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object(Timber\Post)#3711 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(13) "R_1208DRR.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "698927" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(62592) "www.ppic.org California’s Future Workforce Will There Be Enough College G raduates? Deborah Reed with research support from Qian Li Supported with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Summary I n PPIC’s California 2025 report, a potential mismatch was highlighted between the level of education the future population is likely to possess and the level of education that will be demanded by the future economy. This study provides further evidence of the future work- force skills gap and discusses the causes, magnitude, and likely consequences of the gap. The workforce skills gap is already a reality in California. In recent decades, the demand for workers with a bachelor’s degree has grown. The share of workers with a college degree increased from 28 percent in 1990 to 34 percent in 2006. Over the same period, the wages of college-educated workers grew substantially, whereas the wages of less-educated workers were relatively stagnant. These conditions characterize an increase in demand for college- educated workers for which growth in supply has not kept pace. Since 1990, there have been relatively small shifts in employment toward industries and occupations that employ higher shares of workers with bachelor’s degrees. More important, the employment of college-educated workers has increased within most industries and occupations. Our analysis shows that if past trends in worker education within and across industries and occupations were to continue, the demand for college-educated workers in 2025 would be equivalent to 41 percent of California workers. We are not projecting a change in demand trends for college-educated workers but rather a change in supply trends. Workers who are currently ages 50 to 64 have the highest levels of college education and these workers will reach retirement age by 2025. Furthermore, the share CORBIS California’s Future Workforce 2 www.ppic.org of Latinos in the working-age population is increasing, and this group has relatively low levels of educational attainment. Also, the migration of college-educated workers from other states and other countries is unlikely to increase future sup - ply growth to levels comparable with past growth. In sum, our analysis shows that the supply of college-educated workers will not meet projected demand. The economic growth of recent decades occurred in a period of substantial growth in the number of workers with a college education. In the coming decades, slower growth in the supply of college-educated workers will be a limiting factor that changes the path of the state’s economic growth. At the same time, the supply of workers with a high school diploma or less is projected to exceed demand. These workers will see an erosion of their compensation and a decline in job opportunities, leading to reduced economic resources for low-income families. Although it would take unprecedented increases in the number of young adults earn- ing bachelor’s degrees to fill the gap, California should look for ways to reduce the size of the gap. Effective reforms and investments today will improve opportunities for California’s workers and create a workforce that will help fuel future economic growth. In the coming decades, slower growth in the supply of college-educated workers will be a limiting factor that changes the path of the state’s economic growth. Please visit the report’s publication page http://www.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=809 to find related resources. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage Projected adult education Projected economic demand California’s troubled future: too many workers without a college education, too few with a college degree in 2020 Some college High school graduate Less than high school graduate College graduate 3 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org Introduction PPIC’s California 2025 report identified the potential gap between the skills that will be demanded by the future economy and the education levels of the future population (Hanak and Baldassare, 2005). In this study, we examine recent trends in the California labor market and show that these projections for the future are a continuation of past labor market conditions. Since 1980, the demand for college-educated workers in the California labor market has grown substantially; so has the supply of such workers, although not as much as demand. (Throughout this report, we use the term “college-educated” to mean people who have completed a bachelor’s degree.)In this report, we revisit and update demand projec- tions, showing that they are not substantially changed by taking into account changes in the labor market since 2000 or by analyzing occupational projections in addition to industry projections. We compare our approach with an alternative approach that uses estimates of employer edu- cation requirements by occupation. We also examine supply responses to growth in the demand for college-educated workers. We find that recent trends in supply growth are not likely to continue. We conclude with a discussion of the potential consequences of the skills mismatch and the importance of investing in improving workforce skills. Economic Demand for College- Educated Workers Has Grown For the last quarter century, the California labor market has experienced rising demand for college-educated work - ers. This growth in demand has driven up the earnings of such workers, whereas the earnings of workers with a high school diploma or less have remained fairly stagnant. In this section, we describe the growth in labor market demand for college-educated workers in the state and nationally by examining trends in the education and wages of workers. Despite the recent period of economic instability and the occasional recessions that have plagued the economy, California has experienced substantial economic and population growth over the past several decades. The state population increased by 57 percent, from 23.8 million people in 1980 to 37.4 million in 2006 (California Depart- ment of Finance, 1998, 2007). Over the same period, the number of adult workers grew by 48 percent, from 9.3 mil- lion to 13.7 million. 1 The number of workers with a college education grew much faster, more than doubling from 2.4 million to 4.7 million. With the rapid growth in the number of college- educated workers, their share in the California economy grew from 25 percent to 34 percent between 1980 and 2006 (Figure 1). Because of changes in the surveys, measured educational attainment in 1980 and earlier is not strictly comparable with that in 1990 and later. Other analysis suggests that growth in the share of workers with a college education between 1980 and 1990 may have been lower than depicted in Figure 1. 2 Relative to the United States as a whole, California workers are slightly more likely to have a college education. However, the growth trends are similar in the state and the nation with a slight closing of the gap in recent years. Col- lege education among all adults in California is less than among workers in California, reflecting the reality that 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage California workers U.S. workers California adults Figure 1. College education has grown substantially in California and the nation 2000 1990 1980 1970 2006 Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: The gure shows the share with a bachelor’s degree (including those with a graduate degree) among workers ages 25 and older and all adults ages 25 to 64. Statistics for 1980 are not strictly comparable to statistics for 1990 (see note 2). California’s Future Workforce 4 www.ppic.org adults with a college education are more likely to work. College education among California adults shows a growth trend since 1970, but the gap between workers and all adults has increased somewhat and was particularly large in 2000 (mainly because adults with less education were less likely to be working in that year than in other years). The trends shown in Figure 1 for college education can also be seen when bachelor’s degrees and graduate degrees are examined separately (Table 1).Growth in the share of workers with a bachelor’s degree, from 25 percent to 34 percent between 1980 and 2006, was not primarily driven by improvements in college attainment for California’s youth. In 1980, 22 percent of young adults who were born in California held a bachelor’s degree. By 2006, this share had increased to only 25 percent. Migration from other states and other countries was the primary source of growth in the college-educated workforce. Among California workers who held a bachelor’s degree in 2006, 33 percent were born in other states and 31 percent were born in other countries. 3 In addition, over this time period Californians reaching retirement age had very low levels of college education. (In 1980, only 22 percent of workers ages 40 and older held a bachelor’s degree.) As these workers retired, they were replaced by young workers and migrants with higher levels of college education. Since 1980, even as the share of workers with a bach- elor’s degree or more education grew, the wages of college- educated workers relative to the wages of workers with only a high school education also grew (Figure 2). 4 The greatest wage growth occurred in the 1990s; the decade concluded with a tremendously strong labor market during the “dot com” boom. In recent years, workers with a bach- elor’s degree have earned wages similar to the high levels achieved in 2000. 5 Workers with high school diplomas or less education have earned lower wages than in 2000. To understand the labor market demand for college- educated workers, economists convert earnings statistics to measures of the college wage premium. The college wage premium is the percentage increase in average earnings related to holding a bachelor’s degree compared with a high school diploma. Since 1980, the college wage premium has increased substantially in California (Figure 3). In 1980, a California man with a bachelor’s degree earned 39 percent more than a similar man with only a high school diploma. By 2006, the difference was 86 percent. The college wage premium also increased for California women and for men and women nationally. The premium for a one-year gradu- ate degree relative to a high school diploma also increased over this period, from about 50 percent in 1980 to more than 100 percent in 2006 (not shown in the figure). Table 1. Bachelor’s and graduate degrees are more common in recent years 1970 198 0 19 9 02000 2006 Bachelor’s degree only (%) California workers 913 18 2122 U.S. workers 812 16 1920 California adults 812 171820 U.S. adults 711 15 1719 Graduate degree (%) California workers 811 10 1213 U.S. workers 69911 12 California adults 710 910 11 U.S. adults 578910 Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: The table shows the share with corresponding degrees among workers ages 25 and older and adults ages 25 to 64. Statistics for 1980 are not strictly comparable with statistics for 1990 (see note 2). 5 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org The trends described here demonstrate the growing demand for college education in the California labor mar- ket. The demand shift is characterized by an increase in the college wage premium occurring over the same period as growth in the share of workers with a college educa- tion. Had the increase in college education been supply- driven, the wage premium would have declined. Indeed, the college wage premium increased because the demand for college-educated workers has grown and the growth in supply has not kept pace. 6 The growth in demand for college-educated workers may have been particularly con- centrated in a subset of college majors. 7 We do not have data to examine trends by college major, but computer science, engineering, and business majors tend to earn more than other majors. These trends are not unique to California. Growth in the college wage premium and, more generally, growth in education premiums at all levels is a national trend. A large body of research has explored the causes, finding several contributing factors, the most important of which are tech- nological change and trade. Technological changes have simultaneously increased the demand for educated workers who can operate sophisticated equipment and reduced the demand for less-educated workers, many of whom have been displaced by automation (Danziger and Gottschalk, 1995; Card and DiNardo, 2002). Growth in international trade has opened international markets for goods and services produced in the United States by educated work- ers in high-tech industries and financial services. Less- educated workers in production are increasingly displaced by low-paid production workers in other countries (Feen- stra, 2000). 8 In addition, institutional changes, such as the 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Average hourly wage ($) Two-year graduate degree Bachelor’s degree Associate’s degree High school diploma 11th grade Figure 2. Wage gaps between education levels have grown Men 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Women 2000 1990 1980 1970 2006 Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: Wages are adjusted for ination to 2007 dollars using the CPI-U-RS. Statistics are regression-adjusted. Statistics for 1980 are not strictly comparable with statistics for 1990 (see note 2). 2000 1990 1980 1970 2006 U.S. women California women U.S. men California men 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 100 Percentage Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: The gure shows the percentage increase in average hourly wage related to attaining a bachelor’s degree relative to attaining only a high school diploma. Statistics for 1980 are not strictly comparable with statistics for 1990 (see note 2). 1970 Figure 3. College wage premium has increased since 1980 1980199020002006 California’s Future Workforce 6 www.ppic.org decline in the real value of the minimum wage (Lee, 1999) and shrinking unionization rates (Freeman, 1993), have led to lower wages for workers with less education. These same factors—technology and trade, as well as institutional changes—have brought about markedly similar labor market changes in California and the nation (Figure 3). The similarity of state and national trends is not surprising in a national labor market where workers and firms are mobile. Fu t u r e G r o w t h i n t h e D e m a n d for College-Educated Workers In this section, we describe the changing industrial and occupational composition of the California economy since 1990, with a particular focus on the employment of college- educated workers. We use projections of the industrial and occupational structure for 2025 to project the demand for college-educated workers if current trends continue. Long-term economic projections are fraught with uncertainty. Major changes in technology, trade, foreign economic development, politics, and other factors can alter the economic growth path in unforeseeable ways (see Neumark, 2005b, for further discussion). The decline in military spending in the late 1980s, the technology boom of the late 1990s, and the recent crises in the hous - ing and financial markets are examples of changes that altered the economic growth path. Our long-term projec - tions for 2025 measure the share of workers with bach - elor’s degrees that would be needed if past trends were to continue. We are not suggesting that these trends will certainly continue; rather, we seek to estimate the share of college-educated workers that would be required to continue the trends. 9 We refer to our projections as estimates of future “economic demand.” We base these projections on growth in the share of bachelor’s degrees since 1990 within major industries and occupations as well as projected changes in the industrial and occupational structure. To the extent that labor market demand is segmented across different college majors, our analysis may overestimate demand shifts by including growth in college majors for which demand did not grow. Nevertheless, over this period the average college wage premium has increased as the demand for college-educated workers has grown and the growth in supply has not kept pace. In other words, at the aggregate level, the growth in the share of workers with bachelor’s degrees since 1990 is likely to be an under- estimate of demand growth because supply was a limiting factor. Below, we argue that our approach provides a more realistic projection of employer demand than do estimates of education and training requirements by occupation. California’s industrial structure can be characterized by employment across large, aggregated industrial sectors. Local and state government (14% of employment in 2006) and retail trade (11%) are the largest industries (Table 2). With the exception of farming, the number of workers employed in each of California’s major industries has grown since 1990 and is projected to grow further by 2025. How- ever, as a share of total employment (as shown in Table 2), durable manufacturing has experienced the greatest decline, from 10 percent of employment in 1990 to only 6 percent in 2006. Accommodation and food services has grown the most, from 4 percent to 8 percent. 10 Increasing demand for college-educated workers can result from shifts in the industrial structure if industries that require more college-educated workers are growing faster than industries that require fewer college-educated workers. Demand can also increase without a change in industrial structure; it can result from shifts in employment within industries, as firms adjust to new technology and to trade opportunities. Shifts in industrial structure between 1990 and 2006 were not large enough to drive the 6 per- centage point increase in employment of college-educated workers (from 28% to 34%). If the employment of workers with bachelor’s degrees had not grown within industries, the shifts in industrial structure would have increased the demand for college-educated workers by less than half a percentage point. In other words, growth in employment of college-educated workers within industries explains most of the growth in the share of college-educated workers. Even if industrial structure had remained unchanged since 1990, 7 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org shifts within industries would have increased the college- educated share by almost 6 percentage points. Economic projections show a continuation of small shifts in industrial structure (as measured for major industries in Table 2). 11 However, if growth in the number of college-educated workers within each industry were to continue, the share of California workers with at least a bachelor’s degree would increase by more than 7 percent- age points, to almost 42 percent in 2025. 12 Similar calcula- tions imply that the share with a graduate degree would increase by almost 3 percentage points to 15.5 percent. The California labor market can also be characterized by occupational structure (Table 3). Office and adminis- trative support occupations employed the largest share of workers in 2006 (17%). With the exception of farming, fish- ing, and forestry, total employment in each of California’s Industry as a Share of State Employment (%) College-Educated Workers Within Industry (%) 19 9 0 2006 202519 9 02006 2025 High-growth industries Administration and support, waste management, remediation 3.76.5 8.314 1721 Accommodation and food services 4.48 .18.215 1516 Health care and social assistance 7.18.8 9.837 4146 Professional and scientific services 4.76.2 7. 252 6787 Construction 4.65.75.913 1110 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 0.41. 61.723 38 57 Education services 1. 51. 8 2 .156 64 74 Other services 2.73.43.316 20 26 Local and state government 13 . 814 . 414 . 3 465259 Finance, insurance 3.64.2 3.832 46 64 Slow-growth industries Information 3.43.2 3.336 50 67 Real estate 1. 81. 8 1.734 3640 Mining 0.30 .10 .123 2424 Transportation, warehousing 3.02.92.816 16 15 Wholesale trade 4.84.44.424 28 34 Utilities 0.70.40.322 2836 Management of companies 2.01. 51. 556 60 66 Federal employees 3.61.71. 328 3646 Farm workers 4.02.4 1. 610 10 11 Nondurable manufacturing 5.23.72.719 22 25 Retail trade 14 . 510.910. 8 1622 30 Durable manufacturing 10. 26.44.926 34 44 Totals and economy-wide averages 10 010 010 0 2834 42 Sources: Author’s calculations based on industrial employment and projections from the California Employment Development Department (EDD) and on education and industrial employment from the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: High-growth industries are those that are growing as a share of overall employment between 1990 and 2025. Slow-growth industries are mostly growing industries but are declining as a share of overall employment. Totals may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding. For a description of industry categories, see www.census.gov/epcd/www/naics.html. Table 2. College education increased in most industries California’s Future Workforce 8 www.ppic.org Table 3. College education increased in most occupations Occupation as a Share of State Employment (%) College-Educated Workers Within Occupation (%) 19 9 0 2006 202519 9 02006 2025 High-growth occupations Construction and maintenance 3.85.8 67 76 Computer and mathematical science 1. 22.5 3.365 69 75 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance 1.93.8 3.9 456 Business operations 1.12.6 3.0315380 Transportation and material moving 4.96.6 6.7 887 Education, training, and library 5.46.0 6.978 77 76 Health care practitioner and technical 3.33.84.3 5964 70 Community and social services 0.51. 31.464 63 61 Personal care and service 2 .13.0 3.010 1522 Management 5.66.4 6.44254 70 Health care support 1.92 .12.6 1216 21 Food preparation and service 6.87. 27. 4 710 13 Protective service 1.92.2 2.320 2633 Legal 0.60.8 0.882 79 75 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media 2.52.5 2.648 60 74 Slow-growth occupations Extraction 0 .1006 20 Installation, maintenance, and repair 3.53.43.4 710 14 Life, physical, and social science 1. 31.0 1.164 8610 0 Sales and related 10. 510. 3 10 .1 283339 Architecture and engineering 2.92 .12.0 59 7084 Financial operations 2.81.71. 855 67 81 Farming, fishing, and forestry 3.61.91.4 730 Office and administrative support 19. 416 . 6 14 . 5 161924 Production 12.66.35.1 6810 Totals and economy-wide averages 10 010 010 0 2834 41 Sources: Author’s calculations based on occupational employment and projections from the California EDD and on education and occupational employment from the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: High-growth occupations are those that are growing as a share of overall employment between 1990 and 2025. Slow-growth occupations are mostly growing but are declining as a share of overall employment. Totals may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding. For a description of occupation categories, see www.bls.gov/soc/. 9 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org major occupations has grown since 1990 and is projected to grow further by 2025. However, as a share of total employ - ment, production occupations have experienced the greatest decline, from 13 percent of employment in 1990 to only 6 percent in 2006. 13 Building and grounds cleaning and main- tenance has grown the most, from 2 percent to 4 percent. The occupational employment shifts between 1990 and 2006 explain relatively little (about 1 percentage point) of the 6 percentage point growth (from 28% to 34%) in the share of college-educated workers in California. 14 The shift toward college-educated workers within most occupations explains the bulk of the growth in employment of these workers (about 5 percentage points). Economic projections show a continued small shift in occupational structure by 2025, but if growth in the employment of college-educated workers within occupa- tions were to continue, the share of California workers with at least a bachelor’s degree would increase by almost 7 percentage points, to 41 percent. Similar calculations imply that the share with postgraduate degrees would increase by almost 3 percentage points, to 15.5 percent. The industry and occupation projections lead to simi - lar results: If recent trends were to continue, labor market demand for college-educated workers would be as high as 41 percent of California workers in 2025. Our projections of demand for college-educated workers lead to very different conclusions than do estimates of employer needs derived from employer “education and training requirements” from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). According to BLS esti - mates of employer education requirements by occupation, the share of college-educated workers needed in the Cali - fornia economy in 2025 would be only 27 percent. 15 The two measures are conceptually different. The BLS-based approach considers whether employers need college-educated workers to staff positions. Our measure considers whether employers are choosing workers with bachelor’s degrees. For example, for supervisors of administrative workers, the BLS reports that employers require work experience but no formal postsecondary education for entry-level positions. We find that about 23 percent of workers in this occupation in California (and nationally) have bachelor’s degrees. How do we know that this presence of workers with bachelor’s degrees represents economic demand rather than simply overtrained workers? Employers are paying college-educated workers in this occupation 49 percent more than they pay workers with only high school diplomas (see Table 4, row 7). Employers are willing to pay more because these workers are more productive. For the economy to be at its most produc - tive and efficient, growth in supply should meet projected growth in demand rather than “training requirements” as reported by BLS. 16 Analysis of college wage premiums demonstrates that the growth in the share of college-educated workers within occupations is demand-driven. Table 4 reports growth in the share of workers with bachelor’s degrees and growth in the college wage premiums for nine of the highest-employment occupations for which the BLS reports that bachelor’s degrees are not required. 17 In all of these occupations except car- pentry, there has been growth in both the share of college- educated workers and in the college wage premium. The wage premium is highest and has grown the most in the three occupations for which the BLS estimates the highest skill needs (“work experience” demonstrates higher skill need than “on the job training” (OJT)). In these nine occupations combined, college-educated workers earned 94 percent more than workers with only high school diplomas in Office and administrative support occupations employed the largest share of workers in 2006. CORBIS California’s Future Workforce 10 www.ppic.org the share of workers with a college education for a wide variety of occupational groupings. We conclude from this that growth in the share of workers with bachelor’s degrees represents a fairly widespread increase in demand. D e m a n d f o r C o l l e g e - E d u c a t e d Workers Will Not Be Met We have shown that if recent trends persist, about 41 percent of workers in the California economy in 2025 would need a bachelor’s degree (Table 3). This represents a 7 percentage point increase over the college-educated share in 2006 (34%). It would mean continuing the growth trend experienced between 1990 and 2006, when the share of workers with a college education increased from 28 percent to 34 percent. Projections of educational attainment for the California working-age population suggest that the share with a college education will increase from 28 percent in 2000 to only 2006. This very high college wage premium reflects the premium within each occupation and especially the greater concentration of college-educated workers in the highest- paying occupations (e.g., registered nursing). More generally, in the aggregated occupational cat- egories for which the BLS reports that bachelor’s degrees are not required, the share of workers with college degrees was very low in 1990—12 percent (penultimate row of Table 4). 18 Over the following 16 years, the share of workers with college degrees increased relatively little, reaching 14 percent in 2006, and the college wage premium increased by only 14 percentage points (from 36% to 50%). These changes demonstrate an increase in demand for work- ers with a bachelor’s degree even within occupations with lower skill requirements as measured by the BLS. However, the demand increases were much greater when measured across the entire economy (Table 4, final row). Our analysis shows that increases in college wage premiums occurred over the same period as growth in BLS r equirement Workers with a Bachelor’s Degree (%) College Wage Premium (%) 2000 19 9 02006 19 9 02006 Janitors and cleaners 30 day OJT34612 Carpenters 12 month OJT6513 3 Cashiers 30 day OJT812 30 31 Waiters and waitresses 30 day OJT915 23 31 Office clerks 30 day OJT1418 718 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 1–12 month OJT1516 1319 Supervisors of administrative support workers Work experience2123 23 49 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing Work experience374554 69 Registered nurses Associate degree5163 5575 All of above, combined Less than a bachelor’s degree1924 6994 Aggregate occupations not requiring a bachelor’s degree, combined Less than a bachelor’s degree 121436 50 All occupations All2834 60 86 Sources: Author’s calculations based on education and wages from the 1990 decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Table 4. The college wage premium has grown within “non-college” occupations 11 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org 33 percent in 2020 (Johnson, 2005). For comparison, eco- nomic projections (similar to those in this report) suggest that 39 percent of workers will need a bachelor’s degree in 2020 (Neumark, 2005a). Taken together, these results imply a workforce skills gap between the projected demand of the future economy and the projected education of the future workforce, as shown in the fourth set of bars in Figure 4. 19 The projected workforce skills gap results from a continuation of growth trends in the demand for college- educated workers combined with a slowdown in the growth of the share of college-educated adults in the population. One reason for the slowdown is that California adults in their late 50s are among the best-educated adults in the state: 34 percent have a bachelor’s degree. 20 The retirement of these workers will put a damper on growth in worker educational attainment. In contrast, California adults who reached retirement age between 1990 and 2006 were among the least-educated adults in the state, and their retirement contributed to improvements in the overall educational attainment of workers (Figure 5, solid lines). A second reason for the slowdown in the share of college- educated adults is the low number of Latinos earning bach - elor’s degrees, because this group makes up a growing share of the working-age population in California. The share of Latinos with a bachelor’s degree increased from 7 percent in 1990 to 10 percent in 2006 and is projected to reach only 12 percent in 2020. Despite these improvements, Latinos will continue to have the lowest college-education levels of any of the major racial and ethnic groups in California. Over this period, Latino education is an increasingly important factor in overall education levels. Latinos grew from 22 percent of the working-age population in 1990 to 29 percent in 2006 and are projected to grow to 40 percent by 2020. 21 Migration is unlikely to be able to fill the gap between the projected economic demand and the supply of college- educated workers. To meet the projected demand for college-educated workers in 2025, migration would need to increase to almost 160,000 college-educated workers annually and to remain at that level for 20 years (Figure 6). Since 2000, international immigration has brought an annual average of 56,000 college graduates to California. 22 However, during this period, more college graduates left California for other states than arrived from other states. This is likely the first time in its history that California has sustained net out-migration of college graduates. Out- migration of college-educated workers since 2000 has been driven, in part, by high housing costs in the state and that may be temporary. 23 Nevertheless, even if California were to return to 1980 levels of net in-migration of college-educated adults from other states, migration would not come close to filling the projected gap between supply and demand. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage Projected adult education Projected economic demand Figure 4. The projected demand for college-educated workers exceeds the projected supply in 2020 Some college High school graduate Less than high school graduate College graduate Sources: Johnson (2005) for population projections and Neumark (2005a) for economic projections. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage with a bachelor’s degree 2020 2006 1990 Figure 5. College education is highest among older adults 55–59 50–54 45–49 40–44 35–39 30–34 25–29 60–64 Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Note: The gure shows actual values for 1990 and 2006 and a hypothetical scenario for 2020. California’s Future Workforce 12 www.ppic.org Thus, to meet the projected gap through increased edu- cational attainment of young workers, college completion would need to increase to about 50 percent immediately. Such a large and immediate gain is not attainable; this rough calculation is simply meant to demonstrate the mag- nitude of change that would be required. A forthcoming study from PPIC will examine more realistic scenarios for increasing the production of bachelor’s degrees (Johnson and Sengupta, forthcoming, 2009). W h a t A r e t h e I m p l i c a t i o n s? In sum, our analysis shows that the supply of college- educated workers will not be able to expand enough to meet projected demand. Our projected demand is simply the continuation of current trends. Thus, our results suggest that current trends will not continue because the supply of college-educated workers will not grow as rapidly as in past decades. Faced with this skills gap, the economy will adjust. As we have shown, the demand for college-educated workers has outpaced supply since the 1980s. In the future, we can expect to see some of the same adjustments that occurred in recent decades, although they are likely to be magnified because growth in the supply of college-educated workers will become more limited. The economy adjusts through changes in wages, unemployment, and underemployment. The supply of workers with a high school diploma or less is projected to exceed the demand for such workers. These workers will see an erosion of their wages or other com- pensation, as in the 1980s (Figure 2) or a decline in job opportunities leading to unemployment and underemploy- ment, as in the 1990s. 25 These trends have serious implica- tions for the resources available to low-income families and the demands on the state for social programs. For workers with a college degree, growth in demand will continue to drive up wages (as in the 1980s and 1990s) and will encourage greater entry into the labor market. 26 This will increase the resources of higher-income families and drive up economic inequality in the state. Indeed, Substantial changes in domestic migration and inter- national immigration that would be needed to fill the gap are not likely. The growth in the college wage premium is a national trend (Figure 3), and California will be compet- ing with other states for college-educated domestic and international migrants. Moreover, a major expansion of international migration is unlikely in light of fairly restric- tive federal immigration policy and the increasing global competition for skilled labor. Finally, even with significant expansions in California higher education, the college-education gap is too large to fill. A rough calculation provides a sense of the magni- tude of increase that would be required to meet an overall college-education level of 39 percent by 2020. In 2006, only 29 percent of young workers between the ages of 25 and 29 held a bachelor’s degree. Suppose that the college-education rate for young workers were to jump to 50 percent, beginning with young adults reaching age 25 in 2009 and remaining at that level through 2020. Under this hypothetical scenario, by 2020, 50 percent of California workers ages 25 to 36 would hold a bachelor’s degree. Figure 5 shows this scenario for 2020, using the Johnson projections for adults over the age of 36.24 Overall, for workers ages 25 to 64, under this scenario 38 percent would hold a bachelor’s degree in 2020. 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 200 –20 Annual in-migration of working-age adults with bachelor’s degrees (1000s) Domestic migration (net) International immigration Figure 6. Past migration trends fall far short of annual migration needed to meet the supply/demand gap in 2025 2000–2005 1995–2000 1985–1990 Gap Source: Johnson and Reed (2007). Notes: The gure shows the annual net migration of workers with bachelor’s degrees that would be required to ll the supply/demand gap by 2025 relative to past annual migration trends of working-age adults (ages 25 to 64). 13 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org growth in the education wage premium has been one of the most important factors in explaining the rise in income inequality in California in past decades (Reed, 1999). Our projections of economic need were developed by considering “if recent trends continue.” Our analysis shows that recent trends will not continue. The economic growth path that California has experienced since 1980 has been fueled by substantial growth in college education among workers. In the coming decades, the lack of college- educated workers will be a limiting factor that changes the path of the state’s economic growth. 27 If the economy cannot continue the recent trends, there are important implications for state and local plan- ning. Policymakers plan and prepare for the future based on expectations and projections of future employment, income, government revenues, and demands for govern- ment services. The projections generally rely on some form of the assumption “if recent trends continue.” Our results suggest that recent trends cannot continue because the supply of college-educated workers will not expand as rapidly as in past decades. Thus, the projections that form the basis of government planning should be reconsidered to take into account constraints imposed by more limited growth in the college-educated workforce. What Can Be Done? We have shown that growth in the supply of college- educated workers will not keep pace with the demand for such workers. Public policy clearly has a role to play in improving access and success in college attendance and graduation. Although rising compensation levels will reward people for making their own investments in college, the public system plays a major role. Most Cali- fornians prepare for college in the public K–12 system. A majority who enter college do so through the public community colleges. Most bachelor’s degree students in California attend a public institution. 28 The scope for improvement in public investments is broad. Increasing the number of workers with bachelor’s degrees includes improving graduation rates, reducing time to graduation, and/or expanding the public university sys- tem (Johnson and Sengupta, 2009). 29 It will also be impor- tant to improve transfer rates and transferable credits from community colleges (Sengupta and Jepsen, 2006). Atten- tion should also be focused on the earlier years of educa- tional training and achievement. The quality of education in the public K–12 system is a precursor to success in college, including the availability of college-preparatory courses in high schools (Conley, 2006). Even preschool has been shown to improve rates of college attendance (Karoly, Kilburn, and Cannon, 2005). Although the focus of this study is bachelor’s degrees, this is clearly not the only realm for investment in work- force skills. California wage trends show a rising premium for education at all levels (Figure 2). Other research has shown that these trends are related not only to formal edu- cation but also to labor market experience and other skills, leading to a broad consensus that there has been and will continue to be a growing demand for skilled workers (Hil- ton, 2008; Welch, 2001). Furthermore, even with projected demand for bachelor’s degrees at the level of 41 percent in 2025, the majority of jobs will not require bachelor’s degrees. Improving the skills of workers who do not attend or complete college is a key component of workforce devel- opment. At the other end of the spectrum, the economy is also experiencing growth in demand for graduate and pro- fessional education. Growth in the supply of workers with education beyond a bachelor’s degree has also been limited and is likely to be even more limited in the future for all the same reasons explored here for a bachelor’s degree. The economy of the future requires a skilled workforce. As demand has shifted toward college-educated workers, growth in the supply of such workers has not kept pace. Our projections suggest that growth in supply will be even more constrained in the future. Effective reforms and investments today will create a workforce that will help fuel future economic growth and bestow many additional economic and social benefits on the people and state of California. ● California’s Future Workforce 14 www.ppic.org Notes 1 Estimates of working population and education are based on the author’s calculations from U.S. Census Bureau data. Throughout the text, we examine workers ages 25 and older. We compare workers to the adult population of prime working age (ages 25 to 64). For brevity, we use “2006” to refer to data from the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). 2 The 1970 and 1980 decennial Census asked respondents about completed years of education. We treat 16 years completed as a bachelor’s degree. Starting in 1990, the decennial Census asked respondents about completed degrees. Survey changes may overstate the growth in bachelor’s degree attainment. An alter - native data source, the Current Population Survey (CPS, March files), consistently asked respondents about completed years of education and shows slower growth in the share with a bachelor’s degree between 1980 and 1990. Using the CPS, we verified that the change in the survey education questions between 1980 and 1990 appears to have had no substantial effect on the estimated wage premium for a bachelor’s degree relative to a high school diploma (shown in Figure 3 with estimates from the decennial Census). 3 See Johnson and Reed (2007) for a study of migration and education in California. 4 Figure 2 shows an average hourly wage based on predictions from ordinary least squares regressions. The regressions are estimated separately by sex and by calendar year for a total of 10 regressions. The dependent variable is the natural log of hourly wage. Education is included as piecewise linear (a dummy for less than a high school diploma and linear years of schooling for less than high school, a dummy for some college and linear years of schooling for some college, and a dummy for a bach- elor’s degree and linear years of schooling beyond a bachelor’s degree). The model controls for a quartic in potential experience (age less years of education less 6), indicators for five racial/ ethnic groups, and an indicator for foreign-born. Predictions are calculated for a person with 15 years of experience at the 2006- based average of all other characteristics. The estimated wage premiums reported in Figure 3 do not necessarily measure a purely causal effect of education. However, estimation strategies that attempt to identify causal effects also find high and rising college wage premiums (Card, 2001). 5 In real terms, average annual earnings actually fell about 7 percent for California men with a bachelor’s degree, from $83,500 to $76,900. However, average hourly wages (calculated as annual earnings divided by the product of weeks worked and usual hours per week) were very similar in the two years: $44.98 in 2000 and $44.92 in 2006. Over this period, there was a small decline in the number of hours of work. 6 Unemployment and reduced labor force participation also reflect economic demand and worker responses to economic demand. In 2006, unemployment among workers with a high school diploma but no college education was 4.8 percent, whereas among workers with a bachelor’s degree, unemployment was 2.8 percent. In that same year, 28 percent of adults with only a high school diploma did not participate in the workforce, whereas among adults with a bachelor’s degree, the share not participating was 19 percent. 7 See U.S. Department of Education (1998) and Hammermesh and Donald (2008) for studies of earnings by college major. 8 Immigration has played a relatively small role in the growth of education wage premiums. Estimates differ, but even larger esti- mates of the effect of immigration suggest that it has been small relative to the growth in the wage premium shown in Figure 3 (Peri, 2007; Borjas, 2003). 9 One approach to validating projections is to determine whether the same analysis, if done 10 or 20 years earlier, would have pro- vided a realistic view of recent trends. Unfortunately, the lack of historic projections and changes in industry and occupation codes prevent us from doing this validation. However, the trends in Figure 1 are fairly consistent with our projection method in the following sense. Our projections are based on a linear extrapola - tion of changes within industry and occupation, combined with structural changes in industry and occupation distributions. Because the structural changes have been relatively small, our projections result in nearly linear growth in the share of workers with a bachelor’s degree. Structural changes were also relatively small in the 1970s and 1980s and, as shown in Figure 1, the growth in the share has been fairly consistent across decades. 10 The industrial and occupational patterns described in this sec- tion appear to be similar for the period 1980 to 1990. However, because of differences in industry and occupation codes in the 1980 Census, we begin our analysis with 1990. 11 Economic projections are from the California Employment Development Department (EDD) for 2004–2014. We use EDD projections because of the availability of information on both industrial and occupational employment. We aggregate to the major industry and occupation categories as shown in Tables 2 and 3. Calculations based on industry projections from the Cali- 15 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org fornia Department of Transportation lead to similar conclusions (Johnson and Reed, 2007). Employment by industry and espe- cially by occupation does not match perfectly between the EDD data and Census Bureau survey data. For consistent EDD-based employment, we use EDD projections to calculate a constant annual growth rate by industry or occupation between 2004 and 2014 and apply that rate to generate employment in 2006 and 2025. For 1990, we use the 2006 EDD-based estimate and adjust by the change in employment share between 1990 and 2006 as measured in Census Bureau data. 12 We calculate educational demand in 2025 for each industry (or occupation) by applying the same annual percentage point change in share as exhibited for that industry (or occupation) between 1990 and 2006. We calculate the change in economy- wide educational needs using industry shares based on EDD data. The estimated economy-wide change is added to the Census Bureau–based education levels for workers (as shown in Table 1) to calculate the projected share of college-educated workers in 2025. See Neumark (2005b) for further details on these methods. 13 Production occupations include assemblers of machinery and equipment, food processing workers, metal workers, machin- ists, textile workers, wood workers, plant operators, and other occupations. 14 We use the aggregated occupations in Table 3 to perform these calculations. If occupations were defined at a finer level (as in Table 4), we would expect to see a larger effect of changes in occupational structure. However, we did not analyze this directly because detailed occupation codes are not comparable in 1990 and 2006. A similar discussion applies to industrial structure. 15 Estimates are based on author’s calculations from occupa- tional projections by the California EDD. See California Post- secondary Education Commission (2006) for an analysis that uses the BLS-based approach to measure future education and training needs. 16 In addition, there are several problems with using the BLS esti- mates of employer requirements to measure future needs. First, the BLS reports only one level of required qualifications for entry into an occupation. Employer needs are likely to differ across specific positions, firms, and industries and for entry-level versus more advanced positions. To address this, the BLS has introduced a second set of training requirements, based on the education levels of current workers in the occupation, similar to the method used in this study (see www.bls.gov/emp/optd/optd001.pdf ). In addition, the training requirements approach does not incorpo - rate the potential need for upgrading of skills in the future. 17 The nine occupations in Table 4 were selected from the larg- est California occupations for which consistent occupational codes are available in the 1990 Census and the 2006 American Community Survey. To maintain substantial samples in estimat- ing wage premiums for specific occupations in Table 4, wage regressions combined genders with an intercept-shift for males. For consistency, this approach was applied to all regressions reported in Table 4. In all other ways, the regressions were esti- mated as for Figure 3. 18 The aggregated occupations included here are those listed in Table 3 for which less than 35 percent of workers in 2006 held a bachelor’s degree. Within these aggregated occupations, there were only five specific sub-occupations for which the BLS reported that a bachelor’s degree was required. These five occu- pations were removed from the analysis reported in Table 4. 19 In this section, we focus on estimates for 2020 because educa- tion projections for the adult population in 2025 are not available. 20 The phenomenon is not restricted to California. Among U.S.- born white males nationwide, those ages 55 to 59 are the most likely to have graduated from college. Men in their late 50s were of prime draft age during the Vietnam War, and it is likely that some of them considered college an attractive alternative to military service in Vietnam. 21 Latino shares are based on California Department of Finance estimates and projections (1998, 2007). A higher share of U.S.-born Latinos hold a bachelor’s degree: 11 percent in 1990 and 16 percent in 2006. 22 Among recent international immigrants to California, about 41 percent have a bachelor’s degree. 23 In 1998, only 7 percent of college-educated workers who left California in the previous year cited a housing-related reason for leaving, compared with 27 percent in 2006. Housing-related reasons include the attractions of cheaper housing, new or better housing, owning rather than renting, wanting a better neighbor- hood, and establishing one’s own household. Job-related reasons remained the dominant response even in 2006 (37% overall). See Johnson and Reed (2007). 24 Johnson (2005) projects increases in the education of older workers based on patterns since 1990. California’s Future Workforce 16 www.ppic.org References Borjas, George J., “The Labor Demand Curve Is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Ma rket ,” Quarterly Journal of Economics , Vol. 118, No. 4, 2003, pp. 1335–1374. Brady, Henry, Michael Hout, and Jon Stiles, Return on Invest- ment: Educational Choices and Demographic Change in Califor- nia’s Future , University of California, Berkeley, December 2005. California Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970–1989 , 1998, available at www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/Data/DRUdatafiles.php. California Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 2000–2050, 2007, available at www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/Data/DRUdatafiles.php. California Postsecondary Education Commission, The Nexus Between Postsecondary Education and Workforce Development: A Workforce and Employer Perspective , December 2006, avail- able at www.cpec.ca.gov/completereports/2006reports/06-19.pdf. Card, David, “Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems,” Econometrica , Vol. 69, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1127–1160. Card, David, and John E. DiNardo, “Skill-Based Technological Change and Rising Wage Inequality: Some Problems and Puzzles,” Journal of Labor Economics , Vol. 20, October 2002, pp. 733–783. Conley, David T., “What We Must Do to Create a System That Prepares Students for College Success,” Policy Perspective Series , WestEd, 2006, available at www.wested.org/online_ pubs/pp-06-01.pdf. Danziger, Sheldon, and Peter Gottschalk, America Unequal , Russell Sage Foundation and Harvard University Press, New York and Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1995. Feenstra, Robert C., ed., The Impact of International Trade on Wa g e s , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 2000. Fountain, Robert, and Marcia Cosgrove, Keeping California’s Edge: The Growing Demand for Highly Educated Workers , California Business Roundtable and the Campaign for College Opportunity, Sacramento, California, 2006. 25 These adjustments can increase the share of college-educated workers if workers with low education are unemployed, decide not to work, or leave the state. 26 The economic adjustments will increase the college wage premium, providing incentives for workers to invest in higher education and migrants to come to California. However, our analysis in the previous section shows that these responses are not likely to be great enough to meet the projected demand. The economy will adjust so that supply equals demand, but it will likely result in less than 41 percent of the workforce having a college education. 27 Fountain and Cosgrove (2006) use production models to con- clude that limited economic attainment of the California work- force will lead to reduced employee compensation and overall loss of production in affected industries as well as to reductions in consumption and state and local tax revenues. 28 In 2005, 76 percent of people graduating from a California college with a bachelor’s degree attended a public college or university (Johnson and Reed, 2007). 29 Brady, Hout, and Stiles (2005) estimate the broader social returns to investments in college education in California. 17 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org Freeman, Richard B., “How Much Has De-Unionization Contrib - uted to the Rise in Male Earnings Inequality?” in Sheldon Danziger and Peter Gottschalk, eds., Uneven Tides: Rising Inequality in America , Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1993, pp. 133–163. Hammermesh, Daniel S., and Stephen G. Donald, “The Effect of College Curriculum on Earnings: An Affinity Identifier for Non-Ignorable Non-Response Bias,” working paper, University of Texas at Austin, 2008, available at www.eco.utexas.edu/ faculty/Hamermesh/LANonResponse.pdf. Hanak, Ellen, and Mark Baldassare, eds., California 2025: Taking on the Future , Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2005. Hilton, Margaret, Research on Future Skill Demands: A Workshop Summary , National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2008, available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12066#toc. Johnson, Hans P., “California’s Population in 2025,” in Ellen Hanak and Mark Baldassare, eds., California 2025: Taking on the Future , Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2005. Johnson, Hans P., and Deborah Reed, “Can California Import Enough College Graduates to Meet Workforce Needs?” Califor - nia Counts , Vol. 8, No. 4, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, May 2007. Johnson, Hans P., and Ria Sengupta, Higher Education Capacity in California (tentative title), Public Policy Institute of Califor- nia, San Francisco, California, forthcoming in 2009. Karoly, Lynn A., Rebecca M. Kilburn, and Jill S. Cannon, Early Childhood Interventions: Proven Results, Future Promise , RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 2005, available at www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG341/. Lee, David S., “Wage Inequality in the United States During the 1980s: Rising Dispersion or Falling Minimum Wage?” Quarterly Journal of Economics , Vol. 114, No. 3, 1999, pp. 977–1023. Neumark, David, “California’s Economic Future and Infrastruc- ture Challenges,” in Ellen Hanak and Mark Baldassare, eds., California 2025: Taking on the Future , Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2005a. Neumark, David, “California’s Economic Future and Infrastruc- ture Challenges,” Occasional Paper, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2005b. Peri, Giovanni, “How Immigrants Affect California Employ- ment and Wages,” California Counts , Vol. 8, No. 3, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, February 2007. Reed, Deborah, California’s Rising Income Inequality: Causes and Concerns , Public Policy Institute of California, San Fran- cisco, California, 1999. Sengupta, Ria, and Christopher Jepsen, “California’s Commu- nity College Students,” California Counts , Vol. 8, No. 2, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, Novem- ber 2006. U.S. Department of Education, The Condition of Education , 1998, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES 98-013), Washington, D.C., 1998. Welch, Finis, ed., The Causes and Consequences of Increasing Inequality , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 2001. California’s Future Workforce 18 www.ppic.org About the Author Deborah Reed is an associate director of research and a senior fellow at PPIC. She was previously PPIC’s director of research and the first recipient of the Thomas C. Sutton Chair in Policy Research. She has research expertise in poverty, income inequality, education, and labor markets in California. Her recent publications include studies of California’s future workforce needs, poverty measurement, and intergenerational progress among immigrants. Before joining PPIC, she was an adjunct professor of economics at the University of Michigan and a consultant for the World Bank. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from Yale. Acknowledgments Qian Li provided valuable research support for this project. The author acknowledges the helpful reviews of Julian Betts, Gary Bjork, Murray Haberman, Hans Johnson, David Neumark, and Lynette Ubois. 19 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org Board of Directors THOMAS C. S UT TON, CHAIRRetired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Pacific Life Insurance Company MAR k B ALDASSAREPresident and Chief Executive Officer Public Policy Institute of California RUBEN B ARRALES President and Chief Executive Officer San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce GAR y k . HARTFormer State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California WALTER B. H EWLET TDirector Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities DONNA L UCASChief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs LEON E. P ANET TA Director The Leon & Sylvia Panetta Institute for Public Policy kI SUH P ARkDesign and Managing Partner Gruen Associates CONSTANCE L. R ICECo-Director The Advancement Project RAyMOND L. W ATSONVice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company CAROL W HITESIDEPresident Emeritus Great Valley Center PPIC is a private, nonprofit organization. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. Copyright © 2008 by Public Policy Institute of California. All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the above copyright notice is included. Research publications reflect the views of the authors and not necessarily those of the staff, officers, or the Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available for this publication. ISBN 978-1-58213-133-7 PUBLIC P OLICy INSTITUTE OF C ALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 ● San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone 415.291.4400 ● Fax 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO C ENTER Senator Office Building ● 1121 L Street, Suite 801 ● Sacramento, California 95814 Telephone 916.440.1120 ● Fax 916.440.1121 Additional resources related to education policy are available at www.ppic.org. The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research." } ["___content":protected]=> string(104) "

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Deborah Reed with research support from Qian Li Supported with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Summary I n PPIC’s California 2025 report, a potential mismatch was highlighted between the level of education the future population is likely to possess and the level of education that will be demanded by the future economy. This study provides further evidence of the future work- force skills gap and discusses the causes, magnitude, and likely consequences of the gap. The workforce skills gap is already a reality in California. In recent decades, the demand for workers with a bachelor’s degree has grown. The share of workers with a college degree increased from 28 percent in 1990 to 34 percent in 2006. Over the same period, the wages of college-educated workers grew substantially, whereas the wages of less-educated workers were relatively stagnant. These conditions characterize an increase in demand for college- educated workers for which growth in supply has not kept pace. Since 1990, there have been relatively small shifts in employment toward industries and occupations that employ higher shares of workers with bachelor’s degrees. More important, the employment of college-educated workers has increased within most industries and occupations. Our analysis shows that if past trends in worker education within and across industries and occupations were to continue, the demand for college-educated workers in 2025 would be equivalent to 41 percent of California workers. We are not projecting a change in demand trends for college-educated workers but rather a change in supply trends. Workers who are currently ages 50 to 64 have the highest levels of college education and these workers will reach retirement age by 2025. Furthermore, the share CORBIS California’s Future Workforce 2 www.ppic.org of Latinos in the working-age population is increasing, and this group has relatively low levels of educational attainment. Also, the migration of college-educated workers from other states and other countries is unlikely to increase future sup - ply growth to levels comparable with past growth. In sum, our analysis shows that the supply of college-educated workers will not meet projected demand. The economic growth of recent decades occurred in a period of substantial growth in the number of workers with a college education. In the coming decades, slower growth in the supply of college-educated workers will be a limiting factor that changes the path of the state’s economic growth. At the same time, the supply of workers with a high school diploma or less is projected to exceed demand. These workers will see an erosion of their compensation and a decline in job opportunities, leading to reduced economic resources for low-income families. Although it would take unprecedented increases in the number of young adults earn- ing bachelor’s degrees to fill the gap, California should look for ways to reduce the size of the gap. Effective reforms and investments today will improve opportunities for California’s workers and create a workforce that will help fuel future economic growth. In the coming decades, slower growth in the supply of college-educated workers will be a limiting factor that changes the path of the state’s economic growth. Please visit the report’s publication page http://www.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=809 to find related resources. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage Projected adult education Projected economic demand California’s troubled future: too many workers without a college education, too few with a college degree in 2020 Some college High school graduate Less than high school graduate College graduate 3 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org Introduction PPIC’s California 2025 report identified the potential gap between the skills that will be demanded by the future economy and the education levels of the future population (Hanak and Baldassare, 2005). In this study, we examine recent trends in the California labor market and show that these projections for the future are a continuation of past labor market conditions. Since 1980, the demand for college-educated workers in the California labor market has grown substantially; so has the supply of such workers, although not as much as demand. (Throughout this report, we use the term “college-educated” to mean people who have completed a bachelor’s degree.)In this report, we revisit and update demand projec- tions, showing that they are not substantially changed by taking into account changes in the labor market since 2000 or by analyzing occupational projections in addition to industry projections. We compare our approach with an alternative approach that uses estimates of employer edu- cation requirements by occupation. We also examine supply responses to growth in the demand for college-educated workers. We find that recent trends in supply growth are not likely to continue. We conclude with a discussion of the potential consequences of the skills mismatch and the importance of investing in improving workforce skills. Economic Demand for College- Educated Workers Has Grown For the last quarter century, the California labor market has experienced rising demand for college-educated work - ers. This growth in demand has driven up the earnings of such workers, whereas the earnings of workers with a high school diploma or less have remained fairly stagnant. In this section, we describe the growth in labor market demand for college-educated workers in the state and nationally by examining trends in the education and wages of workers. Despite the recent period of economic instability and the occasional recessions that have plagued the economy, California has experienced substantial economic and population growth over the past several decades. The state population increased by 57 percent, from 23.8 million people in 1980 to 37.4 million in 2006 (California Depart- ment of Finance, 1998, 2007). Over the same period, the number of adult workers grew by 48 percent, from 9.3 mil- lion to 13.7 million. 1 The number of workers with a college education grew much faster, more than doubling from 2.4 million to 4.7 million. With the rapid growth in the number of college- educated workers, their share in the California economy grew from 25 percent to 34 percent between 1980 and 2006 (Figure 1). Because of changes in the surveys, measured educational attainment in 1980 and earlier is not strictly comparable with that in 1990 and later. Other analysis suggests that growth in the share of workers with a college education between 1980 and 1990 may have been lower than depicted in Figure 1. 2 Relative to the United States as a whole, California workers are slightly more likely to have a college education. However, the growth trends are similar in the state and the nation with a slight closing of the gap in recent years. Col- lege education among all adults in California is less than among workers in California, reflecting the reality that 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage California workers U.S. workers California adults Figure 1. College education has grown substantially in California and the nation 2000 1990 1980 1970 2006 Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: The gure shows the share with a bachelor’s degree (including those with a graduate degree) among workers ages 25 and older and all adults ages 25 to 64. Statistics for 1980 are not strictly comparable to statistics for 1990 (see note 2). California’s Future Workforce 4 www.ppic.org adults with a college education are more likely to work. College education among California adults shows a growth trend since 1970, but the gap between workers and all adults has increased somewhat and was particularly large in 2000 (mainly because adults with less education were less likely to be working in that year than in other years). The trends shown in Figure 1 for college education can also be seen when bachelor’s degrees and graduate degrees are examined separately (Table 1).Growth in the share of workers with a bachelor’s degree, from 25 percent to 34 percent between 1980 and 2006, was not primarily driven by improvements in college attainment for California’s youth. In 1980, 22 percent of young adults who were born in California held a bachelor’s degree. By 2006, this share had increased to only 25 percent. Migration from other states and other countries was the primary source of growth in the college-educated workforce. Among California workers who held a bachelor’s degree in 2006, 33 percent were born in other states and 31 percent were born in other countries. 3 In addition, over this time period Californians reaching retirement age had very low levels of college education. (In 1980, only 22 percent of workers ages 40 and older held a bachelor’s degree.) As these workers retired, they were replaced by young workers and migrants with higher levels of college education. Since 1980, even as the share of workers with a bach- elor’s degree or more education grew, the wages of college- educated workers relative to the wages of workers with only a high school education also grew (Figure 2). 4 The greatest wage growth occurred in the 1990s; the decade concluded with a tremendously strong labor market during the “dot com” boom. In recent years, workers with a bach- elor’s degree have earned wages similar to the high levels achieved in 2000. 5 Workers with high school diplomas or less education have earned lower wages than in 2000. To understand the labor market demand for college- educated workers, economists convert earnings statistics to measures of the college wage premium. The college wage premium is the percentage increase in average earnings related to holding a bachelor’s degree compared with a high school diploma. Since 1980, the college wage premium has increased substantially in California (Figure 3). In 1980, a California man with a bachelor’s degree earned 39 percent more than a similar man with only a high school diploma. By 2006, the difference was 86 percent. The college wage premium also increased for California women and for men and women nationally. The premium for a one-year gradu- ate degree relative to a high school diploma also increased over this period, from about 50 percent in 1980 to more than 100 percent in 2006 (not shown in the figure). Table 1. Bachelor’s and graduate degrees are more common in recent years 1970 198 0 19 9 02000 2006 Bachelor’s degree only (%) California workers 913 18 2122 U.S. workers 812 16 1920 California adults 812 171820 U.S. adults 711 15 1719 Graduate degree (%) California workers 811 10 1213 U.S. workers 69911 12 California adults 710 910 11 U.S. adults 578910 Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: The table shows the share with corresponding degrees among workers ages 25 and older and adults ages 25 to 64. Statistics for 1980 are not strictly comparable with statistics for 1990 (see note 2). 5 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org The trends described here demonstrate the growing demand for college education in the California labor mar- ket. The demand shift is characterized by an increase in the college wage premium occurring over the same period as growth in the share of workers with a college educa- tion. Had the increase in college education been supply- driven, the wage premium would have declined. Indeed, the college wage premium increased because the demand for college-educated workers has grown and the growth in supply has not kept pace. 6 The growth in demand for college-educated workers may have been particularly con- centrated in a subset of college majors. 7 We do not have data to examine trends by college major, but computer science, engineering, and business majors tend to earn more than other majors. These trends are not unique to California. Growth in the college wage premium and, more generally, growth in education premiums at all levels is a national trend. A large body of research has explored the causes, finding several contributing factors, the most important of which are tech- nological change and trade. Technological changes have simultaneously increased the demand for educated workers who can operate sophisticated equipment and reduced the demand for less-educated workers, many of whom have been displaced by automation (Danziger and Gottschalk, 1995; Card and DiNardo, 2002). Growth in international trade has opened international markets for goods and services produced in the United States by educated work- ers in high-tech industries and financial services. Less- educated workers in production are increasingly displaced by low-paid production workers in other countries (Feen- stra, 2000). 8 In addition, institutional changes, such as the 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Average hourly wage ($) Two-year graduate degree Bachelor’s degree Associate’s degree High school diploma 11th grade Figure 2. Wage gaps between education levels have grown Men 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Women 2000 1990 1980 1970 2006 Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: Wages are adjusted for ination to 2007 dollars using the CPI-U-RS. Statistics are regression-adjusted. Statistics for 1980 are not strictly comparable with statistics for 1990 (see note 2). 2000 1990 1980 1970 2006 U.S. women California women U.S. men California men 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 100 Percentage Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: The gure shows the percentage increase in average hourly wage related to attaining a bachelor’s degree relative to attaining only a high school diploma. Statistics for 1980 are not strictly comparable with statistics for 1990 (see note 2). 1970 Figure 3. College wage premium has increased since 1980 1980199020002006 California’s Future Workforce 6 www.ppic.org decline in the real value of the minimum wage (Lee, 1999) and shrinking unionization rates (Freeman, 1993), have led to lower wages for workers with less education. These same factors—technology and trade, as well as institutional changes—have brought about markedly similar labor market changes in California and the nation (Figure 3). The similarity of state and national trends is not surprising in a national labor market where workers and firms are mobile. Fu t u r e G r o w t h i n t h e D e m a n d for College-Educated Workers In this section, we describe the changing industrial and occupational composition of the California economy since 1990, with a particular focus on the employment of college- educated workers. We use projections of the industrial and occupational structure for 2025 to project the demand for college-educated workers if current trends continue. Long-term economic projections are fraught with uncertainty. Major changes in technology, trade, foreign economic development, politics, and other factors can alter the economic growth path in unforeseeable ways (see Neumark, 2005b, for further discussion). The decline in military spending in the late 1980s, the technology boom of the late 1990s, and the recent crises in the hous - ing and financial markets are examples of changes that altered the economic growth path. Our long-term projec - tions for 2025 measure the share of workers with bach - elor’s degrees that would be needed if past trends were to continue. We are not suggesting that these trends will certainly continue; rather, we seek to estimate the share of college-educated workers that would be required to continue the trends. 9 We refer to our projections as estimates of future “economic demand.” We base these projections on growth in the share of bachelor’s degrees since 1990 within major industries and occupations as well as projected changes in the industrial and occupational structure. To the extent that labor market demand is segmented across different college majors, our analysis may overestimate demand shifts by including growth in college majors for which demand did not grow. Nevertheless, over this period the average college wage premium has increased as the demand for college-educated workers has grown and the growth in supply has not kept pace. In other words, at the aggregate level, the growth in the share of workers with bachelor’s degrees since 1990 is likely to be an under- estimate of demand growth because supply was a limiting factor. Below, we argue that our approach provides a more realistic projection of employer demand than do estimates of education and training requirements by occupation. California’s industrial structure can be characterized by employment across large, aggregated industrial sectors. Local and state government (14% of employment in 2006) and retail trade (11%) are the largest industries (Table 2). With the exception of farming, the number of workers employed in each of California’s major industries has grown since 1990 and is projected to grow further by 2025. How- ever, as a share of total employment (as shown in Table 2), durable manufacturing has experienced the greatest decline, from 10 percent of employment in 1990 to only 6 percent in 2006. Accommodation and food services has grown the most, from 4 percent to 8 percent. 10 Increasing demand for college-educated workers can result from shifts in the industrial structure if industries that require more college-educated workers are growing faster than industries that require fewer college-educated workers. Demand can also increase without a change in industrial structure; it can result from shifts in employment within industries, as firms adjust to new technology and to trade opportunities. Shifts in industrial structure between 1990 and 2006 were not large enough to drive the 6 per- centage point increase in employment of college-educated workers (from 28% to 34%). If the employment of workers with bachelor’s degrees had not grown within industries, the shifts in industrial structure would have increased the demand for college-educated workers by less than half a percentage point. In other words, growth in employment of college-educated workers within industries explains most of the growth in the share of college-educated workers. Even if industrial structure had remained unchanged since 1990, 7 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org shifts within industries would have increased the college- educated share by almost 6 percentage points. Economic projections show a continuation of small shifts in industrial structure (as measured for major industries in Table 2). 11 However, if growth in the number of college-educated workers within each industry were to continue, the share of California workers with at least a bachelor’s degree would increase by more than 7 percent- age points, to almost 42 percent in 2025. 12 Similar calcula- tions imply that the share with a graduate degree would increase by almost 3 percentage points to 15.5 percent. The California labor market can also be characterized by occupational structure (Table 3). Office and adminis- trative support occupations employed the largest share of workers in 2006 (17%). With the exception of farming, fish- ing, and forestry, total employment in each of California’s Industry as a Share of State Employment (%) College-Educated Workers Within Industry (%) 19 9 0 2006 202519 9 02006 2025 High-growth industries Administration and support, waste management, remediation 3.76.5 8.314 1721 Accommodation and food services 4.48 .18.215 1516 Health care and social assistance 7.18.8 9.837 4146 Professional and scientific services 4.76.2 7. 252 6787 Construction 4.65.75.913 1110 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 0.41. 61.723 38 57 Education services 1. 51. 8 2 .156 64 74 Other services 2.73.43.316 20 26 Local and state government 13 . 814 . 414 . 3 465259 Finance, insurance 3.64.2 3.832 46 64 Slow-growth industries Information 3.43.2 3.336 50 67 Real estate 1. 81. 8 1.734 3640 Mining 0.30 .10 .123 2424 Transportation, warehousing 3.02.92.816 16 15 Wholesale trade 4.84.44.424 28 34 Utilities 0.70.40.322 2836 Management of companies 2.01. 51. 556 60 66 Federal employees 3.61.71. 328 3646 Farm workers 4.02.4 1. 610 10 11 Nondurable manufacturing 5.23.72.719 22 25 Retail trade 14 . 510.910. 8 1622 30 Durable manufacturing 10. 26.44.926 34 44 Totals and economy-wide averages 10 010 010 0 2834 42 Sources: Author’s calculations based on industrial employment and projections from the California Employment Development Department (EDD) and on education and industrial employment from the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: High-growth industries are those that are growing as a share of overall employment between 1990 and 2025. Slow-growth industries are mostly growing industries but are declining as a share of overall employment. Totals may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding. For a description of industry categories, see www.census.gov/epcd/www/naics.html. Table 2. College education increased in most industries California’s Future Workforce 8 www.ppic.org Table 3. College education increased in most occupations Occupation as a Share of State Employment (%) College-Educated Workers Within Occupation (%) 19 9 0 2006 202519 9 02006 2025 High-growth occupations Construction and maintenance 3.85.8 67 76 Computer and mathematical science 1. 22.5 3.365 69 75 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance 1.93.8 3.9 456 Business operations 1.12.6 3.0315380 Transportation and material moving 4.96.6 6.7 887 Education, training, and library 5.46.0 6.978 77 76 Health care practitioner and technical 3.33.84.3 5964 70 Community and social services 0.51. 31.464 63 61 Personal care and service 2 .13.0 3.010 1522 Management 5.66.4 6.44254 70 Health care support 1.92 .12.6 1216 21 Food preparation and service 6.87. 27. 4 710 13 Protective service 1.92.2 2.320 2633 Legal 0.60.8 0.882 79 75 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media 2.52.5 2.648 60 74 Slow-growth occupations Extraction 0 .1006 20 Installation, maintenance, and repair 3.53.43.4 710 14 Life, physical, and social science 1. 31.0 1.164 8610 0 Sales and related 10. 510. 3 10 .1 283339 Architecture and engineering 2.92 .12.0 59 7084 Financial operations 2.81.71. 855 67 81 Farming, fishing, and forestry 3.61.91.4 730 Office and administrative support 19. 416 . 6 14 . 5 161924 Production 12.66.35.1 6810 Totals and economy-wide averages 10 010 010 0 2834 41 Sources: Author’s calculations based on occupational employment and projections from the California EDD and on education and occupational employment from the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Notes: High-growth occupations are those that are growing as a share of overall employment between 1990 and 2025. Slow-growth occupations are mostly growing but are declining as a share of overall employment. Totals may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding. For a description of occupation categories, see www.bls.gov/soc/. 9 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org major occupations has grown since 1990 and is projected to grow further by 2025. However, as a share of total employ - ment, production occupations have experienced the greatest decline, from 13 percent of employment in 1990 to only 6 percent in 2006. 13 Building and grounds cleaning and main- tenance has grown the most, from 2 percent to 4 percent. The occupational employment shifts between 1990 and 2006 explain relatively little (about 1 percentage point) of the 6 percentage point growth (from 28% to 34%) in the share of college-educated workers in California. 14 The shift toward college-educated workers within most occupations explains the bulk of the growth in employment of these workers (about 5 percentage points). Economic projections show a continued small shift in occupational structure by 2025, but if growth in the employment of college-educated workers within occupa- tions were to continue, the share of California workers with at least a bachelor’s degree would increase by almost 7 percentage points, to 41 percent. Similar calculations imply that the share with postgraduate degrees would increase by almost 3 percentage points, to 15.5 percent. The industry and occupation projections lead to simi - lar results: If recent trends were to continue, labor market demand for college-educated workers would be as high as 41 percent of California workers in 2025. Our projections of demand for college-educated workers lead to very different conclusions than do estimates of employer needs derived from employer “education and training requirements” from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). According to BLS esti - mates of employer education requirements by occupation, the share of college-educated workers needed in the Cali - fornia economy in 2025 would be only 27 percent. 15 The two measures are conceptually different. The BLS-based approach considers whether employers need college-educated workers to staff positions. Our measure considers whether employers are choosing workers with bachelor’s degrees. For example, for supervisors of administrative workers, the BLS reports that employers require work experience but no formal postsecondary education for entry-level positions. We find that about 23 percent of workers in this occupation in California (and nationally) have bachelor’s degrees. How do we know that this presence of workers with bachelor’s degrees represents economic demand rather than simply overtrained workers? Employers are paying college-educated workers in this occupation 49 percent more than they pay workers with only high school diplomas (see Table 4, row 7). Employers are willing to pay more because these workers are more productive. For the economy to be at its most produc - tive and efficient, growth in supply should meet projected growth in demand rather than “training requirements” as reported by BLS. 16 Analysis of college wage premiums demonstrates that the growth in the share of college-educated workers within occupations is demand-driven. Table 4 reports growth in the share of workers with bachelor’s degrees and growth in the college wage premiums for nine of the highest-employment occupations for which the BLS reports that bachelor’s degrees are not required. 17 In all of these occupations except car- pentry, there has been growth in both the share of college- educated workers and in the college wage premium. The wage premium is highest and has grown the most in the three occupations for which the BLS estimates the highest skill needs (“work experience” demonstrates higher skill need than “on the job training” (OJT)). In these nine occupations combined, college-educated workers earned 94 percent more than workers with only high school diplomas in Office and administrative support occupations employed the largest share of workers in 2006. CORBIS California’s Future Workforce 10 www.ppic.org the share of workers with a college education for a wide variety of occupational groupings. We conclude from this that growth in the share of workers with bachelor’s degrees represents a fairly widespread increase in demand. D e m a n d f o r C o l l e g e - E d u c a t e d Workers Will Not Be Met We have shown that if recent trends persist, about 41 percent of workers in the California economy in 2025 would need a bachelor’s degree (Table 3). This represents a 7 percentage point increase over the college-educated share in 2006 (34%). It would mean continuing the growth trend experienced between 1990 and 2006, when the share of workers with a college education increased from 28 percent to 34 percent. Projections of educational attainment for the California working-age population suggest that the share with a college education will increase from 28 percent in 2000 to only 2006. This very high college wage premium reflects the premium within each occupation and especially the greater concentration of college-educated workers in the highest- paying occupations (e.g., registered nursing). More generally, in the aggregated occupational cat- egories for which the BLS reports that bachelor’s degrees are not required, the share of workers with college degrees was very low in 1990—12 percent (penultimate row of Table 4). 18 Over the following 16 years, the share of workers with college degrees increased relatively little, reaching 14 percent in 2006, and the college wage premium increased by only 14 percentage points (from 36% to 50%). These changes demonstrate an increase in demand for work- ers with a bachelor’s degree even within occupations with lower skill requirements as measured by the BLS. However, the demand increases were much greater when measured across the entire economy (Table 4, final row). Our analysis shows that increases in college wage premiums occurred over the same period as growth in BLS r equirement Workers with a Bachelor’s Degree (%) College Wage Premium (%) 2000 19 9 02006 19 9 02006 Janitors and cleaners 30 day OJT34612 Carpenters 12 month OJT6513 3 Cashiers 30 day OJT812 30 31 Waiters and waitresses 30 day OJT915 23 31 Office clerks 30 day OJT1418 718 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 1–12 month OJT1516 1319 Supervisors of administrative support workers Work experience2123 23 49 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing Work experience374554 69 Registered nurses Associate degree5163 5575 All of above, combined Less than a bachelor’s degree1924 6994 Aggregate occupations not requiring a bachelor’s degree, combined Less than a bachelor’s degree 121436 50 All occupations All2834 60 86 Sources: Author’s calculations based on education and wages from the 1990 decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Table 4. The college wage premium has grown within “non-college” occupations 11 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org 33 percent in 2020 (Johnson, 2005). For comparison, eco- nomic projections (similar to those in this report) suggest that 39 percent of workers will need a bachelor’s degree in 2020 (Neumark, 2005a). Taken together, these results imply a workforce skills gap between the projected demand of the future economy and the projected education of the future workforce, as shown in the fourth set of bars in Figure 4. 19 The projected workforce skills gap results from a continuation of growth trends in the demand for college- educated workers combined with a slowdown in the growth of the share of college-educated adults in the population. One reason for the slowdown is that California adults in their late 50s are among the best-educated adults in the state: 34 percent have a bachelor’s degree. 20 The retirement of these workers will put a damper on growth in worker educational attainment. In contrast, California adults who reached retirement age between 1990 and 2006 were among the least-educated adults in the state, and their retirement contributed to improvements in the overall educational attainment of workers (Figure 5, solid lines). A second reason for the slowdown in the share of college- educated adults is the low number of Latinos earning bach - elor’s degrees, because this group makes up a growing share of the working-age population in California. The share of Latinos with a bachelor’s degree increased from 7 percent in 1990 to 10 percent in 2006 and is projected to reach only 12 percent in 2020. Despite these improvements, Latinos will continue to have the lowest college-education levels of any of the major racial and ethnic groups in California. Over this period, Latino education is an increasingly important factor in overall education levels. Latinos grew from 22 percent of the working-age population in 1990 to 29 percent in 2006 and are projected to grow to 40 percent by 2020. 21 Migration is unlikely to be able to fill the gap between the projected economic demand and the supply of college- educated workers. To meet the projected demand for college-educated workers in 2025, migration would need to increase to almost 160,000 college-educated workers annually and to remain at that level for 20 years (Figure 6). Since 2000, international immigration has brought an annual average of 56,000 college graduates to California. 22 However, during this period, more college graduates left California for other states than arrived from other states. This is likely the first time in its history that California has sustained net out-migration of college graduates. Out- migration of college-educated workers since 2000 has been driven, in part, by high housing costs in the state and that may be temporary. 23 Nevertheless, even if California were to return to 1980 levels of net in-migration of college-educated adults from other states, migration would not come close to filling the projected gap between supply and demand. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage Projected adult education Projected economic demand Figure 4. The projected demand for college-educated workers exceeds the projected supply in 2020 Some college High school graduate Less than high school graduate College graduate Sources: Johnson (2005) for population projections and Neumark (2005a) for economic projections. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage with a bachelor’s degree 2020 2006 1990 Figure 5. College education is highest among older adults 55–59 50–54 45–49 40–44 35–39 30–34 25–29 60–64 Sources: Author’s calculations based on the decennial Census and the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). Note: The gure shows actual values for 1990 and 2006 and a hypothetical scenario for 2020. California’s Future Workforce 12 www.ppic.org Thus, to meet the projected gap through increased edu- cational attainment of young workers, college completion would need to increase to about 50 percent immediately. Such a large and immediate gain is not attainable; this rough calculation is simply meant to demonstrate the mag- nitude of change that would be required. A forthcoming study from PPIC will examine more realistic scenarios for increasing the production of bachelor’s degrees (Johnson and Sengupta, forthcoming, 2009). W h a t A r e t h e I m p l i c a t i o n s? In sum, our analysis shows that the supply of college- educated workers will not be able to expand enough to meet projected demand. Our projected demand is simply the continuation of current trends. Thus, our results suggest that current trends will not continue because the supply of college-educated workers will not grow as rapidly as in past decades. Faced with this skills gap, the economy will adjust. As we have shown, the demand for college-educated workers has outpaced supply since the 1980s. In the future, we can expect to see some of the same adjustments that occurred in recent decades, although they are likely to be magnified because growth in the supply of college-educated workers will become more limited. The economy adjusts through changes in wages, unemployment, and underemployment. The supply of workers with a high school diploma or less is projected to exceed the demand for such workers. These workers will see an erosion of their wages or other com- pensation, as in the 1980s (Figure 2) or a decline in job opportunities leading to unemployment and underemploy- ment, as in the 1990s. 25 These trends have serious implica- tions for the resources available to low-income families and the demands on the state for social programs. For workers with a college degree, growth in demand will continue to drive up wages (as in the 1980s and 1990s) and will encourage greater entry into the labor market. 26 This will increase the resources of higher-income families and drive up economic inequality in the state. Indeed, Substantial changes in domestic migration and inter- national immigration that would be needed to fill the gap are not likely. The growth in the college wage premium is a national trend (Figure 3), and California will be compet- ing with other states for college-educated domestic and international migrants. Moreover, a major expansion of international migration is unlikely in light of fairly restric- tive federal immigration policy and the increasing global competition for skilled labor. Finally, even with significant expansions in California higher education, the college-education gap is too large to fill. A rough calculation provides a sense of the magni- tude of increase that would be required to meet an overall college-education level of 39 percent by 2020. In 2006, only 29 percent of young workers between the ages of 25 and 29 held a bachelor’s degree. Suppose that the college-education rate for young workers were to jump to 50 percent, beginning with young adults reaching age 25 in 2009 and remaining at that level through 2020. Under this hypothetical scenario, by 2020, 50 percent of California workers ages 25 to 36 would hold a bachelor’s degree. Figure 5 shows this scenario for 2020, using the Johnson projections for adults over the age of 36.24 Overall, for workers ages 25 to 64, under this scenario 38 percent would hold a bachelor’s degree in 2020. 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 200 –20 Annual in-migration of working-age adults with bachelor’s degrees (1000s) Domestic migration (net) International immigration Figure 6. Past migration trends fall far short of annual migration needed to meet the supply/demand gap in 2025 2000–2005 1995–2000 1985–1990 Gap Source: Johnson and Reed (2007). Notes: The gure shows the annual net migration of workers with bachelor’s degrees that would be required to ll the supply/demand gap by 2025 relative to past annual migration trends of working-age adults (ages 25 to 64). 13 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org growth in the education wage premium has been one of the most important factors in explaining the rise in income inequality in California in past decades (Reed, 1999). Our projections of economic need were developed by considering “if recent trends continue.” Our analysis shows that recent trends will not continue. The economic growth path that California has experienced since 1980 has been fueled by substantial growth in college education among workers. In the coming decades, the lack of college- educated workers will be a limiting factor that changes the path of the state’s economic growth. 27 If the economy cannot continue the recent trends, there are important implications for state and local plan- ning. Policymakers plan and prepare for the future based on expectations and projections of future employment, income, government revenues, and demands for govern- ment services. The projections generally rely on some form of the assumption “if recent trends continue.” Our results suggest that recent trends cannot continue because the supply of college-educated workers will not expand as rapidly as in past decades. Thus, the projections that form the basis of government planning should be reconsidered to take into account constraints imposed by more limited growth in the college-educated workforce. What Can Be Done? We have shown that growth in the supply of college- educated workers will not keep pace with the demand for such workers. Public policy clearly has a role to play in improving access and success in college attendance and graduation. Although rising compensation levels will reward people for making their own investments in college, the public system plays a major role. Most Cali- fornians prepare for college in the public K–12 system. A majority who enter college do so through the public community colleges. Most bachelor’s degree students in California attend a public institution. 28 The scope for improvement in public investments is broad. Increasing the number of workers with bachelor’s degrees includes improving graduation rates, reducing time to graduation, and/or expanding the public university sys- tem (Johnson and Sengupta, 2009). 29 It will also be impor- tant to improve transfer rates and transferable credits from community colleges (Sengupta and Jepsen, 2006). Atten- tion should also be focused on the earlier years of educa- tional training and achievement. The quality of education in the public K–12 system is a precursor to success in college, including the availability of college-preparatory courses in high schools (Conley, 2006). Even preschool has been shown to improve rates of college attendance (Karoly, Kilburn, and Cannon, 2005). Although the focus of this study is bachelor’s degrees, this is clearly not the only realm for investment in work- force skills. California wage trends show a rising premium for education at all levels (Figure 2). Other research has shown that these trends are related not only to formal edu- cation but also to labor market experience and other skills, leading to a broad consensus that there has been and will continue to be a growing demand for skilled workers (Hil- ton, 2008; Welch, 2001). Furthermore, even with projected demand for bachelor’s degrees at the level of 41 percent in 2025, the majority of jobs will not require bachelor’s degrees. Improving the skills of workers who do not attend or complete college is a key component of workforce devel- opment. At the other end of the spectrum, the economy is also experiencing growth in demand for graduate and pro- fessional education. Growth in the supply of workers with education beyond a bachelor’s degree has also been limited and is likely to be even more limited in the future for all the same reasons explored here for a bachelor’s degree. The economy of the future requires a skilled workforce. As demand has shifted toward college-educated workers, growth in the supply of such workers has not kept pace. Our projections suggest that growth in supply will be even more constrained in the future. Effective reforms and investments today will create a workforce that will help fuel future economic growth and bestow many additional economic and social benefits on the people and state of California. ● California’s Future Workforce 14 www.ppic.org Notes 1 Estimates of working population and education are based on the author’s calculations from U.S. Census Bureau data. Throughout the text, we examine workers ages 25 and older. We compare workers to the adult population of prime working age (ages 25 to 64). For brevity, we use “2006” to refer to data from the 2005 and 2006 American Community Surveys (combined). 2 The 1970 and 1980 decennial Census asked respondents about completed years of education. We treat 16 years completed as a bachelor’s degree. Starting in 1990, the decennial Census asked respondents about completed degrees. Survey changes may overstate the growth in bachelor’s degree attainment. An alter - native data source, the Current Population Survey (CPS, March files), consistently asked respondents about completed years of education and shows slower growth in the share with a bachelor’s degree between 1980 and 1990. Using the CPS, we verified that the change in the survey education questions between 1980 and 1990 appears to have had no substantial effect on the estimated wage premium for a bachelor’s degree relative to a high school diploma (shown in Figure 3 with estimates from the decennial Census). 3 See Johnson and Reed (2007) for a study of migration and education in California. 4 Figure 2 shows an average hourly wage based on predictions from ordinary least squares regressions. The regressions are estimated separately by sex and by calendar year for a total of 10 regressions. The dependent variable is the natural log of hourly wage. Education is included as piecewise linear (a dummy for less than a high school diploma and linear years of schooling for less than high school, a dummy for some college and linear years of schooling for some college, and a dummy for a bach- elor’s degree and linear years of schooling beyond a bachelor’s degree). The model controls for a quartic in potential experience (age less years of education less 6), indicators for five racial/ ethnic groups, and an indicator for foreign-born. Predictions are calculated for a person with 15 years of experience at the 2006- based average of all other characteristics. The estimated wage premiums reported in Figure 3 do not necessarily measure a purely causal effect of education. However, estimation strategies that attempt to identify causal effects also find high and rising college wage premiums (Card, 2001). 5 In real terms, average annual earnings actually fell about 7 percent for California men with a bachelor’s degree, from $83,500 to $76,900. However, average hourly wages (calculated as annual earnings divided by the product of weeks worked and usual hours per week) were very similar in the two years: $44.98 in 2000 and $44.92 in 2006. Over this period, there was a small decline in the number of hours of work. 6 Unemployment and reduced labor force participation also reflect economic demand and worker responses to economic demand. In 2006, unemployment among workers with a high school diploma but no college education was 4.8 percent, whereas among workers with a bachelor’s degree, unemployment was 2.8 percent. In that same year, 28 percent of adults with only a high school diploma did not participate in the workforce, whereas among adults with a bachelor’s degree, the share not participating was 19 percent. 7 See U.S. Department of Education (1998) and Hammermesh and Donald (2008) for studies of earnings by college major. 8 Immigration has played a relatively small role in the growth of education wage premiums. Estimates differ, but even larger esti- mates of the effect of immigration suggest that it has been small relative to the growth in the wage premium shown in Figure 3 (Peri, 2007; Borjas, 2003). 9 One approach to validating projections is to determine whether the same analysis, if done 10 or 20 years earlier, would have pro- vided a realistic view of recent trends. Unfortunately, the lack of historic projections and changes in industry and occupation codes prevent us from doing this validation. However, the trends in Figure 1 are fairly consistent with our projection method in the following sense. Our projections are based on a linear extrapola - tion of changes within industry and occupation, combined with structural changes in industry and occupation distributions. Because the structural changes have been relatively small, our projections result in nearly linear growth in the share of workers with a bachelor’s degree. Structural changes were also relatively small in the 1970s and 1980s and, as shown in Figure 1, the growth in the share has been fairly consistent across decades. 10 The industrial and occupational patterns described in this sec- tion appear to be similar for the period 1980 to 1990. However, because of differences in industry and occupation codes in the 1980 Census, we begin our analysis with 1990. 11 Economic projections are from the California Employment Development Department (EDD) for 2004–2014. We use EDD projections because of the availability of information on both industrial and occupational employment. We aggregate to the major industry and occupation categories as shown in Tables 2 and 3. Calculations based on industry projections from the Cali- 15 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org fornia Department of Transportation lead to similar conclusions (Johnson and Reed, 2007). Employment by industry and espe- cially by occupation does not match perfectly between the EDD data and Census Bureau survey data. For consistent EDD-based employment, we use EDD projections to calculate a constant annual growth rate by industry or occupation between 2004 and 2014 and apply that rate to generate employment in 2006 and 2025. For 1990, we use the 2006 EDD-based estimate and adjust by the change in employment share between 1990 and 2006 as measured in Census Bureau data. 12 We calculate educational demand in 2025 for each industry (or occupation) by applying the same annual percentage point change in share as exhibited for that industry (or occupation) between 1990 and 2006. We calculate the change in economy- wide educational needs using industry shares based on EDD data. The estimated economy-wide change is added to the Census Bureau–based education levels for workers (as shown in Table 1) to calculate the projected share of college-educated workers in 2025. See Neumark (2005b) for further details on these methods. 13 Production occupations include assemblers of machinery and equipment, food processing workers, metal workers, machin- ists, textile workers, wood workers, plant operators, and other occupations. 14 We use the aggregated occupations in Table 3 to perform these calculations. If occupations were defined at a finer level (as in Table 4), we would expect to see a larger effect of changes in occupational structure. However, we did not analyze this directly because detailed occupation codes are not comparable in 1990 and 2006. A similar discussion applies to industrial structure. 15 Estimates are based on author’s calculations from occupa- tional projections by the California EDD. See California Post- secondary Education Commission (2006) for an analysis that uses the BLS-based approach to measure future education and training needs. 16 In addition, there are several problems with using the BLS esti- mates of employer requirements to measure future needs. First, the BLS reports only one level of required qualifications for entry into an occupation. Employer needs are likely to differ across specific positions, firms, and industries and for entry-level versus more advanced positions. To address this, the BLS has introduced a second set of training requirements, based on the education levels of current workers in the occupation, similar to the method used in this study (see www.bls.gov/emp/optd/optd001.pdf ). In addition, the training requirements approach does not incorpo - rate the potential need for upgrading of skills in the future. 17 The nine occupations in Table 4 were selected from the larg- est California occupations for which consistent occupational codes are available in the 1990 Census and the 2006 American Community Survey. To maintain substantial samples in estimat- ing wage premiums for specific occupations in Table 4, wage regressions combined genders with an intercept-shift for males. For consistency, this approach was applied to all regressions reported in Table 4. In all other ways, the regressions were esti- mated as for Figure 3. 18 The aggregated occupations included here are those listed in Table 3 for which less than 35 percent of workers in 2006 held a bachelor’s degree. Within these aggregated occupations, there were only five specific sub-occupations for which the BLS reported that a bachelor’s degree was required. These five occu- pations were removed from the analysis reported in Table 4. 19 In this section, we focus on estimates for 2020 because educa- tion projections for the adult population in 2025 are not available. 20 The phenomenon is not restricted to California. Among U.S.- born white males nationwide, those ages 55 to 59 are the most likely to have graduated from college. Men in their late 50s were of prime draft age during the Vietnam War, and it is likely that some of them considered college an attractive alternative to military service in Vietnam. 21 Latino shares are based on California Department of Finance estimates and projections (1998, 2007). A higher share of U.S.-born Latinos hold a bachelor’s degree: 11 percent in 1990 and 16 percent in 2006. 22 Among recent international immigrants to California, about 41 percent have a bachelor’s degree. 23 In 1998, only 7 percent of college-educated workers who left California in the previous year cited a housing-related reason for leaving, compared with 27 percent in 2006. Housing-related reasons include the attractions of cheaper housing, new or better housing, owning rather than renting, wanting a better neighbor- hood, and establishing one’s own household. Job-related reasons remained the dominant response even in 2006 (37% overall). See Johnson and Reed (2007). 24 Johnson (2005) projects increases in the education of older workers based on patterns since 1990. California’s Future Workforce 16 www.ppic.org References Borjas, George J., “The Labor Demand Curve Is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Ma rket ,” Quarterly Journal of Economics , Vol. 118, No. 4, 2003, pp. 1335–1374. Brady, Henry, Michael Hout, and Jon Stiles, Return on Invest- ment: Educational Choices and Demographic Change in Califor- nia’s Future , University of California, Berkeley, December 2005. California Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970–1989 , 1998, available at www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/Data/DRUdatafiles.php. California Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 2000–2050, 2007, available at www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/Data/DRUdatafiles.php. California Postsecondary Education Commission, The Nexus Between Postsecondary Education and Workforce Development: A Workforce and Employer Perspective , December 2006, avail- able at www.cpec.ca.gov/completereports/2006reports/06-19.pdf. Card, David, “Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems,” Econometrica , Vol. 69, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1127–1160. Card, David, and John E. DiNardo, “Skill-Based Technological Change and Rising Wage Inequality: Some Problems and Puzzles,” Journal of Labor Economics , Vol. 20, October 2002, pp. 733–783. Conley, David T., “What We Must Do to Create a System That Prepares Students for College Success,” Policy Perspective Series , WestEd, 2006, available at www.wested.org/online_ pubs/pp-06-01.pdf. Danziger, Sheldon, and Peter Gottschalk, America Unequal , Russell Sage Foundation and Harvard University Press, New York and Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1995. Feenstra, Robert C., ed., The Impact of International Trade on Wa g e s , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 2000. Fountain, Robert, and Marcia Cosgrove, Keeping California’s Edge: The Growing Demand for Highly Educated Workers , California Business Roundtable and the Campaign for College Opportunity, Sacramento, California, 2006. 25 These adjustments can increase the share of college-educated workers if workers with low education are unemployed, decide not to work, or leave the state. 26 The economic adjustments will increase the college wage premium, providing incentives for workers to invest in higher education and migrants to come to California. However, our analysis in the previous section shows that these responses are not likely to be great enough to meet the projected demand. The economy will adjust so that supply equals demand, but it will likely result in less than 41 percent of the workforce having a college education. 27 Fountain and Cosgrove (2006) use production models to con- clude that limited economic attainment of the California work- force will lead to reduced employee compensation and overall loss of production in affected industries as well as to reductions in consumption and state and local tax revenues. 28 In 2005, 76 percent of people graduating from a California college with a bachelor’s degree attended a public college or university (Johnson and Reed, 2007). 29 Brady, Hout, and Stiles (2005) estimate the broader social returns to investments in college education in California. 17 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org Freeman, Richard B., “How Much Has De-Unionization Contrib - uted to the Rise in Male Earnings Inequality?” in Sheldon Danziger and Peter Gottschalk, eds., Uneven Tides: Rising Inequality in America , Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1993, pp. 133–163. Hammermesh, Daniel S., and Stephen G. Donald, “The Effect of College Curriculum on Earnings: An Affinity Identifier for Non-Ignorable Non-Response Bias,” working paper, University of Texas at Austin, 2008, available at www.eco.utexas.edu/ faculty/Hamermesh/LANonResponse.pdf. Hanak, Ellen, and Mark Baldassare, eds., California 2025: Taking on the Future , Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2005. Hilton, Margaret, Research on Future Skill Demands: A Workshop Summary , National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2008, available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12066#toc. Johnson, Hans P., “California’s Population in 2025,” in Ellen Hanak and Mark Baldassare, eds., California 2025: Taking on the Future , Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2005. Johnson, Hans P., and Deborah Reed, “Can California Import Enough College Graduates to Meet Workforce Needs?” Califor - nia Counts , Vol. 8, No. 4, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, May 2007. Johnson, Hans P., and Ria Sengupta, Higher Education Capacity in California (tentative title), Public Policy Institute of Califor- nia, San Francisco, California, forthcoming in 2009. Karoly, Lynn A., Rebecca M. Kilburn, and Jill S. Cannon, Early Childhood Interventions: Proven Results, Future Promise , RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 2005, available at www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG341/. Lee, David S., “Wage Inequality in the United States During the 1980s: Rising Dispersion or Falling Minimum Wage?” Quarterly Journal of Economics , Vol. 114, No. 3, 1999, pp. 977–1023. Neumark, David, “California’s Economic Future and Infrastruc- ture Challenges,” in Ellen Hanak and Mark Baldassare, eds., California 2025: Taking on the Future , Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2005a. Neumark, David, “California’s Economic Future and Infrastruc- ture Challenges,” Occasional Paper, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, 2005b. Peri, Giovanni, “How Immigrants Affect California Employ- ment and Wages,” California Counts , Vol. 8, No. 3, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, February 2007. Reed, Deborah, California’s Rising Income Inequality: Causes and Concerns , Public Policy Institute of California, San Fran- cisco, California, 1999. Sengupta, Ria, and Christopher Jepsen, “California’s Commu- nity College Students,” California Counts , Vol. 8, No. 2, Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California, Novem- ber 2006. U.S. Department of Education, The Condition of Education , 1998, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES 98-013), Washington, D.C., 1998. Welch, Finis, ed., The Causes and Consequences of Increasing Inequality , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 2001. California’s Future Workforce 18 www.ppic.org About the Author Deborah Reed is an associate director of research and a senior fellow at PPIC. She was previously PPIC’s director of research and the first recipient of the Thomas C. Sutton Chair in Policy Research. She has research expertise in poverty, income inequality, education, and labor markets in California. Her recent publications include studies of California’s future workforce needs, poverty measurement, and intergenerational progress among immigrants. Before joining PPIC, she was an adjunct professor of economics at the University of Michigan and a consultant for the World Bank. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from Yale. Acknowledgments Qian Li provided valuable research support for this project. The author acknowledges the helpful reviews of Julian Betts, Gary Bjork, Murray Haberman, Hans Johnson, David Neumark, and Lynette Ubois. 19 California’s Future Workforce www.ppic.org Board of Directors THOMAS C. S UT TON, CHAIRRetired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Pacific Life Insurance Company MAR k B ALDASSAREPresident and Chief Executive Officer Public Policy Institute of California RUBEN B ARRALES President and Chief Executive Officer San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce GAR y k . HARTFormer State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California WALTER B. H EWLET TDirector Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities DONNA L UCASChief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs LEON E. P ANET TA Director The Leon & Sylvia Panetta Institute for Public Policy kI SUH P ARkDesign and Managing Partner Gruen Associates CONSTANCE L. R ICECo-Director The Advancement Project RAyMOND L. W ATSONVice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company CAROL W HITESIDEPresident Emeritus Great Valley Center PPIC is a private, nonprofit organization. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. Copyright © 2008 by Public Policy Institute of California. All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the above copyright notice is included. Research publications reflect the views of the authors and not necessarily those of the staff, officers, or the Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available for this publication. ISBN 978-1-58213-133-7 PUBLIC P OLICy INSTITUTE OF C ALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 ● San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone 415.291.4400 ● Fax 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO C ENTER Senator Office Building ● 1121 L Street, Suite 801 ● Sacramento, California 95814 Telephone 916.440.1120 ● Fax 916.440.1121 Additional resources related to education policy are available at www.ppic.org. The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research." 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