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object(Timber\Post)#3742 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(16) "FF_12021TRFF.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(7) "2236195" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(125804) "Public Policy Institute of California FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA California’s Share of Federal Formula Grants: 1991–2001 Tim Ransdell The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) is a private operating foundation established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Institute is dedicated to improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research. PPIC’s research agenda focuses on three program areas: population, economy, and governance and public finance. Studies within these programs are examining the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including education, health care, immigration, income distribution, welfare, urban growth, and state and local finance. PPIC was created because three concerned citizens—William R. Hewlett, Roger W. Heyns, and Arjay Miller—recognized the need for linking objective research to the realities of California public policy. Their goal was to help the state’s leaders better understand the intricacies and implications of contemporary issues and make informed public policy decisions when confronted with challenges in the future. David W. Lyon is founding President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Raymond L. Watson is Chairman of the Board of Directors. Copyright © 2002 by Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the above copyright notice is included. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. Research publications reflect the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the staff, officers, or Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. About This Series Federal Formula Grants and California The federal government uses formula grants to distribute nearly $300 billion annually to state and local governments to help them implement federal policies in such areas as health, transportation, and education. How much each government receives is determined by complex formulas that consist of many factors such as state population growth and per capita income. This series of reports provides detailed information on California’s current and historical funding under the major federal grants and on the formulas used to determine California’s share of funding under various specific grants. All reports are posted on the PPIC website at www.ppic.org. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA California’s Share of Federal Formula Grants: 1991–2001 Tim Ransdell December 2002 This report examines California’s share of federal government formula allocations from fiscal year 1991 to fiscal year 2001. It also provides some details about the ten largest formula programs in terms of total U.S. spending.1 Overview The federal government’s $284 billion in formula grant spending in fiscal year 2001 constituted nearly 17 percent of its total expenditures that year, which came to nearly $2 trillion. As shown in Figure 2.1, half of federal spending in 2001 went toward retirement, disability, and other direct payments to individuals and service providers. Another 12 percent was directed toward procurement contracts spending, most of which flows through the Department of Defense. About 9 percent went to salaries and wages for civilian and military federal employees, and the remaining 11 percent was dedicated to interest on the national debt and miscellaneous international ventures. The significance of formula program expenditures in the federal budget has risen steadily over the past decade. These expenditures represented just 11.7 percent of federal spending in 1991, rose slightly to 12.9 percent in 1996, and then increased sharply to 16.9 percent in 2001. Rising mandatory formula spending on entitlement programs such as Medicaid, which alone represents more than half of formula grant expenditures, helped to fuel the growth. The mandatory nature of Social Security and Medicare expenditures also boosted the direct payments budget category from 42.1 percent of the budget in 1991 to 50.2 percent in 2001, whereas the other budget categories declined, as can be seen in Figure 2.1. Procurement slipped from 14.4 percent of the federal budget to 12.4 percent; wages fell nearly one-fourth, from 12.2 percent to 9.4 percent; and debt interest plunged by nearly half, from more than 20 percent to 11.2 percent. When combined, direct payments and formula grant categories rose from about half of federal spending in 1991 to more than two-thirds in 2001. 1Even when governing statutes contain explicit formula language, the administering agency may exercise some discretion in devising and implementing allocation methods and in selecting the datasets upon which those allocations are based. Debt and other 20% Formula grants 12% Wages 12% Procurement 14% Direct payments 42% Debt and other 11% Wages 9% Formula grants 17% Procurement 12% Direct payments 50% 1991 2001 Figure 2.1—Components of Total U.S. Expenditures, FY 1991 and 2001 California’s Experience In fiscal year 2001, the last year for which complete data are currently available, California received slightly more than $34 billion from federal formula programs, the result of steady increases in funding that more than doubled the state’s allocations during the preceding decade. In fiscal year 1991, California received $14.9 billion in formula grant funding—10.9 percent of the nation’s $137.4 billion in allocations that year (Figures 2.2 and 2.3). The state’s share rose rapidly to 11.7 percent in 1993 before leveling off for much of the rest of the decade. Total dollars directed to formula programs rose steadily over the decade, with the exception of fiscal year 1996, when year-to-year spending actually declined slightly in California (from $22.8 billion in 1995 to $22.7 billion in 1996) and in the United States generally (from $193 billion in 1995 to $189 billion in 1996).2 Allocations by Federal Agency Federal formula grant funds are allocated by 14 federal agencies (Figure 2.4). As is the case for the rest of the nation, California receives the bulk of its formula funding from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)—$22.4 2The fiscal year 1996 formula spending decline was largely attributable to the fall 1995 government shutdown resulting from protracted budget negotiations between Congress and the White House over spending priorities. 2 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California California total ($billions) U.S. total ($billions) 40 300 280 35 260 240 30 220 25 200 180 20 160 U.S. 140 15 Calif. 120 10 100 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Figure 2.2—Federal Formula Grant Expenditures in California and All States, FY 1991–2001 13.0 12.5 12.0 11.5 11.0 10.5 Formula $ Population 10.0 1991 10.9 12.0 1992 11.2 12.1 1993 11.7 12.0 1994 11.6 12.0 1995 11.8 11.9 1996 12.0 11.9 1997 11.6 11.9 1998 12.2 12.0 1999 12.5 12.0 2000 12.2 12.1 2001 12.0 12.1 Figure 2.3—Federal Formula Grant Programs—California’s Share of Expenditures and Population, FY 1991–2001 Percentage FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 3 Health and Human Services 66.1% Housing and Urban Development 3.0% Interior 0.1% Other 0.1% Agriculture 7.2% Energy 0.0% Justice 0.8% Labor 3.2% Transportation 10.8% Federal Emergency Management Agency 0.1% Education 8.0% Environmental Protection Agency 0.7% Figure 2.4—Components of Federal Formula Grant Expenditures in California, FY 2001 billion or 66.1 percent of its formula funding in 2001. This report examines 35 federal programs administered by HHS in fiscal year 2001. Ranking next in total spending, the Department of Transportation provided $3.7 billion in 2001 funds, or 10.8 percent of the state’s total. The Department of Education’s 37 formula programs accounted for 8 percent of California’s federal grants in fiscal year 2001, a total of $2.7 billion. Funding from the 20 formula grants administered by the Department of Agriculture constituted another 7.2 percent of the state’s receipts, or $2.4 billion, in 2001. The Department of Labor’s ten formula programs accounted for 3.2 percent of funds, or $1.1 billion, and eight programs administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development provided another 3 percent of California’s receipts, for a total of $1 billion. No other department’s or agency’s formula programs provide more than 1 percent of total formula receipts, although the state does receive substantial funding from the Department of Justice (0.8 percent or $284 million) and the Environmental Protection Agency (0.7 percent or $239 million). The remaining federal agencies accounted for less than 0.1 percent of the state’s formula program funding in fiscal year 2001. These included the Federal Emergency Management Agency ($32 million), the Corporation for National and Community Service ($11 million), the National Foundation for the Arts and Humanities ($16 million), and the Departments of Interior ($27 million), Commerce ($3 million), and Energy ($7 million). 4 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California California total ($billions) As shown in Figures 2.5 and 2.6, HHS accounted for the sharpest growth in federal formula grant expenditures in California and the nation between fiscal years 1991 and 2001. 40 Ten other agencies combined 35 Agriculture Transportation 30 Education Health and Human Services 25 20 15 10 5 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Figure 2.5—Growth in Federal Formula Grant Expenditures in California, by Major Agency, FY 1991–2001 300 Ten other agencies combined Agriculture Transportation 250 Education Health and Human Services 200 150 100 50 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Figure 2.6—Growth in Federal Formula Grant Expenditures in All States, by Major Agency, FY 1991–2001 Total for all states ($billions) FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 5 The Ten Largest Formula Programs The ten largest federal formula grant programs together account for 75 percent of federal formula dollars flowing to the states. In fiscal year 2001, the federal government allocated $214 billion through these ten programs, with California receiving $25.7 billion. In descending order of size, the programs are (1) Grants to States for Medicaid; (2) Highway Planning and Construction; (3) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families—Family Assistance Grants; (4) Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies; (5) Head Start; (6) National School Lunch Program; (7) Special Education—Grants to States; (8) Foster Care—Title IV-E; (9) State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP); and (10) the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Each of these programs is discussed below, including details regarding total and per capita expenditures. For those programs designed in significant part to address poverty, the discussions include a comparison of poverty statistics. Grants to States for Medicaid By a factor of five, Medicaid is the largest federal grant classified as a formula program. Federal Medicaid spending rose rapidly during the last decade, from $53 billion in 1991 to $133 billion in 2001, as shown in Figure 2.7; and the program has consumed an increasing share of state budgets as well. Medicaid matches state indigent health care expenditures with federal dollars. HHS annually calculates for each state a unique Federal Medicaid Assistance Percentage or FMAP, which is based on state per capita income. State FMAP levels are given a floor of 50 percent and a ceiling of 83 percent, meaning that state spending is matched dollar-for-dollar in the 17 states (including California) with the nation’s highest per capita incomes and as much as a five-to-one in the lowest-income states. (The average state is reimbursed for 57 percent of its spending.) With a per capita income only moderately above the national average, California would still remain very near the 50 percent level with or without a floor; Medicaid matching rates in richer states such as Connecticut and New Jersey would plummet without the FMAP floor. Federal Medicaid dollars in California underwrite the state’s Medi-Cal program. As shown in Figure 2.7 and Table 2.1, California’s percentage share of the nation’s federal Medicaid disbursements increased through the 1990s and leveled off after 1999. In fiscal year 1991, the state received $4.49 billion of the nation’s $53.3 billion Medicaid distribution, or 8.5 percent of the total. By 1999, the U.S. total had increased to $110 billion, and the state’s level had risen to $12.3 billion or 11.2 percent of the nation’s total expenditures. The state’s share 6 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Percentage of U.S. total 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 Poverty Population 9 Medicaid 8 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 8.5 9.2 9.3 9.1 9.9 10.0 9.6 10.1 11.2 10.7 10.6 12.0 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 13.5 13.7 14.8 14.9 14.7 15.0 15.3 14.8 14.5 14.3 13.1 Figure 2.7—Grants to States for Medicaid—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 Table 2.1 Grants to States for Medicaid—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 4,548,494 6,432,977 6,885,933 7,108,566 8,782,541 9,195,445 9,140,160 10,064,959 12,307,071 12,889,684 14,066,021 Per Capita California, $ 149 208 220 226 277 287 281 305 367 379 408 Total U.S. ($1000s) 53,335,353 69,711,866 74,252,273 77,847,373 88,791,301 92,056,580 95,123,263 99,407,033 110,212,407 120,084,050 132,723,725 Per Capita U.S., $ 211 272 286 296 333 342 348 360 395 426 466 California as a % of U.S. 8.53 9.23 9.27 9.13 9.89 9.99 9.61 10.12 11.17 10.73 10.60 moderated somewhat after that, with California’s $14.1 billion reimbursement for 2001 representing 10.6 percent of national Medicaid spending for the year. Over the 11-year period, California’s per capita federal Medicaid expenditures rose from $149 in 1991 to $408 in 2001, whereas the nation’s spending rose from $211 per capita in 1991 to $466 in 2001. California’s federal Medicaid receipts grew 209 percent during the 11-year period, and total federal Medicaid disbursements to all states grew by a still remarkable 149 percent. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 7 Even at the 1999 high-water mark of California’s Medicaid percentage share, the state was not the largest consumer of federal Medicaid grant spending. Of $110 billion in nationwide distributions, California received $12.3 billion and served 7.1 billion patients (a spending rate of $1,738 per patient), whereas New York received $14.3 billion and served 3.1 million patients (a per patient rate of $4,649). The national average rate for 1999 was $3,265 per patient. The FMAP for California and New York provided for a 50 percent match for both states, but New York’s health care spending is traditionally much higher than California’s. Like the state as a whole, California’s Medicaid population is younger than the national average, so the state’s indigent health care system underwrites services for a below-average share of long-term care beneficiaries—patients who sharply increase budgetary outlays. Long-term care (primarily nursing home) expenditures account for one-third of Medicaid expenditures nationwide but less than one-fourth of expenditures in California, and the state spends the least per capita of any state on Medicaid long-term care. The state’s early and aggressive efforts to move patients into lower-cost managed care plans also help explain the state’s low spending levels. Because California’s Medi-Cal spending is lower than average, the state receives fewer Medicaid dollars per capita than average.3 Medicaid’s use of per capita income (PCI) to determine FMAP matching rates also reduces California’s share of federal dollars for poor patients. Although an official standard for poverty was not formally defined until the 1960s, Congress created Medicaid’s predecessors much earlier, under the Hill-Burton Act in 1946 and Kerr-Mills in 1960. The PCI factor in the Medicaid formula was intended in part as a rough approximation for poverty, on the assumption that states with high incomes would have low poverty. In reality, California has above average PCI and above average poverty rates, and in this case the PCI factor actually shifts poverty health funds away from a high poverty state. The General Accounting Office has criticized the current Medicaid distribution formula as inequitable for this reason and has recommended alternatives, including shifting from per capita income to poverty as a primary factor. Highway Planning and Construction The Department of Transportation (DOT) allocated $2.3 billion in 2001 highway planning and construction funding to California, 8.1 percent of the nation’s $27.6 billion total. With the exception of a sharp and temporary dip in California funding in 2000 (when the state’s $1.4 billion represented just 5.7 percent of the U.S. total), the state’s share of federal highway, road, bridge, 3In 1997, the Clinton administration and Congress considered and subsequently dropped a Medicaid “per capita cap” plan, which would have converted the Medicaid matching program to a block grant, permanently locking in place California’s relatively low program share. 8 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California overpass, tunnel, and such funding has remained relatively consistent for the past 11 years, fluctuating between 8.1 percent and 9.6 percent (Figure 2.8 and Table 2.2). National highway formula grant spending grew 95 percent nationwide and 87 percent in California between 1991 and 2001. On a per capita basis, California’s funding rose 66.6 percent, from $39 in 1991 to $65 in 2001. Nationwide, the per capita level during the same period climbed 73.2 percent, from $56 to $97. Percentage of U.S. total 13 12 11 Population Highway 10 9 8 7 6 5 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 8.5 9.2 8.8 8.2 9.2 9.6 8.8 9.5 9.1 5.7 8.1 12.0 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 Figure 2.8—Highway Planning and Construction—California Share of Federal Expenditures and Population, FY 1991–2001 Table 2.2 Highway Planning and Construction—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 1,201,804 1,392,657 1,276,541 1,353,849 1,710,131 1,743,185 1,732,054 1,849,611 2,237,536 1,436,184 2,248,552 Per Capita California, $ 39 45 41 43 54 54 53 56 67 42 65 Total U.S. ($1000s) 14,178,052 15,203,154 14,427,018 16,581,395 18,536,550 18,236,903 19,661,988 19,503,076 24,585,046 25,280,613 27,649,444 Per Capita U.S., $ 56 59 56 63 70 68 72 71 88 90 97 California as a % of U.S. 8.48 9.16 8.85 8.16 9.23 9.56 8.81 9.48 9.10 5.68 8.13 FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 9 In 1991, Congress passed the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), which governed surface transportation spending for six years until its expiration at the end of fiscal year 1997. After a six-month temporary stopgap extension of the law, Congress replaced ISTEA with the Transportation Efficiency Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), which expires at the end of fiscal year 2003. The DOT highway planning and construction account includes a number of formulas that employ various factors to determine allocations. For example, for fiscal year 2001, California received $438 million from the National Highway System (NHS) program, or 9.3 percent of the $4.7 billion distributed nationwide. To determine NHS funding, the Department of Transportation weights each state’s share of the nation’s total lane miles of principal arterial routes (not including interstates) at 25 percent, the share of total vehicle miles traveled at 35 percent, the share of diesel fuel consumed at 30 percent, and the sparseness of population versus road mileage at 10 percent. For NHS calculations, California represented 8.5 percent of lane miles, 14.2 percent of miles traveled, 7.7 percent of diesel consumption, and a relatively low sparseness level, resulting in the state’s 9.3 percent formula share. A portion of the highway planning and construction account that provides a much larger share of funding to California is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) program, which distributes funds to states based on the share of population living in areas designated as air pollution nonattainment and maintenance area populations by the Environmental Protection Agency.4 Although a small-state minimum requires that each state receive no less than onehalf of 1 percent of all funds distributed, regardless of air pollution response needs, California has so many of the nation’s nonattainment areas that the state’s $310 million in CMAQ grants constitutes 23 percent of the nation’s total.5 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families—Family Assistance Grants The nation’s third-largest formula grant program is the welfare grant, now titled the State Family Assistance Grant under the Temporary Assistance for 4The Environmental Protection Agency annually identifies metropolitan areas that fail to meet federal standards for air quality. 5Other major highway planning and construction accounts include the Surface Transportation Program (based 25 percent on federal-aid highway lane mileage, 40 percent on lane mileage actually traveled, and 35 percent on the state’s relative contributions to the highway trust fund) and the Interstate Highway program (based one-third on interstate lane miles, one-third on miles traveled, and one-third on highway trust fund contributions). In addition, after all other formula allocations have been calculated, DOT then applies a minimum guarantee, preventing any state from receiving less than a certain minimum return (90.5 cents for every dollar paid in to the highway trust fund). California’s minimum guarantee level designated by the TEA-21 law was set at 9.1962 percent of total formula distributions. Congress added the provision to assuage some states’ vocal concerns about the shift of dollars from donor to recipient states. 10 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Needy Families (TANF) program. However, the $3.7 billion annual allotment to California makes the TANF grant the second-largest federal grant for the state, eclipsing the $2.2 billion highway grant, despite the fact that the national total for highways is considerably larger than it is for welfare—$27.6 billion versus $16.6 billion. As shown in Table 2.3, California accounted for 22.5 percent of federal TANF grant expenditures in 2001. At $108, per capita TANF allocations to California are nearly twice the national average of $58. California’s large share of federal TANF receipts are due to the state’s past receipt levels under TANF’s predecessor, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Congress replaced AFDC, an open-ended entitlement, with the TANF Family Assistance Grant, a fixed-sum block grant, in the landmark 1996 welfare reform bill titled the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Act, which also replaced the Job Opportunities Basic Skills (JOBS) program and Emergency Assistance (EA). The allocation of TANF block grants among states reflects each state’s share of AFDC, JOBS, and EA programs received in fiscal year 1994, fiscal year 1995, or in the three-year period from fiscal years 1992 through 1994. HHS determined the greatest total of funds produced by these three alternative measures and then allocated funds to each state for fiscal years 1997 through 2002 based on the high-water mark. California’s grant level was set at $3.7 billion. Allocation levels for all states have remained constant for the first five years of the TANF program, as is apparent in Figure 2.9. In fiscal years 1998 and 1999, California received more than 17 percent of the nation’s $2 billion allocations for a welfare-to-work block grant, a temporary subprogram that included a formula equally weighting each state’s number of persons in poverty and number of adult welfare recipients. California has received no funding from a $319 million TANF supplemental grant intended to Table 2.3 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families—Family Assistance Grants—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1997–2001 Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 3,147,716 3,732,668 3,731,149 3,730,164 3,728,516 Per Capita California, $ 97 113 111 110 108 Total U.S. ($1000s) 13,402,837 16,645,989 16,565,996 16,566,404 16,561,811 Per Capita U.S., $ 49 60 59 59 58 California as a % of U.S. 23.49 22.42 22.52 22.52 22.51 FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 11 Percentage of U.S. total 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 1997 23.5 11.9 15.3 1998 22.4 12.0 14.8 1999 22.5 12.0 14.5 Poverty Population TANF 2000 22.5 12.1 14.3 2001 22.5 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.9—TANF Family Assistance Grants—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1997–2001 benefit states with high population growth (the state’s population from 1990 to 1994 grew by less than the 10 percent minimum requirement) and low welfare expenditures (California’s welfare spending is well above average). The state received $20 million in fiscal year 1999 from a TANF bonus to reward states for reductions in out-of-wedlock birthrates, but the state has not qualified again for any funds from this $100 million-per-year program. California won $45.5 million in fiscal year 1999 and $36.1 million in fiscal year 2000 from a TANF high-performance bonus program, which awards $200 million annually to states that perform strongly in pursuing several stated goals of the TANF program, such as wage improvements, job creation, and job retention for TANF participants. For further details regarding formula funding aspects of TANF and related grants and bonuses, see the following document, TANF and Welfare Programs. For a detailed discussion of California welfare caseload changes and related topics, see Thomas E. MaCurdy, David C. Mancuso, and Margaret O’BrienStrain, Does California’s Welfare Policy Explain the Slower Decline of Its Caseload? Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, 2002. Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies The Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies program, the largest federal K–12 education program and the fourth-largest federal formula grant of any kind, seeks to help schools educate poor and disadvantaged children. California’s Title I receipts grew 97 percent from 1991 to 2001, and the nation’s spending on 12 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Title I grants in all states increased 46 percent. In 1991, the state received $512 million of the nation’s $5.6 billion, or 9.2 percent of the nation’s total expenditures in 1991 (Figures 2.10 and Table 2.4). By 2001, the state’s share of Title I expenditures had risen considerably: California’s $1.01 billion from the Title I grant was 12.4 percent of the nation’s $8.1 billion total. Historically, the state’s low share of Title I funds was largely due to use of poverty figures that were updated only every ten years. As late as 1992, the program was funded based on 1980 decennial Census numbers for poverty. Use of poverty figures from the 1990 Census began in fiscal year 1993, resulting in the sharp increase in California’s share of funds between 1992 and 1993 that is apparent in Figure 2.10. To improve consistency and currency, Congress in 1994 required biennial updates of Title I poverty data between decennial Censuses, but legislators from states that would lose funding, particularly in the Northeast and Midwest, successfully prevented full implementation of this change for several years.6 California’s Title I receipts are also reduced by the formula’s provision that rewards states with high levels of state K–12 Percentage of U.S. total 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 Poverty Population 9 Title I 8 1991 9.2 12.0 13.5 1992 8.8 12.1 13.7 1993 10.8 12.0 14.8 1994 11.5 12.0 14.9 1995 10.8 11.9 14.7 1996 10.8 11.9 15.0 1997 11.1 11.9 15.3 1998 11.3 12.0 14.8 1999 12.2 12.0 14.5 2000 12.3 12.1 14.3 2001 12.4 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.10—Title I Grants to Local Education Agencies—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 6In one of the first years of the new data’s usage, Senate and House appropriators from slower-growing states passed a 100 percent “special hold harmless” provision, which provided that no school district in fiscal year 1998 could receive less than it had received in fiscal year 1997. In fiscal year 1999, the 100 percent hold harmless was retained, but total appropriations for Title I that year increased by $300 million. Because the slow-growth states were already 100 percent funded, the $300 million could then be allocated among the faster-growing states, with California receiving $60 million or 20 percent of the total. In one year, the state’s total Title I funds rose from $816 million to $941 million, and from 11.3 percent to 12.2 percent of total U.S. funds allocated. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 13 Table 2.4 Title I Grants to Local Education Agencies—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 511,559 541,365 634,291 692,877 717,138 580,137 809,813 816,159 940,850 971,982 1,007,981 Per Capita California, $ 17 17 20 22 23 18 25 25 28 29 29 Total U.S. ($1000s) 5,557,984 6,129,583 5,853,841 6,035,326 6,649,208 5,378,095 7,285,557 7,208,318 7,724,543 7,911,318 8,097,387 Per Capita U.S., $ 22 24 23 23 25 20 27 26 28 28 28 California as a % of U.S. 9.20 8.83 10.84 11.48 10.79 10.79 11.12 11.32 12.18 12.29 12.45 education expenditures per pupil and reduces Title I funds to states with low levels. Spending per pupil in California, a state that continues to experience rapid growth in enrollment, is below the national average. The state’s $5,801 level in the 1998–1999 school year was at 87.5 percent of the nation’s average expenditure level of $6,631 per pupil, a variation that accounts for much of the discrepancy between the state’s 16 percent share of the nation’s poor children and its 12.4 percent share of 2001 Title I grant expenditures. Head Start Congress created Head Start in 1965 to provide services for preschool-age children (from ages three to five) of low-income families, including education, health, parental participation, and social services. The federal Head Start program is the fifth-largest formula grant nationwide, but in California it ranks eighth among federal grant receipts. As shown in Table 2.5, California’s Head Start funding rose from $203 million in fiscal year 1991 to $759 million in fiscal year 2001, and the nation’s total Head Start funding rose from $2.1 billion to $5.8 billion. Between 1991 and 2001 Head Start funding from the federal government increased by 240 percent in California and by 180 percent in the nation. As shown in Figure 2.11, California’s share of Head Start funding in 1991 and 1992 was about 10 percent, because of the continued use of outdated poverty data from the 1980 decennial Census. When HHS began using poverty counts from the 1990 Census, the state’s share jumped to 13 percent for a twoyear period, and it remained in the 11 to 13 percent range for the rest of the 1990s. 14 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Table 2.5 Head Start—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 203,034 219,422 305,180 371,303 392,330 392,964 458,841 528,339 554,366 466,237 758,587 Per Capita California, $ 7 7 10 12 12 12 14 16 17 14 22 Total U.S. ($1000s) 2,055,267 2,201,763 2,374,612 2,852,650 3,402,946 3,438,242 3,866,717 4,232,433 4,335,499 3,553,140 5,757,812 Per Capita U.S., $ 8 8 9 11 13 13 14 15 16 13 20 California as a % of U.S. 9.88 9.97 12.85 13.02 11.53 11.43 11.87 12.48 12.79 13.12 13.17 Percentage of U.S. total 16 15 14 13 12 11 Poverty 10 Population Head Start 9 8 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 9.9 10.0 12.9 13.0 11.5 11.4 11.9 12.5 12.8 13.1 13.2 12.0 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 13.5 13.7 14.8 14.9 14.7 15.0 15.3 14.8 14.5 14.3 13.1 Figure 2.11—Head Start—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 Given that the formula was devised to allocate funds based two-thirds on poverty and one-third on welfare, one might expect that California’s share of Head Start would be somewhat higher. However, the state’s share has been constrained in part by a hold harmless provision that allows no state to receive less than it received in 1981, although growth in the program’s overall funding total has negated much of the provision’s effect. Some experts suggest that the state’s participation is reduced by the presence of a strong in-state program that sometimes overlaps with and duplicates the functions of Head Start. California’s relatively high rate of working parents may also reduce interest in the program, which provides only three hours of care per day. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 15 National School Lunch Program The National School Lunch Program is the sixth-largest federal formula grant program (seventh-largest for California). California received $775 million of the total national distribution of $5.6 billion in fiscal year 2001, or 13.9 percent of federal school lunch dollars (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.12). Total federal expenditures for the school lunch program increased by 57 percent from 1991 to 2001, whereas the California growth rate in federal funds Table 2.6 National School Lunch Program—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 440,400 484,217 521,966 553,608 582,713 622,015 660,927 688,216 726,227 748,258 775,026 Per Capita California, $ 14 16 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 22 22 Total U.S. ($1000s) 3,553,207 3,870,097 3,949,299 4,157,707 4,449,177 4,636,853 4,923,489 5,084,373 5,282,477 5,455,143 5,591,467 Per Capita U.S., $ 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 California as a % of U.S. 12.39 12.51 13.22 13.32 13.10 13.41 13.42 13.54 13.75 13.72 13.86 16 Poverty Population 15 School lunch Percentage of U.S. total 14 13 12 11 1991 12.4 12.0 13.5 1992 12.5 12.1 13.7 1993 13.2 12.0 14.8 1994 13.3 12.0 14.9 1995 13.1 11.9 14.7 1996 13.4 11.9 15.0 1997 13.4 11.9 15.3 1998 13.5 12.0 14.8 1999 13.7 12.0 14.5 2000 13.7 12.1 14.3 2001 13.9 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.12—National School Lunch Program—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 16 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California was 76 percent. California’s per capita allocations rose from $14 to $22, and the national per capita level rose from $14 to $20. The school lunch program’s funding allocation is based on state-reported counts of free and reduced-price meals served to eligible children at various levels of poverty, for which states are reimbursed in whole or in part. The main school lunch formula multiplies four specified reimbursement factors by four statereported numbers: the total number of free and reduced-price meals, the number of free meals, the number of reduced-price meals, and the total number of meals served to any recipient in schools in which 60 percent or more of enrollment is eligible for free or reduced-price meals. The 2001 reimbursement rate was 20 cents for fully paid lunches, 20 cents for free and reduced price-lunches, and an additional 148 cents for each reduced-price lunch and 188 cents for each free lunch.7 Lunch is served free to children with household incomes at or below 130 percent of poverty and at a reduced price to children from households with incomes higher than 130 percent but at or below 185 percent of poverty. Special Education—Grants to States For the nation as a whole, Special Education—Grants to States, which are funded under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part B, are the seventh-largest formula grant. For California, the program ranks as the 11thlargest source of federal formula dollars. In fiscal year 2001, California received $507 million from Special Education—Grants to States, which was 10.0 percent of the nation’s $5.1 billion total (Table 2.7). During the 1991–2001 period, California’s total spending on special education state grant funds increased by 50 percent, whereas the nation’s grants grew 129 percent.8 California’s share of IDEA Part B funding fluctuated throughout the early 1990s, dropping from 15.3 percent in 1991 to 9.1 percent in 1993, rising to 16.7 percent in 1994, and dropping back down to 9.2 percent in 1995.9 As 7Schools that served 60 percent or more free or reduced-price lunches received an additional 2 cents for all lunches served; lower reimbursement rates applied for snacks that were served. 8In an effort to reach that year’s budget targets through changes in federal accounting practices, Congress appropriated level funding for special education grants in fiscal year 2000 but required that most of the funds come from fiscal year 2001 accounts. Like a number of other programs funded by the Labor-HHS-Education appropriations bill, special education was traditionally “forward-funded,” meaning that the appropriation from one federal fiscal year—starting October 1—would be used by the school district in the school year starting the following July 1. The change curtailed most forward-funding for special education grants. 9The funding irregularities from 1991 through 1995 resulted in part from accounting adjustments and in part from wide variations in state-reported counts of disabled children. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 17 Table 2.7 Special Education—Grants to States—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 338,298 201,488 210,198 428,491 227,804 229,895 307,219 378,486 431,133 121,730 507,056 Per Capita California, $ 11 7 7 14 7 7 9 11 13 4 15 Total U.S. ($1000s) 2,214,902 1,838,302 2,313,630 2,566,026 2,466,797 2,349,513 3,056,604 3,830,297 4,302,797 1,153,930 5,080,490 Per Capita U.S., $ 9 7 9 10 9 9 11 14 15 4 18 California as a % of U.S. 15.27 10.96 9.09 16.70 9.23 9.78 10.05 9.88 10.02 10.55 9.98 shown in Figure 2.13, the state’s share returned to relative stability after 1995, hovering at or near 10 percent for the next six years. To date, funding for the special education grants has been based on statereported data for numbers of disabled children. However, when IDEA was last reauthorized in 1997, Congress changed the formula for those years in which state grant funding exceeds $4.9 billion (the program reached that level for the first time in fiscal year 2001). The revised formula allocates any funds above Percentage of U.S. total 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 1991 15.3 12.0 1992 11.0 12.1 1993 9.1 12.0 1994 16.7 12.0 1995 9.2 11.9 1996 9.8 11.9 1997 10.1 11.9 1998 9.9 12.0 Special education Population 1999 10.0 12.0 2000 10.5 12.1 2001 10.0 12.1 Figure 2.13—Special Education—Grants to States—California Share of Federal Expenditures and Population, FY 1991–2001 18 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California the $4.9 billion base as follows: 85 percent based on each state’s share of persons ages 3–21 and 15 percent based on youth population in poverty. At present, California’s share of both measures is considerably higher than its 10 percent historical share of IDEA funding, so the state’s share of funding is likely to increase. There has been a longstanding debate over whether the federal government provides an adequate share of the cost of educating disabled children, and many in Congress have recently focused on raising the federal share of special education funding to 40 percent of total expenditures. Currently, the federal share is about 15 percent. One option discussed is conversion of IDEA from discretionary to mandatory, or entitlement, spending. IDEA is scheduled to expire at the end of fiscal year 2002. Foster Care—Title IV-E The federal foster care program is the eighth-largest federal grant for the nation as a whole and the fourth largest for California. Foster care is an openended matching grant entitlement program that reimburses states for the cost of providing 24-hour substitute care for children who are under the jurisdiction of the administering state agency and need temporary placement and care outside their homes. As shown in Table 2.8, the state has been the destination for about onequarter of the nation’s foster care expenditures over the past 11 years, and the program has grown faster in California (204 percent) than in the nation (137 percent). Table 2.8 Foster Care—Title IV-E—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 363,822 405,254 524,861 555,293 569,065 716,805 770,992 874,344 849,779 1,091,407 1,107,148 Per Capita California, $ 12 13 17 18 18 22 24 27 25 32 32 Total U.S. ($1000s) 1,813,186 2,143,863 2,532,398 2,600,197 2,898,562 2,553,624 3,291,719 3,539,685 3,980,043 4,291,923 4,291,923 Per Capita U.S., $ 7 8 10 10 11 9 12 13 14 15 15 California as a % of U.S. 20.07 18.90 20.73 21.36 19.63 28.07 23.42 24.70 21.35 25.43 25.80 FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 19 California’s share of federal foster care dollars has ranged from a low of 18.9 percent in fiscal year 1992 ($405 million compared to the nation’s $2.1 billion) to a high of 28.1 percent in fiscal year 1996 ($717 million compared to the nation’s $2.6 billion). In 2001, California received 25.8 percent of funding, or $1.1 billion of the nation’s $4.3 billion total (Figure 2.14). California’s relatively large share of foster care dollars is largely due to generous state policies. The foster care program provides a matching grant similar to the former AFDC program. However, unlike welfare programs, each state’s matching level for foster care is adjusted according to the Federal Medicaid Assistance Percentage, which reduces California’s funding share somewhat by weighting match rates according to per capita income. Percentage of U.S. total 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 1991 20.1 12.0 13.5 Foster care Population Poverty 1992 18.9 12.1 13.7 1993 20.7 12.0 14.8 1994 21.4 12.0 14.9 1995 19.6 11.9 14.7 1996 28.1 11.9 15.0 1997 23.4 11.9 15.3 1998 24.7 12.0 14.8 1999 21.4 12.0 14.5 2000 25.4 12.1 14.3 2001 25.8 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.14—Foster Care—Title IV-E—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 State Children's Health Insurance Program Implemented for the first time in fiscal year 1998, the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) is now the nation’s ninth-largest grant program, distributing $4.25 billion in fiscal year 2001. This program helps states provide health services to indigent children and largely parallels Medicaid in its structure. As shown in Table 2.9 and Figure 2.15, California’s share of total federal SCHIP funding was 16.6 percent in 2001, for a total of $705 million in federal funds. Initial national funding for the program in 1998 was $3.75 20 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Percentage of U.S. total Table 2.9 State Children’s Health Insurance Program—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1998–2001 Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 854,645 850,609 765,548 704,931 Per Capita California, $ 26 25 23 20 Total U.S. ($1000s) 3,750,466 4,247,000 4,249,200 4,249,200 Per Capita U.S., $ 14 15 15 15 California as a % of U.S. 22.79 20.03 18.02 16.59 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 1998 22.8 12.0 14.8 1999 20.0 12.0 14.5 2000 18.0 12.1 14.3 SCHIP Population Poverty 2001 16.6 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.15—State Children’s Health Insurance Program—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1998–2001 billion, and the level was raised to $4.25 billion for each of the next three years. California’s funding level began at $855 million in the first year of the program and has since declined steadily each year. SCHIP is the tenth-largest formula grant received by California. The formula for SCHIP reflects various factors, including state needs (a three-year estimate of child population at 200 percent of the poverty level), fiscal capacity (state taxation levels), and state effort (internal resources being applied). SCHIP federal matching levels are tied to Medicaid and use the FMAP but “enhance” it to both increase the federal share of funding and reduce the discrepancies caused by the FMAP usage in Medicaid. In 1999, Congress changed the SCHIP formula by reducing the counting of uninsured low-income children and proportionally increasing the counting of low-income children generally, whether uninsured or not. California’s share of the nation’s uninsured FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 21 low-income children exceeded the share of all low-income children, resulting in a reduction in the state’s share of funds. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the tenth-largest federal formula grant program and ranks ninth among California’s federal formula grant sources. WIC seeks to provide free food, nutrition education, and health care referrals to low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women, and to their infants and children ages 0–5 who are determined to be at nutritional risk. As shown in Table 2.10 and Figure 2.16, California received 17.9 percent of federal expenditures on WIC in 2001, capping 11 years of rapid growth. In 1991, California’s share of WIC was 9.6 percent, and in 1992 it was just 10 percent. California’s low share in the early 1990s largely resulted from the use of outdated 1980 decennial Census poverty figures used to determine allocations until 1993. California’s share of WIC funding rose to 11.3 percent in 1993, 13.5 percent in 1994, 14.8 percent in 1995, and 16.6 percent in 1996, before leveling off and remaining between 17 percent and 17.9 percent for the next six years. Total receipts for WIC in California grew by 228 percent between 1991 and 2001, whereas total U.S. spending on the program grew by only 76 percent. In 1991, California received $228 million from the WIC program, which grew to $748 million by 2001. In the nation as a whole, the program grew from $2.4 billion in 1991 to $4.2 billion in 2001. Table 2.10 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children— Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 227,920 266,359 327,439 427,294 528,433 631,053 662,230 688,572 698,931 718,992 748,066 Per Capita California, $ 7 9 10 14 17 20 20 21 21 21 22 Total U.S. ($1000s) 2,372,765 2,667,449 2,903,447 3,173,129 3,573,615 3,809,738 3,904,401 4,029,509 4,048,926 4,118,617 4,180,055 Per Capita U.S., $ 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 California as a % of U.S. 9.61 9.99 11.28 13.47 14.79 16.56 16.96 17.09 17.26 17.46 17.90 22 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Percentage of U.S. total 18 16 14 12 Poverty 10 Population WIC 8 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 9.6 10.0 11.3 13.5 14.8 16.6 17.0 17.1 17.3 17.5 17.9 12.0 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 13.5 13.7 14.8 14.9 14.7 15.0 15.3 14.8 14.5 14.3 13.1 Figure 2.16—Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 Federal funding for the WIC program is based primarily on poverty, with a minor addition for states with above-average infant mortality rates and for states with relatively high incidences of low-birthweight babies. California’s high poverty rates result in high WIC receipts for the state. Conclusion Between 1991 and 2001, the fastest-growing major segment of federal expenditures was formula grant programs. Formula grants accounted for 12 percent of the budget in 1991 and 17 percent in 2001. Mandatory spending on entitlement programs such as Medicaid—which alone accounts for more than half of formula expenditures—drove the increase. California’s share of the nation’s formula funding over this period rose slightly from 11 percent to 12 percent, and the state’s total federal receipts from formula programs more than doubled, jumping from $15 billion to $34 billion. The state’s percentage share of funding from individual programs—and of the nation’s ten largest programs—varies widely. California receives 10.6 percent of federal Medicaid funds, 8.1 percent of highway funds, and 10 percent of special education grants. At the other end of the spectrum, California receives 22.5 percent of TANF grants and nearly 26 percent of federal foster care spending. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 23 Appendix A Methodology California and U.S. formula grant spending totals by program are derived from data presented by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in its annual report entitled Budget Information for States. Specifically, the statistics are drawn from the “actual” expenditures column as presented in reports for fiscal years 1993 through 2003. Each OMB report includes a statistic for three fiscal years (for example, the fiscal year 2003 report released in spring 2002 includes an actual figure for 2001, an estimated figure for 2002, and an estimated figure for 2003). For consistency and reliability, this report relies only on actual expenditure data. In some instances, reports prepared by the federal government attribute funding to a program that is allocated to the program but never distributed to state or local governments. Such figures are termed undistributed. For purposes of this analysis, we omit undistributed funding and subtract such figures from U.S. total expenditures. Some studies do not make this adjustment and thus may appear to derive a larger U.S. figure and as a result a smaller percentage share for each state. In some cases, the OMB report’s source material combines several subprograms into a single entry, and we follow that lead. An example is the DOT’s Highway Planning and Construction account, which combines funds for the national highway system, Surface Transportation Program, inspection and maintenance, congestion mitigation/air quality, minimum guarantee, and other minor components. Primary Source Tables The following tables provide the basic source material for this report. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 25 Table A.1 Total Federal Funds to California from Major Formula Grants, FY 1991–2001 ($1000s) 26 Dept. Program Name HHS Grants to States for Medicaid DOT Highway Planning and Construction HHS TANF—State Family Assistance Grants (a) HHS Family Support Payments (AFDC) EDU Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies HHS Head Start AGR National School Lunch Program EDU Special Education—Grants to States HHS Foster Care—Title IV-E HHS State Children’s Health Insurance Program AGR Special Supplemental Nutr. Program (WIC) DOT Transit Urbanized Area Formula (sec. 5307) HUD Public Housing Capital Fund HUD Community Dev. Block Grant—Entitlements EPA Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (a) HHS Child Support Enforcement—Federal Share HHS Social Services Block Grant DOT Transit Capital Inv.—Fixed Guideway (5309) DOL Unemployment Insurance—State Admin. Expenses EPA Water Infrastructure Financing (Wastewater) EDU Rehabilitation Services—Vocational Rehab. State Grants AGR State Admin. Matching Grants for Food Stamps HHS Child Care and Development Block Grant DOL Summer Youth Employment Grants—WIA (a) HUD HOME Investment Partnership Program AGR Child and Adult Care Food Program DOL Youth Training Grants—WIA (b) DOT Airport Improvement (including Block Grants) HHS Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (a) HHS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment AGR School Breakfast Program EPA Clean Water State Revolving Fund (b) EDU Class Size Reduction HUD Community Dev. Block Grant—Non-Entitlements HHS Child Care and Development—Matching (b) DOL Empl. and Training Asst.—Dislocated Workers—WIA (c) HHS Child Care and Development—Mandatory (a) HHS Adoption Assistance DOL Youth Activities—WIA EDU Vocational Education—Basic State Grants DOL Welfare to Work Grants HHS Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) HHS HIV Care Formula Grants (Ryan White) DOL Adult Employment and Training Grants—WIA CFDA No. 93.778 20.205 93.558 93.560 84.010 93.600 10.555 84.027 93.658 93.767 10.557 20.507 14.872 14.218 66.468 93.563 93.667 20.500 17.225 66.418 84.126 10.561 93.575 17.250 14.239 10.558 17.250 20.106 93.568 93.959 10.553 66.458 84.340 14.228 93.596 17.260 93.596 93.659 17.259 84.048 17.253 93.561 93.917 17.258 1991 4,548,494 1,201,804 2,957,106 511,559 203,034 440,400 338,298 363,822 227,920 218,695 298,112 137,326 320,721 331,162 167,913 133,812 166,566 76,561 191,090 111,217 79,192 81,722 65,161 151,409 95,810 23,827 40,019 27,467 76,917 116,343 12,954 1992 6,432,977 1,392,657 3,333,568 541,365 219,422 484,217 201,488 405,254 266,359 306,475 317,680 180,047 325,974 412,342 151,770 152,524 200,744 90,062 209,067 185,287 132,216 215,996 83,563 69,976 160,432 108,416 25,628 53,822 29,746 90,710 102,287 15,559 1993 1994 1995 6,885,933 7,108,566 8,782,541 1,276,541 1,353,849 1,710,131 3,097,393 634,291 305,180 521,966 210,198 524,861 2,958,137 692,878 371,303 553,608 428,492 555,293 3,103,834 717,138 392,330 582,713 227,804 569,065 327,439 427,294 528,433 297,070 230,321 410,092 391,560 206,488 333,167 318,825 430,951 306,495 163,846 233,747 100,637 131,334 123,421 133,311 148,299 50,947 62,606 152,246 118,276 430,373 214,246 342,434 55,355 416,396 89,131 185,486 237,232 101,831 151,527 160,535 160,075 137,619 65,439 65,056 158,834 129,766 512,589 191,243 259,752 336,929 532,908 380,370 189,425 250,284 106,609 166,486 176,070 167,757 146,654 60,676 59,352 164,136 144,465 32,939 33,778 43,254 59,959 157,616 198,156 40,956 39,507 51,873 103,696 99,404 100,101 137,193 171,830 90,855 133,232 28,173 96,317 138,366 27,867 21,797 1996 9,195,445 1,743,185 3,013,475 580,137 392,964 622,015 229,895 716,805 631,053 243,913 498,139 94,030 289,077 286,529 214,551 329,124 203,113 265,464 111,466 149,756 186,625 178,151 111,145 36,304 40,400 168,999 159,967 42,585 194,424 54,456 102,238 122,555 36,282 22,916 1997 1998 9,140,160 10,064,959 1,732,054 1,849,611 3,147,716 3,732,668 513,022 809,813 816,159 458,841 528,339 660,927 688,216 307,219 378,486 770,992 874,344 854,645 662,230 688,572 278,890 371,906 488,919 45,024 418,323 300,142 162,497 325,870 473,358 75,683 254,026 274,794 253,343 321,788 1999 12,307,071 2,237,536 3,731,149 940,850 554,366 726,227 431,133 849,779 850,609 698,931 412,584 475,354 77,108 338,194 228,114 93,675 317,378 2000 12,889,684 1,436,184 3,730,164 971,982 466,237 748,258 121,730 1,091,407 765,548 718,992 1,082,582 474,740 80,817 374,948 212,813 141,687 312,828 2001 14,066,021 2,248,552 3,728,516 1,007,981 758,587 775,026 507,056 1,107,148 704,931 748,066 995,484 151,164 492,230 84,017 329,936 207,311 115,288 346,006 207,144 256,715 2,314 153,246 182,334 182,269 150,625 55,106 53,308 189,177 174,666 43,276 96,164 226,609 92,944 60,429 107,278 33,000 57,920 22,287 217,332 263,568 122,774 140,132 193,396 179,167 21,278 144,218 44,913 189,177 181,342 97,257 42,495 113,016 228,455 85,589 100,240 108,186 190,417 73,678 151,782 223,835 215,384 121,446 141,438 208,240 185,168 21,475 84,197 49,127 216,995 191,260 106,868 42,830 125,636 252,751 85,593 99,253 109,111 177,228 95,938 153,203 226,483 226,213 140,119 211,436 195,051 93,390 49,063 223,283 191,979 96,957 42,627 44,223 151,609 297,723 85,593 167,769 171,424 26,284 106,594 160,744 234,214 339,170 233,209 235,173 203,694 122,304 62,776 235,159 198,756 96,095 147,678 46,070 174,892 273,391 85,593 159,113 181,547 121,427 108,968 156,376 27 Table A.1 (continued) Dept. EDU DOL HHS EDU DOJ HHS HHS HUD HHS AGR EDU DOJ DOJ EDU EDU EDU EDU EDU DOL EDU AGR EDU HHS DOJ AGR HHS EDU HHS HHS HHS HHS HHS HHS INT HHS DOT EPA DOJ HUD DOT EDU INT HHS DOE EDU INT Program Name Impact Aid—Basic Support Payments—Sec 3(a) Employment Service (a) State Legalization Impact Assistance (SLIAG) School Repair and Renovation Grants Violent Offender Incar./Truth in Sentencing Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (b) Maternal and Child Health Block Grant Indian Housing Block Grants Community Services Block Grant Summer Food Service Program for Children Drug-Free Schools and Communities Byrne Drug Control and System Improvement Formula Local Law Enforcement Block Grant Program Eisenhower Professional Development State Grants Goals 2000—State and Local Systemic Improvements Adult Education—State Grant (a) Innovative Education Program Strategies (Chap. 2) Technology Literacy Challenge Fund Senior Community Service Employment Program Special Education—Grants for Infants and Families Cooperative Extension Service Special Education—Preschool Grants Community Mental Health Services Block Grants Crime Victim Assistance Schools and Roads—Grants to States Aging—Congregate Nutrition Services (b) Migrant Education—Basic State Formula Grant Child Care for Families at Risk of Welfare Dependence Aging—Supportive Services and Senior Centers TANF—Supplemental Grants for Population Increases (b) HIV Emergency Relief Formula Grants (Ryan White) Child Welfare Services—State Grants Refugee and Entrant Assistance (State Admin.) Sport Fish Restoration Promoting Safe and Stable Families Appalachian Highway Development System Non-Point Source Pollution Grants Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS Transit Formula for Nonurban Areas (5311) Even Start Wildlife Restoration State Survey and Certification of Medicare Providers Weatherization Assistance for Low Income Persons Comprehensive School Reform Demonstrations Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program CFDA No. 84.041 17.207 93.565 84.352 16.586 93.568 93.994 14.867 93.569 10.559 84.186 16.579 16.592 84.281 84.276 84.002 84.298 84.318 17.235 84.181 10.500 84.173 93.958 16.575 10.665 93.045 84.011 93.574 93.044 93.558 93.914 93.645 93.566 15.605 93.556 23.003 66.460 16.523 14.241 20.509 84.213 15.611 93.777 81.042 84.332 15.252 1991 66,158 84,102 184,564 1992 65,794 89,584 0 1993 65,762 92,396 179,201 1994 64,330 97,552 507,502 1995 53,623 100,003 31,401 32,001 11,367 52,801 43,161 20,496 16,657 49,122 31,359 8,568 11,194 24,588 6,757 57,026 33,476 100,340 36,592 26,980 26,520 7,704 0 3,053 0 4,317 12,355 4,989 0 35,793 32,514 12,043 54,527 44,048 24,118 19,668 50,587 32,138 10,061 11,865 66,626 25,814 6,270 60,805 33,951 106,748 73,184 27,779 27,291 12,112 2,787 4,619 5,581 6,014 18,952 4,790 0 39,989 33,463 8,977 53,965 44,349 48,623 28,246 49,715 32,443 24,494 11,769 34,623 38,060 7,008 46,589 33,484 101,026 25,172 27,493 23,208 30,049 73,182 12,801 2,952 19,523 4,387 8,386 5,394 19,649 4,780 0 0 41,903 45,794 16,559 41,907 37,704 26,990 10,263 28,246 42,626 34,116 29,207 12,151 70,797 38,060 6,664 15,022 34,810 101,641 36,590 28,475 39,477 31,734 10,320 6,928 2,124 29,419 6,184 9,082 7,050 19,085 5,206 0 0 41,640 34,744 18,294 47,939 47,498 27,708 262 27,983 40,033 33,158 38,002 11,964 35,784 33,244 8,369 50,981 34,778 91,970 55,763 28,468 40,858 31,575 10,715 16,897 2,738 28,749 6,331 9,904 7,801 20,600 5,976 0 1996 48,502 90,415 1997 35,293 89,653 8,294 40,998 34,914 22,471 47,493 49,788 29,970 42,909 27,362 31,703 33,731 78,661 11,449 36,326 34,270 14,009 41,168 33,743 91,622 43,879 27,879 47,122 31,039 10,158 25,989 5,599 25,205 5,175 9,973 7,319 20,600 3,101 0 140,078 8,395 40,901 43,606 24,023 57,354 52,005 81,787 33,854 54,659 38,209 35,956 20,569 36,617 0 11,439 35,918 34,514 44,294 33,925 33,781 84,472 27,059 50,971 32,757 13,661 29,855 5,515 28,969 6,446 10,632 5,783 20,767 3,352 0 1998 44,393 88,908 80,615 0 40,850 43,693 20,909 59,536 52,751 55,006 37,696 54,875 38,791 41,044 46,549 36,946 86,987 11,317 38,085 34,514 29,913 30,533 34,768 89,145 27,849 0 56,965 33,874 13,601 33,398 0 5,646 22,539 28,238 6,238 12,434 5,366 20,163 3,473 0 0 1999 45,904 88,902 67,506 0 42,267 44,317 21,210 49,466 53,003 76,623 38,012 54,330 41,466 44,575 45,942 37,004 46,250 11,753 37,946 35,155 25,555 28,634 34,748 103,467 27,929 0 58,536 34,056 20,060 10,621 37,750 0 10,664 22,598 27,364 8,350 14,930 5,697 21,172 3,692 26,474 0 2000 41,201 88,632 59,925 24,743 106,594 46,771 20,425 11,819 51,529 78,969 39,717 54,343 47,505 9,634 49,834 7,523 45,930 10,174 39,849 46,170 41,329 28,036 34,725 107,669 28,897 0 61,488 34,127 27,552 12,047 40,545 0 10,551 21,323 27,961 16,325 17,635 6,610 24,262 3,732 20,517 0 2001 49,356 89,217 867 59,271 20,789 42,994 30,189 53,183 21,355 51,738 51,592 61,436 59,261 52,666 45,691 55,910 7,518 46,979 10,150 39,849 54,653 40,440 65,750 34,803 119,491 30,783 0 63,885 34,037 16,147 12,042 42,820 0 12,365 22,092 30,573 16,556 30,485 6,861 26,889 4,238 26,717 0 28 Dept. Program Name HHS EPA DOT AGR AGR Preventative Health Block Grant Air Pollution Control Program Grant (105) Transit Formula for Elderly and Disabled (5310) Emergency Food Assistance—Administrative Costs Agricultural Experimentation Stations (Hatch Act) EPA Water Pollution Control—State/Interstate Supp. HUD Emergency Shelter Grants AGR AGR AGR EDU HHS Cooperative Forestry Assistance Emergency Food Assistance—Commodities Nutrition Program for the Elderly Education of Children with Disabilities in State Schools Aging—Home Delivered Meals (a) EDU Immigrant Education DOT Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program NFAH State Library Prog.—National Foundation on Arts and Humanities DOT State and Community Highway Safety Formula FEM Emergency Food and Shelter Program DOJ Violence Against Women Formula Grants HHS Independent Living FEM Emergency Mgmt. Performance Grants—State and Local AGR HHS DOT AGR EDU State Admin. Expenses for Child Nutrition Aging—National Family Caregiver Support Federal Transit Metropolitan Planning (5303) Commodity Supplemental Food Program Vocational Education—Tech-Prep Education HHS State Medicaid Fraud Control Units EPA Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance to States HHS Family Violence Prev. and Services—Battered Women EPA EDU DOJ DOJ Public Water System Supervision (Drinking Water) Indian Education LEA Grants Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Crime Victim Compensation INT Outdoor Rec. Acq./Development/Planning (NPS) CNCS AmeriCorps Grants EDU Public Library Services (LSCA Title I) DOL DOL DOL EDU Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) Local Veterans Employment Representatives (LVER) Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers—WIA Leveraging Educ. Assistance Partnership (SSIG/LEAP) HHS Developmental Disabilities—Basic Support (a) EDU English Literacy and Civics Education State Grant (b) COM Coastal Zone Management Admin. Awards FEM Emergency Management Assistance (Civ. Def.) HUD Indian Community Development Block Grant EDU Educationally Deprived—Title I (State Admin.) CFDA No. 93.991 66.001 20.513 10.568 10.203 66.419 14.231 10.664 10.569 10.570 84.009 93.045 84.162 20.218 45.310 20.600 83.523 16.588 93.674 83.534 10.560 93.052 20.500 10.565 84.243 93.775 66.801 93.671 66.432 84.060 16.540 16.576 15.916 94.006 84.034 17.801 17.804 17.247 84.069 93.630 84.002 11.419 83.503 14.862 84.012 Table A.1 (continued) 1991 6,492 11,630 11,039 4,493 4,471 7,399 3,074 10,363 2,070 8,148 1992 9,152 17,645 12,805 4,706 3,911 7,401 6,020 12,255 2,036 8,322 1993 10,326 19,357 4,392 4,955 4,679 4,385 5,070 3,794 20,601 11,853 1,549 8,304 1994 10,915 18,731 5,447 5,116 4,745 4,720 12,411 6,597 10,162 11,990 1,682 8,733 3,268 1995 10,966 20,366 5,466 8,481 4,713 4,256 16,760 4,712 11,568 8,774 2,622 1996 13,489 18,685 4,700 4,621 4,267 4,373 11,566 9,879 14,367 3,875 1997 14,764 17,364 5,150 21,552 4,613 4,294 14,044 1,986 11,763 9,921 26,513 3,802 1998 15,211 18,009 5,780 21,552 4,579 4,590 20,329 1,922 11,291 10,592 38,894 4,300 843 17,123 11,264 6,681 11,723 18,125 12,959 7,700 0 6,552 7,777 2,964 4,319 15,808 2,997 9,357 7,943 7,547 3,068 4,442 5,632 35,325 8,470 9,796 6,660 12,271 9,755 5,370 8,643 9,840 6,509 14,801 11,057 5,763 5,242 5,752 5,093 5,849 11,512 18,000 12,878 8,967 11,341 21,260 12,878 12,095 11,368 21,807 12,554 6,406 10,818 3,638 10,860 6,555 7,390 3,641 4,389 5,632 24,034 8,616 10,205 6,740 15,066 11,251 5,823 11,443 7,052 6,908 4,146 4,622 6,332 15,285 5,649 8,659 11,417 6,507 17,640 11,124 6,144 5,373 11,443 5,831 7,311 4,267 4,344 7,834 17,863 7,937 8,661 11,850 6,971 16,597 9,733 6,427 5,721 6,508 5,980 6,817 11,855 16,919 12,551 8,202 11,678 10,834 7,105 6,827 4,432 3,494 7,790 31,911 8,626 10,876 6,405 14,235 4,903 5,563 12,963 16,843 12,935 12,520 8,277 12,422 6,794 6,231 10,893 8,339 7,480 5,595 5,601 3,838 9,884 25,489 8,081 11,159 6,553 14,235 7,921 5,570 13,683 15,601 13,327 12,519 8,710 13,293 7,792 7,134 11,260 9,350 7,031 6,744 5,662 3,984 11,180 19,458 9,544 12,101 6,808 14,590 3,924 5,568 2,420 1999 15,394 18,498 6,024 5,561 4,948 6,335 18,404 3,488 10,989 11,542 10,623 36,457 5,461 13,675 15,839 13,655 12,517 8,535 13,992 7,429 8,190 11,633 8,811 7,155 6,976 5,674 4,134 8,656 17,670 8,551 11,260 6,392 18,779 3,924 5,577 2,730 2000 9,292 20,977 39,176 5,592 4,947 6,279 18,390 4,332 11,954 11,170 14,079 33,392 5,756 14,623 13,888 18,346 12,880 26,757 10,675 14,311 37,773 8,753 11,632 10,307 7,280 8,093 5,674 4,395 8,419 19,161 3,171 11,220 12,431 6,504 16,077 6,452 5,659 7,651 2,765 12,140 2001 9,243 20,700 93,228 5,717 4,933 9,418 18,302 6,571 12,436 12,357 14,753 32,069 9,801 15,852 14,073 21,104 10,179 27,569 10,675 15,062 11,360 39,344 9,239 11,895 13,026 7,939 6,581 5,309 6,585 8,366 19,294 7,709 11,207 10,771 6,937 16,802 8,445 5,874 20,960 3,070 14,781 29 Dept. DOJ DOT DOT INT EDU HHS EDU EDU EDU DOT HHS HHS EDU DOJ AGR EDU DOE INT EDU EDU DOL DOT HHS AGR EDU EDU EDU EDU AGR AGR EPA EDU AGR EDU EDU EPA EDU EDU EDU EDU EDU EPA EDU EPA DOL EDU EPA EDU Program Name Residential Subst. Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Recreational Boating Safety Transit Planning and Research Surface Mining Regulation and Technology Impact Aid—Children with Disabilities—Sec 3 (b) Abstinence Education Fund for Improve. of Educ./Demo. of Comp. School Ref. Neglected and Delinquent Children—Title I Capital Expenses (Title I) Federal Transit Technical Studies, Sec. 8 Runaway and Homeless Youth Emergency Community Services for Homeless Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarships Title V Delinquency Prevention Program Soup Kitchens Supported Employment Services—Severe Disabilities State Energy Program Historic Preservation Fund Vocational Education—Consumer and Homemaking Education for Homeless Children and Youth Reemployment Services (b) National Recreational Trails Developmental Disabilities—Protection/Advocacy (b) 1890 Land Grant Colleges and Tuskeegee University State Program Improvement Grants—Chap. 1 Public Library Construction (LSCA II) Interlibrary Cooperation Independent Living State Grants Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program Cooperative Forestry Research Pesticides Enforcement Grants (a) Rehab. Services—Independent Living for Older/Blind Special Milk Program for Children Foreign Language Assistance Grants Paul Douglas Teacher Scholarships Pesticide Program Implementation Grants (b) Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth Offenders Special Education—Protection and Advocacy Impact Aid—Payments for Federal Property—Sec. 3 (d) State Literacy Resource Centers Vocational Education—Community-Based Organizations Underground Storage Tank (UST) Grants Rehabilitation Services—Client Assistance Underground Injection Control (UIC) Grants Veterans Employment—JTPA Title IV-C Vocational Education—State Councils Toxic Substances Enforcement Grants Impact Aid—Construction—Sec. 3 (c) CFDA No. 16.953 20.005 20.515 15.250 84.041 93.235 84.215 84.013 84.216 20.505 93.623 93.572 84.185 16.548 10.571 84.187 81.041 15.904 84.049 84.196 17.207 20.219 93.630 10.205 84.218 84.154 84.035 84.169 10.572 10.202 66.700 84.177 10.556 84.249 84.176 66.700 84.331 84.240 84.041 84.254 84.174 66.805 84.161 66.433 17.250 84.053 66.701 84.041 Table A.1 (continued) 1991 3,257 4,032 3,807 998 3,134 836 0 981 1,593 1,443 1,664 2,047 1,094 675 947 0 1,776 468 0 0 838 795 737 223 130 1992 3,569 4,473 2,238 1,070 3,368 862 3,486 2,201 1,739 2,321 1,408 2,089 1,220 671 939 661 1,850 380 417 1,221 896 632 733 242 219 1993 1,650 0 3,469 4,437 7,715 1,811 1,126 3,345 3,365 855 3,438 2,534 1,785 2,736 1,397 2,083 1,232 1,163 927 2,516 1,742 705 1,289 1,207 918 660 712 232 0 1994 1,284 0 4,170 4,627 7,041 2,285 4,533 3,680 3,441 2,828 1,961 2,866 1,547 2,093 1,297 0 1,412 1,772 52 100 872 1,217 957 680 232 0 1995 1,284 0 4,479 4,445 6,203 7,046 3,440 5,160 3,933 3,047 2,175 2,971 1,547 2,555 1,950 1,172 852 675 606 985 617 225 150 1996 0 4,198 4,039 6,193 6,632 3,434 4,134 2,391 2,192 1,378 1,885 1,952 854 773 605 1,015 523 128 1997 3,019 2,373 1,256 0 4,186 3,640 5,793 6,794 3,421 4,113 1,820 2,791 2,222 1,936 164 960 833 673 638 450 1,054 504 144 1998 6,624 2,740 1,301 0 4,967 5,764 3,603 5,793 4,682 4,643 4,113 1,914 3,204 511 2,234 0 1,936 468 606 776 824 965 1,713 955 384 1,083 440 76 1999 6,399 3,267 1,403 0 4,744 5,764 5,972 3,254 2,979 5,024 4,680 5,249 4,176 2,137 3,475 1,583 2,240 0 1,982 936 650 1,058 806 717 1,473 1,048 315 1,110 597 587 2000 6,382 3,212 3,865 0 3,258 0 6,044 3,522 1,831 4,754 4,792 4,662 4,192 2,167 3,673 2,346 0 2001 6,212 3,327 1,658 0 4,236 0 6,044 4,146 1,054 5,394 4,994 4,765 4,161 2,496 4,852 3,576 2,757 0 1,987 4,244 650 1,081 1,004 763 572 1,629 1,147 303 1,113 618 365 348 1,987 3,676 647 1,090 1,714 793 791 1,811 1,399 2,447 307 1,193 557 132 283 Table A.1 (continued) 30 Dept. Program Name DOT Federal Transit Rural Transp. Assistance (5311(b)(2)) AGR Animal Health and Disease Research AGR Nutrition, Education, and Training EDU Assistive Tech.—Grants for Protection/Advocacy EDU Christa McAuliffe Fellowships Total Federal Formula Grant Funding CFDA No. 20.509 10.207 10.564 84.343 84.190 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 69 124 110 85 14,941,382 18,181,293 19,697,478 20,253,495 22,845,233 1996 1997 22,696,373 24,280,692 1998 147 537 328 27,198,980 1999 160 538 50 30,030,813 2000 132 496 2001 161 465 50 50 30,549,358 34,019,274 SOURCES: Budget Information for States, various fiscal years; budgets of the U.S. government; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance; California Institute for Federal Policy Research; Public Policy Institute of California. NOTES: This table lists the largest federal formula grant programs. These programs distribute more than 85 percent of U.S. formula dollars. Programs included in this table are those listed in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget annual report Budget Information for States. U.S. totals exclude undistributed funds, technical assistance, and other funds not geographically distributed. Indian tribe funding is included in the U.S. total but is not attributed to California. Table A.2 Total Federal Funding to All States from Major Formula Grants, FY 1991–2001 ($1000s) 31 DPT HHS DOT HHS HHS EDU HHS AGR EDU HHS HHS AGR DOT HUD HUD EPA HHS HHS DOT DOL EPA EDU AGR HHS DOL HUD AGR DOL Program Name Grants to States for Medicaid Highway Planning and Construction TANF—State Family Assistance Grants (a) Family Support Payments (AFDC) Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies Head Start National School Lunch Program Special Education—Grants to States Foster Care—Title IV-E State Children’s Health Insurance Program Special Supplemental Nutr. Program (WIC) Transit Urbanized Area Formula (sec. 5307) Public Housing Capital Fund Community Development Block Grant—Entitlements Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (a) Child Support Enforcement— Federal Share Social Services Block Grant Transit Capital Inv.—Fixed Guideway (5309) Unemployment Insurance—State Admin. Expenses Water Infrastructure Financing (Wastewater) Rehabilitation Services— Vocational Rehab. State Grants State Admin. Matching Grants for Food Stamps Child Care and Development Block Grant Summer Youth Employment Grants—WIA (a) HOME Investment Partnership Program Child and Adult Care Food Program Youth Training Grants—WIA (b) CFDA No. 93.778 20.205 93.558 93.560 84.010 93.600 10.555 84.027 93.658 93.767 10.557 20.507 14.872 14.218 66.468 93.563 93.667 20.500 17.225 66.418 84.126 10.561 93.575 17.250 14.239 10.558 17.250 1991 53,335,353 14,178,052 12,450,520 5,557,984 2,055,267 3,553,207 2,214,902 1,813,186 2,372,765 2,953,963 2,202,600 1,204,674 2,804,054 2,118,661 2,527,995 1,628,543 1,198,890 731,915 1,778,484 927,936 682,880 1992 69,711,866 15,203,154 1993 74,252,273 14,427,018 1994 77,847,373 16,581,395 14,433,674 13,744,659 12,587,488 6,129,583 5,853,841 6,035,327 2,201,763 3,870,097 1,838,302 2,374,612 3,949,299 2,313,630 2,852,650 4,157,707 2,566,027 2,143,863 2,532,398 2,600,197 2,667,449 2,140,902 2,903,447 1,756,857 3,173,129 1,968,946 2,396,779 2,658,617 2,926,822 1,375,400 2,800,000 2,558,599 2,412,000 1,783,530 1,337,590 825,000 1,773,484 1,460,000 1,089,628 1,672,412 1,531,292 2,784,350 1,714,636 2,365,682 2,485,228 1,837,114 1,497,816 836,815 975,353 972,582 1,190,752 963,244 1,765,959 2,791,350 1,531,823 2,280,085 1,505,367 1,928,853 1,601,387 835,511 948,167 1,192,522 1,312,005 837,957 1995 88,791,301 18,536,550 1996 92,056,580 18,236,903 12,158,302 11,046,845 6,649,208 5,378,095 3,402,946 4,449,177 2,466,797 3,438,242 4,636,853 2,349,513 2,898,562 2,553,624 3,573,615 2,392,832 3,809,738 1,855,958 3,185,500 3,053,059 2,122,979 2,800,000 2,559,235 2,213,475 3,019,000 1,797,877 1,982,107 2,381,000 1,693,609 1,974,905 2,054,145 1,724,776 932,305 996,813 1,353,000 1,425,930 867,070 2,114,334 1,784,943 932,262 850,000 1,378,000 1,486,704 625,000 1997 95,123,263 19,661,988 1998 1999 2000 2001 99,407,033 110,212,407 120,084,050 132,723,725 19,503,076 24,585,046 25,280,613 27,649,444 13,402,837 16,645,989 16,565,996 16,566,404 16,561,811 3,835,802 7,285,557 7,208,318 7,724,543 7,911,318 8,097,387 3,866,717 4,923,489 3,056,604 4,232,433 5,084,373 3,830,297 4,335,499 5,282,477 4,302,797 3,553,140 5,455,143 1,153,930 5,757,812 5,591,467 5,080,490 3,291,719 3,539,685 3,980,043 4,291,923 4,291,923 3,750,466 4,247,000 4,249,200 4,249,200 3,904,401 4,029,509 4,048,926 4,118,617 4,180,055 1,983,690 2,052,026 2,465,147 4,107,570 4,102,961 3,654,353 3,084,280 3,003,640 2,952,740 2,965,235 3,079,510 1,059,650 1,234,952 800,540 861,138 815,964 2,441,654 2,139,078 2,511,883 2,805,119 2,942,686 2,500,000 2,299,000 1,909,000 1,725,000 1,725,000 1,699,143 1,653,168 838,296 1,001,516 1,024,163 2,018,521 2,066,610 2,035,658 2,055,926 2,217,250 2,176,038 1,666,395 19,120 895,000 1,355,550 1,523,078 871,000 2,246,888 2,304,411 1,889,499 1,826,125 1,005,635 997,501 871,000 871,000 1,441,000 1,553,039 1,509,946 1,566,658 129,965 129,965 2,338,977 1,936,958 1,169,715 1,556,000 1,636,945 2,399,790 2,115,862 1,984,999 1,737,169 1,683,572 32 DPT DOT HHS HHS AGR EPA EDU HUD HHS DOL HHS HHS DOL EDU DOL HHS HHS DOL EDU DOL HHS EDU DOJ HHS HHS HUD HHS AGR EDU Program Name Airport Improvement (including Block Grants) Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (a) Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment School Breakfast Program Clean Water State Revolving Fund (b) Class Size Reduction Community Dev. Block Grants—Non-Entitlement Child Care and Development— Matching (b) Empl. and Training Asst.— Dislocated Workers—WIA (c) Child Care and Development— Mandatory (a) Adoption Assistance Youth Activities—WIA Vocational Education—Basic State Grants Welfare to Work Grants Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) HIV Care Formula Grants (Ryan White) Adult Employment and Training Grants—WIA Impact Aid—Basic Support Payments—Sec 3(a) Employment Service (a) State Legalization Impact Assistance (SLIAG) School Repair and Renovation Grants Violent Offender Incar./Truth in Sentencing Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (b) Maternal and Child Health Block Grant Indian Housing Block Grants Community Services Block Grant Summer Food Service Program for Children Drug-Free Schools and Communities CFDA No. 20.106 93.568 93.959 10.553 66.458 84.340 14.228 93.596 17.260 93.596 93.659 17.259 84.048 17.253 93.561 93.917 17.258 84.041 17.207 93.565 84.352 16.586 93.568 93.994 14.867 93.569 10.559 84.186 1991 916,397 1,610,210 1,268,670 693,801 943,970 526,979 189,832 876,673 684,113 87,831 700,156 805,107 271,386 587,302 435,941 179,116 500,284 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 926,834 1,500,000 1,079,839 801,191 1993 793,319 1,330,847 1,035,736 841,561 1994 726,811 1,409,996 1,089,212 927,561 1,003,221 1,106,536 1,221,839 576,986 403,974 872,636 217,535 861,192 273,386 1,021,356 317,397 938,514 678,942 106,635 695,166 821,607 0 810,927 962,320 650,239 654,508 780,656 323,572 861,260 155,113 584,316 656,741 800,877 809,858 649,564 359,997 202,927 506,744 537,580 351,712 181,060 480,018 300,000 553,582 375,727 205,109 360,587 1995 590,000 1,288,112 1,172,402 1,043,056 1996 601,903 876,796 1,172,402 1,113,588 1,352,501 1,318,000 1,045,452 880,344 434,214 987,104 485,997 976,174 1,011,757 174,766 126,672 553,117 819,368 878,892 250,405 126,672 516,459 743,735 100,000 572,259 180,000 566,698 387,585 238,743 433,634 387,586 251,604 437,177 1997 780,698 1,189,750 1,294,602 1,210,961 1,299,964 723,692 1,037,149 1,238,390 589,740 1,006,272 283,290 397,895 126,672 527,493 743,735 1998 1,660,535 1999 944,448 974,750 1,074,351 1,294,602 1,505,750 1,264,063 1,333,636 1,240,844 1,423,049 1,265,560 1,272,460 846,360 940,718 1,083,280 1,127,397 1,218,864 1,220,865 700,672 826,420 1,023,745 1,018,726 1,040,788 954,560 520,074 955,000 608,500 743,735 709,905 955,000 665,532 743,735 2000 1,051,350 1,072,200 1,520,000 1,383,805 1,425,329 400,000 1,277,815 1,136,218 1,274,706 1,218,938 1,148,541 1,000,742 253,312 794,311 949,709 671,389 743,735 2001 1,619,327 1,371,928 1,581,747 1,442,366 1,342,572 1,371,836 1,326,774 1,331,718 1,123,020 1,228,864 1,148,541 1,127,742 1,126,235 874,625 949,709 844,666 745,735 793,935 215,000 564,590 483,795 249,011 530,442 509,149 160,000 681,079 484,822 175,002 576,227 484,943 532,914 530,000 491,996 265,557 439,118 423,731 744,350 582,675 519,255 271,552 108,779 800,264 435,380 455,650 582,225 629,080 590,470 270,308 435,000 33 DPT DOJ DOJ EDU EDU EDU EDU EDU DOL EDU AGR EDU HHS DOJ AGR HHS EDU HHS HHS HHS HHS HHS HHS INT HHS DOT EPA Program Name Byrne Drug Control and System Improvement Formula Local Law Enforcement Block Grant Program Eisenhower Professional Development State Grants Goals 2000—State and Local Systemic Improvements Adult Education—State Grant (a) Innovative Education Program Strategies (Chap. 2) Technology Literacy Challenge Fund Senior Community Service Employment Program Special Education—Grants for Infants and Families Cooperative Extension Service Special Education—Preschool Grants Community Mental Health Services Block Grants Crime Victim Assistance Schools and Roads—Grants to States Aging—Congregate Nutrition Services (b) Migrant Education—Basic State Formula Grant Child Care for Families at Risk of Welfare Dependence Aging—Supportive Services and Senior Centers TANF—Supplemental Grants for Population Increases (b) HIV Emergency Relief Formula Grants (Ryan White) Child Welfare Services—State Grants Refugee and Entrant Assistance (State Admin.) Sport Fish Restoration Promoting Safe and Stable Families Appalachian Highway Development System Non-Point Source Pollution Grants CFDA No. 16.579 16.592 84.281 84.276 84.002 84.298 84.318 17.235 84.181 10.500 84.173 93.958 16.575 10.665 93.045 84.011 93.574 93.044 93.558 93.914 93.645 93.566 15.605 93.556 23.003 66.460 1991 423,000 202,008 201,032 448,908 390,355 74,729 398,473 312,553 65,649 336,646 361,078 293,616 216,248 290,818 273,907 31,089 2,762 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 423,000 240,000 235,650 445,534 395,181 121,026 419,325 334,574 280,160 62,765 338,014 366,087 301,669 357,535 299,238 273,911 219,518 51,777 1993 413,288 1994 345,163 278,162 247,654 428,952 241,843 59,077 247,654 360,210 388,269 168,521 396,976 295,664 281,803 66,923 308,536 354,543 290,753 264,316 291,143 401,486 219,927 400,827 404,678 271,911 63,622 93,747 369,286 287,782 275,585 301,401 87,999 286,059 282,771 212,595 154,457 285,553 194,440 55,539 47,651 72,181 1995 448,542 1996 478,064 251,207 214,292 252,345 347,250 274,265 320,885 246,133 274,950 396,060 242,184 414,150 394,088 261,649 79,760 313,010 375,485 300,975 296,709 306,711 401,000 429,399 403,180 365,838 261,649 127,344 266,819 364,460 299,475 291,054 300,306 174,685 291,989 207,602 277,389 214,298 143,882 198,190 219,000 94,751 99,256 1997 496,752 454,351 309,025 456,334 340,339 310,000 199,250 435,000 367,452 406,926 355,724 261,649 397,059 234,284 364,391 300,975 1998 504,236 437,474 332,341 467,907 345,339 349,815 423,000 438,635 418,412 407,685 380,326 261,649 275,671 235,080 374,163 301,275 1999 505,297 406,218 334,000 466,382 365,000 375,000 422,875 438,436 373,249 420,678 373,985 274,375 238,136 208,344 373,699 348,457 2000 476,421 502,223 334,098 455,876 417,880 80,185 422,875 96,318 345,093 353,586 366,070 338,195 370,167 212,561 377,586 350,085 2001 487,204 452,988 483,167 460,059 382,305 447,750 97,403 425,126 354,162 413,676 399,000 360,864 384,176 377,586 373,318 291,260 227,734 291,989 273,229 224,000 84,589 299,113 79,447 233,025 291,458 272,028 222,737 258,253 85,734 299,632 159,720 251,890 291,896 133,653 212,423 240,946 83,747 181,383 324,359 238,599 271,648 291,982 216,352 240,938 259,660 67,049 179,873 324,359 319,450 298,926 291,982 134,851 240,853 268,127 210,237 239,004 34 DPT DOJ HUD DOT EDU INT HHS DOE EDU INT HHS EPA DOT AGR AGR EPA HUD AGR AGR AGR EDU HHS EDU DOT NFAH DOT FEM DOJ HHS Program Name Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS Transit Formula for Nonurban Areas (5311) Even Start Wildlife Restoration State Survey and Certification of Medicare Providers Weatherization Assistance for Low Income Persons Comprehensive School Reform Demonstrations Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program Preventative Health Block Grant Air Pollution Control Program Grant (105) Transit Formula for Elderly and Disabled (5310) Emergency Food Assistance— Administrative Costs Agricultural Experimentation Stations (Hatch Act) Water Pollution Control— State/Interstate Supp. Emergency Shelter Grants Cooperative Forestry Assistance Emergency Food Assistance— Commodities Nutrition Program for the Elderly Education of Children with Disabilities in State Schools Aging—Home Delivered Meals (a) Immigrant Education Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program State Library Prog.—National Foundation on Arts and Humanities State and Community Highway Safety Formula Emergency Food and Shelter Program Violence Against Women Formula Grants Independent Living CFDA No. 16.523 14.241 20.509 84.213 15.611 93.777 81.042 84.332 15.252 93.991 66.001 20.513 10.568 10.203 66.419 14.231 10.664 10.569 10.570 84.009 93.045 84.162 20.218 45.310 20.600 83.523 16.588 93.674 1991 87,548 0 144,468 134,455 198,953 194,034 90,844 138,870 119,999 155,481 82,317 73,163 97,145 141,701 151,852 87,830 10,000 134,000 60,000 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 117,244 67,825 158,074 149,445 193,925 150,457 129,000 163,819 120,000 161,370 81,855 73,164 95,688 143,719 150,095 89,603 127,337 134,000 70,000 1993 1994 86,876 111,221 82,177 153,444 138,054 182,365 134,819 141,651 81,904 190,912 136,170 202,891 139,456 140,004 163,943 47,218 43,450 154,283 75,714 47,659 84,098 154,777 148,750 122,768 87,936 201,487 148,249 163,477 56,567 40,010 156,582 79,656 110,076 100,378 79,352 148,215 117,295 92,049 62,025 116,631 126,023 124,419 126,909 70,000 70,000 1995 1996 153,900 161,606 94,523 218,082 144,384 211,536 153,900 121,475 95,522 208,310 142,625 109,764 167,346 152,487 180,385 57,114 65,086 162,648 79,328 156,800 94,432 134,406 168,455 164,982 50,738 160,200 80,149 91,629 146,569 144,485 94,065 48,552 105,339 50,000 74,374 117,847 129,030 122,489 99,998 70,000 70,000 1997 176,400 131,922 95,523 165,790 144,393 118,645 197,807 182,540 135,448 53,483 170,684 159,380 51,609 113,728 95,179 144,848 1998 232,250 183,600 130,002 118,200 154,808 149,490 122,945 62,222 186,705 194,092 132,392 58,558 170,746 159,387 53,305 165,000 94,747 140,145 1999 232,250 200,475 182,671 131,632 165,353 166,776 130,700 174,555 160,304 186,246 164,270 64,359 44,999 170,555 111,888 150,000 92,303 89,571 139,836 2000 221,095 207,234 228,815 142,190 193,168 195,344 132,700 168,905 188,830 128,434 176,033 109,902 43,546 170,540 110,727 150,000 125,684 100,584 136,391 2001 231,274 229,372 213,836 224,500 204,184 216,415 150,701 207,848 201,529 127,718 174,672 174,983 44,684 170,157 168,169 149,670 154,836 98,824 151,929 105,297 100,000 74,605 112,000 149,973 77,781 112,000 150,000 86,130 151,669 149,540 92,678 138,118 151,669 149,955 148,962 148,939 134,582 100,000 132,541 70,000 142,577 99,000 135,897 70,000 142,500 100,500 138,407 70,000 145,160 110,000 131,616 114,752 146,909 139,692 110,744 137,900 35 DPT FEM AGR HHS DOT AGR EDU HHS EPA HHS EPA EDU DOJ DOJ INT CNCS EDU DOL DOL DOL EDU HHS EDU COM FEM HUD Program Name Emergency Mgmt. Performance Grants—State and Local State Admin. Expenses for Child Nutrition Aging—National Family Caregiver Support Federal Transit Metropolitan Planning (5303) Commodity Supplemental Food Program Vocational Education—TechPrep Education State Medicaid Fraud Control Units Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance to States Family Violence Prev. and Services—Battered Women Public Water Systems Supervision (Drinking Water) Indian Education LEA Grants Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Crime Victim Compensation Outdoor Rec. Acq./ Development/Planning (NPS) AmeriCorps Grants Public Library Services (LSCA Title I) Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) Local Veterans Employment Representatives (LVER) Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers—WIA Leveraging Educ. Assistance Partnership (SSIG/LEAP) Developmental Disabilities— Basic Support (a) English Literacy and Civics Education State Grant (b) Coastal Zone Management Admin. Awards Emergency Management Assistance (Civ. Def.) Indian Community Development Block Grant CFDA No. 83.534 10.560 93.052 20.500 10.565 84.243 93.775 66.801 93.671 66.432 84.060 16.540 16.576 15.916 94.006 84.034 17.801 17.804 17.247 84.069 93.630 84.002 11.419 83.503 14.862 1991 63,363 34,564 58,000 83,153 47,955 56,031 49,434 83,922 76,239 70,405 70,287 63,537 64,402 63,128 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 68,766 96,366 86,920 53,974 90,565 50,028 53,936 45,640 87,224 83,898 76,899 71,569 77,644 66,666 67,706 62,128 1993 74,858 1994 76,759 92,565 104,720 47,012 90,173 114,529 101,059 49,536 94,932 56,500 56,305 47,035 68,429 80,056 81,339 75,880 71,320 77,313 63,452 64,689 57,327 58,612 60,593 47,839 80,104 83,797 77,713 77,595 71,739 65,557 66,868 68,845 1995 73,540 93,022 1996 105,783 99,262 87,862 110,169 57,947 96,750 99,650 60,788 96,196 69,132 59,654 71,694 64,532 67,952 83,227 81,308 75,278 76,349 63,375 70,438 72,439 50,000 68,794 83,952 77,665 76,389 70,209 65,487 31,375 64,803 1997 102,661 103,391 41,079 90,140 98,026 63,820 62,055 58,240 63,891 57,947 77,470 74,242 76,370 1998 111,098 108,303 1999 113,169 116,594 40,934 85,116 103,000 85,794 52,794 68,885 59,922 59,750 92,069 67,428 41,076 87,278 105,174 89,704 97,618 71,040 90,873 62,000 73,562 66,966 88,307 73,712 2000 135,939 127,409 117,860 103,673 86,693 102,976 106,700 100,040 93,534 93,027 61,981 68,509 81,374 40,000 75,303 2001 136,071 123,227 117,860 115,200 84,577 105,945 106,700 106,247 93,534 89,113 92,442 84,914 90,677 88,804 53,610 76,399 71,519 65,487 50,538 64,803 78,930 76,073 67,124 25,000 64,803 76,108 75,755 74,595 25,000 64,803 49,700 66,418 78,291 76,572 70,311 40,000 67,800 25,500 58,691 78,627 75,557 72,164 55,000 67,800 70,000 69,148 67,680 66,377 36 DPT EDU DOJ DOT DOT INT EDU HHS EDU EDU EDU DOT HHS HHS EDU DOJ AGR EDU DOE INT EDU EDU DOL DOT HHS AGR EDU EDU EDU EDU AGR Program Name Educationally Deprived—Title I (State Admin) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Recreational Boating Safety Transit Planning and Research Surface Mining Regulation and Technology Impact Aid–Children with Disabilities—Sec. 3 (b) Abstinence Education Fund for Impr. of Educ./Demo. of Comp. Sch. Ref. Neglected and Delinquent Children—Title I Capital Expenses (Title I) Federal Transit Technical Studies, Sec. 8 Runaway and Homeless Youth Emergency Community Services for Homeless Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarships Title V Delinquency Prevention Program Soup Kitchens Supported Empl. Services— Severe Disabilities State Energy Program Historic Preservation Fund Vocational Education— Consumer and Homemaking Education for Homeless Children and Youth Reemployment Services (b) National Recreational Trails Developmental Disabilities— Protection/Advocacy (b) 1890 Land Grant Colleges and Tuskeegee Univ. State Program Improvement Grants—Chap 1 Public Library Construction (LSCA II) Interlibrary Cooperation Independent Living State Grants Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program CFDA No. 84.012 16.953 20.005 20.515 15.250 84.041 93.235 84.215 84.013 84.216 20.505 93.623 93.572 84.185 16.548 10.571 84.187 81.041 15.904 84.049 84.196 17.207 20.219 93.630 10.205 84.218 84.154 84.035 84.169 10.572 1991 59,139 36,108 36,497 41,221 9,285 29,150 34,280 18,210 10,800 20,998 14,785 18,554 19,908 13,619 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 61,820 1993 58,507 1994 58,367 1995 1996 55,795 49,141 8,273 51,349 8,491 51,532 37,641 37,699 36,054 40,054 25,000 9,652 35,211 38,253 44,223 18,585 9,380 35,146 39,890 39,991 18,816 39,311 45,370 41,017 29,117 37,515 44,457 39,063 29,100 31,065 35,290 33,848 25,000 30,015 31,357 27,452 35,206 23,447 37,378 33,579 33,874 24,665 39,715 36,171 28,310 37,770 22,700 22,500 21,300 22,376 26,301 26,047 25,125 17,179 19,908 14,200 24,961 14,456 18,995 14,938 24,902 19,979 19,007 17,472 27,560 23,771 23,700 21,640 11,981 18,000 21,640 1997 27,746 41,594 8,798 51,224 38,899 39,311 41,029 41,083 29,109 37,770 28,500 1998 1999 59,373 50,990 8,318 50,874 47,909 49,748 39,311 41,119 57,881 53,901 8,722 51,188 48,780 49,172 36,779 40,311 23,999 39,038 38,937 39,288 39,288 39,921 37,770 29,750 37,770 32,750 2000 57,674 55,332 10,608 52,159 39,362 43,526 49,389 42,000 14,276 43,691 39,843 36,158 37,770 33,251 2001 58,076 56,480 12,805 55,624 49,886 43,475 49,409 46,000 6,610 43,691 40,971 38,134 37,770 37,750 24,800 26,184 28,600 28,500 15,767 26,174 26,170 33,751 26,184 28,006 28,399 32,340 28,982 34,652 34,650 32,340 30,801 21,640 7,279 21,640 12,653 22,073 14,954 22,073 19,316 22,073 21,006 Table A.2 (continued) 37 DPT Program Name AGR EPA EDU AGR Cooperative Forestry Research Pesticides Enforcement Grants (a) Rehab. Services—Independent Living for Older/Blind Special Milk Program for Children EDU Foreign Language Assistance Grants EDU EPA EDU Paul Douglas Teacher Scholarships Pesticide Program Implementation Grants (b) Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth Offenders EDU Special Education—Protection EDU EDU EDU and Advocacy Impact Aid—Payments for Federal Property—Sec. 3 (d) State Literacy Resource Centers Vocational Education— Community-Based Organizations EPA Underground Storage Tank EDU EPA (UST) Grants Rehabilitation Services—Client Assistance Underground Injection Control (UIC) Grants DOL Veterans Employment—JTPA Title IV-C EDU EPA EDU Vocational Education—State Councils Toxic Substances Enforcement Grants Impact Aid—Construction—Sec. 3 (c) DOT Federal Transit Rural Transp. AGR AGR EDU Assistance (5311(b)(2)) Animal Health and Disease Research Nutrition, Educ., and Training Assistive Tech—Grants for Protection/Advocacy EDU Christa McAuliffe Fellowships Total Federal Formula Grant Spending: CFDA No. 10.202 66.700 84.177 10.556 84.249 84.176 66.700 84.331 84.240 84.041 84.254 84.174 66.805 84.161 66.433 17.250 84.053 66.701 84.041 20.509 10.207 10.564 84.343 84.190 1991 15,486 19,448 0 14,639 14,654 0 6,352 8,310 10,408 9,120 8,803 4,940 137,354,264 1992 15,772 1993 15,098 1994 424 1995 16,419 1996 15,727 1997 9,861 1998 19,374 9,116 1999 20,733 19,196 2000 20,734 20,624 14,850 2001 20,469 19,356 19,800 19,089 6,314 18,700 18,081 10,803 17,091 17,454 16,672 16,634 15,470 15,512 15,067 14,359 14,388 14,194 12,550 14,811 14,624 14,428 6,836 7,274 13,183 12,722 12,878 12,000 12,000 14,000 13,621 5,100 7,321 7,321 7,519 9,716 10,698 11,680 13,748 12,566 5,000 11,598 12,528 11,954 8,542 11,492 7,954 7,261 10,233 10,974 11,909 9,141 8,964 9,213 9,824 10,119 10,392 10,714 10,928 10,928 11,647 10,547 8,508 9,508 9,966 8,905 8,921 8,864 10,744 8,659 9,741 9,120 7,024 9,000 8,575 8,892 9,006 5,161 5,059 107 3,978 4,526 6,675 3,212 6,233 6,800 5,449 6,712 5,979 4,626 5,064 4,950 5,156 4,454 4,769 4,766 4,757 3,700 2,686 2,680 2,680 2,000 1,847 1,843 1,946 162,023,665 168,178,541 174,698,058 193,330,112 189,111,412 208,707,944 223,230,173 240,861,085 251,082,774 284,060,084 SOURCES: Budget Information for States, various fiscal years; budgets of the U.S. government; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance; California Institute for Federal Policy Research; Public Policy Institute of California. NOTES: This table lists the largest federal formula grant programs. These programs distribute more than 85 percent of U.S. formula dollars. Programs included in this table are those listed in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget annual report Budget Information for States. U.S. totals exclude undistributed funds, technical assistance, and other funds not geographically distributed. Indian tribe funding is included in the U.S. total but is not attributed to California. Table A.3 California Percentage Share of Funding from Major Federal Formula Grants, FY 1991–2001, Plus Selected Rankings 38 DPT Program Name HHS Grants to States for Medicaid DOT Highway Planning and Construction HHS TANF—State Family Assistance Grants (a) HHS Family Support Payments (AFDC) EDU Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies HHS Head Start AGR National School Lunch Program EDU Special Education—Grants to States HHS Foster Care—Title IV-E HHS State Children’s Health Insurance Program AGR Special Supplemental Nutrition Program (WIC) DOT Transit Urbanized Area Formula (sec. 5307) HUD Public Housing Capital Fund HUD Community Development Block Grant—Entitlements EPA Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (a) HHS Child Support Enforcement—Federal Share HHS Social Services Block Grant DOT Transit Capital Inv.—Fixed Guideway (5309) DOL Unemployment Insurance—State Admin. Expenses EPA Water Infrastructure Financing (Wastewater) EDU Rehabilitation Services—Vocational Rehab. State Grants AGR State Admin. Matching for Food Stamps HHS Child Care and Development Block Grant DOL Summer Youth Employment Grants—WIA (a) HUD HOME Investment Partnership Program AGR Child and Adult Care Food Program DOL Youth Training Grants—WIA (b) DOT Airport Improvement (including Block Grants) HHS Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (a) HHS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment AGR School Breakfast Program EPA Clean Water State Revolving Fund (b) EDU Class Size Reduction HUD Comm Development Block Grants—Non-Entitlement HHS Child Care and Development — Matching (b) DOL Empl. and Training Asst.—Dislocated Workers—WIA (c) HHS Child Care and Development—Mandatory (a) HHS Adoption Assistance DOL Youth Activities—WIA EDU Vocational Education—Basic State Grants DOL Welfare to Work Grants HHS Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) HHS HIV Care Formula Grants (Ryan White) DOL Adult Employment and Training Grants—WIA EDU Impact Aid—Basic Support Payments—Sec 3(a) DOL Employment Service (a) CFDA No. 93.778 20.205 93.558 93.560 84.010 93.600 10.555 84.027 93.658 93.767 10.557 20.507 14.872 14.218 66.468 93.563 93.667 20.500 17.225 66.418 84.126 10.561 93.575 17.250 14.239 10.558 17.250 20.106 93.568 93.959 10.553 66.458 84.340 14.228 93.596 17.260 93.596 93.659 17.259 84.048 17.253 93.561 93.917 17.258 84.041 17.207 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 8.5 9.2 9.3 9.1 9.9 10.0 9.6 10.1 11.2 10.7 10.6 1 1 82 209 149 8.5 9.2 8.8 8.2 9.2 9.6 8.8 9.5 9.1 5.7 8.1 3 2 110 87 95 23.5 22.4 22.5 22.5 22.5 2 3 9 N/A N/A 23.8 23.1 22.5 23.5 25.5 27.3 13.4 165 9.2 8.8 10.8 11.5 10.8 10.8 11.1 11.3 12.2 12.3 12.4 5 4 52 97 46 9.9 10.0 12.9 13.0 11.5 11.4 11.9 12.5 12.8 13.1 13.2 8 5 43 274 180 12.4 12.5 13.2 13.3 13.1 13.4 13.4 13.5 13.7 13.7 13.9 7 6 32 76 57 15.3 11.0 9.1 16.7 9.2 9.8 10.1 9.9 10.0 10.5 10.0 11 7 88 50 129 20.1 18.9 20.7 21.4 19.6 28.1 23.4 24.7 21.4 25.4 25.8 4 8 5 204 137 22.8 20.0 18.0 16.6 10 9 20 N/A N/A 9.6 10.0 11.3 13.5 14.8 16.6 17.0 17.1 17.3 17.5 17.9 9 10 17 228 76 7.4 14.3 16.9 11.7 17.1 13.1 14.1 18.1 16.7 26.4 24.3 6 11 7 355 39 4.1 28 12 141 N/A N/A 13.5 13.3 14.7 14.7 16.1 16.5 15.9 15.8 16.1 16.0 16.0 12 13 24 65 40 6.3 5.2 4.2 6.1 9.6 9.4 10.3 39 39 85 N/A N/A 11.4 13.1 13.5 12.1 12.2 14.6 17.1 11.9 13.5 13.4 11.2 15 14 73 140 144 11.4 11.6 12.0 12.3 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 11.9 12.3 12.0 21 20 62 –35 –38 18.6 3.6 20.8 12.7 9.6 15.3 11.2 14.1 11.3 33 35 71 N/A N/A 15.6 16.1 18.2 18.3 17.2 16.7 16.1 15.6 15.6 15.2 15.6 13 16 27 4 5 6.6 6.3 12.3 5.9 166 8.2 8.6 8.9 9.6 9.2 9.6 9.5 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.8 19 15 91 75 47 13.9 15.0 15.6 14.8 14.5 14.9 15.4 13.9 11.8 11.7 16.0 14 17 23 104 76 10.5 10.9 12.0 12.2 11.4 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.2 12.0 11.7 20 18 68 205 171 10.7 11.8 13.5 16.0 16.7 17.6 17.1 16.1 16.2 160 12.7 12.7 13.5 13.0 13.5 13.5 13.4 13.4 13.6 13.5 17 19 40 N/A N/A 12.0 12.1 11.2 12.2 11.8 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.8 11.9 12.1 22 21 61 83 81 11.6 12.9 15.4 16.4 16.9 17.8 17.3 16.4 16.5 162 8.9 9.0 6.4 9.0 10.3 6.0 7.1 8.7 8.9 8.9 7.6 30 22 115 50 77 4.0 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 42 25 137 –4 –15 11.9 14.9 14.7 14.6 14.0 14.4 14.6 14.6 14.4 14.7 14.9 18 23 30 55 25 13.8 13.5 14.1 14.0 13.9 14.4 14.4 14.3 14.3 13.9 13.8 23 24 34 107 108 7.8 7.5 6.8 7.2 35 27 119 N/A N/A 10.7 10.8 29 26 79 N/A N/A 2.5 2.6 3.0 2.8 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 54 29 142 93 41 13.3 13.4 13.4 13.3 13.1 25 28 44 N/A N/A 7.6 9.3 14.8 18.1 19.0 22.1 21.8 21.1 22.4 23.4 24.3 16 34 6 583 113 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 38 30 122 N/A N/A 14.5 13.7 15.0 12.4 11.9 11.2 10.2 14.3 12.0 14.6 13.9 26 31 33 479 505 17.1 16.1 24 32 22 N/A N/A 8.8 10.5 10.2 10.6 10.1 10.5 10.7 10.6 10.7 10.4 10.8 31 33 78 58 28 18.3 18.6 159 17.0 15.1 16.9 15.5 13.7 13.9 11.6 167 14.7 14.6 17.9 18.2 15.9 14.5 14.6 14.2 13.5 13.4 12.5 34 37 51 741 896 14.0 16.5 17.2 18.1 17.6 15.9 16.0 16.9 16.5 27 36 21 N/A N/A 9.4 9.5 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.4 6.7 7.3 6.9 6.1 5.8 52 38 128 –25 21 10.4 10.9 11.8 12.2 12.2 12.2 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 12.0 37 41 64 6 –7 Table A.3 (continued) 39 DPT Program Name HHS State Legalization Impact Assistance (SLIAG) EDU School Repair and Renovation Grants DOJ Violent Offender Incar./Truth in Sentencing HHS Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (b) HHS Maternal and Child Health Block Grant HUD Indian Housing Block Grants HHS Community Services Block Grant AGR Summer Food Service Program for Children EDU Drug-Free Schools and Communities DOJ Byrne Drug Control and System Improvement Formula DOJ Local Law Enforcement Block Grant Program EDU Eisenhower Professional Development State Grants EDU Goals 2000—State and Local Systemic Improvements EDU Adult Education—State Grant (a) EDU Innovative Education Program Strategies (Chap. 2) EDU Technology Literacy Challenge Fund DOL Senior Community Service Employment Program EDU Special Education—Grants for Infants and Families AGR Cooperative Extension Service EDU Special Education—Preschool Grants HHS Community Mental Health Services Block Grants DOJ Crime Victim Assistance AGR Schools and Roads—Grants to States HHS Aging—Congregate Nutrition Services (b) EDU Migrant Education—Basic State Formula Grant HHS Child Care for Families at Risk of Welfare Dependence HHS Aging—Supportive Services and Senior Centers HHS TANF—Supplemental Grants for Population Increases (b) HHS HIV Emergency Relief Formula Grants (Ryan White) HHS Child Welfare Services—State Grants HHS Refugee and Entrant Assistance (State Admin.) INT Sport Fish Restoration HHS Promoting Safe and Stable Families DOT Appalachian Highway Development System EPA Non-Point Source Pollution Grants DOJ Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants HUD Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS DOT Transit Formula for Nonurban Areas (5311) EDU Even Start INT Wildlife Restoration HHS State Survey and Certification of Medicare Providers DOE Weatherization Assistance for Low Income Persons EDU Comprehensive School Reform Demonstrations INT Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program HHS Preventative Health Block Grant EPA Air Pollution Control Program Grant (105) CFDA No. 93.565 84.352 16.586 93.568 93.994 14.867 93.569 10.559 84.186 16.579 16.592 84.281 84.276 84.002 84.298 84.318 17.235 84.181 10.500 84.173 93.958 16.575 10.665 93.045 84.011 93.574 93.044 93.558 93.914 93.645 93.566 15.605 93.556 23.003 66.460 16.523 14.241 20.509 84.213 15.611 93.777 81.042 84.332 15.252 93.991 66.001 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 68.0 55.4 62.7 168 0.1 142 40 152 N/A N/A 17.6 15.8 13.9 14.1 13.6 44 51 37 N/A N/A 0.0 0.0 4.6 3.9 0.0 0.0 3.3 4.6 75 48 138 N/A N/A 5.3 5.5 7.4 7.6 7.3 7.2 7.2 6.0 7.3 18.3 7.4 56 44 117 37 –1 4.8 67 42 135 N/A N/A 7.3 9.0 9.5 12.2 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 48 43 102 66 35 6.3 5.9 5.0 8.1 7.7 8.9 9.6 3.9 8.0 7.5 7.9 72 66 111 88 51 10.6 10.8 11.2 11.6 11.1 10.9 10.8 11.2 11.3 10.9 11.9 50 52 66 –2 –13 10.2 10.4 10.7 10.9 10.6 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.8 10.6 51 45 83 20 15 18.0 12.6 18.9 15.7 13.6 43 49 39 N/A N/A 10.1 10.0 17.5 11.2 11.0 10.9 11.0 11.3 11.4 11.9 12.3 45 46 55 189 139 17.4 0.1 13.4 12.0 11.7 11.6 11.9 161 8.3 8.3 11.4 11.4 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.4 11.4 11.4 49 47 70 216 129 10.9 11.4 11.6 11.8 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.9 12.0 12.0 55 57 65 –7 –15 10.3 11.0 10.9 11.8 12.5 46 50 50 N/A N/A 8.0 8.1 8.4 8.5 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 7.8 7.7 107 105 114 –76 –75 11.5 8.3 14.5 13.3 15.7 18.3 0.0 20.8 12.4 13.3 11.1 53 53 75 448 469 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 98 61 147 –9 –11 7.9 19.9 11.7 17.5 9.1 9.9 10.1 10.0 10.1 10.9 9.6 59 54 94 62 32 9.2 13.5 14.0 12.7 13.1 13.2 13.2 12.8 13.7 13.7 47 55 36 N/A N/A 10.3 10.0 10.5 10.5 10.5 11.0 11.2 10.9 10.7 11.2 11.2 58 60 74 498 450 16.9 18.0 15.1 16.0 16.3 15.4 14.5 13.0 13.7 13.2 17.1 40 56 19 15 14 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.2 9.2 61 58 98 4 5 34.2 35.4 34.7 35.3 30.6 30.6 28.1 29.6 29.7 30.8 32.0 32 59 3 19 27 16.9 20.5 9.5 13.3 18.8 15.1 169 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 8.9 9.5 64 62 97 14 12 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 153 63 153 N/A N/A 26.4 25.6 23.4 22.7 22.4 24.4 23.2 22.6 21.4 41 64 12 N/A N/A 9.7 10.0 10.5 11.1 10.8 11.2 11.2 11.6 11.7 11.7 11.7 62 65 69 28 7 25.9 15.0 12.7 12.0 81 95 63 N/A N/A 24.8 5.5 6.0 5.3 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 91 68 134 56 675 12.5 11.7 11.9 13.3 15.0 15.7 15.6 16.0 57 67 25 N/A N/A 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 154 75 154 N/A N/A 0.0 5.4 6.2 2.9 2.9 5.6 6.5 6.6 5.9 5.9 5.2 89 69 132 N/A 8553 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.6 71 70 96 N/A N/A 22.5 21.8 18.7 16.4 16.4 15.4 13.6 13.5 13.3 65 71 41 N/A N/A 3.5 3.9 3.9 4.4 3.9 4.3 4.9 4.8 4.6 7.1 7.7 80 74 113 442 144 8.2 10.2 11.1 10.5 10.4 11.1 10.5 11.3 12.4 13.6 66 72 38 N/A N/A 3.0 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 109 77 143 59 41 9.2 12.7 14.2 14.0 14.3 14.4 14.4 13.5 12.7 12.4 12.4 69 73 53 118 61 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 123 86 148 –15 –24 0.0 15.2 12.1 12.9 70 76 46 N/A N/A 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 155 78 155 –100 4 7.1 7.1 7.4 7.4 7.2 8.0 8.1 7.8 8.3 7.2 7.2 101 96 118 42 41 8.4 10.8 11.8 11.5 11.3 11.3 12.8 13.6 11.3 11.9 11.9 76 80 67 78 26 Table A.3 (continued) 40 DPT Program Name DOT Transit Formula for Elderly and Disabled (5310) AGR Emergency Food Assistance—Administrative Costs AGR Agricultural Experimentation Stations (Hatch Act) EPA Water Pollution Control— State/Interstate Supp. HUD Emergency Shelter Grants AGR Cooperative Forestry Assistance AGR Emergency Food Assistance—Commodities AGR Nutrition Program for the Elderly EDU Education of Children with Disabilities in State Schools HHS Aging—Home Delivered Meals (a) EDU Immigrant Education DOT Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program NFAH State Library Program—National Foundation on Arts and Humanities DOT State and Community Highway Safety Formula FEM Emergency Food and Shelter Program DOJ Violence Against Women Formula Grants HHS Independent Living FEM Emergency Mgmt. Performance Grants—State and Local AGR State Admin. Expenses for Child Nutrition HHS Aging—National Family Caregiver Support DOT Federal Transit Metropolitan Planning (5303) AGR Commodity Supplemental Food Program EDU Vocational Education—Tech-Prep Education HHS State Medicaid Fraud Control Units EPA Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance to States HHS Family Violence Prevention and Services—Battered Women EPA Public Water Systems Supervision (Drinking Water) EDU Indian Education LEA Grants DOJ Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention DOJ Crime Victim Compensation INT Outdoor Rec. Acq./Development/Planning (NPS) CNCS AmeriCorps Grants EDU Public Library Services (LSCA Title I) DOL Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) DOL Local Veterans Employment Representatives (LVER) DOL Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers—WIA EDU Leveraging Educ. Assistance Partnership (SSIG/LEAP) HHS Developmental Disabilities—Basic Support (a) EDU English Literacy and Civics Education State Grant (b) COM Coastal Zone Management Admin. Awards FEM Emergency Management Assistance (Civ. Def.) HUD Indian Community Development Block Grant EDU Educationally Deprived—Title I (State Admin) DOJ Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners DOT Recreational Boating Safety DOT Transit Planning and Research CFDA No. 20.513 10.568 10.203 66.419 14.231 10.664 10.569 10.570 84.009 93.045 84.162 20.218 45.310 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 9.3 9.6 9.6 9.3 9.6 9.9 9.4 35.6 53.3 36 79 1 N/A N/A 9.2 10.7 11.4 12.8 13.0 12.6 12.6 12.4 12.8 12.8 116 128 47 –48 –63 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 120 81 146 10 9 5.4 4.8 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.3 8.3 8.6 5.7 5.7 5.6 100 82 131 111 104 10.1 10.1 10.6 11.3 10.7 12.3 12.3 12.3 12.3 12.2 78 88 57 147 105 3.2 6.3 4.5 6.6 5.0 4.8 2.1 2.0 3.8 3.4 4.2 112 83 140 114 59 13.3 12.8 12.3 11.9 12.6 88 104 48 N/A N/A 7.3 8.5 8.0 8.1 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.3 8.2 8.1 90 84 109 19 7 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 170 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.3 9.7 85 85 92 81 73 28.7 26.5 25.9 24.3 22.3 21.4 63 87 11 N/A N/A 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.1 5.5 6.3 6.2 6.6 99 89 124 N/A N/A 10.6 10.6 82 90 81 N/A N/A 20.600 8.4 9.2 9.9 9.1 9.6 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 86 91 95 83.523 12.8 13.5 14.3 16.8 16.9 16.9 16.8 15.8 15.8 16.7 15.1 73 92 29 16.588 9.8 9.8 9.9 9.8 9.2 97 100 99 93.674 18.8 18.5 18.4 18.4 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 23.3 20.0 68 93 15 83.534 8.7 7.8 8.1 7.8 7.5 7.9 7.8 96 94 112 10.560 10.5 11.2 12.0 15.8 11.6 11.8 12.0 12.3 12.0 11.2 12.2 83 97 58 93.052 0.0 9.6 93 98 93 20.500 16.5 19.0 18.1 36.4 34.2 60 99 2 10.565 3.1 3.9 6.1 6.9 8.4 9.4 10.1 10.9 102 112 77 84.243 0.0 10.8 10.4 11.3 10.4 10.9 11.1 10.9 11.1 11.3 11.2 92 103 72 93.775 11.3 14.7 13.9 14.2 10.1 11.7 13.1 10.9 9.8 9.7 12.2 87 101 59 66.801 9.4 8.3 8.2 7.3 7.6 7.1 12.1 13.3 7.3 7.3 7.5 105 102 116 93.671 9.6 9.8 9.8 8.7 7.0 111 106 121 66.432 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.1 8.8 9.4 6.2 6.1 6.0 118 109 126 84.060 7.7 8.2 7.8 8.1 7.3 7.0 6.6 6.7 6.7 7.1 7.1 110 107 120 16.540 12.3 12.0 10.8 10.9 11.3 12.8 12.1 11.8 12.3 9.9 104 111 89 16.576 32.0 40.5 35.1 25.2 27.7 38.0 34.3 28.9 26.4 23.5 21.3 77 108 13 15.916 7.9 8.7 106 110 104 94.006 11.8 11.7 11.1 10.6 10.8 11.6 14.9 20.9 94 124 14 84.034 10.1 10.3 10.8 10.8 10.4 171 17.801 12.8 12.8 12.5 13.6 14.6 14.2 14.6 15.3 14.8 15.9 13.7 95 113 35 17.804 9.5 9.1 8.9 8.4 9.3 9.1 9.2 8.9 8.4 8.5 9.2 108 114 100 17.247 17.5 19.1 21.1 22.7 21.7 21.7 21.7 21.7 25.2 22.9 23.3 79 115 8 84.069 15.4 16.6 14.6 15.5 15.4 15.6 15.7 15.7 15.7 16.1 15.4 103 123 28 93.630 8.3 8.5 9.2 9.4 9.1 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.3 8.7 115 118 105 84.002 30.0 29.9 74 116 4 11.419 4.9 4.1 4.7 4.4 130 117 139 83.503 8.3 8.2 8.6 8.7 172 14.862 17.9 22.3 84 119 10 84.012 9.7 9.5 11.1 11.7 173 16.953 10.9 11.2 11.1 11.1 10.7 113 120 80 20.005 5.7 5.4 6.1 5.8 5.9 129 121 127 20.515 3.0 15.5 15.1 14.3 15.6 16.1 36.4 12.9 137 148 45 1569 23 N/A 145 N/A 125 N/A N/A N/A N/A 99 2 N/A 79 52 N/A 22 N/A N/A 10 4 37 –13 9 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1369 4 N/A 130 N/A 94 N/A N/A N/A 207 84 28 N/A 86 65 N/A 83 N/A N/A 3 7 3 –13 5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 41 DPT INT EDU HHS EDU EDU EDU DOT HHS HHS EDU DOJ AGR EDU DOE INT EDU EDU DOL DOT HHS AGR EDU EDU EDU EDU AGR AGR EPA EDU AGR EDU EDU EPA EDU EDU EDU EDU EDU EPA EDU EPA DOL EDU Program Name Surface Mining Regulation and Technology Impact Aid—Children with Disabilities—Sec 3 (b) Abstinence Education Fund for Improve. of Educ./Demo. of Comp. School Ref. Neglected and Delinquent Children—Title I Capital Expenses (Title I) Federal Transit Technical Studies, Sec. 8 Runaway and Homeless Youth Emergency Community Services for Homeless Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarships Title V Delinquency Prevention Program Soup Kitchens Supported Employment Services—Severe Disabilities State Energy Program Historic Preservation Fund Vocational Education—Consumer and Homemaking Education for Homeless Children and Youth Reemployment Services (b) National Recreational Trails Developmental Disabilities—Protection/Advocacy (b) 1890 Land Grant Colleges and Tuskeegee Univ. State Program Improvement Grants—Chap. 1 Public Library Construction (LSCA II) Interlibrary Cooperation Independent Living State Grants Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program Cooperative Forestry Research Pesticides Enforcement Grants (a) Rehab. Services—Independent Living for Older/Blind Special Milk Program for Children Foreign Language Assistance Grants Paul Douglas Teacher Scholarships Pesticide Program Implem. Grants (b) Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth Offenders Special Education—Protection and Advocacy Impact Aid—Payments for Federal Property—Sec. 3 (d) State Literacy Resource Centers Vocational Education—Community-Based Organizations Underground Storage Tank (UST) Grants Rehabilitation Services—Client Assistance Underground Injection Control (UIC) Grants Veterans Employment—JTPA Title IV-C Vocational Education—State Councils Table A.3 (continued) CFDA No. 15.250 84.041 93.235 84.215 84.013 84.216 20.505 93.623 93.572 84.185 16.548 10.571 84.187 81.041 15.904 84.049 84.196 17.207 20.219 93.630 10.205 84.218 84.154 84.035 84.169 10.572 10.202 66.700 84.177 10.556 84.249 84.176 66.700 84.331 84.240 84.041 84.254 84.174 66.805 84.161 66.433 17.250 84.053 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 156 122 156 N/A N/A 11.9 11.1 10.8 10.4 9.7 8.3 8.5 124 125 108 N/A N/A 11.6 11.7 0.0 0.0 158 130 157 N/A N/A 16.2 12.2 12.2 114 126 56 N/A N/A 9.0 9.9 9.9 11.9 11.3 10.8 9.3 9.2 8.1 8.4 9.0 126 127 101 27 27 11.0 11.2 11.6 11.6 13.7 13.9 14.1 14.1 12.4 12.8 15.9 141 153 26 –74 –82 17.4 17.6 17.2 17.0 16.5 174 12.0 12.9 10.9 12.3 117 129 54 N/A N/A 9.2 9.0 9.7 180 10.7 11.1 12.0 12.1 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.9 12.0 12.2 119 131 60 400 341 13.1 12.9 12.5 122 132 49 N/A N/A 11.1 12.1 13.0 176 10.8 10.8 10.7 11.0 10.9 10.9 10.9 10.9 11.1 11.1 11.0 125 133 76 33 30 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.6 132 134 123 N/A N/A 2.4 2.4 3.1 177 0.0 10.3 9.8 10.2 175 9.1 8.8 10.8 11.5 10.8 10.5 11.3 11.2 12.2 12.9 14.0 121 135 31 395 221 10.3 128 136 84 N/A N/A 3.2 4.7 163 7.6 7.7 8.4 8.8 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.6 7.3 8.5 131 137 107 73 54 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 157 138 158 N/A N/A 9.8 9.2 11.0 11.5 10.8 178 9.0 8.2 9.7 7.7 6.5 11.5 182 10.3 10.5 11.0 11.0 10.8 10.5 179 8.0 8.6 8.2 7.4 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.9 9.0 9.0 9.0 134 139 103 82 62 2.3 3.7 6.3 22.0 17.5 127 140 18 N/A N/A 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 145 141 144 N/A N/A 4.4 4.3 7.7 0.0 7.1 5.4 9.7 8.5 5.5 5.2 5.6 140 143 130 61 25 6.8 8.7 136 142 106 N/A N/A 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.9 5.1 143 144 133 –16 –20 10.5 13.9 13.1 181 12.1 12.3 12.1 12.3 183 3.2 2.7 5.6 0.4 4.6 5.4 9.8 13.3 5.4 4.5 6.1 144 147 125 69 –12 14.3 12.3 11.6 13.3 135 146 42 N/A N/A 2.0 8.3 8.3 8.5 9.8 9.8 9.8 10.2 138 145 87 N/A N/A 19.5 133 149 16 N/A N/A 0.0 8.3 10.3 10.2 184 0.0 10.5 10.1 10.6 185 5.7 5.3 3.1 2.8 2.6 148 150 149 N/A N/A 10.1 9.8 10.2 10.4 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.2 139 151 86 42 40 7.6 6.0 7.8 7.1 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.0 5.6 7.1 5.7 146 152 129 –30 –6 8.1 8.0 10.1 187 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5 186 Table A.3 (continued) DPT Program Name EPA Toxic Substances Enforcement Grants EDU Impact Aid—Construction—Sec. 3 (c) DOT Federal Transit Rural Transp. Assistance (5311(b)(2)) AGR Animal Health and Disease Research AGR Nutrition, Education, and Training EDU Assistive Tech.—Grants for Protection/Advocacy EDU Christa McAuliffe Fellowships Total Federal Formula Grant Spending CFDA No. 66.701 84.041 20.509 10.207 10.564 84.343 84.190 1991 2.6 10.9 1992 4.2 3.5 11.2 1993 0.0 6.7 11.7 1994 0.0 6.0 11.6 1995 3.8 4.4 11.8 1996 2.8 12.0 1997 2.2 11.6 1998 2.4 3.2 12.1 8.9 12.2 1999 2000 9.4 5.4 5.2 3.2 2.7 11.3 10.4 1.9 1.9 12.5 12.2 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 2.4 151 155 150 2 10 4.7 149 154 136 N/A N/A 3.1 150 156 145 N/A N/A 9.8 147 157 90 N/A N/A 164 1.9 152 158 151 N/A N/A 188 12.0 128 107 SOURCES: Budget Information for States, various fiscal years; budgets of the U.S. government; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance; California Institute for Federal Policy Research; Public Policy Institute of California. NOTES: This table lists the largest federal formula grant programs. These programs distribute more than 85 percent of U.S. formula dollars. Programs included in this table are those listed in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget annual report Budget Information for States. U.S. totals exclude undistributed funds, technical assistance, and other funds not geographically distributed. Indian tribe funding is included in the U.S. total but is not attributed to California. 42 Appendix B Federal Formula Grant Expenditures, by State FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 43 Table B.1 Federal Formula Grant Expenditures by State, Total and Per Capita, FY 2001 State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming State totals Total ($millions) 4,568 1,537 4,434 2,858 34,019 2,779 3,611 798 1,488 11,912 7,083 1,183 1,284 10,630 5,275 2,609 2,311 4,638 5,564 1,671 4,371 6,608 9,458 4,397 3,685 5,843 1,236 1,698 1,139 1,005 7,656 2,569 29,270 7,621 898 10,890 3,490 3,610 13,138 1,455 4,172 1,001 6,267 17,709 1,844 875 4,665 5,390 2,522 5,018 688 284,047 Per Capita, $ 1,023 2,421 835 1,062 986 629 1,054 1,002 2,602 726 845 966 972 852 863 893 858 1,141 1,246 1,299 813 1,036 947 884 1,289 1,038 1,367 991 541 798 902 1,404 1,540 931 1,415 957 1,009 1,039 1,069 1,374 1,027 1,323 1,092 830 812 1,427 649 900 1,400 929 1,392 997 Per Capita as % of U.S. Avg. 102.6 242.7 83.8 106.4 98.9 63.1 105.7 100.5 260.9 72.8 84.7 96.9 97.5 85.4 86.5 89.5 86.0 114.4 124.9 130.2 81.5 103.9 94.9 88.7 129.3 104.1 137.0 99.4 54.2 80.0 90.5 140.8 154.4 93.3 141.9 96.0 101.1 104.2 107.2 137.8 103.0 132.7 109.5 83.3 81.5 143.1 65.1 90.3 140.3 93.1 139.5 100.0 Population 4,464,356 634,892 5,307,331 2,692,090 34,501,130 4,417,714 3,425,074 796,165 571,822 16,396,515 8,383,915 1,224,398 1,321,006 12,482,301 6,114,745 2,923,179 2,694,641 4,065,556 4,465,430 1,286,670 5,375,156 6,379,304 9,990,817 4,972,294 2,858,029 5,629,707 904,433 1,713,235 2,106,074 1,259,181 8,484,431 1,829,146 19,011,378 8,186,268 634,448 11,373,541 3,460,097 3,472,867 12,287,150 1,058,920 4,063,011 756,600 5,740,021 21,325,018 2,269,789 613,090 7,187,734 5,987,973 1,801,916 5,401,906 494,423 284,796,887 SOURCE: Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, state population estimates for July 1, 2001. 44 Appendix C California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 45 Dollars per capita 75 Department of Agriculture 70 65 60 55 50 45 United States 40 California 35 1991 38 41 1992 43 45 1993 47 46 1994 51 48 1995 57 52 1996 61 53 1997 64 55 1998 64 57 1999 64 57 2000 65 58 2001 71 59 15.0 Department of Agriculture—California Share 14.5 14.0 13.5 13.0 12.5 12.0 11.5 11.0 1991 11.2 12.0 1992 11.5 12.0 1993 12.1 12.0 1994 12.7 11.9 1995 13.0 11.9 1996 13.7 11.8 1997 13.8 11.9 1998 13.4 11.9 Population USDA Funds 1999 13.5 12.0 2000 13.5 12.0 2001 14.3 12.1 Figure C.1—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Agriculture, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 46 Dollars per capita 38 Department of Labor 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 United States 22 California 20 1991 26 26 1992 34 31 1993 33 26 1994 36 26 1995 34 25 1996 30 22 1997 32 23 1998 37 27 1999 37 27 2000 32 22 2001 32 23 18.0 Department of Labor—California Share 17.0 16.0 15.0 14.0 Population DOL Funds 13.0 12.0 11.0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 12.05 13.01 15.07 16.18 16.16 16.56 16.35 16.07 16.38 16.92 16.75 12.04 12.07 12.03 11.97 11.90 11.89 11.92 11.96 12.01 12.05 12.11 Figure C.2—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Labor, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 47 Dollars per capita 130 Department of Transportation 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 United States California 50 40 1991 49 72 1992 58 72 1993 63 73 1994 55 81 1995 87 92 1996 71 85 1997 70 90 1998 81 93 1999 86 106 2000 85 114 2001 106 125 13.0 12.0 Department of Transportation—California Share 11.0 10.0 9.0 8.0 Population DOT Funds 7.0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 8.30 9.72 10.35 8.19 11.21 9.96 9.22 10.37 9.74 8.91 10.31 12.04 12.07 12.03 11.97 11.90 11.89 11.92 11.96 12.01 12.05 12.11 Figure C.3—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Transportation, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 48 Dollars per capita 90 Department of Education 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 1991 48 54 1992 47 56 1993 51 57 1994 61 58 1995 53 60 1996 51 54 1997 59 66 1998 65 70 United States California 1999 70 73 2000 58 59 2001 79 86 13.0 Department of Education—California Share 12.5 12.0 Population Dept. of Education Funds 11.5 11.0 10.5 10.0 1991 1992 10.59 10.17 12.04 12.07 1993 10.86 12.03 1994 12.56 11.97 1995 10.56 11.90 1996 11.14 11.89 1997 10.71 11.92 1998 11.21 11.96 1999 11.45 12.01 2000 11.86 12.05 2001 11.13 12.11 Figure C.4—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Education, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 49 Dollars per capita 16 Environmental Protection Agency 14 12 10 8 6 4 United States 2 California 0 1991 6 12 1992 6 11 1993 11 11 1994 4 8 1995 7 14 1996 4 9 1997 3 5 1998 7 10 1999 7 10 2000 7 11 2001 7 11 13.0 Environmental Protection Agency—California Share 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 Population 6.0 EPA Funds 5.0 1991 6.72 12.04 1992 6.51 12.07 1993 11.71 12.03 1994 6.31 11.97 1995 6.43 11.90 1996 5.78 11.89 1997 5.88 11.92 1998 7.48 11.96 1999 8.04 12.01 2000 7.70 12.05 2001 7.97 12.11 Figure C.5—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Environmental Protection Agency, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 50 Dollars per capita 40 Department of Housing and Urban Development 35 30 25 20 15 United States 10 California 5 1991 11 13 1992 17 19 1993 18 19 1994 21 21 1995 25 23 1996 24 22 1997 23 22 1998 23 22 1999 23 22 2000 23 22 2001 30 38 13.5 Department of Housing and Urban Development—California Share 13.0 12.5 12.0 11.5 11.0 10.5 10.0 Population 9.5 HUD Funds 9.0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 10.23 10.87 11.75 11.93 12.54 12.82 12.56 12.51 12.60 12.68 9.37 12.04 12.07 12.03 11.97 11.90 11.89 11.92 11.96 12.01 12.05 12.11 Figure C.6—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Housing and Urban Development, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 51 Dollars per capita 700 Department of Health and Human Services 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 1991 309 321 1992 377 391 1993 403 408 1994 411 416 1995 454 453 1996 463 452 1997 484 491 1998 537 517 United States California 1999 599 556 2000 618 591 2001 652 642 13.5 Department of Health and Human Services—California Share 13.0 12.5 12.0 11.5 Population HHS Funds 11.0 1991 11.58 12.04 1992 11.66 12.07 1993 11.86 12.03 1994 11.84 11.97 1995 11.91 11.90 1996 12.18 11.89 1997 11.74 11.92 1998 12.43 11.96 1999 12.94 12.01 2000 12.61 12.05 2001 12.29 12.11 Figure C.7—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Health and Human Services, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 52 PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS RAYMOND L. WATSON, CHAIRMAN Vice Chairman of the Board The Irvine Company WILLIAM K. COBLENTZ Senior Partner Coblentz, Patch, Duffy & Bass, LLP EDWARD K. HAMILTON Chairman Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. WALTER B. HEWLETT Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities DAVID W. LYON President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California CHERYL WHITE MASON Chief, Civil Liability Management Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office ARJAY MILLER Dean Emeritus Graduate School of Business Stanford University KI SUH PARK Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates A. ALAN POST Former State Legislative Analyst State of California CONSTANCE L. RICE Co-Director The Advancement Project THOMAS C. SUTTON Chairman & CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company CYNTHIA A. TELLES Department of Psychiatry UCLA School of Medicine CAROL WHITESIDE President Great Valley Center HAROLD M. WILLIAMS President Emeritus The J. Paul Getty Trust and Of Counsel Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP PPIC ADVISORY COUNCIL CLIFFORD W. GRAVES Vice Chancellor, Physical Planning University of California, Merced ELIZABETH G. HILL Legislative Analyst State of California HILARY W. HOYNES Associate Professor Department of Economics University of California, Davis ANDRÉS E. JIMÉNEZ Director California Policy Research Center University of California Office of the President RUDOLF NOTHENBERG Chief Administrative Officer (Retired) City and County of San Francisco MANUEL PASTOR Professor, Latin American & Latino Studies University of California, Santa Cruz PETER SCHRAG Contributing Editor The Sacramento Bee JAMES P. SMITH Senior Economist RAND California Institute for Federal Policy Research 419 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Basement Level Washington, DC 20003 Tel: 202/546-3700 Fax: 202/546-2390 www.calinst.org Public Policy Institute of California 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: 415/291-4400 Fax: 415/291-4401 www.ppic.org" } ["___content":protected]=> string(110) "

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" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(100) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/californias-share-of-federal-formula-grants-1991-2001/ff_12021trff/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8367) ["ID"]=> int(8367) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:37:01" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(3558) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(12) "FF 12021TRFF" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(12) "ff_12021trff" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(16) "FF_12021TRFF.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(7) "2236195" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(125804) "Public Policy Institute of California FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA California’s Share of Federal Formula Grants: 1991–2001 Tim Ransdell The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) is a private operating foundation established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Institute is dedicated to improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research. PPIC’s research agenda focuses on three program areas: population, economy, and governance and public finance. Studies within these programs are examining the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including education, health care, immigration, income distribution, welfare, urban growth, and state and local finance. PPIC was created because three concerned citizens—William R. Hewlett, Roger W. Heyns, and Arjay Miller—recognized the need for linking objective research to the realities of California public policy. Their goal was to help the state’s leaders better understand the intricacies and implications of contemporary issues and make informed public policy decisions when confronted with challenges in the future. David W. Lyon is founding President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Raymond L. Watson is Chairman of the Board of Directors. Copyright © 2002 by Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the above copyright notice is included. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. Research publications reflect the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the staff, officers, or Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. About This Series Federal Formula Grants and California The federal government uses formula grants to distribute nearly $300 billion annually to state and local governments to help them implement federal policies in such areas as health, transportation, and education. How much each government receives is determined by complex formulas that consist of many factors such as state population growth and per capita income. This series of reports provides detailed information on California’s current and historical funding under the major federal grants and on the formulas used to determine California’s share of funding under various specific grants. All reports are posted on the PPIC website at www.ppic.org. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA California’s Share of Federal Formula Grants: 1991–2001 Tim Ransdell December 2002 This report examines California’s share of federal government formula allocations from fiscal year 1991 to fiscal year 2001. It also provides some details about the ten largest formula programs in terms of total U.S. spending.1 Overview The federal government’s $284 billion in formula grant spending in fiscal year 2001 constituted nearly 17 percent of its total expenditures that year, which came to nearly $2 trillion. As shown in Figure 2.1, half of federal spending in 2001 went toward retirement, disability, and other direct payments to individuals and service providers. Another 12 percent was directed toward procurement contracts spending, most of which flows through the Department of Defense. About 9 percent went to salaries and wages for civilian and military federal employees, and the remaining 11 percent was dedicated to interest on the national debt and miscellaneous international ventures. The significance of formula program expenditures in the federal budget has risen steadily over the past decade. These expenditures represented just 11.7 percent of federal spending in 1991, rose slightly to 12.9 percent in 1996, and then increased sharply to 16.9 percent in 2001. Rising mandatory formula spending on entitlement programs such as Medicaid, which alone represents more than half of formula grant expenditures, helped to fuel the growth. The mandatory nature of Social Security and Medicare expenditures also boosted the direct payments budget category from 42.1 percent of the budget in 1991 to 50.2 percent in 2001, whereas the other budget categories declined, as can be seen in Figure 2.1. Procurement slipped from 14.4 percent of the federal budget to 12.4 percent; wages fell nearly one-fourth, from 12.2 percent to 9.4 percent; and debt interest plunged by nearly half, from more than 20 percent to 11.2 percent. When combined, direct payments and formula grant categories rose from about half of federal spending in 1991 to more than two-thirds in 2001. 1Even when governing statutes contain explicit formula language, the administering agency may exercise some discretion in devising and implementing allocation methods and in selecting the datasets upon which those allocations are based. Debt and other 20% Formula grants 12% Wages 12% Procurement 14% Direct payments 42% Debt and other 11% Wages 9% Formula grants 17% Procurement 12% Direct payments 50% 1991 2001 Figure 2.1—Components of Total U.S. Expenditures, FY 1991 and 2001 California’s Experience In fiscal year 2001, the last year for which complete data are currently available, California received slightly more than $34 billion from federal formula programs, the result of steady increases in funding that more than doubled the state’s allocations during the preceding decade. In fiscal year 1991, California received $14.9 billion in formula grant funding—10.9 percent of the nation’s $137.4 billion in allocations that year (Figures 2.2 and 2.3). The state’s share rose rapidly to 11.7 percent in 1993 before leveling off for much of the rest of the decade. Total dollars directed to formula programs rose steadily over the decade, with the exception of fiscal year 1996, when year-to-year spending actually declined slightly in California (from $22.8 billion in 1995 to $22.7 billion in 1996) and in the United States generally (from $193 billion in 1995 to $189 billion in 1996).2 Allocations by Federal Agency Federal formula grant funds are allocated by 14 federal agencies (Figure 2.4). As is the case for the rest of the nation, California receives the bulk of its formula funding from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)—$22.4 2The fiscal year 1996 formula spending decline was largely attributable to the fall 1995 government shutdown resulting from protracted budget negotiations between Congress and the White House over spending priorities. 2 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California California total ($billions) U.S. total ($billions) 40 300 280 35 260 240 30 220 25 200 180 20 160 U.S. 140 15 Calif. 120 10 100 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Figure 2.2—Federal Formula Grant Expenditures in California and All States, FY 1991–2001 13.0 12.5 12.0 11.5 11.0 10.5 Formula $ Population 10.0 1991 10.9 12.0 1992 11.2 12.1 1993 11.7 12.0 1994 11.6 12.0 1995 11.8 11.9 1996 12.0 11.9 1997 11.6 11.9 1998 12.2 12.0 1999 12.5 12.0 2000 12.2 12.1 2001 12.0 12.1 Figure 2.3—Federal Formula Grant Programs—California’s Share of Expenditures and Population, FY 1991–2001 Percentage FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 3 Health and Human Services 66.1% Housing and Urban Development 3.0% Interior 0.1% Other 0.1% Agriculture 7.2% Energy 0.0% Justice 0.8% Labor 3.2% Transportation 10.8% Federal Emergency Management Agency 0.1% Education 8.0% Environmental Protection Agency 0.7% Figure 2.4—Components of Federal Formula Grant Expenditures in California, FY 2001 billion or 66.1 percent of its formula funding in 2001. This report examines 35 federal programs administered by HHS in fiscal year 2001. Ranking next in total spending, the Department of Transportation provided $3.7 billion in 2001 funds, or 10.8 percent of the state’s total. The Department of Education’s 37 formula programs accounted for 8 percent of California’s federal grants in fiscal year 2001, a total of $2.7 billion. Funding from the 20 formula grants administered by the Department of Agriculture constituted another 7.2 percent of the state’s receipts, or $2.4 billion, in 2001. The Department of Labor’s ten formula programs accounted for 3.2 percent of funds, or $1.1 billion, and eight programs administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development provided another 3 percent of California’s receipts, for a total of $1 billion. No other department’s or agency’s formula programs provide more than 1 percent of total formula receipts, although the state does receive substantial funding from the Department of Justice (0.8 percent or $284 million) and the Environmental Protection Agency (0.7 percent or $239 million). The remaining federal agencies accounted for less than 0.1 percent of the state’s formula program funding in fiscal year 2001. These included the Federal Emergency Management Agency ($32 million), the Corporation for National and Community Service ($11 million), the National Foundation for the Arts and Humanities ($16 million), and the Departments of Interior ($27 million), Commerce ($3 million), and Energy ($7 million). 4 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California California total ($billions) As shown in Figures 2.5 and 2.6, HHS accounted for the sharpest growth in federal formula grant expenditures in California and the nation between fiscal years 1991 and 2001. 40 Ten other agencies combined 35 Agriculture Transportation 30 Education Health and Human Services 25 20 15 10 5 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Figure 2.5—Growth in Federal Formula Grant Expenditures in California, by Major Agency, FY 1991–2001 300 Ten other agencies combined Agriculture Transportation 250 Education Health and Human Services 200 150 100 50 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Figure 2.6—Growth in Federal Formula Grant Expenditures in All States, by Major Agency, FY 1991–2001 Total for all states ($billions) FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 5 The Ten Largest Formula Programs The ten largest federal formula grant programs together account for 75 percent of federal formula dollars flowing to the states. In fiscal year 2001, the federal government allocated $214 billion through these ten programs, with California receiving $25.7 billion. In descending order of size, the programs are (1) Grants to States for Medicaid; (2) Highway Planning and Construction; (3) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families—Family Assistance Grants; (4) Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies; (5) Head Start; (6) National School Lunch Program; (7) Special Education—Grants to States; (8) Foster Care—Title IV-E; (9) State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP); and (10) the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Each of these programs is discussed below, including details regarding total and per capita expenditures. For those programs designed in significant part to address poverty, the discussions include a comparison of poverty statistics. Grants to States for Medicaid By a factor of five, Medicaid is the largest federal grant classified as a formula program. Federal Medicaid spending rose rapidly during the last decade, from $53 billion in 1991 to $133 billion in 2001, as shown in Figure 2.7; and the program has consumed an increasing share of state budgets as well. Medicaid matches state indigent health care expenditures with federal dollars. HHS annually calculates for each state a unique Federal Medicaid Assistance Percentage or FMAP, which is based on state per capita income. State FMAP levels are given a floor of 50 percent and a ceiling of 83 percent, meaning that state spending is matched dollar-for-dollar in the 17 states (including California) with the nation’s highest per capita incomes and as much as a five-to-one in the lowest-income states. (The average state is reimbursed for 57 percent of its spending.) With a per capita income only moderately above the national average, California would still remain very near the 50 percent level with or without a floor; Medicaid matching rates in richer states such as Connecticut and New Jersey would plummet without the FMAP floor. Federal Medicaid dollars in California underwrite the state’s Medi-Cal program. As shown in Figure 2.7 and Table 2.1, California’s percentage share of the nation’s federal Medicaid disbursements increased through the 1990s and leveled off after 1999. In fiscal year 1991, the state received $4.49 billion of the nation’s $53.3 billion Medicaid distribution, or 8.5 percent of the total. By 1999, the U.S. total had increased to $110 billion, and the state’s level had risen to $12.3 billion or 11.2 percent of the nation’s total expenditures. The state’s share 6 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Percentage of U.S. total 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 Poverty Population 9 Medicaid 8 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 8.5 9.2 9.3 9.1 9.9 10.0 9.6 10.1 11.2 10.7 10.6 12.0 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 13.5 13.7 14.8 14.9 14.7 15.0 15.3 14.8 14.5 14.3 13.1 Figure 2.7—Grants to States for Medicaid—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 Table 2.1 Grants to States for Medicaid—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 4,548,494 6,432,977 6,885,933 7,108,566 8,782,541 9,195,445 9,140,160 10,064,959 12,307,071 12,889,684 14,066,021 Per Capita California, $ 149 208 220 226 277 287 281 305 367 379 408 Total U.S. ($1000s) 53,335,353 69,711,866 74,252,273 77,847,373 88,791,301 92,056,580 95,123,263 99,407,033 110,212,407 120,084,050 132,723,725 Per Capita U.S., $ 211 272 286 296 333 342 348 360 395 426 466 California as a % of U.S. 8.53 9.23 9.27 9.13 9.89 9.99 9.61 10.12 11.17 10.73 10.60 moderated somewhat after that, with California’s $14.1 billion reimbursement for 2001 representing 10.6 percent of national Medicaid spending for the year. Over the 11-year period, California’s per capita federal Medicaid expenditures rose from $149 in 1991 to $408 in 2001, whereas the nation’s spending rose from $211 per capita in 1991 to $466 in 2001. California’s federal Medicaid receipts grew 209 percent during the 11-year period, and total federal Medicaid disbursements to all states grew by a still remarkable 149 percent. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 7 Even at the 1999 high-water mark of California’s Medicaid percentage share, the state was not the largest consumer of federal Medicaid grant spending. Of $110 billion in nationwide distributions, California received $12.3 billion and served 7.1 billion patients (a spending rate of $1,738 per patient), whereas New York received $14.3 billion and served 3.1 million patients (a per patient rate of $4,649). The national average rate for 1999 was $3,265 per patient. The FMAP for California and New York provided for a 50 percent match for both states, but New York’s health care spending is traditionally much higher than California’s. Like the state as a whole, California’s Medicaid population is younger than the national average, so the state’s indigent health care system underwrites services for a below-average share of long-term care beneficiaries—patients who sharply increase budgetary outlays. Long-term care (primarily nursing home) expenditures account for one-third of Medicaid expenditures nationwide but less than one-fourth of expenditures in California, and the state spends the least per capita of any state on Medicaid long-term care. The state’s early and aggressive efforts to move patients into lower-cost managed care plans also help explain the state’s low spending levels. Because California’s Medi-Cal spending is lower than average, the state receives fewer Medicaid dollars per capita than average.3 Medicaid’s use of per capita income (PCI) to determine FMAP matching rates also reduces California’s share of federal dollars for poor patients. Although an official standard for poverty was not formally defined until the 1960s, Congress created Medicaid’s predecessors much earlier, under the Hill-Burton Act in 1946 and Kerr-Mills in 1960. The PCI factor in the Medicaid formula was intended in part as a rough approximation for poverty, on the assumption that states with high incomes would have low poverty. In reality, California has above average PCI and above average poverty rates, and in this case the PCI factor actually shifts poverty health funds away from a high poverty state. The General Accounting Office has criticized the current Medicaid distribution formula as inequitable for this reason and has recommended alternatives, including shifting from per capita income to poverty as a primary factor. Highway Planning and Construction The Department of Transportation (DOT) allocated $2.3 billion in 2001 highway planning and construction funding to California, 8.1 percent of the nation’s $27.6 billion total. With the exception of a sharp and temporary dip in California funding in 2000 (when the state’s $1.4 billion represented just 5.7 percent of the U.S. total), the state’s share of federal highway, road, bridge, 3In 1997, the Clinton administration and Congress considered and subsequently dropped a Medicaid “per capita cap” plan, which would have converted the Medicaid matching program to a block grant, permanently locking in place California’s relatively low program share. 8 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California overpass, tunnel, and such funding has remained relatively consistent for the past 11 years, fluctuating between 8.1 percent and 9.6 percent (Figure 2.8 and Table 2.2). National highway formula grant spending grew 95 percent nationwide and 87 percent in California between 1991 and 2001. On a per capita basis, California’s funding rose 66.6 percent, from $39 in 1991 to $65 in 2001. Nationwide, the per capita level during the same period climbed 73.2 percent, from $56 to $97. Percentage of U.S. total 13 12 11 Population Highway 10 9 8 7 6 5 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 8.5 9.2 8.8 8.2 9.2 9.6 8.8 9.5 9.1 5.7 8.1 12.0 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 Figure 2.8—Highway Planning and Construction—California Share of Federal Expenditures and Population, FY 1991–2001 Table 2.2 Highway Planning and Construction—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 1,201,804 1,392,657 1,276,541 1,353,849 1,710,131 1,743,185 1,732,054 1,849,611 2,237,536 1,436,184 2,248,552 Per Capita California, $ 39 45 41 43 54 54 53 56 67 42 65 Total U.S. ($1000s) 14,178,052 15,203,154 14,427,018 16,581,395 18,536,550 18,236,903 19,661,988 19,503,076 24,585,046 25,280,613 27,649,444 Per Capita U.S., $ 56 59 56 63 70 68 72 71 88 90 97 California as a % of U.S. 8.48 9.16 8.85 8.16 9.23 9.56 8.81 9.48 9.10 5.68 8.13 FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 9 In 1991, Congress passed the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), which governed surface transportation spending for six years until its expiration at the end of fiscal year 1997. After a six-month temporary stopgap extension of the law, Congress replaced ISTEA with the Transportation Efficiency Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), which expires at the end of fiscal year 2003. The DOT highway planning and construction account includes a number of formulas that employ various factors to determine allocations. For example, for fiscal year 2001, California received $438 million from the National Highway System (NHS) program, or 9.3 percent of the $4.7 billion distributed nationwide. To determine NHS funding, the Department of Transportation weights each state’s share of the nation’s total lane miles of principal arterial routes (not including interstates) at 25 percent, the share of total vehicle miles traveled at 35 percent, the share of diesel fuel consumed at 30 percent, and the sparseness of population versus road mileage at 10 percent. For NHS calculations, California represented 8.5 percent of lane miles, 14.2 percent of miles traveled, 7.7 percent of diesel consumption, and a relatively low sparseness level, resulting in the state’s 9.3 percent formula share. A portion of the highway planning and construction account that provides a much larger share of funding to California is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) program, which distributes funds to states based on the share of population living in areas designated as air pollution nonattainment and maintenance area populations by the Environmental Protection Agency.4 Although a small-state minimum requires that each state receive no less than onehalf of 1 percent of all funds distributed, regardless of air pollution response needs, California has so many of the nation’s nonattainment areas that the state’s $310 million in CMAQ grants constitutes 23 percent of the nation’s total.5 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families—Family Assistance Grants The nation’s third-largest formula grant program is the welfare grant, now titled the State Family Assistance Grant under the Temporary Assistance for 4The Environmental Protection Agency annually identifies metropolitan areas that fail to meet federal standards for air quality. 5Other major highway planning and construction accounts include the Surface Transportation Program (based 25 percent on federal-aid highway lane mileage, 40 percent on lane mileage actually traveled, and 35 percent on the state’s relative contributions to the highway trust fund) and the Interstate Highway program (based one-third on interstate lane miles, one-third on miles traveled, and one-third on highway trust fund contributions). In addition, after all other formula allocations have been calculated, DOT then applies a minimum guarantee, preventing any state from receiving less than a certain minimum return (90.5 cents for every dollar paid in to the highway trust fund). California’s minimum guarantee level designated by the TEA-21 law was set at 9.1962 percent of total formula distributions. Congress added the provision to assuage some states’ vocal concerns about the shift of dollars from donor to recipient states. 10 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Needy Families (TANF) program. However, the $3.7 billion annual allotment to California makes the TANF grant the second-largest federal grant for the state, eclipsing the $2.2 billion highway grant, despite the fact that the national total for highways is considerably larger than it is for welfare—$27.6 billion versus $16.6 billion. As shown in Table 2.3, California accounted for 22.5 percent of federal TANF grant expenditures in 2001. At $108, per capita TANF allocations to California are nearly twice the national average of $58. California’s large share of federal TANF receipts are due to the state’s past receipt levels under TANF’s predecessor, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Congress replaced AFDC, an open-ended entitlement, with the TANF Family Assistance Grant, a fixed-sum block grant, in the landmark 1996 welfare reform bill titled the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Act, which also replaced the Job Opportunities Basic Skills (JOBS) program and Emergency Assistance (EA). The allocation of TANF block grants among states reflects each state’s share of AFDC, JOBS, and EA programs received in fiscal year 1994, fiscal year 1995, or in the three-year period from fiscal years 1992 through 1994. HHS determined the greatest total of funds produced by these three alternative measures and then allocated funds to each state for fiscal years 1997 through 2002 based on the high-water mark. California’s grant level was set at $3.7 billion. Allocation levels for all states have remained constant for the first five years of the TANF program, as is apparent in Figure 2.9. In fiscal years 1998 and 1999, California received more than 17 percent of the nation’s $2 billion allocations for a welfare-to-work block grant, a temporary subprogram that included a formula equally weighting each state’s number of persons in poverty and number of adult welfare recipients. California has received no funding from a $319 million TANF supplemental grant intended to Table 2.3 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families—Family Assistance Grants—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1997–2001 Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 3,147,716 3,732,668 3,731,149 3,730,164 3,728,516 Per Capita California, $ 97 113 111 110 108 Total U.S. ($1000s) 13,402,837 16,645,989 16,565,996 16,566,404 16,561,811 Per Capita U.S., $ 49 60 59 59 58 California as a % of U.S. 23.49 22.42 22.52 22.52 22.51 FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 11 Percentage of U.S. total 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 1997 23.5 11.9 15.3 1998 22.4 12.0 14.8 1999 22.5 12.0 14.5 Poverty Population TANF 2000 22.5 12.1 14.3 2001 22.5 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.9—TANF Family Assistance Grants—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1997–2001 benefit states with high population growth (the state’s population from 1990 to 1994 grew by less than the 10 percent minimum requirement) and low welfare expenditures (California’s welfare spending is well above average). The state received $20 million in fiscal year 1999 from a TANF bonus to reward states for reductions in out-of-wedlock birthrates, but the state has not qualified again for any funds from this $100 million-per-year program. California won $45.5 million in fiscal year 1999 and $36.1 million in fiscal year 2000 from a TANF high-performance bonus program, which awards $200 million annually to states that perform strongly in pursuing several stated goals of the TANF program, such as wage improvements, job creation, and job retention for TANF participants. For further details regarding formula funding aspects of TANF and related grants and bonuses, see the following document, TANF and Welfare Programs. For a detailed discussion of California welfare caseload changes and related topics, see Thomas E. MaCurdy, David C. Mancuso, and Margaret O’BrienStrain, Does California’s Welfare Policy Explain the Slower Decline of Its Caseload? Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, 2002. Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies The Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies program, the largest federal K–12 education program and the fourth-largest federal formula grant of any kind, seeks to help schools educate poor and disadvantaged children. California’s Title I receipts grew 97 percent from 1991 to 2001, and the nation’s spending on 12 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Title I grants in all states increased 46 percent. In 1991, the state received $512 million of the nation’s $5.6 billion, or 9.2 percent of the nation’s total expenditures in 1991 (Figures 2.10 and Table 2.4). By 2001, the state’s share of Title I expenditures had risen considerably: California’s $1.01 billion from the Title I grant was 12.4 percent of the nation’s $8.1 billion total. Historically, the state’s low share of Title I funds was largely due to use of poverty figures that were updated only every ten years. As late as 1992, the program was funded based on 1980 decennial Census numbers for poverty. Use of poverty figures from the 1990 Census began in fiscal year 1993, resulting in the sharp increase in California’s share of funds between 1992 and 1993 that is apparent in Figure 2.10. To improve consistency and currency, Congress in 1994 required biennial updates of Title I poverty data between decennial Censuses, but legislators from states that would lose funding, particularly in the Northeast and Midwest, successfully prevented full implementation of this change for several years.6 California’s Title I receipts are also reduced by the formula’s provision that rewards states with high levels of state K–12 Percentage of U.S. total 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 Poverty Population 9 Title I 8 1991 9.2 12.0 13.5 1992 8.8 12.1 13.7 1993 10.8 12.0 14.8 1994 11.5 12.0 14.9 1995 10.8 11.9 14.7 1996 10.8 11.9 15.0 1997 11.1 11.9 15.3 1998 11.3 12.0 14.8 1999 12.2 12.0 14.5 2000 12.3 12.1 14.3 2001 12.4 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.10—Title I Grants to Local Education Agencies—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 6In one of the first years of the new data’s usage, Senate and House appropriators from slower-growing states passed a 100 percent “special hold harmless” provision, which provided that no school district in fiscal year 1998 could receive less than it had received in fiscal year 1997. In fiscal year 1999, the 100 percent hold harmless was retained, but total appropriations for Title I that year increased by $300 million. Because the slow-growth states were already 100 percent funded, the $300 million could then be allocated among the faster-growing states, with California receiving $60 million or 20 percent of the total. In one year, the state’s total Title I funds rose from $816 million to $941 million, and from 11.3 percent to 12.2 percent of total U.S. funds allocated. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 13 Table 2.4 Title I Grants to Local Education Agencies—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 511,559 541,365 634,291 692,877 717,138 580,137 809,813 816,159 940,850 971,982 1,007,981 Per Capita California, $ 17 17 20 22 23 18 25 25 28 29 29 Total U.S. ($1000s) 5,557,984 6,129,583 5,853,841 6,035,326 6,649,208 5,378,095 7,285,557 7,208,318 7,724,543 7,911,318 8,097,387 Per Capita U.S., $ 22 24 23 23 25 20 27 26 28 28 28 California as a % of U.S. 9.20 8.83 10.84 11.48 10.79 10.79 11.12 11.32 12.18 12.29 12.45 education expenditures per pupil and reduces Title I funds to states with low levels. Spending per pupil in California, a state that continues to experience rapid growth in enrollment, is below the national average. The state’s $5,801 level in the 1998–1999 school year was at 87.5 percent of the nation’s average expenditure level of $6,631 per pupil, a variation that accounts for much of the discrepancy between the state’s 16 percent share of the nation’s poor children and its 12.4 percent share of 2001 Title I grant expenditures. Head Start Congress created Head Start in 1965 to provide services for preschool-age children (from ages three to five) of low-income families, including education, health, parental participation, and social services. The federal Head Start program is the fifth-largest formula grant nationwide, but in California it ranks eighth among federal grant receipts. As shown in Table 2.5, California’s Head Start funding rose from $203 million in fiscal year 1991 to $759 million in fiscal year 2001, and the nation’s total Head Start funding rose from $2.1 billion to $5.8 billion. Between 1991 and 2001 Head Start funding from the federal government increased by 240 percent in California and by 180 percent in the nation. As shown in Figure 2.11, California’s share of Head Start funding in 1991 and 1992 was about 10 percent, because of the continued use of outdated poverty data from the 1980 decennial Census. When HHS began using poverty counts from the 1990 Census, the state’s share jumped to 13 percent for a twoyear period, and it remained in the 11 to 13 percent range for the rest of the 1990s. 14 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Table 2.5 Head Start—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 203,034 219,422 305,180 371,303 392,330 392,964 458,841 528,339 554,366 466,237 758,587 Per Capita California, $ 7 7 10 12 12 12 14 16 17 14 22 Total U.S. ($1000s) 2,055,267 2,201,763 2,374,612 2,852,650 3,402,946 3,438,242 3,866,717 4,232,433 4,335,499 3,553,140 5,757,812 Per Capita U.S., $ 8 8 9 11 13 13 14 15 16 13 20 California as a % of U.S. 9.88 9.97 12.85 13.02 11.53 11.43 11.87 12.48 12.79 13.12 13.17 Percentage of U.S. total 16 15 14 13 12 11 Poverty 10 Population Head Start 9 8 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 9.9 10.0 12.9 13.0 11.5 11.4 11.9 12.5 12.8 13.1 13.2 12.0 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 13.5 13.7 14.8 14.9 14.7 15.0 15.3 14.8 14.5 14.3 13.1 Figure 2.11—Head Start—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 Given that the formula was devised to allocate funds based two-thirds on poverty and one-third on welfare, one might expect that California’s share of Head Start would be somewhat higher. However, the state’s share has been constrained in part by a hold harmless provision that allows no state to receive less than it received in 1981, although growth in the program’s overall funding total has negated much of the provision’s effect. Some experts suggest that the state’s participation is reduced by the presence of a strong in-state program that sometimes overlaps with and duplicates the functions of Head Start. California’s relatively high rate of working parents may also reduce interest in the program, which provides only three hours of care per day. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 15 National School Lunch Program The National School Lunch Program is the sixth-largest federal formula grant program (seventh-largest for California). California received $775 million of the total national distribution of $5.6 billion in fiscal year 2001, or 13.9 percent of federal school lunch dollars (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.12). Total federal expenditures for the school lunch program increased by 57 percent from 1991 to 2001, whereas the California growth rate in federal funds Table 2.6 National School Lunch Program—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 440,400 484,217 521,966 553,608 582,713 622,015 660,927 688,216 726,227 748,258 775,026 Per Capita California, $ 14 16 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 22 22 Total U.S. ($1000s) 3,553,207 3,870,097 3,949,299 4,157,707 4,449,177 4,636,853 4,923,489 5,084,373 5,282,477 5,455,143 5,591,467 Per Capita U.S., $ 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 California as a % of U.S. 12.39 12.51 13.22 13.32 13.10 13.41 13.42 13.54 13.75 13.72 13.86 16 Poverty Population 15 School lunch Percentage of U.S. total 14 13 12 11 1991 12.4 12.0 13.5 1992 12.5 12.1 13.7 1993 13.2 12.0 14.8 1994 13.3 12.0 14.9 1995 13.1 11.9 14.7 1996 13.4 11.9 15.0 1997 13.4 11.9 15.3 1998 13.5 12.0 14.8 1999 13.7 12.0 14.5 2000 13.7 12.1 14.3 2001 13.9 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.12—National School Lunch Program—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 16 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California was 76 percent. California’s per capita allocations rose from $14 to $22, and the national per capita level rose from $14 to $20. The school lunch program’s funding allocation is based on state-reported counts of free and reduced-price meals served to eligible children at various levels of poverty, for which states are reimbursed in whole or in part. The main school lunch formula multiplies four specified reimbursement factors by four statereported numbers: the total number of free and reduced-price meals, the number of free meals, the number of reduced-price meals, and the total number of meals served to any recipient in schools in which 60 percent or more of enrollment is eligible for free or reduced-price meals. The 2001 reimbursement rate was 20 cents for fully paid lunches, 20 cents for free and reduced price-lunches, and an additional 148 cents for each reduced-price lunch and 188 cents for each free lunch.7 Lunch is served free to children with household incomes at or below 130 percent of poverty and at a reduced price to children from households with incomes higher than 130 percent but at or below 185 percent of poverty. Special Education—Grants to States For the nation as a whole, Special Education—Grants to States, which are funded under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part B, are the seventh-largest formula grant. For California, the program ranks as the 11thlargest source of federal formula dollars. In fiscal year 2001, California received $507 million from Special Education—Grants to States, which was 10.0 percent of the nation’s $5.1 billion total (Table 2.7). During the 1991–2001 period, California’s total spending on special education state grant funds increased by 50 percent, whereas the nation’s grants grew 129 percent.8 California’s share of IDEA Part B funding fluctuated throughout the early 1990s, dropping from 15.3 percent in 1991 to 9.1 percent in 1993, rising to 16.7 percent in 1994, and dropping back down to 9.2 percent in 1995.9 As 7Schools that served 60 percent or more free or reduced-price lunches received an additional 2 cents for all lunches served; lower reimbursement rates applied for snacks that were served. 8In an effort to reach that year’s budget targets through changes in federal accounting practices, Congress appropriated level funding for special education grants in fiscal year 2000 but required that most of the funds come from fiscal year 2001 accounts. Like a number of other programs funded by the Labor-HHS-Education appropriations bill, special education was traditionally “forward-funded,” meaning that the appropriation from one federal fiscal year—starting October 1—would be used by the school district in the school year starting the following July 1. The change curtailed most forward-funding for special education grants. 9The funding irregularities from 1991 through 1995 resulted in part from accounting adjustments and in part from wide variations in state-reported counts of disabled children. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 17 Table 2.7 Special Education—Grants to States—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 338,298 201,488 210,198 428,491 227,804 229,895 307,219 378,486 431,133 121,730 507,056 Per Capita California, $ 11 7 7 14 7 7 9 11 13 4 15 Total U.S. ($1000s) 2,214,902 1,838,302 2,313,630 2,566,026 2,466,797 2,349,513 3,056,604 3,830,297 4,302,797 1,153,930 5,080,490 Per Capita U.S., $ 9 7 9 10 9 9 11 14 15 4 18 California as a % of U.S. 15.27 10.96 9.09 16.70 9.23 9.78 10.05 9.88 10.02 10.55 9.98 shown in Figure 2.13, the state’s share returned to relative stability after 1995, hovering at or near 10 percent for the next six years. To date, funding for the special education grants has been based on statereported data for numbers of disabled children. However, when IDEA was last reauthorized in 1997, Congress changed the formula for those years in which state grant funding exceeds $4.9 billion (the program reached that level for the first time in fiscal year 2001). The revised formula allocates any funds above Percentage of U.S. total 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 1991 15.3 12.0 1992 11.0 12.1 1993 9.1 12.0 1994 16.7 12.0 1995 9.2 11.9 1996 9.8 11.9 1997 10.1 11.9 1998 9.9 12.0 Special education Population 1999 10.0 12.0 2000 10.5 12.1 2001 10.0 12.1 Figure 2.13—Special Education—Grants to States—California Share of Federal Expenditures and Population, FY 1991–2001 18 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California the $4.9 billion base as follows: 85 percent based on each state’s share of persons ages 3–21 and 15 percent based on youth population in poverty. At present, California’s share of both measures is considerably higher than its 10 percent historical share of IDEA funding, so the state’s share of funding is likely to increase. There has been a longstanding debate over whether the federal government provides an adequate share of the cost of educating disabled children, and many in Congress have recently focused on raising the federal share of special education funding to 40 percent of total expenditures. Currently, the federal share is about 15 percent. One option discussed is conversion of IDEA from discretionary to mandatory, or entitlement, spending. IDEA is scheduled to expire at the end of fiscal year 2002. Foster Care—Title IV-E The federal foster care program is the eighth-largest federal grant for the nation as a whole and the fourth largest for California. Foster care is an openended matching grant entitlement program that reimburses states for the cost of providing 24-hour substitute care for children who are under the jurisdiction of the administering state agency and need temporary placement and care outside their homes. As shown in Table 2.8, the state has been the destination for about onequarter of the nation’s foster care expenditures over the past 11 years, and the program has grown faster in California (204 percent) than in the nation (137 percent). Table 2.8 Foster Care—Title IV-E—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 363,822 405,254 524,861 555,293 569,065 716,805 770,992 874,344 849,779 1,091,407 1,107,148 Per Capita California, $ 12 13 17 18 18 22 24 27 25 32 32 Total U.S. ($1000s) 1,813,186 2,143,863 2,532,398 2,600,197 2,898,562 2,553,624 3,291,719 3,539,685 3,980,043 4,291,923 4,291,923 Per Capita U.S., $ 7 8 10 10 11 9 12 13 14 15 15 California as a % of U.S. 20.07 18.90 20.73 21.36 19.63 28.07 23.42 24.70 21.35 25.43 25.80 FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 19 California’s share of federal foster care dollars has ranged from a low of 18.9 percent in fiscal year 1992 ($405 million compared to the nation’s $2.1 billion) to a high of 28.1 percent in fiscal year 1996 ($717 million compared to the nation’s $2.6 billion). In 2001, California received 25.8 percent of funding, or $1.1 billion of the nation’s $4.3 billion total (Figure 2.14). California’s relatively large share of foster care dollars is largely due to generous state policies. The foster care program provides a matching grant similar to the former AFDC program. However, unlike welfare programs, each state’s matching level for foster care is adjusted according to the Federal Medicaid Assistance Percentage, which reduces California’s funding share somewhat by weighting match rates according to per capita income. Percentage of U.S. total 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 1991 20.1 12.0 13.5 Foster care Population Poverty 1992 18.9 12.1 13.7 1993 20.7 12.0 14.8 1994 21.4 12.0 14.9 1995 19.6 11.9 14.7 1996 28.1 11.9 15.0 1997 23.4 11.9 15.3 1998 24.7 12.0 14.8 1999 21.4 12.0 14.5 2000 25.4 12.1 14.3 2001 25.8 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.14—Foster Care—Title IV-E—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 State Children's Health Insurance Program Implemented for the first time in fiscal year 1998, the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) is now the nation’s ninth-largest grant program, distributing $4.25 billion in fiscal year 2001. This program helps states provide health services to indigent children and largely parallels Medicaid in its structure. As shown in Table 2.9 and Figure 2.15, California’s share of total federal SCHIP funding was 16.6 percent in 2001, for a total of $705 million in federal funds. Initial national funding for the program in 1998 was $3.75 20 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Percentage of U.S. total Table 2.9 State Children’s Health Insurance Program—Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1998–2001 Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 854,645 850,609 765,548 704,931 Per Capita California, $ 26 25 23 20 Total U.S. ($1000s) 3,750,466 4,247,000 4,249,200 4,249,200 Per Capita U.S., $ 14 15 15 15 California as a % of U.S. 22.79 20.03 18.02 16.59 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 1998 22.8 12.0 14.8 1999 20.0 12.0 14.5 2000 18.0 12.1 14.3 SCHIP Population Poverty 2001 16.6 12.1 13.1 Figure 2.15—State Children’s Health Insurance Program—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1998–2001 billion, and the level was raised to $4.25 billion for each of the next three years. California’s funding level began at $855 million in the first year of the program and has since declined steadily each year. SCHIP is the tenth-largest formula grant received by California. The formula for SCHIP reflects various factors, including state needs (a three-year estimate of child population at 200 percent of the poverty level), fiscal capacity (state taxation levels), and state effort (internal resources being applied). SCHIP federal matching levels are tied to Medicaid and use the FMAP but “enhance” it to both increase the federal share of funding and reduce the discrepancies caused by the FMAP usage in Medicaid. In 1999, Congress changed the SCHIP formula by reducing the counting of uninsured low-income children and proportionally increasing the counting of low-income children generally, whether uninsured or not. California’s share of the nation’s uninsured FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 21 low-income children exceeded the share of all low-income children, resulting in a reduction in the state’s share of funds. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the tenth-largest federal formula grant program and ranks ninth among California’s federal formula grant sources. WIC seeks to provide free food, nutrition education, and health care referrals to low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women, and to their infants and children ages 0–5 who are determined to be at nutritional risk. As shown in Table 2.10 and Figure 2.16, California received 17.9 percent of federal expenditures on WIC in 2001, capping 11 years of rapid growth. In 1991, California’s share of WIC was 9.6 percent, and in 1992 it was just 10 percent. California’s low share in the early 1990s largely resulted from the use of outdated 1980 decennial Census poverty figures used to determine allocations until 1993. California’s share of WIC funding rose to 11.3 percent in 1993, 13.5 percent in 1994, 14.8 percent in 1995, and 16.6 percent in 1996, before leveling off and remaining between 17 percent and 17.9 percent for the next six years. Total receipts for WIC in California grew by 228 percent between 1991 and 2001, whereas total U.S. spending on the program grew by only 76 percent. In 1991, California received $228 million from the WIC program, which grew to $748 million by 2001. In the nation as a whole, the program grew from $2.4 billion in 1991 to $4.2 billion in 2001. Table 2.10 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children— Expenditures for California and All States, FY 1991–2001 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total California ($1000s) 227,920 266,359 327,439 427,294 528,433 631,053 662,230 688,572 698,931 718,992 748,066 Per Capita California, $ 7 9 10 14 17 20 20 21 21 21 22 Total U.S. ($1000s) 2,372,765 2,667,449 2,903,447 3,173,129 3,573,615 3,809,738 3,904,401 4,029,509 4,048,926 4,118,617 4,180,055 Per Capita U.S., $ 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 California as a % of U.S. 9.61 9.99 11.28 13.47 14.79 16.56 16.96 17.09 17.26 17.46 17.90 22 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Percentage of U.S. total 18 16 14 12 Poverty 10 Population WIC 8 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 9.6 10.0 11.3 13.5 14.8 16.6 17.0 17.1 17.3 17.5 17.9 12.0 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 13.5 13.7 14.8 14.9 14.7 15.0 15.3 14.8 14.5 14.3 13.1 Figure 2.16—Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children—California Share of Federal Expenditures, Population, and Poverty, FY 1991–2001 Federal funding for the WIC program is based primarily on poverty, with a minor addition for states with above-average infant mortality rates and for states with relatively high incidences of low-birthweight babies. California’s high poverty rates result in high WIC receipts for the state. Conclusion Between 1991 and 2001, the fastest-growing major segment of federal expenditures was formula grant programs. Formula grants accounted for 12 percent of the budget in 1991 and 17 percent in 2001. Mandatory spending on entitlement programs such as Medicaid—which alone accounts for more than half of formula expenditures—drove the increase. California’s share of the nation’s formula funding over this period rose slightly from 11 percent to 12 percent, and the state’s total federal receipts from formula programs more than doubled, jumping from $15 billion to $34 billion. The state’s percentage share of funding from individual programs—and of the nation’s ten largest programs—varies widely. California receives 10.6 percent of federal Medicaid funds, 8.1 percent of highway funds, and 10 percent of special education grants. At the other end of the spectrum, California receives 22.5 percent of TANF grants and nearly 26 percent of federal foster care spending. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 23 Appendix A Methodology California and U.S. formula grant spending totals by program are derived from data presented by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in its annual report entitled Budget Information for States. Specifically, the statistics are drawn from the “actual” expenditures column as presented in reports for fiscal years 1993 through 2003. Each OMB report includes a statistic for three fiscal years (for example, the fiscal year 2003 report released in spring 2002 includes an actual figure for 2001, an estimated figure for 2002, and an estimated figure for 2003). For consistency and reliability, this report relies only on actual expenditure data. In some instances, reports prepared by the federal government attribute funding to a program that is allocated to the program but never distributed to state or local governments. Such figures are termed undistributed. For purposes of this analysis, we omit undistributed funding and subtract such figures from U.S. total expenditures. Some studies do not make this adjustment and thus may appear to derive a larger U.S. figure and as a result a smaller percentage share for each state. In some cases, the OMB report’s source material combines several subprograms into a single entry, and we follow that lead. An example is the DOT’s Highway Planning and Construction account, which combines funds for the national highway system, Surface Transportation Program, inspection and maintenance, congestion mitigation/air quality, minimum guarantee, and other minor components. Primary Source Tables The following tables provide the basic source material for this report. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 25 Table A.1 Total Federal Funds to California from Major Formula Grants, FY 1991–2001 ($1000s) 26 Dept. Program Name HHS Grants to States for Medicaid DOT Highway Planning and Construction HHS TANF—State Family Assistance Grants (a) HHS Family Support Payments (AFDC) EDU Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies HHS Head Start AGR National School Lunch Program EDU Special Education—Grants to States HHS Foster Care—Title IV-E HHS State Children’s Health Insurance Program AGR Special Supplemental Nutr. Program (WIC) DOT Transit Urbanized Area Formula (sec. 5307) HUD Public Housing Capital Fund HUD Community Dev. Block Grant—Entitlements EPA Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (a) HHS Child Support Enforcement—Federal Share HHS Social Services Block Grant DOT Transit Capital Inv.—Fixed Guideway (5309) DOL Unemployment Insurance—State Admin. Expenses EPA Water Infrastructure Financing (Wastewater) EDU Rehabilitation Services—Vocational Rehab. State Grants AGR State Admin. Matching Grants for Food Stamps HHS Child Care and Development Block Grant DOL Summer Youth Employment Grants—WIA (a) HUD HOME Investment Partnership Program AGR Child and Adult Care Food Program DOL Youth Training Grants—WIA (b) DOT Airport Improvement (including Block Grants) HHS Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (a) HHS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment AGR School Breakfast Program EPA Clean Water State Revolving Fund (b) EDU Class Size Reduction HUD Community Dev. Block Grant—Non-Entitlements HHS Child Care and Development—Matching (b) DOL Empl. and Training Asst.—Dislocated Workers—WIA (c) HHS Child Care and Development—Mandatory (a) HHS Adoption Assistance DOL Youth Activities—WIA EDU Vocational Education—Basic State Grants DOL Welfare to Work Grants HHS Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) HHS HIV Care Formula Grants (Ryan White) DOL Adult Employment and Training Grants—WIA CFDA No. 93.778 20.205 93.558 93.560 84.010 93.600 10.555 84.027 93.658 93.767 10.557 20.507 14.872 14.218 66.468 93.563 93.667 20.500 17.225 66.418 84.126 10.561 93.575 17.250 14.239 10.558 17.250 20.106 93.568 93.959 10.553 66.458 84.340 14.228 93.596 17.260 93.596 93.659 17.259 84.048 17.253 93.561 93.917 17.258 1991 4,548,494 1,201,804 2,957,106 511,559 203,034 440,400 338,298 363,822 227,920 218,695 298,112 137,326 320,721 331,162 167,913 133,812 166,566 76,561 191,090 111,217 79,192 81,722 65,161 151,409 95,810 23,827 40,019 27,467 76,917 116,343 12,954 1992 6,432,977 1,392,657 3,333,568 541,365 219,422 484,217 201,488 405,254 266,359 306,475 317,680 180,047 325,974 412,342 151,770 152,524 200,744 90,062 209,067 185,287 132,216 215,996 83,563 69,976 160,432 108,416 25,628 53,822 29,746 90,710 102,287 15,559 1993 1994 1995 6,885,933 7,108,566 8,782,541 1,276,541 1,353,849 1,710,131 3,097,393 634,291 305,180 521,966 210,198 524,861 2,958,137 692,878 371,303 553,608 428,492 555,293 3,103,834 717,138 392,330 582,713 227,804 569,065 327,439 427,294 528,433 297,070 230,321 410,092 391,560 206,488 333,167 318,825 430,951 306,495 163,846 233,747 100,637 131,334 123,421 133,311 148,299 50,947 62,606 152,246 118,276 430,373 214,246 342,434 55,355 416,396 89,131 185,486 237,232 101,831 151,527 160,535 160,075 137,619 65,439 65,056 158,834 129,766 512,589 191,243 259,752 336,929 532,908 380,370 189,425 250,284 106,609 166,486 176,070 167,757 146,654 60,676 59,352 164,136 144,465 32,939 33,778 43,254 59,959 157,616 198,156 40,956 39,507 51,873 103,696 99,404 100,101 137,193 171,830 90,855 133,232 28,173 96,317 138,366 27,867 21,797 1996 9,195,445 1,743,185 3,013,475 580,137 392,964 622,015 229,895 716,805 631,053 243,913 498,139 94,030 289,077 286,529 214,551 329,124 203,113 265,464 111,466 149,756 186,625 178,151 111,145 36,304 40,400 168,999 159,967 42,585 194,424 54,456 102,238 122,555 36,282 22,916 1997 1998 9,140,160 10,064,959 1,732,054 1,849,611 3,147,716 3,732,668 513,022 809,813 816,159 458,841 528,339 660,927 688,216 307,219 378,486 770,992 874,344 854,645 662,230 688,572 278,890 371,906 488,919 45,024 418,323 300,142 162,497 325,870 473,358 75,683 254,026 274,794 253,343 321,788 1999 12,307,071 2,237,536 3,731,149 940,850 554,366 726,227 431,133 849,779 850,609 698,931 412,584 475,354 77,108 338,194 228,114 93,675 317,378 2000 12,889,684 1,436,184 3,730,164 971,982 466,237 748,258 121,730 1,091,407 765,548 718,992 1,082,582 474,740 80,817 374,948 212,813 141,687 312,828 2001 14,066,021 2,248,552 3,728,516 1,007,981 758,587 775,026 507,056 1,107,148 704,931 748,066 995,484 151,164 492,230 84,017 329,936 207,311 115,288 346,006 207,144 256,715 2,314 153,246 182,334 182,269 150,625 55,106 53,308 189,177 174,666 43,276 96,164 226,609 92,944 60,429 107,278 33,000 57,920 22,287 217,332 263,568 122,774 140,132 193,396 179,167 21,278 144,218 44,913 189,177 181,342 97,257 42,495 113,016 228,455 85,589 100,240 108,186 190,417 73,678 151,782 223,835 215,384 121,446 141,438 208,240 185,168 21,475 84,197 49,127 216,995 191,260 106,868 42,830 125,636 252,751 85,593 99,253 109,111 177,228 95,938 153,203 226,483 226,213 140,119 211,436 195,051 93,390 49,063 223,283 191,979 96,957 42,627 44,223 151,609 297,723 85,593 167,769 171,424 26,284 106,594 160,744 234,214 339,170 233,209 235,173 203,694 122,304 62,776 235,159 198,756 96,095 147,678 46,070 174,892 273,391 85,593 159,113 181,547 121,427 108,968 156,376 27 Table A.1 (continued) Dept. EDU DOL HHS EDU DOJ HHS HHS HUD HHS AGR EDU DOJ DOJ EDU EDU EDU EDU EDU DOL EDU AGR EDU HHS DOJ AGR HHS EDU HHS HHS HHS HHS HHS HHS INT HHS DOT EPA DOJ HUD DOT EDU INT HHS DOE EDU INT Program Name Impact Aid—Basic Support Payments—Sec 3(a) Employment Service (a) State Legalization Impact Assistance (SLIAG) School Repair and Renovation Grants Violent Offender Incar./Truth in Sentencing Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (b) Maternal and Child Health Block Grant Indian Housing Block Grants Community Services Block Grant Summer Food Service Program for Children Drug-Free Schools and Communities Byrne Drug Control and System Improvement Formula Local Law Enforcement Block Grant Program Eisenhower Professional Development State Grants Goals 2000—State and Local Systemic Improvements Adult Education—State Grant (a) Innovative Education Program Strategies (Chap. 2) Technology Literacy Challenge Fund Senior Community Service Employment Program Special Education—Grants for Infants and Families Cooperative Extension Service Special Education—Preschool Grants Community Mental Health Services Block Grants Crime Victim Assistance Schools and Roads—Grants to States Aging—Congregate Nutrition Services (b) Migrant Education—Basic State Formula Grant Child Care for Families at Risk of Welfare Dependence Aging—Supportive Services and Senior Centers TANF—Supplemental Grants for Population Increases (b) HIV Emergency Relief Formula Grants (Ryan White) Child Welfare Services—State Grants Refugee and Entrant Assistance (State Admin.) Sport Fish Restoration Promoting Safe and Stable Families Appalachian Highway Development System Non-Point Source Pollution Grants Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS Transit Formula for Nonurban Areas (5311) Even Start Wildlife Restoration State Survey and Certification of Medicare Providers Weatherization Assistance for Low Income Persons Comprehensive School Reform Demonstrations Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program CFDA No. 84.041 17.207 93.565 84.352 16.586 93.568 93.994 14.867 93.569 10.559 84.186 16.579 16.592 84.281 84.276 84.002 84.298 84.318 17.235 84.181 10.500 84.173 93.958 16.575 10.665 93.045 84.011 93.574 93.044 93.558 93.914 93.645 93.566 15.605 93.556 23.003 66.460 16.523 14.241 20.509 84.213 15.611 93.777 81.042 84.332 15.252 1991 66,158 84,102 184,564 1992 65,794 89,584 0 1993 65,762 92,396 179,201 1994 64,330 97,552 507,502 1995 53,623 100,003 31,401 32,001 11,367 52,801 43,161 20,496 16,657 49,122 31,359 8,568 11,194 24,588 6,757 57,026 33,476 100,340 36,592 26,980 26,520 7,704 0 3,053 0 4,317 12,355 4,989 0 35,793 32,514 12,043 54,527 44,048 24,118 19,668 50,587 32,138 10,061 11,865 66,626 25,814 6,270 60,805 33,951 106,748 73,184 27,779 27,291 12,112 2,787 4,619 5,581 6,014 18,952 4,790 0 39,989 33,463 8,977 53,965 44,349 48,623 28,246 49,715 32,443 24,494 11,769 34,623 38,060 7,008 46,589 33,484 101,026 25,172 27,493 23,208 30,049 73,182 12,801 2,952 19,523 4,387 8,386 5,394 19,649 4,780 0 0 41,903 45,794 16,559 41,907 37,704 26,990 10,263 28,246 42,626 34,116 29,207 12,151 70,797 38,060 6,664 15,022 34,810 101,641 36,590 28,475 39,477 31,734 10,320 6,928 2,124 29,419 6,184 9,082 7,050 19,085 5,206 0 0 41,640 34,744 18,294 47,939 47,498 27,708 262 27,983 40,033 33,158 38,002 11,964 35,784 33,244 8,369 50,981 34,778 91,970 55,763 28,468 40,858 31,575 10,715 16,897 2,738 28,749 6,331 9,904 7,801 20,600 5,976 0 1996 48,502 90,415 1997 35,293 89,653 8,294 40,998 34,914 22,471 47,493 49,788 29,970 42,909 27,362 31,703 33,731 78,661 11,449 36,326 34,270 14,009 41,168 33,743 91,622 43,879 27,879 47,122 31,039 10,158 25,989 5,599 25,205 5,175 9,973 7,319 20,600 3,101 0 140,078 8,395 40,901 43,606 24,023 57,354 52,005 81,787 33,854 54,659 38,209 35,956 20,569 36,617 0 11,439 35,918 34,514 44,294 33,925 33,781 84,472 27,059 50,971 32,757 13,661 29,855 5,515 28,969 6,446 10,632 5,783 20,767 3,352 0 1998 44,393 88,908 80,615 0 40,850 43,693 20,909 59,536 52,751 55,006 37,696 54,875 38,791 41,044 46,549 36,946 86,987 11,317 38,085 34,514 29,913 30,533 34,768 89,145 27,849 0 56,965 33,874 13,601 33,398 0 5,646 22,539 28,238 6,238 12,434 5,366 20,163 3,473 0 0 1999 45,904 88,902 67,506 0 42,267 44,317 21,210 49,466 53,003 76,623 38,012 54,330 41,466 44,575 45,942 37,004 46,250 11,753 37,946 35,155 25,555 28,634 34,748 103,467 27,929 0 58,536 34,056 20,060 10,621 37,750 0 10,664 22,598 27,364 8,350 14,930 5,697 21,172 3,692 26,474 0 2000 41,201 88,632 59,925 24,743 106,594 46,771 20,425 11,819 51,529 78,969 39,717 54,343 47,505 9,634 49,834 7,523 45,930 10,174 39,849 46,170 41,329 28,036 34,725 107,669 28,897 0 61,488 34,127 27,552 12,047 40,545 0 10,551 21,323 27,961 16,325 17,635 6,610 24,262 3,732 20,517 0 2001 49,356 89,217 867 59,271 20,789 42,994 30,189 53,183 21,355 51,738 51,592 61,436 59,261 52,666 45,691 55,910 7,518 46,979 10,150 39,849 54,653 40,440 65,750 34,803 119,491 30,783 0 63,885 34,037 16,147 12,042 42,820 0 12,365 22,092 30,573 16,556 30,485 6,861 26,889 4,238 26,717 0 28 Dept. Program Name HHS EPA DOT AGR AGR Preventative Health Block Grant Air Pollution Control Program Grant (105) Transit Formula for Elderly and Disabled (5310) Emergency Food Assistance—Administrative Costs Agricultural Experimentation Stations (Hatch Act) EPA Water Pollution Control—State/Interstate Supp. HUD Emergency Shelter Grants AGR AGR AGR EDU HHS Cooperative Forestry Assistance Emergency Food Assistance—Commodities Nutrition Program for the Elderly Education of Children with Disabilities in State Schools Aging—Home Delivered Meals (a) EDU Immigrant Education DOT Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program NFAH State Library Prog.—National Foundation on Arts and Humanities DOT State and Community Highway Safety Formula FEM Emergency Food and Shelter Program DOJ Violence Against Women Formula Grants HHS Independent Living FEM Emergency Mgmt. Performance Grants—State and Local AGR HHS DOT AGR EDU State Admin. Expenses for Child Nutrition Aging—National Family Caregiver Support Federal Transit Metropolitan Planning (5303) Commodity Supplemental Food Program Vocational Education—Tech-Prep Education HHS State Medicaid Fraud Control Units EPA Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance to States HHS Family Violence Prev. and Services—Battered Women EPA EDU DOJ DOJ Public Water System Supervision (Drinking Water) Indian Education LEA Grants Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Crime Victim Compensation INT Outdoor Rec. Acq./Development/Planning (NPS) CNCS AmeriCorps Grants EDU Public Library Services (LSCA Title I) DOL DOL DOL EDU Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) Local Veterans Employment Representatives (LVER) Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers—WIA Leveraging Educ. Assistance Partnership (SSIG/LEAP) HHS Developmental Disabilities—Basic Support (a) EDU English Literacy and Civics Education State Grant (b) COM Coastal Zone Management Admin. Awards FEM Emergency Management Assistance (Civ. Def.) HUD Indian Community Development Block Grant EDU Educationally Deprived—Title I (State Admin.) CFDA No. 93.991 66.001 20.513 10.568 10.203 66.419 14.231 10.664 10.569 10.570 84.009 93.045 84.162 20.218 45.310 20.600 83.523 16.588 93.674 83.534 10.560 93.052 20.500 10.565 84.243 93.775 66.801 93.671 66.432 84.060 16.540 16.576 15.916 94.006 84.034 17.801 17.804 17.247 84.069 93.630 84.002 11.419 83.503 14.862 84.012 Table A.1 (continued) 1991 6,492 11,630 11,039 4,493 4,471 7,399 3,074 10,363 2,070 8,148 1992 9,152 17,645 12,805 4,706 3,911 7,401 6,020 12,255 2,036 8,322 1993 10,326 19,357 4,392 4,955 4,679 4,385 5,070 3,794 20,601 11,853 1,549 8,304 1994 10,915 18,731 5,447 5,116 4,745 4,720 12,411 6,597 10,162 11,990 1,682 8,733 3,268 1995 10,966 20,366 5,466 8,481 4,713 4,256 16,760 4,712 11,568 8,774 2,622 1996 13,489 18,685 4,700 4,621 4,267 4,373 11,566 9,879 14,367 3,875 1997 14,764 17,364 5,150 21,552 4,613 4,294 14,044 1,986 11,763 9,921 26,513 3,802 1998 15,211 18,009 5,780 21,552 4,579 4,590 20,329 1,922 11,291 10,592 38,894 4,300 843 17,123 11,264 6,681 11,723 18,125 12,959 7,700 0 6,552 7,777 2,964 4,319 15,808 2,997 9,357 7,943 7,547 3,068 4,442 5,632 35,325 8,470 9,796 6,660 12,271 9,755 5,370 8,643 9,840 6,509 14,801 11,057 5,763 5,242 5,752 5,093 5,849 11,512 18,000 12,878 8,967 11,341 21,260 12,878 12,095 11,368 21,807 12,554 6,406 10,818 3,638 10,860 6,555 7,390 3,641 4,389 5,632 24,034 8,616 10,205 6,740 15,066 11,251 5,823 11,443 7,052 6,908 4,146 4,622 6,332 15,285 5,649 8,659 11,417 6,507 17,640 11,124 6,144 5,373 11,443 5,831 7,311 4,267 4,344 7,834 17,863 7,937 8,661 11,850 6,971 16,597 9,733 6,427 5,721 6,508 5,980 6,817 11,855 16,919 12,551 8,202 11,678 10,834 7,105 6,827 4,432 3,494 7,790 31,911 8,626 10,876 6,405 14,235 4,903 5,563 12,963 16,843 12,935 12,520 8,277 12,422 6,794 6,231 10,893 8,339 7,480 5,595 5,601 3,838 9,884 25,489 8,081 11,159 6,553 14,235 7,921 5,570 13,683 15,601 13,327 12,519 8,710 13,293 7,792 7,134 11,260 9,350 7,031 6,744 5,662 3,984 11,180 19,458 9,544 12,101 6,808 14,590 3,924 5,568 2,420 1999 15,394 18,498 6,024 5,561 4,948 6,335 18,404 3,488 10,989 11,542 10,623 36,457 5,461 13,675 15,839 13,655 12,517 8,535 13,992 7,429 8,190 11,633 8,811 7,155 6,976 5,674 4,134 8,656 17,670 8,551 11,260 6,392 18,779 3,924 5,577 2,730 2000 9,292 20,977 39,176 5,592 4,947 6,279 18,390 4,332 11,954 11,170 14,079 33,392 5,756 14,623 13,888 18,346 12,880 26,757 10,675 14,311 37,773 8,753 11,632 10,307 7,280 8,093 5,674 4,395 8,419 19,161 3,171 11,220 12,431 6,504 16,077 6,452 5,659 7,651 2,765 12,140 2001 9,243 20,700 93,228 5,717 4,933 9,418 18,302 6,571 12,436 12,357 14,753 32,069 9,801 15,852 14,073 21,104 10,179 27,569 10,675 15,062 11,360 39,344 9,239 11,895 13,026 7,939 6,581 5,309 6,585 8,366 19,294 7,709 11,207 10,771 6,937 16,802 8,445 5,874 20,960 3,070 14,781 29 Dept. DOJ DOT DOT INT EDU HHS EDU EDU EDU DOT HHS HHS EDU DOJ AGR EDU DOE INT EDU EDU DOL DOT HHS AGR EDU EDU EDU EDU AGR AGR EPA EDU AGR EDU EDU EPA EDU EDU EDU EDU EDU EPA EDU EPA DOL EDU EPA EDU Program Name Residential Subst. Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Recreational Boating Safety Transit Planning and Research Surface Mining Regulation and Technology Impact Aid—Children with Disabilities—Sec 3 (b) Abstinence Education Fund for Improve. of Educ./Demo. of Comp. School Ref. Neglected and Delinquent Children—Title I Capital Expenses (Title I) Federal Transit Technical Studies, Sec. 8 Runaway and Homeless Youth Emergency Community Services for Homeless Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarships Title V Delinquency Prevention Program Soup Kitchens Supported Employment Services—Severe Disabilities State Energy Program Historic Preservation Fund Vocational Education—Consumer and Homemaking Education for Homeless Children and Youth Reemployment Services (b) National Recreational Trails Developmental Disabilities—Protection/Advocacy (b) 1890 Land Grant Colleges and Tuskeegee University State Program Improvement Grants—Chap. 1 Public Library Construction (LSCA II) Interlibrary Cooperation Independent Living State Grants Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program Cooperative Forestry Research Pesticides Enforcement Grants (a) Rehab. Services—Independent Living for Older/Blind Special Milk Program for Children Foreign Language Assistance Grants Paul Douglas Teacher Scholarships Pesticide Program Implementation Grants (b) Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth Offenders Special Education—Protection and Advocacy Impact Aid—Payments for Federal Property—Sec. 3 (d) State Literacy Resource Centers Vocational Education—Community-Based Organizations Underground Storage Tank (UST) Grants Rehabilitation Services—Client Assistance Underground Injection Control (UIC) Grants Veterans Employment—JTPA Title IV-C Vocational Education—State Councils Toxic Substances Enforcement Grants Impact Aid—Construction—Sec. 3 (c) CFDA No. 16.953 20.005 20.515 15.250 84.041 93.235 84.215 84.013 84.216 20.505 93.623 93.572 84.185 16.548 10.571 84.187 81.041 15.904 84.049 84.196 17.207 20.219 93.630 10.205 84.218 84.154 84.035 84.169 10.572 10.202 66.700 84.177 10.556 84.249 84.176 66.700 84.331 84.240 84.041 84.254 84.174 66.805 84.161 66.433 17.250 84.053 66.701 84.041 Table A.1 (continued) 1991 3,257 4,032 3,807 998 3,134 836 0 981 1,593 1,443 1,664 2,047 1,094 675 947 0 1,776 468 0 0 838 795 737 223 130 1992 3,569 4,473 2,238 1,070 3,368 862 3,486 2,201 1,739 2,321 1,408 2,089 1,220 671 939 661 1,850 380 417 1,221 896 632 733 242 219 1993 1,650 0 3,469 4,437 7,715 1,811 1,126 3,345 3,365 855 3,438 2,534 1,785 2,736 1,397 2,083 1,232 1,163 927 2,516 1,742 705 1,289 1,207 918 660 712 232 0 1994 1,284 0 4,170 4,627 7,041 2,285 4,533 3,680 3,441 2,828 1,961 2,866 1,547 2,093 1,297 0 1,412 1,772 52 100 872 1,217 957 680 232 0 1995 1,284 0 4,479 4,445 6,203 7,046 3,440 5,160 3,933 3,047 2,175 2,971 1,547 2,555 1,950 1,172 852 675 606 985 617 225 150 1996 0 4,198 4,039 6,193 6,632 3,434 4,134 2,391 2,192 1,378 1,885 1,952 854 773 605 1,015 523 128 1997 3,019 2,373 1,256 0 4,186 3,640 5,793 6,794 3,421 4,113 1,820 2,791 2,222 1,936 164 960 833 673 638 450 1,054 504 144 1998 6,624 2,740 1,301 0 4,967 5,764 3,603 5,793 4,682 4,643 4,113 1,914 3,204 511 2,234 0 1,936 468 606 776 824 965 1,713 955 384 1,083 440 76 1999 6,399 3,267 1,403 0 4,744 5,764 5,972 3,254 2,979 5,024 4,680 5,249 4,176 2,137 3,475 1,583 2,240 0 1,982 936 650 1,058 806 717 1,473 1,048 315 1,110 597 587 2000 6,382 3,212 3,865 0 3,258 0 6,044 3,522 1,831 4,754 4,792 4,662 4,192 2,167 3,673 2,346 0 2001 6,212 3,327 1,658 0 4,236 0 6,044 4,146 1,054 5,394 4,994 4,765 4,161 2,496 4,852 3,576 2,757 0 1,987 4,244 650 1,081 1,004 763 572 1,629 1,147 303 1,113 618 365 348 1,987 3,676 647 1,090 1,714 793 791 1,811 1,399 2,447 307 1,193 557 132 283 Table A.1 (continued) 30 Dept. Program Name DOT Federal Transit Rural Transp. Assistance (5311(b)(2)) AGR Animal Health and Disease Research AGR Nutrition, Education, and Training EDU Assistive Tech.—Grants for Protection/Advocacy EDU Christa McAuliffe Fellowships Total Federal Formula Grant Funding CFDA No. 20.509 10.207 10.564 84.343 84.190 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 69 124 110 85 14,941,382 18,181,293 19,697,478 20,253,495 22,845,233 1996 1997 22,696,373 24,280,692 1998 147 537 328 27,198,980 1999 160 538 50 30,030,813 2000 132 496 2001 161 465 50 50 30,549,358 34,019,274 SOURCES: Budget Information for States, various fiscal years; budgets of the U.S. government; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance; California Institute for Federal Policy Research; Public Policy Institute of California. NOTES: This table lists the largest federal formula grant programs. These programs distribute more than 85 percent of U.S. formula dollars. Programs included in this table are those listed in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget annual report Budget Information for States. U.S. totals exclude undistributed funds, technical assistance, and other funds not geographically distributed. Indian tribe funding is included in the U.S. total but is not attributed to California. Table A.2 Total Federal Funding to All States from Major Formula Grants, FY 1991–2001 ($1000s) 31 DPT HHS DOT HHS HHS EDU HHS AGR EDU HHS HHS AGR DOT HUD HUD EPA HHS HHS DOT DOL EPA EDU AGR HHS DOL HUD AGR DOL Program Name Grants to States for Medicaid Highway Planning and Construction TANF—State Family Assistance Grants (a) Family Support Payments (AFDC) Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies Head Start National School Lunch Program Special Education—Grants to States Foster Care—Title IV-E State Children’s Health Insurance Program Special Supplemental Nutr. Program (WIC) Transit Urbanized Area Formula (sec. 5307) Public Housing Capital Fund Community Development Block Grant—Entitlements Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (a) Child Support Enforcement— Federal Share Social Services Block Grant Transit Capital Inv.—Fixed Guideway (5309) Unemployment Insurance—State Admin. Expenses Water Infrastructure Financing (Wastewater) Rehabilitation Services— Vocational Rehab. State Grants State Admin. Matching Grants for Food Stamps Child Care and Development Block Grant Summer Youth Employment Grants—WIA (a) HOME Investment Partnership Program Child and Adult Care Food Program Youth Training Grants—WIA (b) CFDA No. 93.778 20.205 93.558 93.560 84.010 93.600 10.555 84.027 93.658 93.767 10.557 20.507 14.872 14.218 66.468 93.563 93.667 20.500 17.225 66.418 84.126 10.561 93.575 17.250 14.239 10.558 17.250 1991 53,335,353 14,178,052 12,450,520 5,557,984 2,055,267 3,553,207 2,214,902 1,813,186 2,372,765 2,953,963 2,202,600 1,204,674 2,804,054 2,118,661 2,527,995 1,628,543 1,198,890 731,915 1,778,484 927,936 682,880 1992 69,711,866 15,203,154 1993 74,252,273 14,427,018 1994 77,847,373 16,581,395 14,433,674 13,744,659 12,587,488 6,129,583 5,853,841 6,035,327 2,201,763 3,870,097 1,838,302 2,374,612 3,949,299 2,313,630 2,852,650 4,157,707 2,566,027 2,143,863 2,532,398 2,600,197 2,667,449 2,140,902 2,903,447 1,756,857 3,173,129 1,968,946 2,396,779 2,658,617 2,926,822 1,375,400 2,800,000 2,558,599 2,412,000 1,783,530 1,337,590 825,000 1,773,484 1,460,000 1,089,628 1,672,412 1,531,292 2,784,350 1,714,636 2,365,682 2,485,228 1,837,114 1,497,816 836,815 975,353 972,582 1,190,752 963,244 1,765,959 2,791,350 1,531,823 2,280,085 1,505,367 1,928,853 1,601,387 835,511 948,167 1,192,522 1,312,005 837,957 1995 88,791,301 18,536,550 1996 92,056,580 18,236,903 12,158,302 11,046,845 6,649,208 5,378,095 3,402,946 4,449,177 2,466,797 3,438,242 4,636,853 2,349,513 2,898,562 2,553,624 3,573,615 2,392,832 3,809,738 1,855,958 3,185,500 3,053,059 2,122,979 2,800,000 2,559,235 2,213,475 3,019,000 1,797,877 1,982,107 2,381,000 1,693,609 1,974,905 2,054,145 1,724,776 932,305 996,813 1,353,000 1,425,930 867,070 2,114,334 1,784,943 932,262 850,000 1,378,000 1,486,704 625,000 1997 95,123,263 19,661,988 1998 1999 2000 2001 99,407,033 110,212,407 120,084,050 132,723,725 19,503,076 24,585,046 25,280,613 27,649,444 13,402,837 16,645,989 16,565,996 16,566,404 16,561,811 3,835,802 7,285,557 7,208,318 7,724,543 7,911,318 8,097,387 3,866,717 4,923,489 3,056,604 4,232,433 5,084,373 3,830,297 4,335,499 5,282,477 4,302,797 3,553,140 5,455,143 1,153,930 5,757,812 5,591,467 5,080,490 3,291,719 3,539,685 3,980,043 4,291,923 4,291,923 3,750,466 4,247,000 4,249,200 4,249,200 3,904,401 4,029,509 4,048,926 4,118,617 4,180,055 1,983,690 2,052,026 2,465,147 4,107,570 4,102,961 3,654,353 3,084,280 3,003,640 2,952,740 2,965,235 3,079,510 1,059,650 1,234,952 800,540 861,138 815,964 2,441,654 2,139,078 2,511,883 2,805,119 2,942,686 2,500,000 2,299,000 1,909,000 1,725,000 1,725,000 1,699,143 1,653,168 838,296 1,001,516 1,024,163 2,018,521 2,066,610 2,035,658 2,055,926 2,217,250 2,176,038 1,666,395 19,120 895,000 1,355,550 1,523,078 871,000 2,246,888 2,304,411 1,889,499 1,826,125 1,005,635 997,501 871,000 871,000 1,441,000 1,553,039 1,509,946 1,566,658 129,965 129,965 2,338,977 1,936,958 1,169,715 1,556,000 1,636,945 2,399,790 2,115,862 1,984,999 1,737,169 1,683,572 32 DPT DOT HHS HHS AGR EPA EDU HUD HHS DOL HHS HHS DOL EDU DOL HHS HHS DOL EDU DOL HHS EDU DOJ HHS HHS HUD HHS AGR EDU Program Name Airport Improvement (including Block Grants) Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (a) Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment School Breakfast Program Clean Water State Revolving Fund (b) Class Size Reduction Community Dev. Block Grants—Non-Entitlement Child Care and Development— Matching (b) Empl. and Training Asst.— Dislocated Workers—WIA (c) Child Care and Development— Mandatory (a) Adoption Assistance Youth Activities—WIA Vocational Education—Basic State Grants Welfare to Work Grants Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) HIV Care Formula Grants (Ryan White) Adult Employment and Training Grants—WIA Impact Aid—Basic Support Payments—Sec 3(a) Employment Service (a) State Legalization Impact Assistance (SLIAG) School Repair and Renovation Grants Violent Offender Incar./Truth in Sentencing Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (b) Maternal and Child Health Block Grant Indian Housing Block Grants Community Services Block Grant Summer Food Service Program for Children Drug-Free Schools and Communities CFDA No. 20.106 93.568 93.959 10.553 66.458 84.340 14.228 93.596 17.260 93.596 93.659 17.259 84.048 17.253 93.561 93.917 17.258 84.041 17.207 93.565 84.352 16.586 93.568 93.994 14.867 93.569 10.559 84.186 1991 916,397 1,610,210 1,268,670 693,801 943,970 526,979 189,832 876,673 684,113 87,831 700,156 805,107 271,386 587,302 435,941 179,116 500,284 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 926,834 1,500,000 1,079,839 801,191 1993 793,319 1,330,847 1,035,736 841,561 1994 726,811 1,409,996 1,089,212 927,561 1,003,221 1,106,536 1,221,839 576,986 403,974 872,636 217,535 861,192 273,386 1,021,356 317,397 938,514 678,942 106,635 695,166 821,607 0 810,927 962,320 650,239 654,508 780,656 323,572 861,260 155,113 584,316 656,741 800,877 809,858 649,564 359,997 202,927 506,744 537,580 351,712 181,060 480,018 300,000 553,582 375,727 205,109 360,587 1995 590,000 1,288,112 1,172,402 1,043,056 1996 601,903 876,796 1,172,402 1,113,588 1,352,501 1,318,000 1,045,452 880,344 434,214 987,104 485,997 976,174 1,011,757 174,766 126,672 553,117 819,368 878,892 250,405 126,672 516,459 743,735 100,000 572,259 180,000 566,698 387,585 238,743 433,634 387,586 251,604 437,177 1997 780,698 1,189,750 1,294,602 1,210,961 1,299,964 723,692 1,037,149 1,238,390 589,740 1,006,272 283,290 397,895 126,672 527,493 743,735 1998 1,660,535 1999 944,448 974,750 1,074,351 1,294,602 1,505,750 1,264,063 1,333,636 1,240,844 1,423,049 1,265,560 1,272,460 846,360 940,718 1,083,280 1,127,397 1,218,864 1,220,865 700,672 826,420 1,023,745 1,018,726 1,040,788 954,560 520,074 955,000 608,500 743,735 709,905 955,000 665,532 743,735 2000 1,051,350 1,072,200 1,520,000 1,383,805 1,425,329 400,000 1,277,815 1,136,218 1,274,706 1,218,938 1,148,541 1,000,742 253,312 794,311 949,709 671,389 743,735 2001 1,619,327 1,371,928 1,581,747 1,442,366 1,342,572 1,371,836 1,326,774 1,331,718 1,123,020 1,228,864 1,148,541 1,127,742 1,126,235 874,625 949,709 844,666 745,735 793,935 215,000 564,590 483,795 249,011 530,442 509,149 160,000 681,079 484,822 175,002 576,227 484,943 532,914 530,000 491,996 265,557 439,118 423,731 744,350 582,675 519,255 271,552 108,779 800,264 435,380 455,650 582,225 629,080 590,470 270,308 435,000 33 DPT DOJ DOJ EDU EDU EDU EDU EDU DOL EDU AGR EDU HHS DOJ AGR HHS EDU HHS HHS HHS HHS HHS HHS INT HHS DOT EPA Program Name Byrne Drug Control and System Improvement Formula Local Law Enforcement Block Grant Program Eisenhower Professional Development State Grants Goals 2000—State and Local Systemic Improvements Adult Education—State Grant (a) Innovative Education Program Strategies (Chap. 2) Technology Literacy Challenge Fund Senior Community Service Employment Program Special Education—Grants for Infants and Families Cooperative Extension Service Special Education—Preschool Grants Community Mental Health Services Block Grants Crime Victim Assistance Schools and Roads—Grants to States Aging—Congregate Nutrition Services (b) Migrant Education—Basic State Formula Grant Child Care for Families at Risk of Welfare Dependence Aging—Supportive Services and Senior Centers TANF—Supplemental Grants for Population Increases (b) HIV Emergency Relief Formula Grants (Ryan White) Child Welfare Services—State Grants Refugee and Entrant Assistance (State Admin.) Sport Fish Restoration Promoting Safe and Stable Families Appalachian Highway Development System Non-Point Source Pollution Grants CFDA No. 16.579 16.592 84.281 84.276 84.002 84.298 84.318 17.235 84.181 10.500 84.173 93.958 16.575 10.665 93.045 84.011 93.574 93.044 93.558 93.914 93.645 93.566 15.605 93.556 23.003 66.460 1991 423,000 202,008 201,032 448,908 390,355 74,729 398,473 312,553 65,649 336,646 361,078 293,616 216,248 290,818 273,907 31,089 2,762 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 423,000 240,000 235,650 445,534 395,181 121,026 419,325 334,574 280,160 62,765 338,014 366,087 301,669 357,535 299,238 273,911 219,518 51,777 1993 413,288 1994 345,163 278,162 247,654 428,952 241,843 59,077 247,654 360,210 388,269 168,521 396,976 295,664 281,803 66,923 308,536 354,543 290,753 264,316 291,143 401,486 219,927 400,827 404,678 271,911 63,622 93,747 369,286 287,782 275,585 301,401 87,999 286,059 282,771 212,595 154,457 285,553 194,440 55,539 47,651 72,181 1995 448,542 1996 478,064 251,207 214,292 252,345 347,250 274,265 320,885 246,133 274,950 396,060 242,184 414,150 394,088 261,649 79,760 313,010 375,485 300,975 296,709 306,711 401,000 429,399 403,180 365,838 261,649 127,344 266,819 364,460 299,475 291,054 300,306 174,685 291,989 207,602 277,389 214,298 143,882 198,190 219,000 94,751 99,256 1997 496,752 454,351 309,025 456,334 340,339 310,000 199,250 435,000 367,452 406,926 355,724 261,649 397,059 234,284 364,391 300,975 1998 504,236 437,474 332,341 467,907 345,339 349,815 423,000 438,635 418,412 407,685 380,326 261,649 275,671 235,080 374,163 301,275 1999 505,297 406,218 334,000 466,382 365,000 375,000 422,875 438,436 373,249 420,678 373,985 274,375 238,136 208,344 373,699 348,457 2000 476,421 502,223 334,098 455,876 417,880 80,185 422,875 96,318 345,093 353,586 366,070 338,195 370,167 212,561 377,586 350,085 2001 487,204 452,988 483,167 460,059 382,305 447,750 97,403 425,126 354,162 413,676 399,000 360,864 384,176 377,586 373,318 291,260 227,734 291,989 273,229 224,000 84,589 299,113 79,447 233,025 291,458 272,028 222,737 258,253 85,734 299,632 159,720 251,890 291,896 133,653 212,423 240,946 83,747 181,383 324,359 238,599 271,648 291,982 216,352 240,938 259,660 67,049 179,873 324,359 319,450 298,926 291,982 134,851 240,853 268,127 210,237 239,004 34 DPT DOJ HUD DOT EDU INT HHS DOE EDU INT HHS EPA DOT AGR AGR EPA HUD AGR AGR AGR EDU HHS EDU DOT NFAH DOT FEM DOJ HHS Program Name Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS Transit Formula for Nonurban Areas (5311) Even Start Wildlife Restoration State Survey and Certification of Medicare Providers Weatherization Assistance for Low Income Persons Comprehensive School Reform Demonstrations Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program Preventative Health Block Grant Air Pollution Control Program Grant (105) Transit Formula for Elderly and Disabled (5310) Emergency Food Assistance— Administrative Costs Agricultural Experimentation Stations (Hatch Act) Water Pollution Control— State/Interstate Supp. Emergency Shelter Grants Cooperative Forestry Assistance Emergency Food Assistance— Commodities Nutrition Program for the Elderly Education of Children with Disabilities in State Schools Aging—Home Delivered Meals (a) Immigrant Education Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program State Library Prog.—National Foundation on Arts and Humanities State and Community Highway Safety Formula Emergency Food and Shelter Program Violence Against Women Formula Grants Independent Living CFDA No. 16.523 14.241 20.509 84.213 15.611 93.777 81.042 84.332 15.252 93.991 66.001 20.513 10.568 10.203 66.419 14.231 10.664 10.569 10.570 84.009 93.045 84.162 20.218 45.310 20.600 83.523 16.588 93.674 1991 87,548 0 144,468 134,455 198,953 194,034 90,844 138,870 119,999 155,481 82,317 73,163 97,145 141,701 151,852 87,830 10,000 134,000 60,000 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 117,244 67,825 158,074 149,445 193,925 150,457 129,000 163,819 120,000 161,370 81,855 73,164 95,688 143,719 150,095 89,603 127,337 134,000 70,000 1993 1994 86,876 111,221 82,177 153,444 138,054 182,365 134,819 141,651 81,904 190,912 136,170 202,891 139,456 140,004 163,943 47,218 43,450 154,283 75,714 47,659 84,098 154,777 148,750 122,768 87,936 201,487 148,249 163,477 56,567 40,010 156,582 79,656 110,076 100,378 79,352 148,215 117,295 92,049 62,025 116,631 126,023 124,419 126,909 70,000 70,000 1995 1996 153,900 161,606 94,523 218,082 144,384 211,536 153,900 121,475 95,522 208,310 142,625 109,764 167,346 152,487 180,385 57,114 65,086 162,648 79,328 156,800 94,432 134,406 168,455 164,982 50,738 160,200 80,149 91,629 146,569 144,485 94,065 48,552 105,339 50,000 74,374 117,847 129,030 122,489 99,998 70,000 70,000 1997 176,400 131,922 95,523 165,790 144,393 118,645 197,807 182,540 135,448 53,483 170,684 159,380 51,609 113,728 95,179 144,848 1998 232,250 183,600 130,002 118,200 154,808 149,490 122,945 62,222 186,705 194,092 132,392 58,558 170,746 159,387 53,305 165,000 94,747 140,145 1999 232,250 200,475 182,671 131,632 165,353 166,776 130,700 174,555 160,304 186,246 164,270 64,359 44,999 170,555 111,888 150,000 92,303 89,571 139,836 2000 221,095 207,234 228,815 142,190 193,168 195,344 132,700 168,905 188,830 128,434 176,033 109,902 43,546 170,540 110,727 150,000 125,684 100,584 136,391 2001 231,274 229,372 213,836 224,500 204,184 216,415 150,701 207,848 201,529 127,718 174,672 174,983 44,684 170,157 168,169 149,670 154,836 98,824 151,929 105,297 100,000 74,605 112,000 149,973 77,781 112,000 150,000 86,130 151,669 149,540 92,678 138,118 151,669 149,955 148,962 148,939 134,582 100,000 132,541 70,000 142,577 99,000 135,897 70,000 142,500 100,500 138,407 70,000 145,160 110,000 131,616 114,752 146,909 139,692 110,744 137,900 35 DPT FEM AGR HHS DOT AGR EDU HHS EPA HHS EPA EDU DOJ DOJ INT CNCS EDU DOL DOL DOL EDU HHS EDU COM FEM HUD Program Name Emergency Mgmt. Performance Grants—State and Local State Admin. Expenses for Child Nutrition Aging—National Family Caregiver Support Federal Transit Metropolitan Planning (5303) Commodity Supplemental Food Program Vocational Education—TechPrep Education State Medicaid Fraud Control Units Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance to States Family Violence Prev. and Services—Battered Women Public Water Systems Supervision (Drinking Water) Indian Education LEA Grants Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Crime Victim Compensation Outdoor Rec. Acq./ Development/Planning (NPS) AmeriCorps Grants Public Library Services (LSCA Title I) Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) Local Veterans Employment Representatives (LVER) Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers—WIA Leveraging Educ. Assistance Partnership (SSIG/LEAP) Developmental Disabilities— Basic Support (a) English Literacy and Civics Education State Grant (b) Coastal Zone Management Admin. Awards Emergency Management Assistance (Civ. Def.) Indian Community Development Block Grant CFDA No. 83.534 10.560 93.052 20.500 10.565 84.243 93.775 66.801 93.671 66.432 84.060 16.540 16.576 15.916 94.006 84.034 17.801 17.804 17.247 84.069 93.630 84.002 11.419 83.503 14.862 1991 63,363 34,564 58,000 83,153 47,955 56,031 49,434 83,922 76,239 70,405 70,287 63,537 64,402 63,128 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 68,766 96,366 86,920 53,974 90,565 50,028 53,936 45,640 87,224 83,898 76,899 71,569 77,644 66,666 67,706 62,128 1993 74,858 1994 76,759 92,565 104,720 47,012 90,173 114,529 101,059 49,536 94,932 56,500 56,305 47,035 68,429 80,056 81,339 75,880 71,320 77,313 63,452 64,689 57,327 58,612 60,593 47,839 80,104 83,797 77,713 77,595 71,739 65,557 66,868 68,845 1995 73,540 93,022 1996 105,783 99,262 87,862 110,169 57,947 96,750 99,650 60,788 96,196 69,132 59,654 71,694 64,532 67,952 83,227 81,308 75,278 76,349 63,375 70,438 72,439 50,000 68,794 83,952 77,665 76,389 70,209 65,487 31,375 64,803 1997 102,661 103,391 41,079 90,140 98,026 63,820 62,055 58,240 63,891 57,947 77,470 74,242 76,370 1998 111,098 108,303 1999 113,169 116,594 40,934 85,116 103,000 85,794 52,794 68,885 59,922 59,750 92,069 67,428 41,076 87,278 105,174 89,704 97,618 71,040 90,873 62,000 73,562 66,966 88,307 73,712 2000 135,939 127,409 117,860 103,673 86,693 102,976 106,700 100,040 93,534 93,027 61,981 68,509 81,374 40,000 75,303 2001 136,071 123,227 117,860 115,200 84,577 105,945 106,700 106,247 93,534 89,113 92,442 84,914 90,677 88,804 53,610 76,399 71,519 65,487 50,538 64,803 78,930 76,073 67,124 25,000 64,803 76,108 75,755 74,595 25,000 64,803 49,700 66,418 78,291 76,572 70,311 40,000 67,800 25,500 58,691 78,627 75,557 72,164 55,000 67,800 70,000 69,148 67,680 66,377 36 DPT EDU DOJ DOT DOT INT EDU HHS EDU EDU EDU DOT HHS HHS EDU DOJ AGR EDU DOE INT EDU EDU DOL DOT HHS AGR EDU EDU EDU EDU AGR Program Name Educationally Deprived—Title I (State Admin) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Recreational Boating Safety Transit Planning and Research Surface Mining Regulation and Technology Impact Aid–Children with Disabilities—Sec. 3 (b) Abstinence Education Fund for Impr. of Educ./Demo. of Comp. Sch. Ref. Neglected and Delinquent Children—Title I Capital Expenses (Title I) Federal Transit Technical Studies, Sec. 8 Runaway and Homeless Youth Emergency Community Services for Homeless Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarships Title V Delinquency Prevention Program Soup Kitchens Supported Empl. Services— Severe Disabilities State Energy Program Historic Preservation Fund Vocational Education— Consumer and Homemaking Education for Homeless Children and Youth Reemployment Services (b) National Recreational Trails Developmental Disabilities— Protection/Advocacy (b) 1890 Land Grant Colleges and Tuskeegee Univ. State Program Improvement Grants—Chap 1 Public Library Construction (LSCA II) Interlibrary Cooperation Independent Living State Grants Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program CFDA No. 84.012 16.953 20.005 20.515 15.250 84.041 93.235 84.215 84.013 84.216 20.505 93.623 93.572 84.185 16.548 10.571 84.187 81.041 15.904 84.049 84.196 17.207 20.219 93.630 10.205 84.218 84.154 84.035 84.169 10.572 1991 59,139 36,108 36,497 41,221 9,285 29,150 34,280 18,210 10,800 20,998 14,785 18,554 19,908 13,619 Table A.2 (continued) 1992 61,820 1993 58,507 1994 58,367 1995 1996 55,795 49,141 8,273 51,349 8,491 51,532 37,641 37,699 36,054 40,054 25,000 9,652 35,211 38,253 44,223 18,585 9,380 35,146 39,890 39,991 18,816 39,311 45,370 41,017 29,117 37,515 44,457 39,063 29,100 31,065 35,290 33,848 25,000 30,015 31,357 27,452 35,206 23,447 37,378 33,579 33,874 24,665 39,715 36,171 28,310 37,770 22,700 22,500 21,300 22,376 26,301 26,047 25,125 17,179 19,908 14,200 24,961 14,456 18,995 14,938 24,902 19,979 19,007 17,472 27,560 23,771 23,700 21,640 11,981 18,000 21,640 1997 27,746 41,594 8,798 51,224 38,899 39,311 41,029 41,083 29,109 37,770 28,500 1998 1999 59,373 50,990 8,318 50,874 47,909 49,748 39,311 41,119 57,881 53,901 8,722 51,188 48,780 49,172 36,779 40,311 23,999 39,038 38,937 39,288 39,288 39,921 37,770 29,750 37,770 32,750 2000 57,674 55,332 10,608 52,159 39,362 43,526 49,389 42,000 14,276 43,691 39,843 36,158 37,770 33,251 2001 58,076 56,480 12,805 55,624 49,886 43,475 49,409 46,000 6,610 43,691 40,971 38,134 37,770 37,750 24,800 26,184 28,600 28,500 15,767 26,174 26,170 33,751 26,184 28,006 28,399 32,340 28,982 34,652 34,650 32,340 30,801 21,640 7,279 21,640 12,653 22,073 14,954 22,073 19,316 22,073 21,006 Table A.2 (continued) 37 DPT Program Name AGR EPA EDU AGR Cooperative Forestry Research Pesticides Enforcement Grants (a) Rehab. Services—Independent Living for Older/Blind Special Milk Program for Children EDU Foreign Language Assistance Grants EDU EPA EDU Paul Douglas Teacher Scholarships Pesticide Program Implementation Grants (b) Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth Offenders EDU Special Education—Protection EDU EDU EDU and Advocacy Impact Aid—Payments for Federal Property—Sec. 3 (d) State Literacy Resource Centers Vocational Education— Community-Based Organizations EPA Underground Storage Tank EDU EPA (UST) Grants Rehabilitation Services—Client Assistance Underground Injection Control (UIC) Grants DOL Veterans Employment—JTPA Title IV-C EDU EPA EDU Vocational Education—State Councils Toxic Substances Enforcement Grants Impact Aid—Construction—Sec. 3 (c) DOT Federal Transit Rural Transp. AGR AGR EDU Assistance (5311(b)(2)) Animal Health and Disease Research Nutrition, Educ., and Training Assistive Tech—Grants for Protection/Advocacy EDU Christa McAuliffe Fellowships Total Federal Formula Grant Spending: CFDA No. 10.202 66.700 84.177 10.556 84.249 84.176 66.700 84.331 84.240 84.041 84.254 84.174 66.805 84.161 66.433 17.250 84.053 66.701 84.041 20.509 10.207 10.564 84.343 84.190 1991 15,486 19,448 0 14,639 14,654 0 6,352 8,310 10,408 9,120 8,803 4,940 137,354,264 1992 15,772 1993 15,098 1994 424 1995 16,419 1996 15,727 1997 9,861 1998 19,374 9,116 1999 20,733 19,196 2000 20,734 20,624 14,850 2001 20,469 19,356 19,800 19,089 6,314 18,700 18,081 10,803 17,091 17,454 16,672 16,634 15,470 15,512 15,067 14,359 14,388 14,194 12,550 14,811 14,624 14,428 6,836 7,274 13,183 12,722 12,878 12,000 12,000 14,000 13,621 5,100 7,321 7,321 7,519 9,716 10,698 11,680 13,748 12,566 5,000 11,598 12,528 11,954 8,542 11,492 7,954 7,261 10,233 10,974 11,909 9,141 8,964 9,213 9,824 10,119 10,392 10,714 10,928 10,928 11,647 10,547 8,508 9,508 9,966 8,905 8,921 8,864 10,744 8,659 9,741 9,120 7,024 9,000 8,575 8,892 9,006 5,161 5,059 107 3,978 4,526 6,675 3,212 6,233 6,800 5,449 6,712 5,979 4,626 5,064 4,950 5,156 4,454 4,769 4,766 4,757 3,700 2,686 2,680 2,680 2,000 1,847 1,843 1,946 162,023,665 168,178,541 174,698,058 193,330,112 189,111,412 208,707,944 223,230,173 240,861,085 251,082,774 284,060,084 SOURCES: Budget Information for States, various fiscal years; budgets of the U.S. government; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance; California Institute for Federal Policy Research; Public Policy Institute of California. NOTES: This table lists the largest federal formula grant programs. These programs distribute more than 85 percent of U.S. formula dollars. Programs included in this table are those listed in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget annual report Budget Information for States. U.S. totals exclude undistributed funds, technical assistance, and other funds not geographically distributed. Indian tribe funding is included in the U.S. total but is not attributed to California. Table A.3 California Percentage Share of Funding from Major Federal Formula Grants, FY 1991–2001, Plus Selected Rankings 38 DPT Program Name HHS Grants to States for Medicaid DOT Highway Planning and Construction HHS TANF—State Family Assistance Grants (a) HHS Family Support Payments (AFDC) EDU Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies HHS Head Start AGR National School Lunch Program EDU Special Education—Grants to States HHS Foster Care—Title IV-E HHS State Children’s Health Insurance Program AGR Special Supplemental Nutrition Program (WIC) DOT Transit Urbanized Area Formula (sec. 5307) HUD Public Housing Capital Fund HUD Community Development Block Grant—Entitlements EPA Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (a) HHS Child Support Enforcement—Federal Share HHS Social Services Block Grant DOT Transit Capital Inv.—Fixed Guideway (5309) DOL Unemployment Insurance—State Admin. Expenses EPA Water Infrastructure Financing (Wastewater) EDU Rehabilitation Services—Vocational Rehab. State Grants AGR State Admin. Matching for Food Stamps HHS Child Care and Development Block Grant DOL Summer Youth Employment Grants—WIA (a) HUD HOME Investment Partnership Program AGR Child and Adult Care Food Program DOL Youth Training Grants—WIA (b) DOT Airport Improvement (including Block Grants) HHS Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (a) HHS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment AGR School Breakfast Program EPA Clean Water State Revolving Fund (b) EDU Class Size Reduction HUD Comm Development Block Grants—Non-Entitlement HHS Child Care and Development — Matching (b) DOL Empl. and Training Asst.—Dislocated Workers—WIA (c) HHS Child Care and Development—Mandatory (a) HHS Adoption Assistance DOL Youth Activities—WIA EDU Vocational Education—Basic State Grants DOL Welfare to Work Grants HHS Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) HHS HIV Care Formula Grants (Ryan White) DOL Adult Employment and Training Grants—WIA EDU Impact Aid—Basic Support Payments—Sec 3(a) DOL Employment Service (a) CFDA No. 93.778 20.205 93.558 93.560 84.010 93.600 10.555 84.027 93.658 93.767 10.557 20.507 14.872 14.218 66.468 93.563 93.667 20.500 17.225 66.418 84.126 10.561 93.575 17.250 14.239 10.558 17.250 20.106 93.568 93.959 10.553 66.458 84.340 14.228 93.596 17.260 93.596 93.659 17.259 84.048 17.253 93.561 93.917 17.258 84.041 17.207 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 8.5 9.2 9.3 9.1 9.9 10.0 9.6 10.1 11.2 10.7 10.6 1 1 82 209 149 8.5 9.2 8.8 8.2 9.2 9.6 8.8 9.5 9.1 5.7 8.1 3 2 110 87 95 23.5 22.4 22.5 22.5 22.5 2 3 9 N/A N/A 23.8 23.1 22.5 23.5 25.5 27.3 13.4 165 9.2 8.8 10.8 11.5 10.8 10.8 11.1 11.3 12.2 12.3 12.4 5 4 52 97 46 9.9 10.0 12.9 13.0 11.5 11.4 11.9 12.5 12.8 13.1 13.2 8 5 43 274 180 12.4 12.5 13.2 13.3 13.1 13.4 13.4 13.5 13.7 13.7 13.9 7 6 32 76 57 15.3 11.0 9.1 16.7 9.2 9.8 10.1 9.9 10.0 10.5 10.0 11 7 88 50 129 20.1 18.9 20.7 21.4 19.6 28.1 23.4 24.7 21.4 25.4 25.8 4 8 5 204 137 22.8 20.0 18.0 16.6 10 9 20 N/A N/A 9.6 10.0 11.3 13.5 14.8 16.6 17.0 17.1 17.3 17.5 17.9 9 10 17 228 76 7.4 14.3 16.9 11.7 17.1 13.1 14.1 18.1 16.7 26.4 24.3 6 11 7 355 39 4.1 28 12 141 N/A N/A 13.5 13.3 14.7 14.7 16.1 16.5 15.9 15.8 16.1 16.0 16.0 12 13 24 65 40 6.3 5.2 4.2 6.1 9.6 9.4 10.3 39 39 85 N/A N/A 11.4 13.1 13.5 12.1 12.2 14.6 17.1 11.9 13.5 13.4 11.2 15 14 73 140 144 11.4 11.6 12.0 12.3 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 11.9 12.3 12.0 21 20 62 –35 –38 18.6 3.6 20.8 12.7 9.6 15.3 11.2 14.1 11.3 33 35 71 N/A N/A 15.6 16.1 18.2 18.3 17.2 16.7 16.1 15.6 15.6 15.2 15.6 13 16 27 4 5 6.6 6.3 12.3 5.9 166 8.2 8.6 8.9 9.6 9.2 9.6 9.5 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.8 19 15 91 75 47 13.9 15.0 15.6 14.8 14.5 14.9 15.4 13.9 11.8 11.7 16.0 14 17 23 104 76 10.5 10.9 12.0 12.2 11.4 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.2 12.0 11.7 20 18 68 205 171 10.7 11.8 13.5 16.0 16.7 17.6 17.1 16.1 16.2 160 12.7 12.7 13.5 13.0 13.5 13.5 13.4 13.4 13.6 13.5 17 19 40 N/A N/A 12.0 12.1 11.2 12.2 11.8 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.8 11.9 12.1 22 21 61 83 81 11.6 12.9 15.4 16.4 16.9 17.8 17.3 16.4 16.5 162 8.9 9.0 6.4 9.0 10.3 6.0 7.1 8.7 8.9 8.9 7.6 30 22 115 50 77 4.0 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 42 25 137 –4 –15 11.9 14.9 14.7 14.6 14.0 14.4 14.6 14.6 14.4 14.7 14.9 18 23 30 55 25 13.8 13.5 14.1 14.0 13.9 14.4 14.4 14.3 14.3 13.9 13.8 23 24 34 107 108 7.8 7.5 6.8 7.2 35 27 119 N/A N/A 10.7 10.8 29 26 79 N/A N/A 2.5 2.6 3.0 2.8 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 54 29 142 93 41 13.3 13.4 13.4 13.3 13.1 25 28 44 N/A N/A 7.6 9.3 14.8 18.1 19.0 22.1 21.8 21.1 22.4 23.4 24.3 16 34 6 583 113 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 38 30 122 N/A N/A 14.5 13.7 15.0 12.4 11.9 11.2 10.2 14.3 12.0 14.6 13.9 26 31 33 479 505 17.1 16.1 24 32 22 N/A N/A 8.8 10.5 10.2 10.6 10.1 10.5 10.7 10.6 10.7 10.4 10.8 31 33 78 58 28 18.3 18.6 159 17.0 15.1 16.9 15.5 13.7 13.9 11.6 167 14.7 14.6 17.9 18.2 15.9 14.5 14.6 14.2 13.5 13.4 12.5 34 37 51 741 896 14.0 16.5 17.2 18.1 17.6 15.9 16.0 16.9 16.5 27 36 21 N/A N/A 9.4 9.5 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.4 6.7 7.3 6.9 6.1 5.8 52 38 128 –25 21 10.4 10.9 11.8 12.2 12.2 12.2 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 12.0 37 41 64 6 –7 Table A.3 (continued) 39 DPT Program Name HHS State Legalization Impact Assistance (SLIAG) EDU School Repair and Renovation Grants DOJ Violent Offender Incar./Truth in Sentencing HHS Low Income Home Energy Assistance (LIHEAP) (b) HHS Maternal and Child Health Block Grant HUD Indian Housing Block Grants HHS Community Services Block Grant AGR Summer Food Service Program for Children EDU Drug-Free Schools and Communities DOJ Byrne Drug Control and System Improvement Formula DOJ Local Law Enforcement Block Grant Program EDU Eisenhower Professional Development State Grants EDU Goals 2000—State and Local Systemic Improvements EDU Adult Education—State Grant (a) EDU Innovative Education Program Strategies (Chap. 2) EDU Technology Literacy Challenge Fund DOL Senior Community Service Employment Program EDU Special Education—Grants for Infants and Families AGR Cooperative Extension Service EDU Special Education—Preschool Grants HHS Community Mental Health Services Block Grants DOJ Crime Victim Assistance AGR Schools and Roads—Grants to States HHS Aging—Congregate Nutrition Services (b) EDU Migrant Education—Basic State Formula Grant HHS Child Care for Families at Risk of Welfare Dependence HHS Aging—Supportive Services and Senior Centers HHS TANF—Supplemental Grants for Population Increases (b) HHS HIV Emergency Relief Formula Grants (Ryan White) HHS Child Welfare Services—State Grants HHS Refugee and Entrant Assistance (State Admin.) INT Sport Fish Restoration HHS Promoting Safe and Stable Families DOT Appalachian Highway Development System EPA Non-Point Source Pollution Grants DOJ Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants HUD Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS DOT Transit Formula for Nonurban Areas (5311) EDU Even Start INT Wildlife Restoration HHS State Survey and Certification of Medicare Providers DOE Weatherization Assistance for Low Income Persons EDU Comprehensive School Reform Demonstrations INT Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program HHS Preventative Health Block Grant EPA Air Pollution Control Program Grant (105) CFDA No. 93.565 84.352 16.586 93.568 93.994 14.867 93.569 10.559 84.186 16.579 16.592 84.281 84.276 84.002 84.298 84.318 17.235 84.181 10.500 84.173 93.958 16.575 10.665 93.045 84.011 93.574 93.044 93.558 93.914 93.645 93.566 15.605 93.556 23.003 66.460 16.523 14.241 20.509 84.213 15.611 93.777 81.042 84.332 15.252 93.991 66.001 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 68.0 55.4 62.7 168 0.1 142 40 152 N/A N/A 17.6 15.8 13.9 14.1 13.6 44 51 37 N/A N/A 0.0 0.0 4.6 3.9 0.0 0.0 3.3 4.6 75 48 138 N/A N/A 5.3 5.5 7.4 7.6 7.3 7.2 7.2 6.0 7.3 18.3 7.4 56 44 117 37 –1 4.8 67 42 135 N/A N/A 7.3 9.0 9.5 12.2 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 48 43 102 66 35 6.3 5.9 5.0 8.1 7.7 8.9 9.6 3.9 8.0 7.5 7.9 72 66 111 88 51 10.6 10.8 11.2 11.6 11.1 10.9 10.8 11.2 11.3 10.9 11.9 50 52 66 –2 –13 10.2 10.4 10.7 10.9 10.6 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.8 10.6 51 45 83 20 15 18.0 12.6 18.9 15.7 13.6 43 49 39 N/A N/A 10.1 10.0 17.5 11.2 11.0 10.9 11.0 11.3 11.4 11.9 12.3 45 46 55 189 139 17.4 0.1 13.4 12.0 11.7 11.6 11.9 161 8.3 8.3 11.4 11.4 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.4 11.4 11.4 49 47 70 216 129 10.9 11.4 11.6 11.8 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.9 12.0 12.0 55 57 65 –7 –15 10.3 11.0 10.9 11.8 12.5 46 50 50 N/A N/A 8.0 8.1 8.4 8.5 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 7.8 7.7 107 105 114 –76 –75 11.5 8.3 14.5 13.3 15.7 18.3 0.0 20.8 12.4 13.3 11.1 53 53 75 448 469 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 98 61 147 –9 –11 7.9 19.9 11.7 17.5 9.1 9.9 10.1 10.0 10.1 10.9 9.6 59 54 94 62 32 9.2 13.5 14.0 12.7 13.1 13.2 13.2 12.8 13.7 13.7 47 55 36 N/A N/A 10.3 10.0 10.5 10.5 10.5 11.0 11.2 10.9 10.7 11.2 11.2 58 60 74 498 450 16.9 18.0 15.1 16.0 16.3 15.4 14.5 13.0 13.7 13.2 17.1 40 56 19 15 14 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.2 9.2 61 58 98 4 5 34.2 35.4 34.7 35.3 30.6 30.6 28.1 29.6 29.7 30.8 32.0 32 59 3 19 27 16.9 20.5 9.5 13.3 18.8 15.1 169 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 8.9 9.5 64 62 97 14 12 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 153 63 153 N/A N/A 26.4 25.6 23.4 22.7 22.4 24.4 23.2 22.6 21.4 41 64 12 N/A N/A 9.7 10.0 10.5 11.1 10.8 11.2 11.2 11.6 11.7 11.7 11.7 62 65 69 28 7 25.9 15.0 12.7 12.0 81 95 63 N/A N/A 24.8 5.5 6.0 5.3 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 91 68 134 56 675 12.5 11.7 11.9 13.3 15.0 15.7 15.6 16.0 57 67 25 N/A N/A 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 154 75 154 N/A N/A 0.0 5.4 6.2 2.9 2.9 5.6 6.5 6.6 5.9 5.9 5.2 89 69 132 N/A 8553 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.6 71 70 96 N/A N/A 22.5 21.8 18.7 16.4 16.4 15.4 13.6 13.5 13.3 65 71 41 N/A N/A 3.5 3.9 3.9 4.4 3.9 4.3 4.9 4.8 4.6 7.1 7.7 80 74 113 442 144 8.2 10.2 11.1 10.5 10.4 11.1 10.5 11.3 12.4 13.6 66 72 38 N/A N/A 3.0 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 109 77 143 59 41 9.2 12.7 14.2 14.0 14.3 14.4 14.4 13.5 12.7 12.4 12.4 69 73 53 118 61 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 123 86 148 –15 –24 0.0 15.2 12.1 12.9 70 76 46 N/A N/A 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 155 78 155 –100 4 7.1 7.1 7.4 7.4 7.2 8.0 8.1 7.8 8.3 7.2 7.2 101 96 118 42 41 8.4 10.8 11.8 11.5 11.3 11.3 12.8 13.6 11.3 11.9 11.9 76 80 67 78 26 Table A.3 (continued) 40 DPT Program Name DOT Transit Formula for Elderly and Disabled (5310) AGR Emergency Food Assistance—Administrative Costs AGR Agricultural Experimentation Stations (Hatch Act) EPA Water Pollution Control— State/Interstate Supp. HUD Emergency Shelter Grants AGR Cooperative Forestry Assistance AGR Emergency Food Assistance—Commodities AGR Nutrition Program for the Elderly EDU Education of Children with Disabilities in State Schools HHS Aging—Home Delivered Meals (a) EDU Immigrant Education DOT Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program NFAH State Library Program—National Foundation on Arts and Humanities DOT State and Community Highway Safety Formula FEM Emergency Food and Shelter Program DOJ Violence Against Women Formula Grants HHS Independent Living FEM Emergency Mgmt. Performance Grants—State and Local AGR State Admin. Expenses for Child Nutrition HHS Aging—National Family Caregiver Support DOT Federal Transit Metropolitan Planning (5303) AGR Commodity Supplemental Food Program EDU Vocational Education—Tech-Prep Education HHS State Medicaid Fraud Control Units EPA Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance to States HHS Family Violence Prevention and Services—Battered Women EPA Public Water Systems Supervision (Drinking Water) EDU Indian Education LEA Grants DOJ Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention DOJ Crime Victim Compensation INT Outdoor Rec. Acq./Development/Planning (NPS) CNCS AmeriCorps Grants EDU Public Library Services (LSCA Title I) DOL Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) DOL Local Veterans Employment Representatives (LVER) DOL Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers—WIA EDU Leveraging Educ. Assistance Partnership (SSIG/LEAP) HHS Developmental Disabilities—Basic Support (a) EDU English Literacy and Civics Education State Grant (b) COM Coastal Zone Management Admin. Awards FEM Emergency Management Assistance (Civ. Def.) HUD Indian Community Development Block Grant EDU Educationally Deprived—Title I (State Admin) DOJ Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners DOT Recreational Boating Safety DOT Transit Planning and Research CFDA No. 20.513 10.568 10.203 66.419 14.231 10.664 10.569 10.570 84.009 93.045 84.162 20.218 45.310 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 9.3 9.6 9.6 9.3 9.6 9.9 9.4 35.6 53.3 36 79 1 N/A N/A 9.2 10.7 11.4 12.8 13.0 12.6 12.6 12.4 12.8 12.8 116 128 47 –48 –63 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 120 81 146 10 9 5.4 4.8 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.3 8.3 8.6 5.7 5.7 5.6 100 82 131 111 104 10.1 10.1 10.6 11.3 10.7 12.3 12.3 12.3 12.3 12.2 78 88 57 147 105 3.2 6.3 4.5 6.6 5.0 4.8 2.1 2.0 3.8 3.4 4.2 112 83 140 114 59 13.3 12.8 12.3 11.9 12.6 88 104 48 N/A N/A 7.3 8.5 8.0 8.1 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.3 8.2 8.1 90 84 109 19 7 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 170 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.3 9.7 85 85 92 81 73 28.7 26.5 25.9 24.3 22.3 21.4 63 87 11 N/A N/A 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.1 5.5 6.3 6.2 6.6 99 89 124 N/A N/A 10.6 10.6 82 90 81 N/A N/A 20.600 8.4 9.2 9.9 9.1 9.6 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 86 91 95 83.523 12.8 13.5 14.3 16.8 16.9 16.9 16.8 15.8 15.8 16.7 15.1 73 92 29 16.588 9.8 9.8 9.9 9.8 9.2 97 100 99 93.674 18.8 18.5 18.4 18.4 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 23.3 20.0 68 93 15 83.534 8.7 7.8 8.1 7.8 7.5 7.9 7.8 96 94 112 10.560 10.5 11.2 12.0 15.8 11.6 11.8 12.0 12.3 12.0 11.2 12.2 83 97 58 93.052 0.0 9.6 93 98 93 20.500 16.5 19.0 18.1 36.4 34.2 60 99 2 10.565 3.1 3.9 6.1 6.9 8.4 9.4 10.1 10.9 102 112 77 84.243 0.0 10.8 10.4 11.3 10.4 10.9 11.1 10.9 11.1 11.3 11.2 92 103 72 93.775 11.3 14.7 13.9 14.2 10.1 11.7 13.1 10.9 9.8 9.7 12.2 87 101 59 66.801 9.4 8.3 8.2 7.3 7.6 7.1 12.1 13.3 7.3 7.3 7.5 105 102 116 93.671 9.6 9.8 9.8 8.7 7.0 111 106 121 66.432 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.1 8.8 9.4 6.2 6.1 6.0 118 109 126 84.060 7.7 8.2 7.8 8.1 7.3 7.0 6.6 6.7 6.7 7.1 7.1 110 107 120 16.540 12.3 12.0 10.8 10.9 11.3 12.8 12.1 11.8 12.3 9.9 104 111 89 16.576 32.0 40.5 35.1 25.2 27.7 38.0 34.3 28.9 26.4 23.5 21.3 77 108 13 15.916 7.9 8.7 106 110 104 94.006 11.8 11.7 11.1 10.6 10.8 11.6 14.9 20.9 94 124 14 84.034 10.1 10.3 10.8 10.8 10.4 171 17.801 12.8 12.8 12.5 13.6 14.6 14.2 14.6 15.3 14.8 15.9 13.7 95 113 35 17.804 9.5 9.1 8.9 8.4 9.3 9.1 9.2 8.9 8.4 8.5 9.2 108 114 100 17.247 17.5 19.1 21.1 22.7 21.7 21.7 21.7 21.7 25.2 22.9 23.3 79 115 8 84.069 15.4 16.6 14.6 15.5 15.4 15.6 15.7 15.7 15.7 16.1 15.4 103 123 28 93.630 8.3 8.5 9.2 9.4 9.1 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.3 8.7 115 118 105 84.002 30.0 29.9 74 116 4 11.419 4.9 4.1 4.7 4.4 130 117 139 83.503 8.3 8.2 8.6 8.7 172 14.862 17.9 22.3 84 119 10 84.012 9.7 9.5 11.1 11.7 173 16.953 10.9 11.2 11.1 11.1 10.7 113 120 80 20.005 5.7 5.4 6.1 5.8 5.9 129 121 127 20.515 3.0 15.5 15.1 14.3 15.6 16.1 36.4 12.9 137 148 45 1569 23 N/A 145 N/A 125 N/A N/A N/A N/A 99 2 N/A 79 52 N/A 22 N/A N/A 10 4 37 –13 9 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1369 4 N/A 130 N/A 94 N/A N/A N/A 207 84 28 N/A 86 65 N/A 83 N/A N/A 3 7 3 –13 5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 41 DPT INT EDU HHS EDU EDU EDU DOT HHS HHS EDU DOJ AGR EDU DOE INT EDU EDU DOL DOT HHS AGR EDU EDU EDU EDU AGR AGR EPA EDU AGR EDU EDU EPA EDU EDU EDU EDU EDU EPA EDU EPA DOL EDU Program Name Surface Mining Regulation and Technology Impact Aid—Children with Disabilities—Sec 3 (b) Abstinence Education Fund for Improve. of Educ./Demo. of Comp. School Ref. Neglected and Delinquent Children—Title I Capital Expenses (Title I) Federal Transit Technical Studies, Sec. 8 Runaway and Homeless Youth Emergency Community Services for Homeless Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarships Title V Delinquency Prevention Program Soup Kitchens Supported Employment Services—Severe Disabilities State Energy Program Historic Preservation Fund Vocational Education—Consumer and Homemaking Education for Homeless Children and Youth Reemployment Services (b) National Recreational Trails Developmental Disabilities—Protection/Advocacy (b) 1890 Land Grant Colleges and Tuskeegee Univ. State Program Improvement Grants—Chap. 1 Public Library Construction (LSCA II) Interlibrary Cooperation Independent Living State Grants Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program Cooperative Forestry Research Pesticides Enforcement Grants (a) Rehab. Services—Independent Living for Older/Blind Special Milk Program for Children Foreign Language Assistance Grants Paul Douglas Teacher Scholarships Pesticide Program Implem. Grants (b) Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth Offenders Special Education—Protection and Advocacy Impact Aid—Payments for Federal Property—Sec. 3 (d) State Literacy Resource Centers Vocational Education—Community-Based Organizations Underground Storage Tank (UST) Grants Rehabilitation Services—Client Assistance Underground Injection Control (UIC) Grants Veterans Employment—JTPA Title IV-C Vocational Education—State Councils Table A.3 (continued) CFDA No. 15.250 84.041 93.235 84.215 84.013 84.216 20.505 93.623 93.572 84.185 16.548 10.571 84.187 81.041 15.904 84.049 84.196 17.207 20.219 93.630 10.205 84.218 84.154 84.035 84.169 10.572 10.202 66.700 84.177 10.556 84.249 84.176 66.700 84.331 84.240 84.041 84.254 84.174 66.805 84.161 66.433 17.250 84.053 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 156 122 156 N/A N/A 11.9 11.1 10.8 10.4 9.7 8.3 8.5 124 125 108 N/A N/A 11.6 11.7 0.0 0.0 158 130 157 N/A N/A 16.2 12.2 12.2 114 126 56 N/A N/A 9.0 9.9 9.9 11.9 11.3 10.8 9.3 9.2 8.1 8.4 9.0 126 127 101 27 27 11.0 11.2 11.6 11.6 13.7 13.9 14.1 14.1 12.4 12.8 15.9 141 153 26 –74 –82 17.4 17.6 17.2 17.0 16.5 174 12.0 12.9 10.9 12.3 117 129 54 N/A N/A 9.2 9.0 9.7 180 10.7 11.1 12.0 12.1 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.9 12.0 12.2 119 131 60 400 341 13.1 12.9 12.5 122 132 49 N/A N/A 11.1 12.1 13.0 176 10.8 10.8 10.7 11.0 10.9 10.9 10.9 10.9 11.1 11.1 11.0 125 133 76 33 30 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.6 132 134 123 N/A N/A 2.4 2.4 3.1 177 0.0 10.3 9.8 10.2 175 9.1 8.8 10.8 11.5 10.8 10.5 11.3 11.2 12.2 12.9 14.0 121 135 31 395 221 10.3 128 136 84 N/A N/A 3.2 4.7 163 7.6 7.7 8.4 8.8 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.6 7.3 8.5 131 137 107 73 54 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 157 138 158 N/A N/A 9.8 9.2 11.0 11.5 10.8 178 9.0 8.2 9.7 7.7 6.5 11.5 182 10.3 10.5 11.0 11.0 10.8 10.5 179 8.0 8.6 8.2 7.4 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.9 9.0 9.0 9.0 134 139 103 82 62 2.3 3.7 6.3 22.0 17.5 127 140 18 N/A N/A 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 145 141 144 N/A N/A 4.4 4.3 7.7 0.0 7.1 5.4 9.7 8.5 5.5 5.2 5.6 140 143 130 61 25 6.8 8.7 136 142 106 N/A N/A 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.9 5.1 143 144 133 –16 –20 10.5 13.9 13.1 181 12.1 12.3 12.1 12.3 183 3.2 2.7 5.6 0.4 4.6 5.4 9.8 13.3 5.4 4.5 6.1 144 147 125 69 –12 14.3 12.3 11.6 13.3 135 146 42 N/A N/A 2.0 8.3 8.3 8.5 9.8 9.8 9.8 10.2 138 145 87 N/A N/A 19.5 133 149 16 N/A N/A 0.0 8.3 10.3 10.2 184 0.0 10.5 10.1 10.6 185 5.7 5.3 3.1 2.8 2.6 148 150 149 N/A N/A 10.1 9.8 10.2 10.4 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.2 139 151 86 42 40 7.6 6.0 7.8 7.1 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.0 5.6 7.1 5.7 146 152 129 –30 –6 8.1 8.0 10.1 187 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5 186 Table A.3 (continued) DPT Program Name EPA Toxic Substances Enforcement Grants EDU Impact Aid—Construction—Sec. 3 (c) DOT Federal Transit Rural Transp. Assistance (5311(b)(2)) AGR Animal Health and Disease Research AGR Nutrition, Education, and Training EDU Assistive Tech.—Grants for Protection/Advocacy EDU Christa McAuliffe Fellowships Total Federal Formula Grant Spending CFDA No. 66.701 84.041 20.509 10.207 10.564 84.343 84.190 1991 2.6 10.9 1992 4.2 3.5 11.2 1993 0.0 6.7 11.7 1994 0.0 6.0 11.6 1995 3.8 4.4 11.8 1996 2.8 12.0 1997 2.2 11.6 1998 2.4 3.2 12.1 8.9 12.2 1999 2000 9.4 5.4 5.2 3.2 2.7 11.3 10.4 1.9 1.9 12.5 12.2 Rank by Rank by Rank by % Growth in % Growth in 2001 2001 CA 2001 CA Funds, U.S. Funds, 2001 CA $ U.S.$ % Share 1991–01 1991–01 2.4 151 155 150 2 10 4.7 149 154 136 N/A N/A 3.1 150 156 145 N/A N/A 9.8 147 157 90 N/A N/A 164 1.9 152 158 151 N/A N/A 188 12.0 128 107 SOURCES: Budget Information for States, various fiscal years; budgets of the U.S. government; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance; California Institute for Federal Policy Research; Public Policy Institute of California. NOTES: This table lists the largest federal formula grant programs. These programs distribute more than 85 percent of U.S. formula dollars. Programs included in this table are those listed in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget annual report Budget Information for States. U.S. totals exclude undistributed funds, technical assistance, and other funds not geographically distributed. Indian tribe funding is included in the U.S. total but is not attributed to California. 42 Appendix B Federal Formula Grant Expenditures, by State FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 43 Table B.1 Federal Formula Grant Expenditures by State, Total and Per Capita, FY 2001 State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming State totals Total ($millions) 4,568 1,537 4,434 2,858 34,019 2,779 3,611 798 1,488 11,912 7,083 1,183 1,284 10,630 5,275 2,609 2,311 4,638 5,564 1,671 4,371 6,608 9,458 4,397 3,685 5,843 1,236 1,698 1,139 1,005 7,656 2,569 29,270 7,621 898 10,890 3,490 3,610 13,138 1,455 4,172 1,001 6,267 17,709 1,844 875 4,665 5,390 2,522 5,018 688 284,047 Per Capita, $ 1,023 2,421 835 1,062 986 629 1,054 1,002 2,602 726 845 966 972 852 863 893 858 1,141 1,246 1,299 813 1,036 947 884 1,289 1,038 1,367 991 541 798 902 1,404 1,540 931 1,415 957 1,009 1,039 1,069 1,374 1,027 1,323 1,092 830 812 1,427 649 900 1,400 929 1,392 997 Per Capita as % of U.S. Avg. 102.6 242.7 83.8 106.4 98.9 63.1 105.7 100.5 260.9 72.8 84.7 96.9 97.5 85.4 86.5 89.5 86.0 114.4 124.9 130.2 81.5 103.9 94.9 88.7 129.3 104.1 137.0 99.4 54.2 80.0 90.5 140.8 154.4 93.3 141.9 96.0 101.1 104.2 107.2 137.8 103.0 132.7 109.5 83.3 81.5 143.1 65.1 90.3 140.3 93.1 139.5 100.0 Population 4,464,356 634,892 5,307,331 2,692,090 34,501,130 4,417,714 3,425,074 796,165 571,822 16,396,515 8,383,915 1,224,398 1,321,006 12,482,301 6,114,745 2,923,179 2,694,641 4,065,556 4,465,430 1,286,670 5,375,156 6,379,304 9,990,817 4,972,294 2,858,029 5,629,707 904,433 1,713,235 2,106,074 1,259,181 8,484,431 1,829,146 19,011,378 8,186,268 634,448 11,373,541 3,460,097 3,472,867 12,287,150 1,058,920 4,063,011 756,600 5,740,021 21,325,018 2,269,789 613,090 7,187,734 5,987,973 1,801,916 5,401,906 494,423 284,796,887 SOURCE: Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, state population estimates for July 1, 2001. 44 Appendix C California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 45 Dollars per capita 75 Department of Agriculture 70 65 60 55 50 45 United States 40 California 35 1991 38 41 1992 43 45 1993 47 46 1994 51 48 1995 57 52 1996 61 53 1997 64 55 1998 64 57 1999 64 57 2000 65 58 2001 71 59 15.0 Department of Agriculture—California Share 14.5 14.0 13.5 13.0 12.5 12.0 11.5 11.0 1991 11.2 12.0 1992 11.5 12.0 1993 12.1 12.0 1994 12.7 11.9 1995 13.0 11.9 1996 13.7 11.8 1997 13.8 11.9 1998 13.4 11.9 Population USDA Funds 1999 13.5 12.0 2000 13.5 12.0 2001 14.3 12.1 Figure C.1—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Agriculture, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 46 Dollars per capita 38 Department of Labor 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 United States 22 California 20 1991 26 26 1992 34 31 1993 33 26 1994 36 26 1995 34 25 1996 30 22 1997 32 23 1998 37 27 1999 37 27 2000 32 22 2001 32 23 18.0 Department of Labor—California Share 17.0 16.0 15.0 14.0 Population DOL Funds 13.0 12.0 11.0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 12.05 13.01 15.07 16.18 16.16 16.56 16.35 16.07 16.38 16.92 16.75 12.04 12.07 12.03 11.97 11.90 11.89 11.92 11.96 12.01 12.05 12.11 Figure C.2—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Labor, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 47 Dollars per capita 130 Department of Transportation 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 United States California 50 40 1991 49 72 1992 58 72 1993 63 73 1994 55 81 1995 87 92 1996 71 85 1997 70 90 1998 81 93 1999 86 106 2000 85 114 2001 106 125 13.0 12.0 Department of Transportation—California Share 11.0 10.0 9.0 8.0 Population DOT Funds 7.0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 8.30 9.72 10.35 8.19 11.21 9.96 9.22 10.37 9.74 8.91 10.31 12.04 12.07 12.03 11.97 11.90 11.89 11.92 11.96 12.01 12.05 12.11 Figure C.3—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Transportation, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 48 Dollars per capita 90 Department of Education 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 1991 48 54 1992 47 56 1993 51 57 1994 61 58 1995 53 60 1996 51 54 1997 59 66 1998 65 70 United States California 1999 70 73 2000 58 59 2001 79 86 13.0 Department of Education—California Share 12.5 12.0 Population Dept. of Education Funds 11.5 11.0 10.5 10.0 1991 1992 10.59 10.17 12.04 12.07 1993 10.86 12.03 1994 12.56 11.97 1995 10.56 11.90 1996 11.14 11.89 1997 10.71 11.92 1998 11.21 11.96 1999 11.45 12.01 2000 11.86 12.05 2001 11.13 12.11 Figure C.4—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Education, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 49 Dollars per capita 16 Environmental Protection Agency 14 12 10 8 6 4 United States 2 California 0 1991 6 12 1992 6 11 1993 11 11 1994 4 8 1995 7 14 1996 4 9 1997 3 5 1998 7 10 1999 7 10 2000 7 11 2001 7 11 13.0 Environmental Protection Agency—California Share 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 Population 6.0 EPA Funds 5.0 1991 6.72 12.04 1992 6.51 12.07 1993 11.71 12.03 1994 6.31 11.97 1995 6.43 11.90 1996 5.78 11.89 1997 5.88 11.92 1998 7.48 11.96 1999 8.04 12.01 2000 7.70 12.05 2001 7.97 12.11 Figure C.5—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Environmental Protection Agency, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 50 Dollars per capita 40 Department of Housing and Urban Development 35 30 25 20 15 United States 10 California 5 1991 11 13 1992 17 19 1993 18 19 1994 21 21 1995 25 23 1996 24 22 1997 23 22 1998 23 22 1999 23 22 2000 23 22 2001 30 38 13.5 Department of Housing and Urban Development—California Share 13.0 12.5 12.0 11.5 11.0 10.5 10.0 Population 9.5 HUD Funds 9.0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 10.23 10.87 11.75 11.93 12.54 12.82 12.56 12.51 12.60 12.68 9.37 12.04 12.07 12.03 11.97 11.90 11.89 11.92 11.96 12.01 12.05 12.11 Figure C.6—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Housing and Urban Development, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 51 Dollars per capita 700 Department of Health and Human Services 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 1991 309 321 1992 377 391 1993 403 408 1994 411 416 1995 454 453 1996 463 452 1997 484 491 1998 537 517 United States California 1999 599 556 2000 618 591 2001 652 642 13.5 Department of Health and Human Services—California Share 13.0 12.5 12.0 11.5 Population HHS Funds 11.0 1991 11.58 12.04 1992 11.66 12.07 1993 11.86 12.03 1994 11.84 11.97 1995 11.91 11.90 1996 12.18 11.89 1997 11.74 11.92 1998 12.43 11.96 1999 12.94 12.01 2000 12.61 12.05 2001 12.29 12.11 Figure C.7—California and U.S. Formula Grant Funding, by Major U.S. Government Agency: Department of Health and Human Services, FY 1991–2001 Percentage of U.S. total 52 PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS RAYMOND L. WATSON, CHAIRMAN Vice Chairman of the Board The Irvine Company WILLIAM K. COBLENTZ Senior Partner Coblentz, Patch, Duffy & Bass, LLP EDWARD K. HAMILTON Chairman Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. WALTER B. HEWLETT Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities DAVID W. LYON President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California CHERYL WHITE MASON Chief, Civil Liability Management Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office ARJAY MILLER Dean Emeritus Graduate School of Business Stanford University KI SUH PARK Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates A. ALAN POST Former State Legislative Analyst State of California CONSTANCE L. RICE Co-Director The Advancement Project THOMAS C. SUTTON Chairman & CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company CYNTHIA A. TELLES Department of Psychiatry UCLA School of Medicine CAROL WHITESIDE President Great Valley Center HAROLD M. WILLIAMS President Emeritus The J. Paul Getty Trust and Of Counsel Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP PPIC ADVISORY COUNCIL CLIFFORD W. GRAVES Vice Chancellor, Physical Planning University of California, Merced ELIZABETH G. HILL Legislative Analyst State of California HILARY W. HOYNES Associate Professor Department of Economics University of California, Davis ANDRÉS E. JIMÉNEZ Director California Policy Research Center University of California Office of the President RUDOLF NOTHENBERG Chief Administrative Officer (Retired) City and County of San Francisco MANUEL PASTOR Professor, Latin American & Latino Studies University of California, Santa Cruz PETER SCHRAG Contributing Editor The Sacramento Bee JAMES P. SMITH Senior Economist RAND California Institute for Federal Policy Research 419 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Basement Level Washington, DC 20003 Tel: 202/546-3700 Fax: 202/546-2390 www.calinst.org Public Policy Institute of California 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: 415/291-4400 Fax: 415/291-4401 www.ppic.org" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:37:01" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(12) "ff_12021trff" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:37:01" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:37:01" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(54) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/FF_12021TRFF.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }