April 2008, the CPUC issued a decision establishing the California Institute for Climate Solutions (CICS) (California Public Util ties Commission 2008). The mission of the CICS is to (1) administer grants to facilitate mission-oriented, applied and directed research that results in practical technological solutions and supports development of policies to reduce GHG emissions or otherwise mitigate the impacts of climate change in California; (2) speed the transfer, deployment and commercialization of technologies that have the potential to reduce GHG emissions or otherwise mitigate the impa cts of climate change in California; and (3) facilitate the coordination and cooperation among relevant institutions to most efficiently achieve mission-oriented, applied, and directed research. The budget, funded by ratepayer funds, is $60 million per year over a ten-year period. The implementation of the CICS is currently pending, awaiting a revi ew by the State Legislature. Table 3 highlights particular research needs for the energy sector in California (some of which is already being implemented but needs more funding). In addition, more research must be conducted on risk management and preparedne ss to evaluate the impacts on energy facilities of more frequent and/or severe weather events and the ways in which the system could be made to be more resilient. For example, on e would create forecasts of long-range energy capability and demand and then assess the ability of energy facilities to supply and distribute energy under changing, and often extreme, weather conditions. DWR is already conducting scenario planning for extreme even ts, and examining the location of facilities and their ability to withstand storms and other severe weather. In California, other organizations that need to conduct such analyses include the CPUC, the CEC, ARB, and coastal zone management agencies; regional tr ansmission operators; utilities and other energy companies; and state emergency management agencies. For all of these agencies, information sharing for systems operations, equipment and materials strengths, emergency preparedness, research needs, and technological issues will be key. Table 3. California energy sector research needs 1. Climate change effects on a relatively fine-grained geographic scale (temperature and precipitation changes and severe weather events) 2. Implications of extreme weather events for energy system resiliency (strategies for reducing and recovering from impacts) 3. Strategies and improved technologies for adding resilience to energy supply systems (regional interconnection capabilities and distributed generation) 4. Detailed relationships between temperatur e (including temperature extremes) and patterns of electricity consumption and demand in California 5. Potentials, costs, and limits of adapta tion for supply and use infrastructures 6. Efficiency of energy use in the context of climate warming, with an emphasis on technologies and practices that save cooling energy and reduce electrical peak load 7. Implications of changing regional patte rns of energy use for regional supply institutions and consumers (including water suppliers and operators) 8. Effects of changing conditions for renewa ble energy production (wind and solar) 9. Linkages and feedbacks among climate change effects, and implications for adaptation and mitigation 10. New energy efficiency technologies and servic es for reducing space cooling, involving cross-disciplinary research and development efforts to generate innovation and including both component and system energy efficiency improvements and integration 11. Behavioral issues affecting individual and organizational climate change adaptation. 12. Analytical methods for incorporating appropri ate levels of uncertainty in key climatic, technological and socioeconomic trends 13. Robust policy strategies for developing and managing the electric power system 14. More effective integration of the investment, finance, and risk management communities into the research and developmen t process to help identify opportunities and barriers and evaluate the pote ntial solutions for market success Source: Franco and Sanstad (2006), Wilbanks et al. (2007), and Mills (2008) 4. Constraints to Adaptation Although California’s various institutions have made significant advances in developing tools that will help the electricity sector adapt to the effects of climate change, some important barriers remain. Foremost among these is the cost of implementing energy efficiency measures and investing in renewables. Institutional barriers can also play a significant role in slowing down the pace of new technology adoption in businesses and within the energy sector itself. Finally, there may be political and behavioral ba rriers to adoption of new technologies and practices. Financial and Economic Barriers One of the biggest constraints to adaptation is cost. Many energy efficiency measures are cost-effective, and many of these measures hav e simple paybacks ranging from one to four years. In contrast, wind and so lar energy projects require more capital and will require longer paybacks. And for water resource managers, ne w water storage facilities are very expensive and will most likely require a financing mechani sm supported by California taxpayers (e.g., an infrastructure bond). For example, raising Shasta Dam by 6.5 feet could increase the long-term Central Valley energy production by up to 10 GWh/year, and raising it by 18.5 feet could increase it to 40 GWh/year – the capital cost estimates for these enhancements would range from $280-480 million (DWR 2006). 20 Most importantly, the focus for many residents will be on short-term costs of adaptation rather than on lifetime costs that account fo r savings achieved through lower operation and maintenance costs. For example, the initial cost of buying a high efficiency air conditioner is a barrier to some consumers, even though the long-term operating costs will be reduced over time and even though the payback times range from three to seven years. Also, as noted earlier, the cost of operating an air conditioner will be a burden for specific groups (elderly and low income); they will face the challenge of paying for cool air or paying for food. Accordingly, an adaptation strategy will need to emphasize a long -term perspective and ensure that the needs of the elderly and low income groups are accounted for. Institutional Barriers to Business Decisions Investment in energy efficiency and renewa ble energy is relatively simple in the residential sector: usually, only one or two people are involved in the decision to adopt these measures. In the nonresidential sector (commercial and industrial ), the decision-making process is more complex due to multiple actors with di fferent perspectives (e.g., plant manager, chief financial officer, chief executive offi cer, etc.). In addition, the cost of the measure will affect this relationship: relatively inexpensive measures will need fewer approvals than more expensive measures. As a result, a new, better adapted po wer plant or transmission and distribution line will take years to get approved and built, and, in some cases, legislation or regulation will be needed. Similarly, if new management policies and procedures are needed, then human and 20 These costs include pumping and operations and maintenance costs, and the wide range of costs reflects the wide range of storage op tions, conveyance facilities, etc. financial capital will be required to make these policies and procedures work. Because climate change adaptation solutions will require the cooperation and coordination of different specialists and agencies, problems in coordinatin g across departments and agencies could arise. Fortunately, in the energy sector, coordination ac ross agencies is occurring, and new initiatives will most likely be cooperative ventures among the public and private sectors. Political Barriers In general, the most significant political barrier to creating policies and measures for climate change adaptation is the difficulty in getting the attention of politicians and policymakers. They are faced with numerous ot her social issues (crime, education, health, foreign policy, other environmental issues, et c.) that require their attention and may have higher priority. Fortunately, in the energy sect or, climate policy is a high priority among key stakeholders (for instance, the Governor, State Legislature, state agencies, and the private sector). Nevertheless, information, education, and marketing strategies need to continue and be supported to make more people aware of the need for adaptation measures, so that more politicians understand that this is an im portant priority for their constituents. Informational, Social, Attitudinal, and Behavioral Barriers Three key informational issues need to be a ddressed. First, the scientific uncertainties surrounding the timing and extent of climate change impacts appear to be a major factor affecting people’s willingness to support poli cies and programs addressing climate change (although this is changing, as noted below). Second, while the global impacts are starting to become clearer, the local impa cts remain uncertain. And third, the long-term benefits of adaptation are largely local to regional in scale, but the costs are more immediate and often borne by individuals (i.e., pay now to help future generations). As a result, there is a critical need to develop information, education, and marketing strategies to make more people aware of the need for adaptation measures. Increased aw areness should increase the positive attitudes towards social change, leading to changes in individual and organizational behavior, as well as leading to the engagement of stakeholders in responding to climate change. It appears that Californians are more likely than the rest of the nation to see global warming as a threat, but also are more optimistic that GHG emissions can be cut while creating jobs and expanding the economy, according to a statewide poll (Field Research Corporation 2007). In 2007, more than 80 percent of Califor nians believed that global warming poses a serious or very serious threat. While 43 percent said global warming requires immediate action, another 32 percent said that some action should be taken. Another survey by the Public Policy Institute of California (2007) reported similar fi ndings and also noted that over 80 percent of respondents thought it was necessary to take step s right away to counter the effects of global warming (Baldassare et al., 2007). 24 Summary and Conclusions California’s public and private energy institutions have already made great strides in improving the state’s energy efficiency, and they will play a leadership role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions under the terms of AB 32 and related energy policies. Their high awareness of climate-related risks, and the accumu lated experience in coping with market risks and changing conditions, also puts California’s energy institutions in a position to play a leadership role on the adaptation front. Adaptive capacity can be increased by broa dening the options for reducing society’s vulnerability and increasing resilience to clim ate variability and change (Moser and Luers 2008). To improve decisionmakers’ ability to cope with and adapt to climate change, three critical dimensions of adaptation must be strengthened: awareness, analytic capacity, and action. In the electricity sector, it is fortunate that all thr ee ingredients - awareness, analytic capacity, and action – have been, and are continuing to be, addressed by public and private entities. Three key agencies – the CEC, the CPUC, and, more recently, ARB – have promoted the awareness of climate change and implications for energy use and demand, improved their analytical capabilities and disseminated the info rmation from these activities, implemented energy policies, and helped to promulgate energy legislation that addresses climate change. The investor-owned utilities which serve most of California’s electricity needs have also been actively promoting the awareness of climate c hange as well as showcasing energy efficiency and renewable energy in their own facilities, as well as supporting educational efforts internally and externally. They have also been developing analytical tools to a ssess the vulnerability of hydropower facilities and the tr ansmission and distribution system to climate change and will be closely examining other aspects of climate change as part of risk management. To date, however, the “adaptation” part of the message to the public has been missing. Perhaps it is premature for the public to get invo lved in adaptation per se, given the amount of mitigation efforts underway that will provide ke y benefits. Given other public priorities, this missed opportunity may only be addressed under certain circumstances: as Wilbanks (2006) point out, adaptation strategies would need to be the greatest in connection with possible increases in the intensity of extreme weather ev ents and possible significant changes in water supply regimes. Unfortunately, when these events and changes occur, it may be too late to implement adaptation strategies that require significant financial resources or that take time to implement. These strategies need to be conducte d well in advance of such events. However, in general, energy efficiency measures and services can be implemented relatively quickly and inexpensively. 25 References Aspen Environmental Group and M.Cubed, Pote ntial Changes in Hydropower Production from Global Climate Change in California and the Western United State, CEC-700-2005-010, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2005. Baldassare, M., D. Bonner, J. Paluch, S. Petek, “PPIC Statewide Survey: Californians and the Environment,” Public Policy of California, San Francisco, California, July 2007. Baxter, L. and K. Calandri, “Global Warming an d Electricity Demand: A Study of California,” Energy Policy Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 233-244, 1992. Bernstein, S., “DWP Scrambles to Gauge Power Needs Before the Next Heat Wave,” Los Angeles Times, August 9, 2006. Brekke, L., Assessing Climate Change Risks for Water and Power Operations in Reclamation Regions, Fourth Annual Climate Change Rese arch Conference, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2007. Breslow, P. and D. Sailor, “Vulnerability of Wind Power Resources to Climate Change in the Continental United States,” Renewable Energy Vol. 27, pp. 585-598, 2002. Bull, S., D. Bilello, J. Ekmann, M. Sale, and D. Schmalzer, “Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Distribution in the United States,” Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States, Eds. T. Wilbanks, V. Bhatt, D. Bilello, S. Bull, J. Ekmann, W. Horak, Y.J. Huang, M. Levine, M. Sale, D. Schmalzer, and M. Scott, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 2007. California Energy Commission, 2003 Environmental Performance Report, Appendix D CEC- 100-03-018CM, Sacramento, California, 2003. California Energy Commission, Integrated Energy Policy Report, CEC-100-04-006CM, Sacramento, California, 2004. California Energy Commission, Options for Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings, CEC-400- 2005-039-CMF, Sacramento, California, 2005a. California Energy Commission, 2005 Integrat ed Energy Policy Report, CEC-100-2005-007, Sacramento, California, 2005c. California Energy Commission, Issues and Envi ronmental Impacts Associated with Once- Through Cooling at California’s Coastal Power Plants, CEC-700-2005-013, Sacramento, California, 2005d. California Energy Commission, Recommendations for a Bioenergy Plan for California, CEC- 600-2006-004-F, Sacramento, California, 2006a. California Energy Commission, Inventory of Calif ornia Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 to 2004, CEC-600-2006-013-SF, Sacramento, California, 2006b. California Energy Commission, The Role of L and Use in Meeting California’s Energy and Climate Change Goals, CEC-600-2007-008-SF, Sacramento, California, 2007a. 26 California Energy Commission, 2006 Integrated Energy Policy Report Update, CEC-100-2006- 001-CMF, Sacramento, California, 2007b. California Energy Commission, Statewide Energy Effi ciency Potential Estimates and Targets for California Utilities, CEC-200-2007-019- SD, Sacramento, California, 2007c. California Energy Commission, 2007 Integrated Energy Policy Report, CEC-100-2007-008-CTF, Sacramento, California, 2007d. California Public Utilities Commission, Opinion Es tablishing California Institute for Climate Solutions, Decision 8-04-049, San Fran cisco, California, April 10, 2008. California State Association of Counties, “Climate Change Policies and Principles,” Sacramento, California, November 2007. Carpenter, T. and K. Georgakakos, “Assessment of Folsom Late Response to Historical and Potential Future Climate Scenarios: 1. Forecast ing,” Journal of Hydrology Vol. 249,pp. 148-175, 2001. Department of Water Resources, CALFED Bay-De lta Program, Surface Storage Investigations, Progress Report, Update May 2006, Sacramento, California, 2006. Ebi, K., T. Teisberg, L. Kalkstein, L. Robins on, and R. Weiher, “Heat Watch/Warning Systems Save Lives: Estimated Costs and Benefits for Philadelphia 1995-1998,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 85, pp. 1067-1073, 2004. Field Research Corporation, California Opinio n Index: Global Warming, November 2007. Franco, G., Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in California, CEC-500-2005-103-SD, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2005. Franco, G. and A. Sanstad, Climate Change and Electricity Demand in California, CEC-500- 2005-2001-SF, California Energy Commissi on, Sacramento, California, 2006. Franco, G., R. Wilkinson, A. Sanstad, M. Wilson , and E. Vine, PIER Environmental Area Climate Change Research, Development and Demonstr ation Plan, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2003. Freeman, G., “Types of Data Needed to Identify and Evaluate Potential Impact of Climate Change on PG&E’s Hydropower Operations,” 83rd Annual Meeting of American Meteorological Society, Lo ng Beach, California, 2003. Freeman, G., “PG&E’s Mountain Hydroelectric System and the Changing Climate,” 75th Annual Western Snow Conference, Kona, Hawaii, 2007. Freeman, G., “Runoff Impacts of Climate Change on Northern California’s Watersheds as Influenced by Geology and Elevation – A Moun tain Hydroelectric System Perspective,”76th Annual Western Snow Conference, Hood River, Oregon, 2008. Fried, J. M. Torn, and E. Mills, “The Impact of Climate Change on Wildfire Severity: A Regional Forecast for Northern California,” Climatic Change Vol. 64, 2004, pp. 169-191. 27 Georgakakos, K., N. Graham, T. Carpenter, A. Georgakakos, and H. Yao, “Integrating Climate- Hydrology Forecasts and Multi-objective Reserv oir Management for Northern California,” EOS Vol. 86, No. 12, 2005, p. 122. Hanak, E. and J.R. Lund, Adapting Water Management in California to Climate Change, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2008. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group II, Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Cambridge Un iversity Press, New York, New York, 2007. Jurgens, R., “Outages Identify PG&E’s Limits Af ter Heat Wave Caused 1.2 Million Customers to Lose Power, Experts Assess Utility’s Vulnerabilities,” Contra Costa Times, July 30, 2006. Kovats, R. and K. Ebi, “Heatwaves and Public Health in Europe,” Euro pean Journal of Public Health Vol. 16, pp. 592-599, 2006. LaCommare, K. and J. Eto, Understanding the Cost of Power Interruptions to U.S. Electricity Consumers, LBNL Report 55718, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, 2004. League of California Cities, “L eague Principles for Climate Change,” Climate Change Working Group, Sacramento, California, February 2008. Licata, B., “SB Plan Aims to Reduce Energy Use,” Nexus, UC Santa Barbara, Vol. 88, No. 32, 2007. Lund, J., R. Howitt, M. Jenkins, T. Zhu, S. T anaka, M. Puliddo, M. Tauber, R. Ritzema, and I. Ferreira, Climate Warming and California’s Water Future, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2003. Markoff, M. and A. Cullen, “Impact of Clim ate Change on Pacific Northwest Hydropower,” Climatic Change Vol. 87, pp. 451-469, 2007. Mendelsohn, R., The Impact of Climate Change on Energy Expenditures in California, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2003. Miller, N., J. Lin, K. Hayhoe, and M. Au ffhammer, Climate Change, Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California, CE C-500-2007-023, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2007. Mills, E., Personal communication with Evan Mill s, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, June 25, 2008. Moser, S. and A. Luers, “Managing Climate Risks in California: The Need to Engage Resource Managers for Successful Adaptation to Change,” D. Cayan, A. Luers, G. Franco, M. Hanemann, B. Croes, and E. Vine (Eds.), Special Issue: California at a Crossroads: Climate Change Science Informing Policy, Climatic Change, 87 (Supplement 1), pp. S309-S322, 2008. Muñoz, S., “Going Green to Save Some Green,” Wall Street Journal, Sept. 12, 2007. Nemet, G. and D. Kammen, “U.S. Energy Research and Development: Declining Investment, Increasing Need, and the Feasibility of Expansio n,” Energy Policy Vol. 35, pp. 746-755, 2007. 28 Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The Fifth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan, Portland, Oregon, 2005. Palecki, M., S. Changnon, and K. Junkel, “The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Vol 82, pp. 1353-1367, 2001. Pan, Z., M. Segal, R. Arritt, and E. Takle, “On the Potential Change in Solar Radiation Over the US Due to Increases of Atmospheric Greenho use Gases,” Renewable Energy Vol. 29, pp. 1923- 1928, 2004. Rogers, P., “Solar Permit Fees Fall in Bay Area,” San Jose Mercury News, August 19, 2007. San Diego Gas & Electric Company, “SDG&E Expects 97 Percent of Fire-impacted Customers Restored by Nov. 4,” News release, Oct. 27, 2007. Tierney, S., “Adaptation and the Energy Sector ,” National Summit on Coping with Climate Change, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2007. U.S. Geologic Survey, Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000, USGS Circular 1268, U.S. Geologic Survey, Reston, Virginia, 2004. Vanrheenen, N., A. Wood, R. Palmer, and D. Lettenmaier, “Potential Implications of PCM Climate Change Scenarios for Sacramento-S an Joaquin River Basin Hydrology and Water Resources,” Climatic Change Vol. 62, pp. 257-281, 2004. Vine, E. C. Rhee, and K. Lee, “Measurement and Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Programs: California and South Korea,” Energy - The Inte rnational Journal Vol. 31, pp. 1100-1113, 2006. Weisskopf, M., H. Anderson, S. Foldy, L. Hanrahan, K. Blair, T. Torok, and P. Rumm, “Heat Wave Morbidity and Mortality, Milwaukee, Wi s, 1999 vs 1995: An Improved Response,” American Journal of Public Heal th Vol. 92, pp. 830-833, 2002. Wilbanks, T., “Issues in Developing a Capacity for Integrated Analysis of Mitigation and Adaptation,” Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change Vol. 8 (6), pp. 541-547, 2006. Wilbanks, T., V. Bhatt, D. Bilello, S. Bull, J. Ekmann, W. Horak, Y.J. Huang, M. Levine, M. Sale, D. Schmalzer, and M. Scott, Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States, Office of Biological and Enviro nmental Research, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 2007. Yao, H. and A. Georgakakos, “Assessment of Fols om Lake Response to Historical and Potential Future Climate Scenarios: 2. Reservoir Manag ement,” Journal of Hydrology Vol. 249, pp. 176- 196, 2001. 29 About the Author Dr. Edward Vine is a Staff Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and is the Manager of the Environmenta l Program at the California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE). He has over 30 years of experience in evaluating energy-efficiency programs and policies at the local, state, regional, national and international levels. He has published many papers on the evaluation of energy-efficiency programs, technologies, and policy. As one of the authors of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA Board of Directors Thomas C. Sutton, Chair Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Pacific Life Insurance Company Mark Baldassare President and Chief Executive Officer Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and Chief Executive Officer San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Gary K. Hart Former State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Leon E. Panetta Director The Leon & Sylvia Panetta Institute for Public Policy Ki Suh Park Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO CENTER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121 www.ppic.org" } ["___content":protected]=> string(104) "

R 1108EVR

" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(106) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/adaptation-of-californias-electricity-sector-to-climate-change/r_1108evr/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8682) ["ID"]=> int(8682) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:39:48" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(3959) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(9) "R 1108EVR" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(9) "r_1108evr" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(13) "R_1108EVR.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "394525" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(89451) "Adaptation of California’s Electricity Sector to Climate Change Edward Vine Supported with funding from Next Ten, Pacifi c Gas and Electric Company, and The Nature Conservancy This report is part of a larger PPIC study, Preparing California for a Changing Climate. Other reports in this collection are available at http://www.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=755 . November 2008 The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decisionmakers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California's future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a private, nonprofit organization. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Thomas C. Sutton is Chair of the Board of Directors. Copyright © 2008 by Public Po licy Institute of California All rights reserved San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the so urce and the above copyright notice is included. Research publications reflect the views of the author s and do not necessarily reflect the views of the staff, officers, or Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. Contents Summary iv  Acronyms v  Acknowledgments vi  Introduction 1  1. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR 2  Impacts on Electricity and Natural Gas Demand 2  Impacts on Generation Capacity 4  Hydroelectric Generation 5  Other Renewable Energy Sources 6  Thermoelectric Generation 7  Impacts on Electricity Sector Infrastructure 8  2. INSTITUTIONS AND REGULATORY STRUCTURE: ENERGY AND CLIMATE 11  State Energy Agencies 11  Water Resource Planning Institutions 11  Investor-Owned Utilities 12  Local Governments 12  Laws and Regulations Considering Climatic Factors 13  3. ADAPTATION STRATEGIES 15  Reducing Peak Demand Increases 15  Improving the Generation System’s Ability to respond to Peak Demands 17  Enacting Mitigation Policies that Enhance Adaptation Potential 18  Increasing RD&D to Support Energy Sector Response 19  4. CONSTRAINTS TO ADAPTATION 22  Financial and Economic Barriers 22  Institutional Barriers to Business Decisions 22  Political Barriers 23  Informational, Social, Attitudinal, and Behavioral Barriers 23  Summary and Conclusions 24  References 25  About the Author 29  Summary Climate change is likely to pose considerable new challenges to California’s electricity sector. On the one hand, as the second largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in California, this sector will be a primary target of efforts to reduce emissions under California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (Assembly Bill (AB) 32). At the same time, the sector will need to adapt to changing demand and supply cond itions resulting from climate change. AB 32 goals could be more difficult to meet if there is reduced hydroelectric generation or increased use of carbon-based back-up generation in extreme heat events. This report focuses on the adaptation challenges of an important component of the energy arena: electricity demand in the reside ntial and commercial sectors and electricity supply (natural gas is briefly mentioned as a secondary topic). The primary challenge to California’s electricity sector will likely be the increase in demand for air conditioning as a result of rising temperatures. In addition, re newable energy sources, which are an increasing share of the electricity portfolio, are particul arly vulnerable to climate change. (Notably, hydroelectric sources – a key resource for m eeting peak demands – are challenged by the declining snowpack). Many of the key players – including state regulatory agencies and the investor-owned utilities which serve most of the state’s cust omers – have been actively considering the implications of climate change. Because electricit y generation accounts for nearly 30 percent of GHG emissions, this sector has been a target of the state’s efforts to reduce emissions. Fortunately, many of the same tools can simultaneously improve the sector’s resilience to a changing climate. Demand management strategies and supply diversification are both important strategies. Local governments can play a central role in encouraging the adoption of more energy efficient building codes and the use of more re newable sources, such as solar energy. The positive steps taken by many local government s are encouraging. Steps to increase public awareness are an important, often missing component, however. Increases in research, development, and demonstration to improv e system resiliency and develop new energy conservation tools are also needed. Acronyms AB Assembly Bill ARB Air Resources Board Cal-ISO California Independent System Operator CEC California Energy Commission CEQA California Environmental Quality Act CICS California Institute for Climate Solutions CPUC California Public Utilities Commission CSAC California State Association of Counties DWR Department of Water Resources EEM energy-efficient mortgage IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LCC League of California Cities LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design MGPD million gallons per day MW megawatts PG&E Pacific Gas and Electric PIER Public Interest Energy Research PV Photovoltaic RD&D research, demonstration and development RPS Renewable Portfolio Standard SCE Southern California Edison SDG&E San Diego Gas & Electric T&D transmission and distribution USBR United States Bureau of Reclamation vi Acknowledgments I would like to thank the following people for providing information or advice for the preparation of this report: Cal Broomhead (Cit y and County of San Francisco), Merwin Brown (California Institute for Energy and Environmen t), Lloyd Cibulka (California Institute for Energy and Environment), Guido Franco (California Energy Commission), Gary Freeman (Pacific Gas & Electric Company), Marshall Hunt (UC Davis Western Cooling Efficiency Center), Norm Miller (Lawrence Berkeley Natio nal Laboratory), Evan Mills (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Joe O’Hagan (Califor nia Energy Commission), Wendy Pulling (Pacific Gas & Electric Company), Sue Ti erney (Analysis Group), and Lorraine White (California Energy Commission). I would also like to thank the reviewers of an earlier version of this report: Guido Franco, Evan Mills, Wendy Pulling, and Michael Teitz. Finally, I am indebted to Louise Bedsworth, Ellen Hanak, and Lynette Ubois of the Public Policy Institute of California who made this report more inte lligible than I could produce. Introduction The energy sector is among the most resilient of all U.S. economic sectors in terms of responding to changes within the range of histor ical experience (e.g., changes in energy prices, market conditions, policy changes, financial variab les, and weather) (Bull et al. 2007). Climate change is likely to pose considerable new challenges to this sector. On the one hand, as the second largest source of greenhouse gas emissi ons in California, the energy sector will be a primary target of efforts to reduce emissions under California’s Global Warming Solutions Act (Assembly Bill (AB) 32). At the same time, the sector will need to adapt to changing demand and supply conditions resulting from climate chang e. AB 32 goals may not be met if there is reduced hydroelectric generation or increased use of carbon-based back-up generation in extreme heat events. This report focuses on the adaptation challenges of an important component of the energy arena: electricity and natural gas demand in the residential and commercial sectors and electricity supply. The report begins with a review of the impacts of climate change on the electricity sector in California – principally an increase in demand for air conditioning as summers become hotter, combined with greater difficulties meeting these peak demands through hydropower. Following an overview of the role of various institutions and regulatory structures that can or should play a role in c limate-related policy, the report then discusses the types of adaptation strategies that will be needed as a result of climate warming. Given its impressive investment resources and experience with risk management (e.g., water variability and availability risks due to fl oods and droughts), the energy sector has the potential to be a leader in adaptation initiative s. On the whole, the study finds that electricity sector’s institutions are well-placed to handle adaptation challenges. Although much remains to be done, both public and private entities are addressing three critical dimensions of adaptation: improving awareness of the problem, directing anal ytic capacity to find solutions, and taking action where it is needed. 1 It bears noting at the outset that adaptation to climate change and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions are closely tied in the el ectricity sector. Mitigation efforts are focusing on increased efficiency and demand management and on the development of renewable electricity sources that emit less carbon into the atmosphere. Some of these same policies – particularly increased efficiency and demand management – are also important components of the adaptation toolkit. At the same time, climate change will increase the vulnerability of some renewable, low-emissions sources of electricity (particularly hydropower), potentially creating some conflicts between adaptation and mitigation goals. 1 See Moser and Luers (2008) for a general discussion of adaptive response challenges and the importance of these three factors. 1. Climate Change Impacts on the Electricity Sector California’s electricity sector faces three main challenges as a result of a changing climate. The primary challenge will be responding to the increase in energy demand as a result of increasing temperatures. Currently, air condit ioning is the main driver of increased peak summer demand for electricity in California, and warmer temperatures will raise the demand for air conditioning. A second challenge is the ability of the electricity generation system to adapt to changing climatic conditions. Some renewable power sources – particularly hydropower – are especially vulnerable to clim ate change. Third, climate change poses risks to transmission and distribution networks and other elements of electricity infrastructure. Impacts on Electricity a nd Natural Gas Demand Miller et al. (2007) analyzed the relationship among climate change, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California through the use of atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. These analyses indicated that extreme he at events in California will increase rapidly, exceeding the rate of increase in mean temperature. 2 The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles may increase from the present-day value of 12 days per year up to 96 days per year by 2100. In other words, current heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer. The prospect of additional and longer heat waves could hav e a significant impact on electricity use in buildings due to increased air-conditioning loads. Natural gas is used in homes for heating, and the use of natural gas in buildings is expected to decrease as winter temperatures become more moderate. However, natural gas is also used for generating electricity in power plants: if more electricity is needed in the summer as a result of increased temperatures, then the cost of natural gas may increase if demand exc eeds the supply of natural gas. One of the earliest studies on the effects of climate change on regional electricity use was conducted in California (Baxter and Calandri 1992). This study found that although climate change will affect energy demand for both he ating and cooling, the increased demands for cooling substantially outweigh the reductions from lower heating needs, particularly in a scenario with higher temperatur e increases. More recently, using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios of climate chan ge from three climate models downscaled for California, Franco and Sanstad (2006) found a high correlation between the simple average daily temperature and daily peak electricity demand in the California Independent System Operator (Cal-ISO) region, which comprises most of California. They projected an increase in energy demand over the century, depending on the amount of warming (Figure 1). Under a high emissions scenario, peak demand could increase 19.5 percent above the 1961 to 1990 baseline by the end of the century. 2 Extreme heat events are defined as days with te mperatures above the 90th percentile for a given baseline period.. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 2005‐2034 2035 ‐2064 2065 ‐2099 Increase  in  peak  summer  energy   demand  relative  to  1961 ‐1990 Figure 1: Projected increase in peak summer energy demand under high and low emissio n scenarios, relative to 1961 to 1990 baseline Source: Franco and Sanstad, 2006. In 2004, 30 percent of California peak demand was attributable to residential and commercial air conditioning use alone (Calif ornia Energy Commission 2004). With long-term climate change, not only will those who already have air conditioning use it more often; additional homes and businesses will install cooling systems. If there is insufficient capacity to meet increased peak energy demands, California could face a greater probability of brownouts and blackouts during the peak demand period. Nationally, the number of significant weather- related incidents to the electricity system ha s grown significantly since the mid-1990s: for example, from five in 1995 to 55 in 2006 (Mills 2008). During the July 2002 heat wave, there was an all-time single day record electricity dem and of 52,863 MW (compared to a typical daily demand of around 40,000 to 45,000 MW duri ng that summer), and several regions within California were without power from hours to days. 3 In addition to public health risks, power outages can incur serious economic problems (LaCommare and Eto 2004). These findings suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during fu ture peak electricity demand periods, which will be both more frequent and longer-lasting. However, these potential impacts may be reduced or avoided by behavioral adaptation strategies: for example, raising the air conditioner thermostat in the summer (Miller et al. 2007). 4 Although climate-related increases in ener gy demand will affect household and business energy costs, studies suggest that these increases would not exceed a few percentage points from a statewide perspective (Mendelsohn, 2003 ; Franco, 2005; Franco and Sanstad, 2006). Of course, increased costs may be much harder to bear for low-income households, who may face 3 In addition to being without power due to gene ration, transmission and distribution problems, households also suffer more air-conditioning br eakdowns at higher temperatures (Mills 2008). 4 In the Miller et al study (2007), changing the thermostat by ten degrees could reduce projected increases in electricity demand by roughly one third for inland cities and by as much as 95 percent for cooler coastal cities. difficulties keeping cool during hot summer spells, suggesting an increased need for special programs targeted to these groups. As discussed below, direct temperature-driven impacts on energy costs may be exacerbated by climat e impacts on energy supply, particularly hydroelectric generation capacity. Impacts on Generation Capacity Electricity providers will likely be challenged to meet these increases in peak demands. This challenge will arise both because of direct climate effects on generation infrastructure as well as limits on current infrastructure capacity. Although the most vulnerable component of the energy sector is hydroelectric power, other renewable sources and thermoelectric power sources may also be vulnerable. In 2006, the prim ary energy sources generating electricity used in California were natural gas, large hydro, co al, and nuclear energy (Figure 2). Just over one- fifth of the total volume is imported from out- of-state, including all coal-based electricity and some hydroelectricity. Natural Gas 41% Large Hydro 19% Coal 16% Nuclear 13% Geothermal 5% Wind 2% Solar 0% Small Hydro 2% Biomass2% Figure 2: California’s Electricity Mix 2006 Source: California Energy Commission, 2007c. Hydroelectric Generation Hydroelectric power plants contribute about 20 percent of the electricity generated by California’s in-state power plants and are an important component of the state’s power portfolio (Franco 2005). The hydroelectric capacity in California is over 14,000 MW (Aspen Environmental Group and M.Cubed 2005). Hydropower’s ability to be dispatched quickly on hot summer afternoons to meet peak load, its low cost, and near-zero emissions are particularly valuable characteristics. Much of California’s h ydropower system is part of a broader multi-use system, with power generation facilities at dams that also serve water supply, flood control, recreation, and other beneficial uses. This is also the case for the Pacific Northwest and the Colorado River Basin, which supply hydropower to California. Because of these potentially competing needs, hydropower production may be preempted or at least constrained under changing climate conditions. Hydropower generation is sensitive to the amount, timing, and geographical pattern of precipitation as well as temperature (which affects the share of precipitation that falls as rain or snow and the timing of mountain snowmelt). Re duced stream flows are expected to jeopardize hydropower production in some areas. It is al so expected that less water will be available for hydroelectric generation in the spring and su mmer months, when demand is highest. In addition, there is a high likelihood that chan ges in precipitation and runoff patterns will not only jeopardize hydropower production in some areas but also lead to changes in broader water policies. Earlier snowmelts, particularly if coupled with heavy stream flows, could result in water being diverted from h ydropower facilities to avoid dama ge to the dams and released from reservoirs to avoid flooding. Earlier sn owmelt will increase the demand for reservoir space for flood control. Thus, the already existing conflict between water supply, flood control, and hydropower production will likely be exacerbated by climate change. Two studies evaluated hydropower generation in the state under different climate scenarios. One study concluded that under a “wet” type of climate change, with significantly increased precipitation, there would be substantial increases in the annual amount of electricity generated in hydroelectric power plants in the state (Lund et al. 2003). On the other hand, if precipitation remained the same or decreased slig htly, there would be substantial reductions in the amount of electricity generated, and the de creases would be more pronounced during the summer. This scenario would translate into reductions of about 30 percent in annual hydroelectricity generation by the end of this century. The second study estimated a loss of hydropower generation of about 10 percent per year by the end of this century for a relatively dry scenario (Vanrheenen et al. 2004). The Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) Company has been evaluating the impact of climate change on hydroelectric generation for several years (Freeman 2003, 2007, and 2008; personal communication with Wendy Pulling, June 25, 2008). PG&E is concerned that if a rising snowline trend continues, then generation loss is likely to occur with increasing frequency, overshadowing the benefits of having runoff shif t to earlier in the winter period (Freeman 2008). Even relatively small changes in in-state h ydropower generation result in substantial extra expenditures for electricity, which then needs to be purchased from other sources. For example, a 10 percent decrease from the current average in-state level of hydropower generation would result in an additional $350 million per year in net replacement costs (Franco and Sanstad 2006) 5. Out-of-state sources of hydropower ar e also likely to become less available or more costly. Currently, hydropower imports from the Pacific Northwest provide 7 to 10 percent of California’s peak load on high load days (between 4,000 to 7,000 MW of power) (Aspen Environmental Group and M.Cubed 2005). At some point in the future, California may not be able to count on large transfers of h ydropower from this region, given the expected increase in local demand and the decreased ability to generate electricity in the summer months in the Pacific Northwest. For example, the Nort hwest Power and Conservation Council released its fifth power plan in May 2005 and indicated that climate change may have a significant impact on hydropower in the Pacific Northwes t (Northwest Power and Conservation Council 2005). A more recent analysis of the potential impact of climate change on hydropower generation in the Pacific Northwest shows that the average annual hydropower production could potentially decrease by as much as 15 percent by 2020 and 30 percent by 2050 compared to baseline hydropower production (Markoff and Cullen 2008). Similar problems may affect hydroelectricity supplies from the Colorado Rive r, although its contribution to California is significantly less than the contribu tion from the Pacific Northwest. 6 Other Renewable Energy Sources Since the early 2000s, California has placed an increased emphasis on the development of renewable energy sources other than hydroele ctric power, such as solar, wind-based, biomass, and geo-thermal generation. 7 Excluding large hydroelectric generation, renewable energy production accounted for approximately 11 percent of total electricity production in California in 2007 (Califor nia Energy Commission 2007b). 8 This share is expected to increase to 20 percent by 2010 under the state’s renewable energy policy. Because renewable energy depends directly on ambient natural resources such as hydrological resources, wind patterns and intensity, and solar radiation, it is likely to be more sensitive to climate variability than fossil energy stems. Renewable energy systems ar e also vulnerable to damage from extreme weather events because of their exposure to th e natural elements (e.g., wind for windmills and solar radiation for solar panels). The issues vary for different renewable energy sources. Solar energy. Photovoltaic (PV) electricity gene ration and solar water heating are suitable for most of California, with current deployment primarily in off-grid locations and rooftop systems. Solar radiation – the energy so urce for these systems - may be affected by climate change. Preliminary results from one stu dy found that in most of the U.S., increased CO 2 concentrations were associated with increased cloudiness, resulting in decreased levels of daily global radiation availability in the range of 0 to 20 percent (Pan et al. 2004). The most noticeable decrease was in the western U.S. during fall, winter, and spring. 5 This assumes a price of $0.10 per kWh. 6 The Hoover Dam provides 626 MW of power to California (CEC 2003) 7 As described below, under the Renewable Portfolio St andard (RPS), first adopted in 2002, utilities are required to increase the share of renewables to 20 percent by 2010. 8 Geothermal (4.7%), biomass ( 2.1%), small-scale hydr oelectric (2.1%), wind (1.8%), and solar (0.2%) (CEC 2007d) Wind energy. The use of wind energy is growing rapidly in California. Wind power generation is susceptible to variations in ambi ent temperatures, humidity and precipitation. The primary determinants of wind power availability are wind speed statistics (e.g., mean wind speeds and gustiness). Wind speeds are subject to natural variability on a wide range of time scales, and they may be affected by climate change. One modeling study found that the U.S. will see reduced wind speeds of 1.0 to 3.2 percent in the next 50 years, and 1.4 to 4.5 percent over the next 100 years (Breslow and Sailor 2002). Another model suggested reductions in mean wind speeds on the order of 10 to 15 percent (Breslow and Sailor 2002). Considering that wind power generation is a function of the cube of the wind speed, these decreases in wind speed correspond to potential reductions in wind power generation on the order of 30 to 40 percent. Yet there remains a great deal of uncertainty regarding how wind fields will change in the future. For example, in one study linking ge neral circulation model output to local weather in a doubling of carbon dioxide scenario, the wi ndier conditions were found in one part of California (Santa Clara and Amador counties) wh ile less windy conditions were reported in another region (Humboldt County) (Fried, Torn and Mills 2004). Increased variability in wind patterns could create additional challenges for accurate wind forecasting for generation and dispatch planning, for the siting of new wind farms, and for the integration of wind with the utility grid (Bull et al. 2007). Biomass-based energy. Biomass from trees, municipal wast e, and crop residues is found in abundance in California and represents a si gnificant renewable energy resource. California’s current use of bioenergy as a source of electric power represents a small fraction of what is technically feasible: approximately 30 million dry tons of technically recoverable solid biomass resources each year (enough to power some 3 million homes) (California Energy Commission 2006a). Given the state’s goals to increase th e use of biomass-based energy, climate change impacts on biomass are of concern (Bull et al. 2007). For example, for wood and forest products, there may be short- or long-term impacts from timber kills and long-term impacts from changes in tree growth rates. For agricultural biomass, there may be changes in food crop residue and growth rates of crops produced sp ecifically for energy production. Thermoelectric Generation Despite the recent emphasis on renewable sources, California still relies heavily on thermoelectric power generation, particularly gas-fired plants (roughly 41% of in-state generation) and nuclear plants (13% ). Thermoelectric generation is water intensive; on average, each kWh of electricity generated via the steam cycle requires approximately 25 gallons of water (Bull et al. 2007). Power plants (136,000 million gallons per day (MGPD)) rank only slightly behind irrigation (137,000 MGPD) in terms of fr eshwater withdrawals in the United States (US Geologic Survey 2004). 9 Interestingly, in California, fres hwater withdrawals for power plants are significantly lower (352 MGPD) with irriga tion (30,500 MGPD) representing almost 80 percent of total freshwater withdrawals. If changi ng climatic conditions alter historical patterns of precipitation and runoff, this may complicate operations of existing thermoelectric power plants as well as the design and site selection of new units. 9 Power plants consume a substantially lower share of water withdrawals than other sectors, however, with much of the water going back into the system after it is used by the plants. Elevated water temperatures may affect thermoelectric generation. For California’s nuclear power plants that use once-through cooling with ocean water, the cooling water supply should not be a problem. However, if ocean wa ter temperatures rise, then these power plants may have difficulty in meeting existing wa ter temperature discharge limits (Personal communication with Joe O’Hagan, Calif ornia Energy Commission, July 3, 2008). 10 The thermal discharges have long been considered to be potentially the most severe impacts of once-through cooling systems (California Energy Commission 2005d). For gas-fired power plants that use once-through cooling, the discharge water impact s are also of concern (Personal communication with Joe O’Hagan, July 3, 2008). Impacts on Electricity Sector Infrastructure Two key aspects of electricity sector infrastr ucture are the siting of power plants along the coast and the transmission and distributi on (T&D) network. Although both types of infrastructure face potential clim ate-related impacts, the issues appear to be more significant for the T&D network. For power plants located along the coast, concerns have been raised about possible effects of sea level rise and coastal storm su rges. However, neither issue appears to be particularly threatening in Califor nia. In contrast to other coastal states, increased storm surges are not expected to affect California’s coastal power plants, with the exception of the Diablo Canyon nuclear facility. 11 Theoretically, rising sea level mi ght make also it more difficult for power plants to get the fresh water they need for once-through cooling. In 2005, 21 California coastal power plants (generating capacity of 23,910 megawatts (MW)) that use once-through seawater for cooling were located along the entire length of the State from Humboldt Bay to San Diego Bay (Figure 3). 12 However, it appears that very few existing coastal plants are at risk. With increased awareness of possible sea level change, the construction of new power plants along the coast will be designed to account for this possible impact. The transmission and distribution system may be affected to different degrees by several aspects of climate change – sea level rise, incr eased temperatures, and increased frequency and size of wildfires. At currently predicted rates, sea level rise is expected to have very minimal consequences on existing T&D lines over the ne xt century. Given the likely relatively slow increase in sea level, raising transmission lines would not be difficult, but could be costly (Personal communication with Merwin Brown, California Institute for Energy and Environment, July 23, 2007). For future T&D lines, planners can take into account sea level change by constructing higher lines or, where possible, movi ng the lines to others areas. 10 These discharge-related issues are commonly referr ed to as 316(a) impacts because they are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. 11 The Diablo Canyon cooling water intake often gets clogged due to debris from storm surges, forcing the plant to shut down. Although the plant itself is well above sea level, greater impacts on the intake may occur with sea level rise, increasing the frequency and duration of power reductions (Aspen Environmental Group and M.Cubed 2005; O’Hagan 2007). 12 There are many small power plants along the coast th at use cooling towers or do not require water for steam condensation ( O’Hagan 2007). Figure 3. Major coastal power plants that use once-through cooling of seawater, 2005 Source: California Energy Commission, 2005d Note: Since 2005, at least one plant has been taken off-line (Hunters Point Power Plant, in 2006). Several new PG&E plants will use dry cooling (without water) (personal communication with W. Pulling, June 25, 2008). The trend towards increased temperatures is not expected to significantly affect the transmission and distribution of electricity in the long term (Personal communication with Merwin Brown, July 23, 2007.) The amount of current a line can carry is determined in part by the ambient air temperature: the higher the temperature, the lower the maximum current. Theoretically, higher temperatures would mean lower levels of peak power capacity for the T&D system. On the other hand, because of the relatively slow pace of temperature increase expected, the conservative engineered margins used could absorb additional thermal load. However, in the short term, sudden increases in temperatures (e.g., heat waves) may affect the T&D system. For example, in the July 2006 heat wave in California, over 80,000 customers in the Los Angeles Department of Wate r and Power’s service territory lost power for days as 860 distribution line transformers (worth about $1 million) malfunctioned or stopped working (Bernstein 2006). Similarly, in Northe rn California, 1.2 million PG&E customers lost power in the July 2006 heat wave as 1,150 distribution line transformers failed (Jurgens 2006). PG&E reported that heavy electricity use heat ed the transformers and warmer-than-normal air failed to cool them: this tripped circuit breakers , broke fuses and burned the insulation, causing short circuits inside the transformers. The increased frequency and intensity of wildfires expected with climate change may have a significant impact on the transmission an d distribution of energy. For example, on October 21, 2007, the Acton Fire in Southern California caused the Southwest Powerlink transmission system to go out of service. The foll owing day, the state’s electrical grid operator – Cal-ISO – declared an emergency when the Santia go Fire in Orange County caused two more high-voltage transmission lines to trip off-line. To reduce stress on the power grid, Cal-ISO asked two utilities (San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE)) to reduce their electrical load by a total of 500 MW. By October 23, the fires had knocked out multiple transmission lines in the San Diego area, causing Cal-ISO to request voluntary energy conservation in San Diego. Over the course of that week, more than 24 transmission lines were knocked out of service, and by October 24, Sa n Diego was being served by only one 230 kV transmission line. At the same time, two units of the San Onofre nuclear power plant had been temporarily out of service for maintenance reason s, and a complete loss of off-site power would have caused the nuclear plant itself to automa tically trip off-line. In order to maintain systemwide reliability, SDG&E started planning for rolling blackouts, which did not occur as the Southwest Powerlink was brought back into service. All in all, nearly 80,000 SDG&E customers (of a total of 1.4 million) lost power in San Diego, more than 1,500 utility poles were burned, and at least 35 miles of overhead wi re were damaged (San Diego Gas & Electric 2007). 2. Institutions and Regulatory Structure: Energy and Climate The energy sector involves many actors who will need to respond to the challenges posed by climate change. This includes state institutions that oversee energy planning decisions and facilities, water resource inst itutions that manage the state’s hydroelectric facilities, as well as the electric utilities and other private sector actors. In addition, local government decisions can have a large effect on the demands placed on the energy system – a central tool for reducing the vulnerability of the system to increases in summer temperatures. State Energy Agencies California has had a long history (over 30 year s) in public planning and decision-making on energy matters. The California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) have been the key policy leaders in deciding which energy supplies (power plants and distributed generation) get built and which energy programs (energy efficiency, demand response, renewable ener gy, distributed generation) get funded and implemented. In addition to setting general policy and ener gy targets and goals for public utilities, the CEC is responsible for developing and impl ementing the state energy building codes and appliance standards. The CEC has also been play ing a leading role in California’s research efforts on climate change, through its own Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program and the California Climate Change Center, a virtual, multi-site research center launched in 2003 (Franco et al. 2003 and Franco 2005). These efforts are aiming to develop the tools and data necessary for in-depth policy relevant analyses of climate-related issues for numerous sectors in addition to energy. 13 The CEC’s PIER program is also very active in conducting research on energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies and services. The CPUC also recently established its own research program on solar energy. While the California Air Resources Board (ARB) is the lead state agency in implementing AB 32, this agency has deferred to the CEC and the CPUC for providing ARB information and recommendations in the energy field. Water Resource Planning Institutions The operation of the hydroelectric system is of key concern to the CEC and the Department of Water Resources (DWR) in the planning of water and energy resources. While approximately 36 percent of hydroelectric gene ration is controlled by the investor-owned utilities, approximately 27 percent of generation is owned by water project operators (the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation’s Central Valley Project and DWR’s State Water Project), and approximately 35 percent is owned by municipalit ies, with the remaining hydropower capacity owned by irrigation districts. 13 For more details, see http://www.clim atechange.ca.gov/research/index.html DWR and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) have formed a working team to address water resources-related issues of climat e change. This team will coordinate with other state and federal agencies in providing and re gularly updating information to the decision making processes on potential risks and impact s of climate change, flexibility of existing facilities to accommodate climate change, and possi ble mitigation measures (e.g., Brekke 2007). Investor-Owned Utilities California’s three investor-owned utilities – PG&E, SCE and SDG&E - are responsible for acquiring and delivering 68 percent of the electr icity to the state’s business and residential customers (California Energy Co mmission 2007c). These companies are already sensitive to weather as a factor in earnings performance, and they utilize weather risk management tools to hedge against risks associated with weather-rela ted uncertainties. They have been involved in planning for capacity additions, assuring system reliability, and selecting sites for long-lived capital facilities. They are concerned that rela tively small changes in temperature (and demand) can affect their total capacity need s, especially in peak periods. Given the importance of hydroelectric generati on, any changes to this resource are of utmost concern. For example, PG&E’s water management team is aware that climate change is occurring (e.g., reduction of moun tain snowpack and more intense winter runoff events) and is planning for how to best work with runoff chang e in terms of best hydroelectric scheduling practice (Freeman 2003, 2007). PG&E is investigat ing improved methods for data collection and analysis that will help its adaptation capabilitie s (Freeman 2003). In one research project, PG&E is evaluating how aquifers (an important source of water for hydroelectric generation) can be recharged with land-based cloud seeding for increa sing daily outflow from springs in all years, including anticipated future multi-decadal aquifer outflow droughts (Freeman 2007). The company is also assessing the su sceptibility of its transmission and distribution network to sea level rise and increased risks of flooding in area s such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. In addition to their ongoing work on evaluating the risks of increased fires and heat storms, PG&E is conducting an institutional risk management re view process, where climate change has been identified as one of the “enterprise risks.” Through this process, PG&E will be tracking the scientific analysis of climate change in Californi a and using that science as a starting point for potentially developing appropriate tools, me thodologies, programs, and policies (personal communication with W. Pulling, December 20, 2007 and June 25, 2008). PG&E is currently at the initial stages of this risk analysis. Local Governments Local governments can express their legally enforceable policies through required general plans and zoning codes (California Energy Commission 2007a). Although state law does not require general plans to address energy, some cities and counties have adopted an “energy element,” which specifies local policies regarding energy use and efficiency. By 2006, 56 general plan included energy elements (California Energy Commission 2007a). Some local governments have also enacted sp ecific ordinances to promote energy efficiency or renewable energy: e.g., retrofit conservation ordinances and solar access ordinances. Furthermore, the publicly owned utilities (owned by municipali ties and special districts), which provide electricity to 22 percent of the population (California Energy Commission 2007c), play an important role in promoting energy efficiency, renewable energy, and distributed generation, similar to investor-owned utilities. Although the state has very limited land use au thority, the policies it develops in regard to new infrastructure, utility funding, environm ental review, and housing allocation are all leverage points that the state can use to assist local governments in growing in an energy- efficient and climate-friendly manner. Most rece ntly, the state Attorney General has used the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) as a lever to require local government to consider climate change in their general plans. Laws and Regulations Consid ering Climatic Factors AB 32 was signed into law by Governor Schwarzenegger on September 27, 2006. This Act commits the state to reduce global warming pollution back to 1990 levels by 2020 through a concerted effort to deploy clean energy technolo gies and other emission reduction strategies. The coal and natural gas burned to generate el ectricity and the natural gas used directly in homes and businesses represent approximatel y 36 percent of the state’s GHG emissions (California Energy Commission 2006b). Accordingl y, the California Climate Action Team has identified numerous strategies to reduce emissions from the energy sector, including energy efficiency, renewable energy, and cleaner power plants to reduce emission s from the electricity and natural gas sectors. 14 The ability to meet the AB 32 goal s may be jeopardized if there is reduced hydroelectric generation or increased use of carbon-based back-up generation in extreme heat events. A number of key energy legislation and de cisions (in addition to building codes and appliance standards) have been enacted in rece nt years that, while not designed to address climate change, will affect how the energy sector will respond to AB 32 and how the sector is able to adapt to climate change (Table 1). For the most part, this portfolio of measur es will simultaneously work to reduce the production of greenhouse gases (mitigate) and to improve California’s ability to adapt to the increased pressures on the energy sector from c limate change. In contrast, one piece of recent legislation is likely to pose tradeoffs between these two goals. SB 1368, signed into law in 2006, sets GHG emissions standards for electricity impo rts into California, in an effort to limit the carbon footprint of the state’s overall electric ity use. These import restrictions could limit California’s flexibility to respond to peak de mand increases, which may already be reduced because of a loss of in-state hydropower. The constr aint might be particularly felt if California’s future hydroelectric imports are also reduce d because of climate impacts in the Pacific Northwest and the Colorado River basin. 14 “Cap and trade” – whereby emissions producers are “capped” at certain levels of emissions and allowed to trade emissions permits - is one of the general mechanisms being discussed as a way of enhancing the efficiency of reductions. Table 1 - Climate-related energy legislation and programs Year Policy Description 2002 Renewable Portfolio Standard (SB 1078) Requires 20 percent of electricity generation be renewable by 2020 2003 Energy Action Plan Joint effort by the CPUC, CEC, and the California Power Authority to create a unified energy policy for California. Emphasized energy efficiency and called for acceleration of the RPS. 2004 Executive Order S-20-04 “Green Building Initiative” that requires the state government to reduce its own electricity demand 10 percent by 2010 and 20 percent by 2015. All new, renovated, and build-to-suit leased state buildings will meet LEED standards. 2006 Million Solar Roofs $2.9 billion incentive program for homeowners and building owners to install solar electric systems. Executive Order S-06-06 Established biomass production and use targets for California SB 1368 Sets GHG emission standards for electricity imported into California 2007 AB 1470 Incentives for installation of 200,000 solar water heaters by 2017. AB 2021 Requires municipal-owned utilities to prepare 10-year energy efficiency goals and use load ordering similar to the investor-owned utilities 2008 Green Building Standards Code Green Building Standards Commission adopts green building standards for residential and commercial construction, with mandatory compliance by 2010. 3. Adaptation Strategies The preferred adaptation strategy for California’s electricity sector should consist of a portfolio of strategies, including mitigation, ad aptation, technological development (to enhance both adaptation and mitigation), and research (on climate science, impacts, adaptation and mitigation). Adaptation and mitigation should follow the guiding principle of “resilience” – enhancing the capacity of the system to operate under a range of future environmental and socio-economic conditions that can be anticipat ed as possible and plausible but that cannot be predicted with certainty (Franco and Sanstad, 2006). Accordingly, the energy sector can adapt to climate change vulnerabilities and impacts by anticipating possible impacts and taking steps to increase its resilience: e.g., by diversifying supply sources and investing in technological change to further expand its portfolio of demand and supply options (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007). Given its impressive investment resources and experience with risk management, the energy sector has the potential to be a leader in adaptation initiatives, whether related to reducing risks associated with extreme events or coping with more gr adual changes such as water availability (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007). On the other hand, adaptation actions are un likely to approach their full potential for cost-effective risk reduction without deliber ate investments of policy, management, and financial resources. While many energy sector strategies are relatively inexpensive, some involve high capital costs, and social acceptanc e of climate-change response alternatives that might imply higher energy prices could be limited. Finally, adaptation prospects are likely to depend considerably on the availability of info rmation about possible climate change effects to inform decisions about adaptive management. Making that information available to energy policymakers will be a key effort in California’s adaptation response. Reducing Peak Demand Increases The electricity system can respond to increases in peak demand in two primary ways: by reducing the magnitude of increased peak demand through energy efficiency programs and by increasing the resiliency of the energy produc tion system to respond to these peaks. Fortunately, California’s state and local govern ment institutions and utility companies have extensive programs (information, education at all levels, ranging from kindergarten to university, marketing, and financial incentives) to promote the use of high efficiency air conditioners. In addition, alternative technologica l solutions to air conditioners (e.g., the use of natural cooling) are being studied in the public sector (e.g., CEC’s PIER program). For example, in some areas of California where air conditione rs are used for only a few hours in the summer (during hot, peak demand days), these households do not need to use an air conditioner if the house is designed and built with energy efficiency principles in mind (e.g., thermal mass, use of natural cooling, well insulated, se aled ducts, evaporative coolers, 15 etc.). 15 In the future, advanced multiple stage evaporat ive coolers have the potential to reduce annual electricity consumption by 80 percent ( Personal communication with Marshall Hunt, UC Davis Western Cooling Efficiency Center, December 9, 2007). While these units do use water, onsite water use is Complementing the air conditioning strategy is the use of higher levels of insulation (e.g., ceiling, wall and floor) and higher levels of window glazing in both the new and existing housing stock. Fortunately, California’s buildin g code (Title 24) has had a long history in making the new residential and commercial building stock more energy efficient. The existing stock is also getting more attention: for example, the CEC issued a report on recommended strategies to increase energy efficiency in existing buildings (Ca lifornia Energy Commission 2005a). Another strategy for adapting to the increased energy demand resulting from higher temperatures is the planting of trees to shade homes and buildings, the painting of reflective surfaces for roofs and pavements, and the construc tion of roofs that reflect heat to reduce the heat island effect in urbanized areas. In the non-residential sector, customers in California have been investing in energy efficiency measures that not only save ener gy but also help to reduce peak demand: for example, insulation of the building shell (ce ilings, walls, basements), adjustable speed drive motors for air-conditioning and processes, high efficiency chillers, and more efficient lighting. Public information programs can also play a la rge part in mitigating the effects of energy demand increases. Some of the most direct st rategies have been phone trees to alert people about possible heat waves, public education pr ograms, cooling centers, and heatwave early warning and response systems to reach the most vulnerable (Kovats and Ebi 2006; Palecki et al. 2001; Weisskopf et al. 2002; Ebi et al. 2004). With respect to energy use and demand, the state’s Flex Your Power program and utility programs have alerted consumers on when to turn off (or reduce their use of) selected appliances (includi ng air conditioning) during peak periods and to run this equipment on off-peak periods. California’s utilities have been the leaders nat ionally in promoting energy efficiency (Vine et al. 2006). Since 1975, the energy saving s from the utilities’ energy efficiency programs and from the state’s building and appliance st andards have supplanted the need for a minimum of 24 new, large-scale (500 MW) power plant s (California Energy Commission 2005c). In addition to involving local government, the utility programs include manufacturers, retailers, distributors, and energy service companies (ESC Os). Since 2000, PG&E has been focused on climate change issues. In addition to advocati ng for the regulation of GHG emissions at the federal level, they have been reporting thei r GHG emissions as a charter member of the California Climate Action Registry since 2004 (personal communication with W. Pulling, June 25, 2008). More recently, they introduced the Climate Smart TM Program that provides a voluntary option for PG&E customers to reduce their personal impact on climate change. PG&E calculates the amount needed to make the GH G emissions associated with the customer’s personal or business energy use “neutral” and will add this amount to their monthly energy bill; 100 percent of the Climate Smart payment goes directly to funding new GHG emission reduction projects in California. 16 almost offset with kWh savings that saves the water th at it takes to produce kWh. In addition, water use for cooling can be easily offset wi th plumbing fixtures, distribution layout, landscape choices, and super- low water use appliances. Finally, low cost water storage units with the ability to use rainwater are also being evaluated for widespread use. 16 See http://www.pge.com/about_us/envir onment/features/climatesmart.html The financial sector has been actively involved in energy efficiency by promoting energy-efficient mortgages (EEMs). The EEMs offe r homebuyers bigger loans or discounts if they make energy-efficient improvements, or if their new home meets certain efficiency standards. As an example, Citigroup Inc.’s mortga ge division offers $1,000 off the closing costs on EEMs, Bank of America Corp. offers $1,000 off the closing fees for Energy Star qualified homes, JPMorgan Chase & Co.’s mortgage division offers $500 off the closing costs for homes insulated with a high-efficiency spray foam, an d the Indigo Financial Group allows consumers to borrow more money to finance energy-efficient upgrades (Muñoz 2007). The demand response programs are most effect ive when there is real-time pricing. Real- time pricing is being addressed in regulatory pr oceedings at the CPUC, and the infrastructure is being laid with the installation of advanced (smart) utility meters that provide information about what energy is costing at particular time s during the day. SDG&E has a one-year trial program designed to measure the financial impact of time-of-use programs. SCE has been field- testing advanced meters and plans to start large scale meter installations in January 2009 through June 2012. And PG&E has been insta lling advanced meters since 2007 and hopes to install 10 million advanced meters by 2012. Finally, planning at the local and regional level can be conducted to anticipate storm and drought impacts, improve forecasting of the im pacts of global warming on renewable energy sources at regional and local levels, and establis h action plans and policies that conserve both energy and water. For example, the Cities of San Francisco, Santa Cruz, and Berkeley have each added an environmental expert to their staffs sp ecifically to help reduce GHG emissions, and the San Diego Foundation is working with local and regional government in looking at climate change impacts in San Diego over the next 40 years. Improving the Generation System’s Ability to respond to Peak Demands For energy production, the adaptability of the system will be enhanced i f future installations can be designed with built-in fl exibility to accommodate the span of potential climate impacts. Possible adaptation measures in clude technologies that minimize the impact of increases in ambient temperatures on power pl ant equipment and technologies that conserve water use for power plant cooling processes. To meet the increased energy demand for air conditioning, onsite or locally-based renewable energy systems (e.g,. as part of a “microgrid”) may become particularly interesting: for exampl e, the installation of a small wind generator next to a building or the placement of photovol taic arrays on exterior parking structures. Energy sources in the future may also be integr ated increasingly with buildings (e.g., zero energy new homes): for example, new roofs and walls with materials incorporating photovoltaic cells. Sources of more electricit y on hotter days could include pumped storage, 17 new plants to increase storage capacity, or thermal energy storage 18 in buildings (typically less expensive than pumped storage). 17 Pumped storage is a hydroelectric source of power in which electricity is generated by the use of water that has been pumped into a reservoir or a holding tank at a higher altitude (height). 18 Thermal energy storage refers to a number of technolo gies that store energy in a thermal reservoir for later reuse. In the context of this discussion, the principal application is the production of ice or chilled water at night, which is then used to cool buildings during the day. Regarding the hydroelectric system, the management of water reservoirs can be substantially improved with the use of mo dern probabilistic seasonal and short-term hydrological forecasts and numerical decision support tools. These management tools will result in an improved capacity to better cope with long-term increased climate variability and change (Georgakakos et al. 2005; Carpenter and Georgakakos 2001; Yao and Georgakakos 2001). Reservoir operation strategies are further di scussed in the accompanying report on water resource management (Hanak and Lund, 2008). Enacting Mitigation Policies that Enhance Adaptation Potential As noted above, California has been a lead er in implementing energy legislation and policy that affect how the public and private sector will manage climate change. In the coming years, California is expected to continue this leadership role. Local governments in California have also been national leaders in preparing for climate change by implementing policies that primarily have a mitigation focus but will also provide adaptation benefits (Table 2 describes San Francisco’s efforts). For example, building en ergy efficient buildings will reduce the amount of energy needed, and streamlining the solar ph otovoltaic permit process will increase the amount of renewable energy. In a warmer clim ate, less reliance on the utility grid (through either reduced energy use or more use of onsite renewable energy) is an effective adaptation strategy, since the grid will be more vulner able to potential brownouts and blackouts. The League of California Cities (LCC) and many individual cities in the state have endorsed the U.S. Conference of Mayors Climate Protection Agreement, which commits signatories to meet the Kyoto Protocol targets (reduction of emissions by 7 percent below 1990 levels by 2012). 19 Some local governments have even gone further. For example, the City of Berkeley’s voters passed a measure in November 2006 that pledges an 80 percent reduction in GHG emissions by 2050, comparable to th e California goals set forth in Governor Schwarzenegger’s Executive Order in 2005. Both the LCC and the California State Association of Counties (CSAC) have adopted guiding princi ples on climate change (League of California Cities, 2008; California State A ssociation of Counties, 2007). Table 2. Recent Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitig ation Policies by the City of San Francisco • 2002 – The City passed a resolution committing to reduce carbon emissions by 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2012 – this goal goes beyond the Kyoto Protocol objectives. • 2004 – The City required all new municipal constr uction and major renovation projects to achieve a LEED Silver certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. • 2006 – The City streamlined the solar photovoltaic permit process – permits can be issued over the counter, without the de lays of in-house reviews • 2006 – The City established a priority permitting process for LEED Gold certified building projects. One concrete step that local governments can ta ke is to waive fees for solar installations. Two years ago, none did; now at least 14 juri sdictions hand out building permits for solar power to homeowners for free (Rogers 2007). Cities such as San Jose, Walnut Creek and Novato 19 http://www.usmayors.org/climateprotection/agreement.htm have also streamlined their rules so much that their planning departments now issue most permits in a few minutes, a process that once took weeks. Another initiative that local governments ca n take is to pass energy ordinances that require more energy-efficient bu ilding practices than required by the state (i.e., CEC). For example, the City of Santa Barbara recently passed an energy ordinance that tightens energy standards by 10 percent every five years and ma kes buildings 20 percent more energy efficient than state standards (Licata 2007). Increasing RD&D to Support Energy Sector Response While existing technologies are available for Ca lifornia to use as part of its adaptation response, there is a need to develop a portfolio of robust energy efficiency technologies as part of a major research, demonstration and developm ent (RD&D) effort. Unfortunately, for several decades, there has been a disturbing trend away from investment in energy technology – both by the federal government and the private sector (Nemet and Kammen 2007). In fact, the U.S. invests about $1 billion less in energy RD&D today than it did a decade ago (which was also low compared to earlier investments). Fortunately, in California, key agencies have realized this necessity and have committed funds to support RD&D, much of which can be linked to climate change mitigation and adaptation. For example, the CEC’s PIER Program has conducted (and continues to conduct) in- depth climate-related studies that will be of part icular interest for the energy sector, including : • Development and exploration of probabil istic California climate projections for impact and adaptation studies • Development of higher resolution regional model tools to explore effects of climate change and land use change • Demonstration of probabilistic seasonal forecasts, to improve the management of water reservoirs in the state • Installation of climate reference stations to track and, if possible, detect climatic changes in the state • Enhancements to the CALVIN water system model to investigate potential adaptation measures under a wide variety of scenario (see Hanak and Lund, 2008). The funding authorization for the electricity portion of the PIER program of $62.5 million per year sunsets at the end of 2011 – just four short years from now. Support of PIER and other similar R&D programs needs to be cont inued to determine where new data collection and analysis is needed. Having robust capabilitie s to detect climate-related changes in systems that affect energy production and use may facilitate timely and appropriate responses (Tierney 2007). This could include identification of import ant climate change-related factors (e.g., trends in changing wind patterns, in heating and cooling degree days), along with efforts to collect and analyze different data than in the past. Accessing and analyzing such information will be important for assuring that demand and load fore casts remain reasonable for future conditions as heating and cooling degree days change. In April 2008, the CPUC issued a decision establishing the California Institute for Climate Solutions (CICS) (California Public Util ties Commission 2008). The mission of the CICS is to (1) administer grants to facilitate mission-oriented, applied and directed research that results in practical technological solutions and supports development of policies to reduce GHG emissions or otherwise mitigate the impacts of climate change in California; (2) speed the transfer, deployment and commercialization of technologies that have the potential to reduce GHG emissions or otherwise mitigate the impa cts of climate change in California; and (3) facilitate the coordination and cooperation among relevant institutions to most efficiently achieve mission-oriented, applied, and directed research. The budget, funded by ratepayer funds, is $60 million per year over a ten-year period. The implementation of the CICS is currently pending, awaiting a revi ew by the State Legislature. Table 3 highlights particular research needs for the energy sector in California (some of which is already being implemented but needs more funding). In addition, more research must be conducted on risk management and preparedne ss to evaluate the impacts on energy facilities of more frequent and/or severe weather events and the ways in which the system could be made to be more resilient. For example, on e would create forecasts of long-range energy capability and demand and then assess the ability of energy facilities to supply and distribute energy under changing, and often extreme, weather conditions. DWR is already conducting scenario planning for extreme even ts, and examining the location of facilities and their ability to withstand storms and other severe weather. In California, other organizations that need to conduct such analyses include the CPUC, the CEC, ARB, and coastal zone management agencies; regional tr ansmission operators; utilities and other energy companies; and state emergency management agencies. For all of these agencies, information sharing for systems operations, equipment and materials strengths, emergency preparedness, research needs, and technological issues will be key. Table 3. California energy sector research needs 1. Climate change effects on a relatively fine-grained geographic scale (temperature and precipitation changes and severe weather events) 2. Implications of extreme weather events for energy system resiliency (strategies for reducing and recovering from impacts) 3. Strategies and improved technologies for adding resilience to energy supply systems (regional interconnection capabilities and distributed generation) 4. Detailed relationships between temperatur e (including temperature extremes) and patterns of electricity consumption and demand in California 5. Potentials, costs, and limits of adapta tion for supply and use infrastructures 6. Efficiency of energy use in the context of climate warming, with an emphasis on technologies and practices that save cooling energy and reduce electrical peak load 7. Implications of changing regional patte rns of energy use for regional supply institutions and consumers (including water suppliers and operators) 8. Effects of changing conditions for renewa ble energy production (wind and solar) 9. Linkages and feedbacks among climate change effects, and implications for adaptation and mitigation 10. New energy efficiency technologies and servic es for reducing space cooling, involving cross-disciplinary research and development efforts to generate innovation and including both component and system energy efficiency improvements and integration 11. Behavioral issues affecting individual and organizational climate change adaptation. 12. Analytical methods for incorporating appropri ate levels of uncertainty in key climatic, technological and socioeconomic trends 13. Robust policy strategies for developing and managing the electric power system 14. More effective integration of the investment, finance, and risk management communities into the research and developmen t process to help identify opportunities and barriers and evaluate the pote ntial solutions for market success Source: Franco and Sanstad (2006), Wilbanks et al. (2007), and Mills (2008) 4. Constraints to Adaptation Although California’s various institutions have made significant advances in developing tools that will help the electricity sector adapt to the effects of climate change, some important barriers remain. Foremost among these is the cost of implementing energy efficiency measures and investing in renewables. Institutional barriers can also play a significant role in slowing down the pace of new technology adoption in businesses and within the energy sector itself. Finally, there may be political and behavioral ba rriers to adoption of new technologies and practices. Financial and Economic Barriers One of the biggest constraints to adaptation is cost. Many energy efficiency measures are cost-effective, and many of these measures hav e simple paybacks ranging from one to four years. In contrast, wind and so lar energy projects require more capital and will require longer paybacks. And for water resource managers, ne w water storage facilities are very expensive and will most likely require a financing mechani sm supported by California taxpayers (e.g., an infrastructure bond). For example, raising Shasta Dam by 6.5 feet could increase the long-term Central Valley energy production by up to 10 GWh/year, and raising it by 18.5 feet could increase it to 40 GWh/year – the capital cost estimates for these enhancements would range from $280-480 million (DWR 2006). 20 Most importantly, the focus for many residents will be on short-term costs of adaptation rather than on lifetime costs that account fo r savings achieved through lower operation and maintenance costs. For example, the initial cost of buying a high efficiency air conditioner is a barrier to some consumers, even though the long-term operating costs will be reduced over time and even though the payback times range from three to seven years. Also, as noted earlier, the cost of operating an air conditioner will be a burden for specific groups (elderly and low income); they will face the challenge of paying for cool air or paying for food. Accordingly, an adaptation strategy will need to emphasize a long -term perspective and ensure that the needs of the elderly and low income groups are accounted for. Institutional Barriers to Business Decisions Investment in energy efficiency and renewa ble energy is relatively simple in the residential sector: usually, only one or two people are involved in the decision to adopt these measures. In the nonresidential sector (commercial and industrial ), the decision-making process is more complex due to multiple actors with di fferent perspectives (e.g., plant manager, chief financial officer, chief executive offi cer, etc.). In addition, the cost of the measure will affect this relationship: relatively inexpensive measures will need fewer approvals than more expensive measures. As a result, a new, better adapted po wer plant or transmission and distribution line will take years to get approved and built, and, in some cases, legislation or regulation will be needed. Similarly, if new management policies and procedures are needed, then human and 20 These costs include pumping and operations and maintenance costs, and the wide range of costs reflects the wide range of storage op tions, conveyance facilities, etc. financial capital will be required to make these policies and procedures work. Because climate change adaptation solutions will require the cooperation and coordination of different specialists and agencies, problems in coordinatin g across departments and agencies could arise. Fortunately, in the energy sector, coordination ac ross agencies is occurring, and new initiatives will most likely be cooperative ventures among the public and private sectors. Political Barriers In general, the most significant political barrier to creating policies and measures for climate change adaptation is the difficulty in getting the attention of politicians and policymakers. They are faced with numerous ot her social issues (crime, education, health, foreign policy, other environmental issues, et c.) that require their attention and may have higher priority. Fortunately, in the energy sect or, climate policy is a high priority among key stakeholders (for instance, the Governor, State Legislature, state agencies, and the private sector). Nevertheless, information, education, and marketing strategies need to continue and be supported to make more people aware of the need for adaptation measures, so that more politicians understand that this is an im portant priority for their constituents. Informational, Social, Attitudinal, and Behavioral Barriers Three key informational issues need to be a ddressed. First, the scientific uncertainties surrounding the timing and extent of climate change impacts appear to be a major factor affecting people’s willingness to support poli cies and programs addressing climate change (although this is changing, as noted below). Second, while the global impacts are starting to become clearer, the local impa cts remain uncertain. And third, the long-term benefits of adaptation are largely local to regional in scale, but the costs are more immediate and often borne by individuals (i.e., pay now to help future generations). As a result, there is a critical need to develop information, education, and marketing strategies to make more people aware of the need for adaptation measures. Increased aw areness should increase the positive attitudes towards social change, leading to changes in individual and organizational behavior, as well as leading to the engagement of stakeholders in responding to climate change. It appears that Californians are more likely than the rest of the nation to see global warming as a threat, but also are more optimistic that GHG emissions can be cut while creating jobs and expanding the economy, according to a statewide poll (Field Research Corporation 2007). In 2007, more than 80 percent of Califor nians believed that global warming poses a serious or very serious threat. While 43 percent said global warming requires immediate action, another 32 percent said that some action should be taken. Another survey by the Public Policy Institute of California (2007) reported similar fi ndings and also noted that over 80 percent of respondents thought it was necessary to take step s right away to counter the effects of global warming (Baldassare et al., 2007). 24 Summary and Conclusions California’s public and private energy institutions have already made great strides in improving the state’s energy efficiency, and they will play a leadership role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions under the terms of AB 32 and related energy policies. Their high awareness of climate-related risks, and the accumu lated experience in coping with market risks and changing conditions, also puts California’s energy institutions in a position to play a leadership role on the adaptation front. Adaptive capacity can be increased by broa dening the options for reducing society’s vulnerability and increasing resilience to clim ate variability and change (Moser and Luers 2008). To improve decisionmakers’ ability to cope with and adapt to climate change, three critical dimensions of adaptation must be strengthened: awareness, analytic capacity, and action. In the electricity sector, it is fortunate that all thr ee ingredients - awareness, analytic capacity, and action – have been, and are continuing to be, addressed by public and private entities. Three key agencies – the CEC, the CPUC, and, more recently, ARB – have promoted the awareness of climate change and implications for energy use and demand, improved their analytical capabilities and disseminated the info rmation from these activities, implemented energy policies, and helped to promulgate energy legislation that addresses climate change. The investor-owned utilities which serve most of California’s electricity needs have also been actively promoting the awareness of climate c hange as well as showcasing energy efficiency and renewable energy in their own facilities, as well as supporting educational efforts internally and externally. They have also been developing analytical tools to a ssess the vulnerability of hydropower facilities and the tr ansmission and distribution system to climate change and will be closely examining other aspects of climate change as part of risk management. To date, however, the “adaptation” part of the message to the public has been missing. Perhaps it is premature for the public to get invo lved in adaptation per se, given the amount of mitigation efforts underway that will provide ke y benefits. Given other public priorities, this missed opportunity may only be addressed under certain circumstances: as Wilbanks (2006) point out, adaptation strategies would need to be the greatest in connection with possible increases in the intensity of extreme weather ev ents and possible significant changes in water supply regimes. Unfortunately, when these events and changes occur, it may be too late to implement adaptation strategies that require significant financial resources or that take time to implement. These strategies need to be conducte d well in advance of such events. However, in general, energy efficiency measures and services can be implemented relatively quickly and inexpensively. 25 References Aspen Environmental Group and M.Cubed, Pote ntial Changes in Hydropower Production from Global Climate Change in California and the Western United State, CEC-700-2005-010, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2005. Baldassare, M., D. Bonner, J. Paluch, S. Petek, “PPIC Statewide Survey: Californians and the Environment,” Public Policy of California, San Francisco, California, July 2007. Baxter, L. and K. Calandri, “Global Warming an d Electricity Demand: A Study of California,” Energy Policy Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 233-244, 1992. Bernstein, S., “DWP Scrambles to Gauge Power Needs Before the Next Heat Wave,” Los Angeles Times, August 9, 2006. 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California Energy Commission, The Role of L and Use in Meeting California’s Energy and Climate Change Goals, CEC-600-2007-008-SF, Sacramento, California, 2007a. 26 California Energy Commission, 2006 Integrated Energy Policy Report Update, CEC-100-2006- 001-CMF, Sacramento, California, 2007b. California Energy Commission, Statewide Energy Effi ciency Potential Estimates and Targets for California Utilities, CEC-200-2007-019- SD, Sacramento, California, 2007c. California Energy Commission, 2007 Integrated Energy Policy Report, CEC-100-2007-008-CTF, Sacramento, California, 2007d. California Public Utilities Commission, Opinion Es tablishing California Institute for Climate Solutions, Decision 8-04-049, San Fran cisco, California, April 10, 2008. California State Association of Counties, “Climate Change Policies and Principles,” Sacramento, California, November 2007. Carpenter, T. and K. 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Georgakakos, and H. Yao, “Integrating Climate- Hydrology Forecasts and Multi-objective Reserv oir Management for Northern California,” EOS Vol. 86, No. 12, 2005, p. 122. Hanak, E. and J.R. Lund, Adapting Water Management in California to Climate Change, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2008. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group II, Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Cambridge Un iversity Press, New York, New York, 2007. Jurgens, R., “Outages Identify PG&E’s Limits Af ter Heat Wave Caused 1.2 Million Customers to Lose Power, Experts Assess Utility’s Vulnerabilities,” Contra Costa Times, July 30, 2006. Kovats, R. and K. Ebi, “Heatwaves and Public Health in Europe,” Euro pean Journal of Public Health Vol. 16, pp. 592-599, 2006. LaCommare, K. and J. Eto, Understanding the Cost of Power Interruptions to U.S. Electricity Consumers, LBNL Report 55718, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, 2004. League of California Cities, “L eague Principles for Climate Change,” Climate Change Working Group, Sacramento, California, February 2008. Licata, B., “SB Plan Aims to Reduce Energy Use,” Nexus, UC Santa Barbara, Vol. 88, No. 32, 2007. Lund, J., R. Howitt, M. Jenkins, T. Zhu, S. T anaka, M. Puliddo, M. Tauber, R. Ritzema, and I. Ferreira, Climate Warming and California’s Water Future, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2003. Markoff, M. and A. Cullen, “Impact of Clim ate Change on Pacific Northwest Hydropower,” Climatic Change Vol. 87, pp. 451-469, 2007. Mendelsohn, R., The Impact of Climate Change on Energy Expenditures in California, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2003. Miller, N., J. Lin, K. Hayhoe, and M. Au ffhammer, Climate Change, Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California, CE C-500-2007-023, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, 2007. Mills, E., Personal communication with Evan Mill s, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, June 25, 2008. Moser, S. and A. Luers, “Managing Climate Risks in California: The Need to Engage Resource Managers for Successful Adaptation to Change,” D. Cayan, A. Luers, G. Franco, M. Hanemann, B. Croes, and E. Vine (Eds.), Special Issue: California at a Crossroads: Climate Change Science Informing Policy, Climatic Change, 87 (Supplement 1), pp. S309-S322, 2008. Muñoz, S., “Going Green to Save Some Green,” Wall Street Journal, Sept. 12, 2007. Nemet, G. and D. Kammen, “U.S. Energy Research and Development: Declining Investment, Increasing Need, and the Feasibility of Expansio n,” Energy Policy Vol. 35, pp. 746-755, 2007. 28 Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The Fifth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan, Portland, Oregon, 2005. Palecki, M., S. Changnon, and K. Junkel, “The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Vol 82, pp. 1353-1367, 2001. Pan, Z., M. Segal, R. Arritt, and E. Takle, “On the Potential Change in Solar Radiation Over the US Due to Increases of Atmospheric Greenho use Gases,” Renewable Energy Vol. 29, pp. 1923- 1928, 2004. Rogers, P., “Solar Permit Fees Fall in Bay Area,” San Jose Mercury News, August 19, 2007. San Diego Gas & Electric Company, “SDG&E Expects 97 Percent of Fire-impacted Customers Restored by Nov. 4,” News release, Oct. 27, 2007. Tierney, S., “Adaptation and the Energy Sector ,” National Summit on Coping with Climate Change, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2007. U.S. Geologic Survey, Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000, USGS Circular 1268, U.S. Geologic Survey, Reston, Virginia, 2004. Vanrheenen, N., A. Wood, R. Palmer, and D. Lettenmaier, “Potential Implications of PCM Climate Change Scenarios for Sacramento-S an Joaquin River Basin Hydrology and Water Resources,” Climatic Change Vol. 62, pp. 257-281, 2004. Vine, E. C. Rhee, and K. Lee, “Measurement and Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Programs: California and South Korea,” Energy - The Inte rnational Journal Vol. 31, pp. 1100-1113, 2006. Weisskopf, M., H. Anderson, S. Foldy, L. Hanrahan, K. Blair, T. Torok, and P. Rumm, “Heat Wave Morbidity and Mortality, Milwaukee, Wi s, 1999 vs 1995: An Improved Response,” American Journal of Public Heal th Vol. 92, pp. 830-833, 2002. Wilbanks, T., “Issues in Developing a Capacity for Integrated Analysis of Mitigation and Adaptation,” Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change Vol. 8 (6), pp. 541-547, 2006. Wilbanks, T., V. Bhatt, D. Bilello, S. Bull, J. Ekmann, W. Horak, Y.J. Huang, M. Levine, M. Sale, D. Schmalzer, and M. Scott, Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States, Office of Biological and Enviro nmental Research, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 2007. Yao, H. and A. Georgakakos, “Assessment of Fols om Lake Response to Historical and Potential Future Climate Scenarios: 2. Reservoir Manag ement,” Journal of Hydrology Vol. 249, pp. 176- 196, 2001. 29 About the Author Dr. Edward Vine is a Staff Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and is the Manager of the Environmenta l Program at the California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE). He has over 30 years of experience in evaluating energy-efficiency programs and policies at the local, state, regional, national and international levels. He has published many papers on the evaluation of energy-efficiency programs, technologies, and policy. As one of the authors of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA Board of Directors Thomas C. Sutton, Chair Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Pacific Life Insurance Company Mark Baldassare President and Chief Executive Officer Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and Chief Executive Officer San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Gary K. Hart Former State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Leon E. Panetta Director The Leon & Sylvia Panetta Institute for Public Policy Ki Suh Park Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO CENTER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121 www.ppic.org" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:39:48" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(9) "r_1108evr" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:39:48" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:39:48" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(51) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/R_1108EVR.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }