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object(Timber\Post)#3742 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(13) "R_1099JSR.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "272575" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(153700) "Changes in Hospital Ownership in California ••• Joanne Spetz Jean Ann Seago Shannon Mitchell 1999 PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA Foreword Californians are understandably concerned about rapid changes in the health care industry. One concern that has prompted state legislation is the increased merger activity between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. Many critics view the potential decline of nonprofit hospitals as another restriction on choice in health care. In response to this concern, Joanne Spetz and her colleagues Jean Ann Seago and Shannon Mitchell have undertaken a careful study of the state’s hospital mergers and their consequences. Their findings indicate that nonprofit hospitals are in no danger of extinction. About 80 percent of hospital mergers and acquisitions between 1986 and 1996 did not involve any change in the profit status of the hospitals. The remaining mergers were almost equally divided between conversions to for-profit and to nonprofit status. Although these mergers have not altered the overall balance between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals, they have raised new concerns about the concentration of hospital ownership in California. At least half of the iii state’s hospitals are now affiliated with multi-site hospital corporations, and the six largest firms in the state operate over one-third of its hospitals. The three largest hospital firms in both Sacramento and San Diego control more than 60 percent of the beds. Although hospital ownership is less concentrated in the Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas, both markets are far more consolidated than they were ten years ago. With these patterns in mind, the authors plan to continue their study of ownership changes and their consequences. Their questions speak directly to hospital competitiveness and accountability. If some regions are served by fewer firms, will hospitals be less responsive to the needs of patients and local communities? How will mergers affect professional staffing, access to care, and quality of care? If big corporations enjoy economies of scale, will cost reductions be passed on to insurers and consumers? The authors’ early findings differ significantly from popular characterizations. Change is certainly under way, but the conclusion that this change will necessarily reduce quality of care and consumer service is premature. The authors will have more to say on these topics in subsequent PPIC publications. David W. Lyon President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California iv Summary In the past five years, legislators, health care workers, and the public have expressed concern that for-profit companies are taking over hospitals and health care organizations. Many observers argue that forprofit hospitals give little thought to patient care, remove charitable assets from public control, and focus too intently on the financial “bottom line.” In 1996, the California Legislature passed Assembly Bill 3101, which requires that the state Attorney General review proposed conversions of hospitals from nonprofit to for-profit status. Recent studies indicate that mergers of nonprofit firms may affect the provision of health care in California as well. This year the California legislature passed AB 254, which would regulate most hospital transactions in a fashion similar to that established by AB 3101. Despite spirited debate about hospital conversions to for-profit status, there are no systematic studies of hospital ownership changes in California. Furthermore, the effects of these ownership changes on costs, services, access to care, and patient outcomes are largely unknown. v Thus, there is little empirical evidence to guide the Attorney General and state policymakers in deciding whether hospital purchases and mergers should be allowed. This report is the first part of a longer study of hospital ownership and its effect on health care in California. It tracks ownership changes in short-term general hospitals from 1986 to 1996, describes the major hospital corporations in California, examines regional patterns of hospital ownership, and offers ideas for future research. Changes in Hospital Ownership in California There has been little change over the past 15 years in the overall share of hospitals held by nonprofit and for-profit owners. Of the 296 ownership changes between 1986 and 1996 (Figure S.1), only 13 involved conversions from nonprofit to for-profit ownership (Figure S.2). During that same period, 12 hospitals switched from for-profit to nonprofit status. About 80 percent of hospital ownership changes in California did not involve any change in the nonprofit or for-profit status of the hospital. These figures indicate that the public debate has focused disproportionately on conversions to for-profit ownership. At the same time, other aspects of hospital ownership changed dramatically. Most of the ownership changes between 1986 and 1996 were the result of hospital mergers. As a result of these consolidations, multi-hospital organizations grew significantly. At least half of all hospitals in California are now affiliated with multi-site hospital corporations, and six organizations operate over one-third of the state’s hospitals. This increased concentration of hospital ownership may affect the cost and quality of health care and therefore has important policy implications. These implications are perhaps best understood in vi 45 40 35 Number of changes 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 NOTE: 1996 data are incomplete. Year Figure S.1—Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership per Year in California, 1986–1996 ,2% 4% 4% 4% 0% 4% ,,1% 48% For-profit to for-profit Nonprofit to nonprofit Government to government Nonprofit to for-profit For-profit to nonprofit Nonprofit to government For-profit to government Government to nonprofit 33% Government to for-profit Figure S.2—Types of Ownership Change as Percentages of the Total, 1986–1996 vii their regional contexts, where there were substantial variations in ownership and merger activity. Regional Patterns of Hospital Ownership The most striking changes in hospital ownership occurred in California’s urban areas, which accounted for 90 percent of the state’s mergers. Among major cities, Sacramento now has the most concentrated hospital market. Ten changes in hospital ownership in Sacramento between 1986 and 1995 led to a steady increase in the percentage of hospital beds owned by multi-hospital firms (Figure S.3). By 1995, 82 percent of Sacramento’s hospital beds were owned by the three largest firms in the area, and over 95 percent were controlled by multi-hospital corporations. 90 Sacramento area San Diego area 80 San Francisco area 70 Los Angeles area 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure S.3—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by the Three Largest Owners in Major Cities in California, 1986–1999 viii Percentage of hospital beds The San Diego market is also highly concentrated. Two multihospital corporations own over half of the hospital beds in San Diego County, and a third company operates another 11 percent of the region’s hospital beds (Figure S.3). Between 1986 and 1995, there were 12 changes in hospital ownership in San Diego County (Figure S.3). The greater Los Angeles and San Francisco areas accounted for most of the state’s merger activity, and hospital ownership in both areas became more concentrated. In 1994, only 14 percent of hospital beds in the greater Los Angeles area were controlled by the largest three firms; by 1998, that figure had risen to 33 percent (Figure S.3). In the San Francisco area, where ownership is heavily concentrated among nonprofit organizations, the three largest corporations controlled 43 percent of the region’s hospital beds in 1998 compared to 18 percent four years earlier. California’s smaller urban areas, which have seen relatively few hospital transactions since 1986, vary widely in their ownership patterns. For example, none of the hospitals in the Visalia-Tulare-Porterville, Yuba City, or Monterey-Salinas metropolitan areas are owned by multihospital corporations, yet two firms control over 90 percent of Merced’s hospital beds. About half of California’s rural hospitals are owned by four nonprofit multi-hospital corporations. Policy Issues and Directions for Future Research These patterns of hospital ownership raise new questions about hospital costs, quality, and access. Previous research has focused primarily on differences between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. Many studies have examined whether for-profit hospitals provide less charity care than nonprofit and public hospitals. Most found that forprofit hospitals spend less on uncompensated care, although such ix comparisons might be complicated by regional differences. For example, one study found that for-profit and nonprofit hospitals located in the same area serve an equal number of uninsured patients, but that forprofit hospitals avoid uninsured patients by locating in areas with high rates of health insurance coverage. Although for-profit hospitals have incentives to operate more efficiently than their nonprofit competitors, few studies have found differences in efficiency between the two sorts of hospitals. In general, for-profit hospitals charge higher prices, enjoy higher net income, and employ fewer staff than nonprofit hospitals. However, they also pay significantly higher administrative costs. There has been virtually no investigation of the relationship between a hospital’s profit status and the mix of services it provides. Financial incentives for nonprofit and for-profit hospitals could lead to differences in the quality of care as well. Of the few studies investigating this question, however, most detected no overall pattern. Most of these studies compare for-profit hospitals to nonprofit hospitals in a single year; it would be valuable to examine whether mortality rates change among hospitals that convert their ownership status relative to those with stable ownership across several years. The growth of multi-hospital corporations suggests a new set of policy issues and research questions. Multi-hospital organizations may benefit from increased access to capital, lower administrative costs, and the consolidation of expensive services, but they also may be less responsive to local needs than their independent counterparts. In addition, larger multi-hospital organizations have pushed insurers to reimburse at higher rates, thus raising health care costs, although these same firms could lower costs by consolidating services and technologies x into referral centers. Most studies indicate that concentrated hospital markets have higher hospital prices and that mergers raise those prices. These increases may be caused by inefficiencies among multi-hospital corporations. There is little research exploring whether multi-hospital corporations enjoy economies of scale; in particular, we do not know the extent to which these firms consolidate services, alter staffing, or decrease administrative overhead. Analysts have expressed concern about the transfer of charitable assets from independent nonprofit hospitals to multi-hospital and forprofit firms. Differences among hospital organizations regarding charity care are likely to affect access to care in local communities. California’s Senate Bill 697, passed in 1994, requires that nonprofit hospitals develop charitable benefits plans in conjunction with their local communities to ensure that hospitals focus on local needs. Changes in the services offered by multi-hospital firms may affect access to and quality of care. For example, consolidating expensive services into referral centers could reduce access for local residents. At the same time, such consolidations could increase the quality of that care, as hospitals with high volumes of specialized procedures tend to have better patient outcomes. These effects would depend on which services were consolidated as well as the characteristics of the communities involved. We identified no research on these issues. What’s Next? The Ongoing PPIC Study More information is needed concerning the effects of ownership changes on hospital operations in California. For this reason, we are continuing our research, using the data described in this report as a starting point for our analyses. In our ongoing study, we examine xi • Whether changes in hospital ownership affect the staffing of registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, unlicensed aides and orderlies, salaried physicians, management and supervisory staff, and clerical and administrative staff; • Whether multi-hospital firms consolidate their services into referral centers. If they do, we will examine which services are consolidated and what factors lead a corporation to create referral centers; • The effects of ownership changes on access to care and the provision of charity care; and • Whether changes in hospital ownership affect the quality of medical care, as measured by mortality rates, cesarean section rates, and complication rates. We hope that this preliminary report, as well as the ongoing study of which it is a part, will help policymakers make informed decisions about changes in hospital ownership. xii Contents Foreword ..................................... Summary..................................... Figures ...................................... Tables ....................................... Acknowledgments ............................... iii v xv xvii xix 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND .......... 2. CHANGES IN CALIFORNIA HOSPITAL OWNERSHIP SINCE 1986 ............................... Data and Methods ............................ The Hospital Industry in California ................. The Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership ......... Nonprofit, For-Profit, and Government Ownership ....... Corporate Mergers and Takeovers .................. The Size of Hospitals Involved in Ownership Changes ..... Ownership Changes in Recent Years................. Management Companies ........................ 3. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR HOSPITAL CORPORATIONS IN CALIFORNIA? .............. California’s Major Hospital Corporations ............. Catholic Healthcare West ...................... Tenet/OrNda ............................. 1 5 5 9 11 13 15 16 17 19 21 21 22 23 xiii Kaiser Foundation Hospitals .................... Sutter Health .............................. Adventist Health............................ Columbia/HCA ............................ University of California ....................... 4. REGIONAL OWNERSHIP PATTERNS AND MARKET CONCENTRATION ......................... The Los Angeles-Orange-Riverside-San Bernardino Area .... The San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose Area ............. The San Diego Area ........................... The Sacramento Area .......................... Other Urban Areas ............................ Central Valley Cities ......................... Central Coast Cities ......................... Sacramento Valley Cities ...................... Rural California.............................. 5. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH .......... The Importance of Profit Status ................... Community Services and Benefits ................. Hospital Operations, Costs, and Prices.............. Patient Outcomes ........................... Nonprofit to For-Profit Conversions: Special Policy Issues ................................. The Behavior of Multi-Hospital Corporations .......... Hospital Costs and Market Power ................. Access to Care ............................. Patient Outcomes ........................... The PPIC Study ............................. 6. CONCLUSION ............................. Appendix: Hospital Ownership Changes ................ References .................................... About the Authors ............................... 25 26 27 27 28 31 32 37 43 44 45 45 48 48 48 51 52 52 56 57 57 58 59 62 63 64 67 69 91 99 xiv Figures S.1. Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership per Year in California, 1986–1996 ....................... vii S.2. Types of Ownership Change as Percentages of the Total, 1986–1996 .............................. vii S.3. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by the Three Largest Owners in Major Cities in California, 1986– 1999 .................................. viii 2.1. Number of Hospitals in California, 1986–1995 ....... 10 2.2. Percentage of Hospitals by Ownership Type, 1986– 1995 .................................. 10 2.3. Distribution of Hospital Beds Across Ownership Types, 1986–1995 .............................. 11 2.4. Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership per Year in California, 1986–1996 ....................... 12 2.5. Percentage of Hospitals Changing Ownership per Year in California, 1987–1996 ....................... 13 2.6. Types of Ownership Change as Percentages of the Total, 1986–1996 .............................. 14 2.7. Average Size of Hospitals That Did and Did Not Change Ownership, 1986–1995 ................ 16 xv 3.1. Family Tree of For-Profit Companies ............. 4.1. Regional Percentage Distribution of Changes in Hospital Ownership, 1986–1996 ...................... 4.2. Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, Los Angeles CMSA, 1986–1999 ................ 4.3. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Los Angeles CMSA, 1986–1999 ........... 4.4. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Los Angeles-Long Beach PMSA, 1986–1999 ... 4.5. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Orange County MSA, 1986–1999 ......... 4.6. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Bernardino MSA, 1986–1999 ......... 4.7. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Ventura MSA, 1986–1999 .............. 4.8. Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose CMSA, 1986–1999 ... 4.9. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose CMSA, 1986– 1999 .................................. 4.10. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Francisco PMSA, 1986–1999 ......... 4.11. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Jose PMSA, 1986–1999 ............. 4.12. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Oakland PMSA, 1986–1999 ............. 4.13. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Diego PMSA, 1986–1999 ............ 4.14. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Sacramento-Yolo CMSA, 1986–1999 ....... 4.15. Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, Sacramento-Yolo CMSA, 1986–1999 ............. 24 32 33 34 36 36 37 38 39 39 41 41 42 43 44 45 xvi Tables 2.1. Types of Ownership Changes in Each Year in California, 1986–1996 .............................. A.1. List of Hospitals That Changed Ownership Between 1986 and 1996 in California ................... 14 70 xvii Acknowledgments The authors thank Rod Pedersen for his research assistance, Sister Terese Marie Perry and Liz Alexander-Asher at Catholic Healthcare West for providing information about that organization, Phil Isenberg for his comments and references, and Amy Dalton for her helpful suggestions and information. David Benn, Amy Dalton, Phil Isenberg, Paul Lewis, Julio Mateo, Sister Terese Marie Perry, Joyce Peterson, Belinda Reyes, Peter Richardson, Steve Shortell, and Michael Teitz provided useful comments on an earlier draft of this report. xix 1. Introduction and Background In the past five years, legislators, health care workers, and the public have expressed concern that for-profit companies are taking over hospitals and health care organizations (Health Care Strategic Management, 1994; Healthcare Systems Strategy Report, 1995; Business and Health, 1997; Anderson, 1997; Butler, 1997). Many observers argue that for-profit hospitals give little thought to patient care, remove charitable assets from public control, and focus too intently on the financial “bottom line” (Butler, 1997; Woolhandler and Himmelstein, 1997). In response to these concerns, the California legislature passed Assembly Bill 3101 in 1996 (Isenberg and Battson, 1997). This legislation requires that the state Attorney General scrutinize proposed conversions of hospitals from nonprofit to for-profit status. Most of the discussion regarding conversions of nonprofit hospitals to for-profit ownership revolves around issues of asset valuation and definitions of community benefit. 1 Although policymakers have focused on conversions of nonprofit hospitals to for-profit status, recent examinations of the data suggest that these conversions are relatively uncommon and that mergers of nonprofit organizations are becoming more important (Bellandi, 1999; Hassett and Hubbard, 1998; Hyman, 1998). California has experienced a high level of hospital merger activity. For example, in 1995, 43 mergers and purchases were initiated in California’s approximately 400 hospitals—the highest number in the United States (Simonson, Zwanziger, and Chung, 1997). This year, Assembly Member Gil Cedillo introduced AB 254 to regulate a large share of hospital transactions in a fashion similar to that established with AB 3101.1 At present, regulatory authorities have limited ability to scrutinize ownership changes that do not involve a conversion to for-profit ownership, even though these changes have significant effects on the provision of health care. Despite substantial debate about hospital conversions to for-profit status, little systematic study of hospital ownership changes in California has been conducted (Mateo and Rossi, 1999). Furthermore, the effects of these ownership changes on costs, services, access to care, and patient outcomes are largely unknown. Thus, there are few empirical studies about the effects of ownership changes to guide the Attorney General and state policymakers in deciding whether purchases, mergers, and affiliations should be allowed. This report is the first part of a study of how changes in hospital ownership affect hospital operations, access to care, and quality of care. ____________ 1The legislature has passed AB 254; Governor Davis has not yet signed this bill. Last year, Cedillo introduced similar legislation (AB 2527), an amended version of which was passed by the legislature but was vetoed by Governor Wilson. 2 Before we can study these effects, however, we must understand current patterns of hospital ownership. This report provides • A complete accounting of ownership changes in acute care hospitals in California from 1986 to 1996, with additional information on more recent ownership changes; • A description of the major hospital corporations in California, their histories, their strategies, and their market power; • An examination of regional patterns of hospital ownership; and • Directions for future research. We find that most hospital ownership changes in California are associated with the growth of large multi-hospital corporations, not with nonprofit to for-profit conversions. These multi-hospital corporations are changing the structure of the hospital industry and are likely to affect health care quality and costs. The larger study will help state policymakers keep pace with the rapid changes in the hospital industry. 3 2. Changes in California Hospital Ownership Since 1986 Data and Methods To track changes in hospital ownership in California, we examined annual Hospital Disclosure Reports collected by California’s Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) from 1986–87 to 1996–97 (California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, 1986–1997). In these reports, OSHPD gathers information about hospital service provision, finances, and resource utilization in a fiscal year.1 We further limited our study to short-term general (acute care) hospitals because they have generated the most public concern. ____________ 1Every non-federal hospital in California is required to submit a short report to OSHPD. However, OSHPD does not collect information about federal hospitals (Veterans Affairs, military, Bureau of Indian Affairs), but these rarely change ownership and thus are not of interest here. Kaiser Foundation hospitals do not respond to every page of the survey, but they provide enough information for the analysis presented here. 5 Although hospitals provide information to OSHPD for their fiscal years, OSHPD collects these data by its own reporting year. For example, the most recent year of OSHPD’s Hospital Disclosure Reports contains hospital information for June 30, 1996, to June 29, 1997. If a hospital’s fiscal year ended during this period, its data will be included in the 1996–97 reporting year. Thus, the 1996–97 OSHPD data will contain information about hospitals covering the calendar years from 1995 through 1997, depending on when each hospital’s fiscal year ended. To identify changes in hospital ownership, we looked for changes in the name of the hospital, the name of the owner, and the type of control (for-profit, nonprofit, church, state, or county). We focused on the reported name of the owner to identify changes. Some hospitals filed multiple reports in a reporting year; this practice was usually associated with a change in the hospital’s fiscal year (often due to a change in ownership). Many changes in hospital ownership were apparent, but some hospitals reported their ownership in ways that made it unclear whether an ownership change had occurred. The concept of ownership among hospitals, especially nonprofit organizations, can be confusing; indeed, a hospital’s personnel may not know who “owns” the hospital. Hospital and corporate office personnel make a distinction between “ownership,” as the term is used with forprofit corporations, and “affiliation.” One official at the corporate office of Catholic Healthcare West commented that each of their hospitals is closely tied to a specific religious order and that all the hospitals are owned by their individual orders under canonical law (personal communication, Sister Terese Marie Perry, September 30, 1998). It is unclear how much control of the hospital is exercised by the larger 6 organization, although it is unlikely that the hospital could withdraw from the organization at will. Unfortunately, we were unable to identify the subtleties of every nonprofit affiliation; thus, we state that a hospital is “owned” by a nonprofit corporation if it is clearly affiliated with and operated by that corporation. The exact contractual relationships, however, may vary greatly between nonprofit corporations and the individual hospitals affiliated with them. By comparison, for-profit multi-hospital systems are easily identified and the ownership of their facilities is usually obvious. Some partnerships between for-profit and nonprofit organizations make relationships more difficult to track. To determine whether unclear reports represented real ownership changes, we compared our list of ownership changes with a History of Hospitals file provided by OSHPD (Werdegar, Smoley, and Wilson, 1998). Most of the ownership changes listed in the History of Hospitals file appear to be identified by changes in the name of the hospital rather than the owner. We found that some of the changes listed in OSHPD’s History of Hospitals file did not correspond to actual changes in hospital ownership. When our identification of an ownership change did not coincide with OSHPD’s list or we were uncertain whether an ownership change had occurred, we contacted the hospital directly. We made over 100 phone calls to verify changes in ownership. OSHPD data on hospital ownership are often inaccurate. To illustrate this, we carefully examined the differences between data provided by Catholic Healthcare West (CHW) and OSHPD. Of 23 changes to CHW ownership that could have been matched to OSHPD data, 11 were reported more than one year late or not at all. We also examined our data to identify consolidations of multiple hospitals into single organizations. Consolidations are identified in the 7 OSHPD History of Hospitals file and can be defined as hospitals that close or are merged into, become a part of, are acquired by, or are subsumed into another hospital. Consolidations may or may not involve a change in ownership. We compared the consolidations reported by OSHPD with our list of actual changes in ownership to identify which consolidations involved change in ownership and which did not. Our analysis identifies the date of ownership change as nearly as possible and provides information about these changes for calendar years rather than for OSHPD reporting years. We define an ownership change as occurring on the first day that we see a new owner listed in the data. For example, if a hospital’s report for July 1, 1994, to June 30, 1995, has one owner and that hospital lists another owner for the report from July 1, 1995, to June 30, 1996, we say that ownership change occurred on July 1, 1995. In some cases, ownership changes occurred during the fiscal year (e.g., on January 1, 1996). We thus misclassify the year of the ownership change with our methodology. This error is not substantial and does not affect our analysis or conclusions. In the last year of available data, 190 hospitals had fiscal years ending before December 31, 1996. Therefore, it is possible that an ownership change occurred in calendar year 1996 but was reported in next year’s OSHPD data. To track recent trends in hospital ownership, we obtained lists of owned and affiliated hospitals from the major hospital corporations in California. Many hospital corporations provide this information on the Internet. When our list of hospital owners in 1996 did not agree with a corporation’s list, we contacted individual hospitals and corporations to determine whether and when a change in ownership occurred. 8 OSHPD asks hospitals to report whether their ownership falls into a number of for-profit, nonprofit, and government categories. We found that many hospitals did not consistently report their ownership; for example, some district hospitals reported in various years that nonprofit corporations owned them. (District and other government hospitals were most likely to report ownership inconsistently.) We corrected the data as much as possible. We also grouped these ownership types into three main categories: nonprofit, for-profit, and government. In most of this analysis, we categorized district hospitals as nonprofit entities because their operations often resemble nonprofits more than they do state, city, or county hospitals. The Hospital Industry in California The number of hospitals in California has declined over time; we identified 457 short-term general hospitals in 1987 and 408 in 1995 (Figure 2.1). On average, hospitals are the same size (approximately 185 beds) as a decade ago, resulting in a net loss of hospital beds in California. There has been little change over the past 15 years in the overall share of hospitals held by nonprofit, for-profit, and government owners. As seen in Figure 2.2, between 44 and 48 percent of hospitals have been owned by nonprofit organizations in the past decade. Another 31 to 35 percent of hospitals have for-profit ownership, with that share declining slightly over the decade. Hospital districts control 10 to 11 percent of California’s hospitals, and government entities operate 9 to 12 percent. 9 Number of hospitals 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Year Figure 2.1—Number of Hospitals in California, 1986–1995 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Year Government District For-profit Nonprofit Figure 2.2—Percentage of Hospitals by Ownership Type, 1986–1995 Percentage of hospitals 10 California’s for-profit hospitals are, on average, smaller than their nonprofit counterparts, as seen in Figure 2.3. Although 31 percent of hospitals had for-profit ownership in 1995, these hospitals accounted for only 18 percent of hospital beds in the state. District hospitals also are smaller than average, accounting for 6 percent of beds (compared to 11 percent of hospitals in 1995). Nonprofit organizations operate over 50 percent of the hospital beds in California, and government agencies operate over 20 percent of the beds. Percentage of hospital beds 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Year Government District For-profit Nonprofit Figure 2.3—Distribution of Hospital Beds Across Ownership Types, 1986–1995 The Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership Although there has been little change in the relative shares of nonprofit and for-profit ownership, there has been a high degree of change in hospital ownership in California. In the ten years between 1986 and 1995, we identified 265 hospital ownership changes in 11 California. An additional 31 changes occurred in 1996, as seen in the available OSHPD data, for a total of 296 changes. OSHPD’s History of Hospital file reports five changes in 1996 that we could not observe in the most recently released data. We do not yet have OSHPD data for about 190 other hospitals that might have changed ownership in 1996. The number of changes varies widely over time, ranging from 15 to 41 per year (Figure 2.4). The portion of hospitals changing ownership in a single year ranged from 3.4 percent in 1990 to 9.8 percent in 1994 (Figure 2.5). There were many ownership changes in the mid-1980s, with 29 changes in 1986 and 29 changes in 1987. There was another flurry of activity in 1993, with 40 changes accounting for 9.5 percent of hospitals. In 1994, 41 hospitals changed ownership, accounting for 9.8 percent of hospitals. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Year NOTE: 1996 data are incomplete. Figure 2.4—Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership per Year in California, 1986–1996 12 Number of changes Percentage of hospitals with a change 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Year NOTE: 1996 data are incomplete. Figure 2.5—Percentage of Hospitals Changing Ownership per Year in California, 1987–1996 Nonprofit, For-Profit, and Government Ownership About 80 percent of hospital ownership changes in California did not involve a change in the nonprofit or for-profit status of the hospital (Figure 2.6 and Table 2.1). Of the 296 changes we identified over the 11-year period, 140 (48 percent) were transfers between for-profit owners. Another 96 changes (33 percent) were between nonprofit owners. Policymakers, the public, and the media have focused largely on conversions of nonprofit hospitals to for-profit ownership. Only 13 such conversions occurred in the 11-year period for which we have data. Over the same period, 12 hospitals switched from for-profit to nonprofit status. These figures suggest that the attention paid to nonprofit to for- 13 4% 4% 0% ,2% 4% 4% ,,1% 48% For-profit to for-profit Nonprofit to nonprofit Government to government Nonprofit to for-profit For-profit to nonprofit Nonprofit to government For-profit to government Government to nonprofit 33% Government to for-profit Figure 2.6—Types of Ownership Change as Percentages of the Total, 1986–1996 Table 2.1 Types of Ownership Changes in Each Year in California, 1986–1996 For-profit to for-profit Nonprofit to nonprofit Govt. to govt. Nonprofit to for-profit For-profit to nonprofit Nonprofit to govt. For-profit to govt. Govt. to nonprofit Govt. to for-profit Total ’86 ’87 ’88 ’89 ’90 ’91 ’92 ’93 ’94 ’95 ’96 Total 9 13 8 8 8 7 14 20 31 7 15 140 15 9 8 7 2 9 7 14 8 7 10 96 0 0011 2 0 00 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 2 4 13 0 0 0 1 0 4 2 2 1 1 1 12 0 0121 0 1 00 1 0 6 1 6 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 11 2 1 1 0 3 1 2 1 0 1 1 13 1 0000 0 0 00 0 0 1 29 29 18 22 15 26 26 40 41 19 31 296 14 profit conversions in California is disproportionate to the actual number of conversions. Some ownership changes involved the sale or purchase of a government hospital by a nonprofit or for-profit company. Thirteen hospitals switched from government to nonprofit ownership and another six changed from nonprofit to government ownership. One hospital was sold by a government entity to a for-profit organization. For-profit owners sold 11 hospitals to government agencies. Of these, eight involved Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc., which sold one hospital to a county, one to a city, and six to hospital districts. Westworld Community Healthcare was a for-profit company that sought to specialize in the management of troubled rural hospitals. At its peak in 1986, Westworld operated 40 hospitals. Over the next two years, it reduced its operations to 14 hospitals and filed for bankruptcy. Many of its hospitals were closed, but several were returned to local control and continue to operate. Corporate Mergers and Takeovers Many ownership changes between 1986 and 1996 were the result of consolidations. For example, nearly half of the 15 nonprofit to nonprofit changes recorded in 1986 resulted from the merger of two Catholic healthcare associations to form Catholic Healthcare West. The following year, seven of the 13 for-profit to for-profit changes occurred when Healthtrust acquired hospitals from the Hospital Corporation of America. Over half of the for-profit ownership changes observed between 1993 and 1996 arose from large mergers between for-profit corporations. The next chapter provides more information about these corporations. 15 Average number of hospital beds The Size of Hospitals Involved in Ownership Changes Hospitals that changed ownership in California were smaller than average, as seen in Figure 2.7. Between 1986 and 1995, the average size of a hospital in California was approximately 185 beds. Before 1991, hospitals that changed ownership were 40 to 50 beds smaller than average. In 1991 and 1995, the hospitals changing ownership were slightly larger than those that did not experience an ownership change. Between 1992 and 1994, hospitals that changed ownership were about 25 beds smaller than other facilities. 250 200 Did not change owner 150 Changed owner 100 50 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Year Figure 2.7—Average Size of Hospitals That Did and Did Not Change Ownership, 1986–1995 16 Ownership Changes in Recent Years The OSHPD data analyzed above end in 1996; a substantial number of ownership changes have occurred since then. We examined OSHPD’s History of Hospitals file and documents from the major hospital corporations in California to identify recent changes in hospital ownership. Although the data obtained from these sources are incomplete, they provide some indication of current trends in hospital ownership. The most significant event in hospital ownership in California in recent years was Tenet Healthcare Corporation’s acquisition of OrNda. Sixteen hospitals changed hands in this transaction, making Tenet the largest for-profit hospital corporation in California. Four hospitals acquired by Tenet were subsequently closed. Tenet has continued to acquire hospitals in addition to incorporating OrNda’s facilities to its system. Tenet also agreed to lease Desert Hospital in Palm Springs and acquired Pioneer Hospital in Artesia from MedPartners in 1997. In late 1998, Tenet acquired Sharp Healthcare Murrieta Hospital (now named Rancho Springs Medical Center). Tenet recently has reported that it intends to sell up to 20 of its hospitals this year; analysts speculate that it will divest hospitals in regions where it does not have a strong market presence (Kirchheimer, 1999). Columbia/HCA, the second largest for-profit hospital corporation in California, has been selling hospitals throughout the United States to address large financial losses and debts acquired in recent years. In the past six months, Columbia/HCA sold Palm Drive Hospital in Sebastopol and Healdsburg General Hospital, thus ending its involvement in Sonoma County. At the same time, Columbia/HCA has sought to expand its holdings in other parts of California. In 1997, it finalized a 17 joint venture with nonprofit Riverside Community Hospital, leaving Columbia/HCA with a 75 percent stake in the operation of the hospital. More recently, Columbia/HCA acquired Alexian Brothers Hospital in San Jose in an exchange of hospitals that did not come under the scrutiny of AB 3101. Several other for-profit hospital conversions have occurred in the past two years or are under way now. Long Beach Community Medical Center became a for-profit corporation in 1997 when it was sold to a group of local physicians. The Attorney General approved the sale of Watsonville Community Hospital to Community Health Systems in late 1998. Proceeds from the sale will be used to establish a new foundation. Over the past three years, Catholic Healthcare West has affiliated with several hospital corporations. Most of these affiliations involve various charitable Catholic orders. In 1996, the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word and the Dominican Sisters of San Rafael joined the CHW family, adding four acute care hospitals to the organization. In the same year, CHW affiliated with Woodland Memorial Hospital, Sequoia Hospital in Redwood City, the Robert F. Kennedy Medical Center, Bakersfield Memorial Hospital, and Mercy Hospital and Health Services in Merced. In 1997, two more Catholic orders affiliated with CHW, adding two hospitals to the system. In 1998, CHW added Community Hospital of San Bernardino and merged with UniHealth, which owned eight hospitals in the Los Angeles area. Sutter Health is also continuing to expand. In 1997, Merced Community Medical Center joined the Sutter Health system and changed its name to Sutter Merced hospital. Eden Medical Center and Davies Medical Center were added to Sutter Health in 1998. At present, 18 Sutter is negotiating to buy Summit Medical Center in Alameda County, as discussed below. At least two for-profit hospitals returned to nonprofit ownership in 1998. As noted above, two of Columbia/HCA’s hospitals were sold to community organizations in Sonoma County. Other small mergers and ownership changes have occurred recently or are under way. In 1996, Citrus Valley Health Partners bought Foothill Presbyterian Hospital, Memorial Health Services bought Anaheim Memorial Hospital, Southern California Healthcare Systems bought Beverly Hospital and Verdugo Hills Hospital, and Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital bought Santa Ynez Valley Hospital and Goleta Valley Community Hospital. In 1997, Sharp Healthcare bought Mesa Vista Hospital and Legacy Health System bought Baldwin Park Medical Center. In 1998, Enloe Medical Center purchased Chico Community Hospital. In that same year, Kaweah Delta Health Care District purchased Exeter-based Memorial Hospital. More transactions will be identified as new data become available. Management Companies Some hospitals hire firms to provide management services, and some companies both own hospitals and offer management services. At present in California, management companies do not control a significant number of hospitals. In the most recent OSHPD data, 34 California hospitals reported that other corporations managed them. Brim Healthcare, Inc., manages five hospitals, and Pacific Health Corporation of Long Beach, California, manages four hospitals. Adventist Health, FHP, Alpha Partners, Primus Hospital Management, Delta-One Management, and Valley Health manage two hospitals each. 19 In the 1980s, mergers and consolidations of companies with varying interests accelerated nationwide (Nemes, 1992). Brim and Associates, based in Portland, Oregon, was the first private non-profit firm to provide contract management services (Kim, 1989). Principal Hospital Company acquired Brim’s hospital business in 1997 (Japsen 1996, 1997), and Brim recently has taken over Aligned Business Consortium, a medical group purchasing firm, formerly run by Columbia/HCA. Some companies, such as Adventist Health, both own and manage hospitals. Sutter Health has managed two hospitals: Amador Hospital, owned by Amador County until 1993 when it became affiliated with Sutter, and Plumas District Hospital. Other relationships, such as those between Tenet and MedPartners and between Catholic Healthcare West and MedPartners, combine hospitals and medical practice management companies (Nordhaus-Bike, 1997; Shinkman, 1997). These relationships further confuse the public about who controls hospitals in California. Without a clear understanding of hospital ownership, corporate structures, and management companies, it is difficult for legislators to determine the type and level of regulation necessary to protect consumers. More information about the effects of ownership on hospital operations is needed to make decisions about the delivery of care that affects the health of Californians. 20 3. What Are the Major Hospital Corporations in California? California’s Major Hospital Corporations Most of the ownership changes between 1986 and 1996 were the result of consolidations and mergers between hospital corporations. Multi-hospital firms have grown substantially over the past decade; at least half of all hospitals in California are now affiliated with multi-site hospital corporations. Six hospital organizations operate over one-third of the state’s hospitals. The nonprofit organizations with the largest number of hospitals are Catholic Healthcare West, Kaiser Foundation Hospitals, Sutter Health, and Adventist Health. The largest for-profit hospital corporations in California are Tenet Healthcare Corporation and Columbia/HCA. The University of California is also an important player in California’s hospital industry, operating five medical centers and two neuropsychiatric institutes. These organizations are changing 21 hospital markets throughout the state. In this chapter, we describe them, their histories, and their strategies. Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West (CHW) was formed in 1986 by the merger of two communities of the Sisters of Mercy: the Sisters of Mercy, Auburn, and the Sisters of Mercy, Burlingame. Ten California hospitals were affected by the creation of Catholic Healthcare West, accounting for nearly half of the 16 nonprofit to nonprofit changes we observed in 1986. Between 1988 and 1997, several other religious orders became cosponsors of CHW: the Sisters of St. Dominic of Adrian, Michigan (1988, two hospitals, one in California); the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent De Paul, Province of the West (1995, five hospitals); the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word of Houston, Texas (1996, two hospitals); the Dominican Sisters of San Rafael (1996, two acute care hospitals); the Sisters of St. Catherine of Siena of Kenosha, Wisconsin (1996, one hospital); the Franciscan Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Frankfort, Illinois (1997, one hospital); and the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity of Redwood City (1997; one hospital). Several of these affiliations occurred in the mid-1990s, increasing CHW’s presence substantially. In 1998, CHW acquired eight hospitals from UniHealth. This was CHW’s first acquisition of a large hospital corporation that was not sponsored by a Catholic order. The acquisition provided CHW with a strong presence in the Los Angeles area. CHW now represents nine religious orders and operates 46 acute care hospitals throughout California, Arizona, and Nevada; of these, 44 are in California. CHW has managed one district hospital on a contractual basis since 1998 22 (which we do not count as an ownership change). The organization is the largest nonprofit hospital group in California.1 CHW has been financially healthy in past years, recording positive net income in between 1995 and 1998. However, CHW expects to report an operating loss of $225 million in the fiscal year ending in 1999. Tenet/OrNda Tenet Healthcare Corporation owns or operates 130 acute care hospitals and related businesses serving communities in 18 states.2 Of these, 42 hospitals are in California. Tenet was formed in 1995 by the merger of two for-profit hospital corporations, National Medical Enterprises (NME) and American Medical Holdings (AMI). This merger of NME and AMI accounts for 18 of the ownership changes we identify in 1994 and two in 1995. Figure 3.1 charts the history of Tenet and the companies that have been incorporated into Tenet. The company, which is headquartered in Santa Barbara, is publicly held. In January 1997, Tenet Healthcare Corporation merged with OrNda, another for-profit corporation. OrNda owned 17 hospitals in California at the time it merged with Tenet. OrNda HealthCorp was created in 1994 by the merger of for-profit American Healthcare Management and for-profit Summit Health Ltd. (see Figure 3.1). Our data indicate that eight ownership changes in 1993 and two ownership changes in 1994 resulted from the merger of Summit Health and American Healthcare Management. At the time of its merger with Tenet, OrNda was the country’s third largest for-profit healthcare ____________ 1Information about Catholic Healthcare West was obtained from www.chw.org.edu and other sites linked to this page. 2Tenet’s information can be found at www.tenethealth.com. 23 Health- Epic Trust, Inc. Healthcare May 94 Basic American Medical Galen Healthcare Corp. Hospital Corp. of America Medical Care America, Inc. HealthTrust, Inc. American Summit Healthcare Health Mgmt. Ltd. National American Medical Medical Enterprises Holdings Jul 92 Sep 93 Feb 94 Sep 94 Apr 95 Apr 94 OrNda Mar 95 Tenet Columbia/HCA Jan 97 Tenet Figure 3.1—Family Tree of For-Profit Companies provider, with 48 facilities throughout the United States. Six of the ownership changes reported for fiscal years starting in 1996 were caused by the acquisition of OrNda by Tenet. Another ten California hospitals were owned by OrNda in 1996 and were transferred to Tenet in 1997.3 In contrast to Tenet’s aggressive expansion in the past, Tenet is now selling at least 18 hospitals outside California. Lower-than-expected earnings in the third quarter of the 1999 fiscal year may have prompted the sell-off. Tenet has reported positive net income for the past several years but experienced a 4 percent drop in net income between 1998 and 1999. ____________ 3Four of these hospitals subsequently closed. 24 Kaiser Foundation Hospitals In 1933, Sidney A. Garfield, M.D., began to deliver health care on a prepaid basis to men building the Los Angeles Aqueduct. In 1938, Henry J. Kaiser’s son, Edgar, invited Garfield to provide the same health care program to Kaiser’s workers, who were building the Grand Coulee Dam, and their families. This health program expanded during World War II, when Kaiser operated wartime shipyards in California and Oregon. Kaiser bought and renovated a hospital in Oakland in 1942 to improve the health care services provided to employees at the Richmond shipyard. In 1945, Kaiser’s health plan opened to the general public as a nonprofit corporation. Two unions—the International Longshoremen and Warehousemen Union and the Retail Clerks Union—were instrumental in taking the health plan to Los Angeles. Many opposed this prepaid health plan; some observers believed it was a “communist” system, and the American Medical Society actively undermined it and the physicians who worked for it. Kaiser Permanente built a second hospital in Walnut Creek in 1953, in part because other hospitals were reluctant to allow Kaiser physicians to admit patients to their facilities.4 Kaiser Permanente is now the largest nonprofit health maintenance organization in the United States, serving 9.2 million members in 19 states and the District of Columbia. It is an integrated health delivery system, providing care through exclusively contracted physicians and its hospitals and outpatient centers. Kaiser is engaged in many social benefit activities, including assistance to the uninsured and special populations, ____________ 4The information in this section was obtained from Kaiser Permanente’s pages at www.kaiserpermanente.org. 25 instruction for new health professionals, medical research, and costeffectiveness research. Kaiser Foundation Hospitals, one part of Kaiser Permanente, owns 27 hospitals in California. Sutter Health Sutter Health traces its history to 1923, when Sutter Hospital was established in Sacramento. In 1937, Sutter Hospital opened a maternity hospital in Sacramento, and in 1981 the governing organization of these two hospitals established Sutter Health. Between 1981 and 1996, Sutter became affiliated with several hospitals in Northern California. In 1996, Sutter merged with the California Healthcare System, which was founded in 1986 by Alta Bates Medical Center, California Pacific Medical Center, Marin General Hospital, and Mills–Peninsula Medical Center. In our analyses, we do not consider the California Healthcare System an “owner,” as none of the member hospitals reported it as such. The merger between Sutter and the California Healthcare System gave Sutter a strong presence in the San Francisco area. In more recent years, Sutter has affiliated with Merced Medical Center, Memorial Hospitals Association, Davies Medical Center, and Eden Medical Center. Sutter Health is in the process of merging Alta Bates Medical Center with Summit Medical Center, a major independent hospital in Oakland. Although the Federal Trade Commission investigated this merger on antitrust grounds, as of this writing, the merger has been approved by federal regulators. However, California’s Attorney General is challenging the transaction. Sutter Health’s position in the Oakland market is discussed in more detail in Chapter 4. Sutter Health serves more than three million people throughout Northern California. The organization operates a provider network that 26 includes 21 acute care general hospitals, eight long-term care facilities, two behavioral health hospitals, various physician offices and outpatient centers, and home health, hospice, and occupational health services.5 Sutter is financially healthy, recording positive net income in 1997 and 1998. Adventist Health Adventist Health is a nonprofit healthcare system sponsored by the Seventh-Day Adventist Church and is headquartered in Roseville, California.6 The West Coast system is part of an international network that includes hospitals, medical clinics and groups, hospices, home-health agencies, and pharmacy and medical equipment services in California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. In the West Coast system, Adventist Health owns 20 hospitals, 15 of which are in California. Adventist Health has not expanded aggressively and remains one of the smallest systems in California. It has recorded positive net revenue for the past few years, but faced operating losses in 1998. Adventist is in the process of purchasing Selma District Hospital, which would provide Adventist with five hospitals in the Central Valley and three in the Hanford area. Columbia/HCA As the largest for-profit hospital corporation in the United States, Columbia/HCA has garnered much public scrutiny. Over the past decade, Columbia/HCA expanded as a result of mergers between and acquisitions of many for-profit hospital companies (Figure 3.1). Basic American Medical was acquired by Columbia in 1992, Galen Healthcare ____________ 5Information about Sutter Health is available at www.sutterhealth.org. 6Information about Adventist Health was obtained from www.adventisthealth.org. 27 Corp. was added in 1993, and a merger with Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) followed in 1994. This last merger accounted for eight of the for-profit to for-profit ownership changes identified between 1993 and 1995. Medical Care America, Inc., was also acquired in 1994. In 1995 HealthTrust Inc. was added to the system. HealthTrust itself had acquired seven hospitals from the Hospital Corporation of America in 1987, accounting for over half of the 13 for-profit to for-profit changes observed in 1987.7 Columbia/HCA made newspaper headlines in 1997 and 1998 when the federal government began a large Medicare fraud investigation. The investigation led to unprecedented turnover in senior management. At the same time, Columbia/HCA faced declining profits and sold a substantial number of its hospitals. Columbia/HCA now owns and operates 221 hospitals, down from its peak of 340, 11 of which are in California. University of California The University of California has five medical schools: Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Diego, and San Francisco. Each of these medical schools is associated with at least one acute care hospital. The university medical centers influence the markets in which they operate because they provide a wide range of advanced medical services. In 1997, the UCSF Medical Center and UCSF/Mt. Zion Hospital merged with Stanford University’s two hospitals to form UCSF Stanford Health Care. This new health care system was controversial, largely because it involved the transfer of public assets to an independent (though nonprofit) ____________ 7Columbia/HCA provides information at www.columbia-hca.com. 28 corporation. UCSF Stanford reported an operating return of $20 million in its first year but experienced a $10 million loss in the first quarter of its second year. Losses are mounting, and the future of the merger is in question. 29 4. Regional Ownership Patterns and Market Concentration There is substantial regional variation in hospital ownership in California. The degree to which a region’s hospital market is concentrated in the hands of one or two hospital corporations is likely to affect the cost of medical care and also may affect access to and quality of care. In this chapter, we describe the level of merger activity and the degree of hospital market concentration for the different regions of California.1 The policy issues raised by the concentration of hospital ownership are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. ____________ 1For this study, we define metropolitan areas according to the Census regions. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) are composed of counties that house urban centers and are not contiguous with other major urban centers (e.g., Fresno, Redding, San Diego). Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs) are composed of more than one Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA). There are three CMSAs in California: Los Angeles-Orange-San Bernardino-Riverside, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, and Sacramento-Yolo. A PMSA is an urban component of a CMSA and is analogous to a MSA. For example, the Los Angeles CMSA consists of four PMSAs: Los Angeles, Orange, Ventura, and San Bernardino-Riverside. 31 The Los Angeles-Orange-Riverside-San Bernardino Area The Los Angeles CMSA has experienced the greatest share of hospital ownership change activity. There have been 166 changes (56 percent) in the greater Los Angeles area (Figure 4.1), where approximately 45 percent of California’s hospitals are located. The majority of ownership changes occurred in Los Angeles and Orange counties, which account for 77 percent of the hospitals in the consolidated Los Angeles metropolitan area and 83 percent of the changes in this region. In the Los Angeles CMSA, many hospitals have become part of multi-hospital corporations. As seen in Figure 4.2, fewer than 35 percent of the region’s hospital beds are independent of a major corporation, down from 60 percent in 1986. Between 1986 and 1995, the share of 12.8% 4.0% 7.1% ,, ,16.8% 55.9% Los Angeles Sacramento San Francisco Central Valley San Diego Other , 3.4% Figure 4.1—Regional Percentage Distribution of Changes in Hospital Ownership, 1986–1996 32 Percentage of hospital beds 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.2—Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, Los Angeles CMSA, 1986–1999 independent hospital beds remained relatively stable. However, between 1995 and 1996 there was a dramatic decrease in independent beds, indicating that a number of hospitals were purchased by or affiliated with multi-hospital firms in those years. Figure 4.3 charts the percentage of hospital beds over time controlled by the largest, two largest, and three largest owners in the Los Angeles area.2 Consistent with Figure 4.2, the largest owners in the Los Angeles CMSA have experienced significant increases in market share since 1995. In that year, the three largest firms controlled only 14 percent of the ____________ 2The figures for 1986 through 1995 were computed directly from the OSHPD data. After 1995, we estimated the share of beds owned by each system based on the number of beds in each hospital in the most recent year of OSHPD data. Because the ownership data may be incomplete and hospitals may have changed the number of beds they have available, the figures for 1996 through 1999 should be considered preliminary. 33 Percentage of hospital beds 35 30 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 25 Largest owner 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.3—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Los Angeles CMSA, 1986–1999 region’s hospital beds. By 1998, the three largest owners held 33 percent of the beds. In Figure 4.3 and subsequent similar figures, the largest owners are not the same in every year. Between 1988 and 1993, the three largest owners in the Los Angeles CMSA were Los Angeles County, Kaiser, and Unihealth. In 1994, OrNda displaced Unihealth from its “top three” status. By 1998, after the Tenet-OrNda and the CHW-Unihealth mergers, the largest owners in the Los Angeles CMSA were Tenet, Catholic Healthcare West, and Kaiser. A wide range of corporations owns hospitals in the Los Angeles CMSA. For-profit hospitals are more common in this region than elsewhere in the state, largely due to the presence of Tenet, which holds 29 hospitals in the Los Angeles region, 17 of which are in Los Angeles County and 10 of which are in Orange County. Each of these hospitals 34 has over 100 available beds and four have over 300 beds.3 Catholic Healthcare West owns the largest number of nonprofit hospitals in the region. It now operates 10 percent of the total beds in the region. Kaiser Permanente’s nine hospitals also establish a strong presence. All of Kaiser’s facilities are large, ranging from 150 to nearly 600 beds. Columbia/HCA owns seven hospitals and Paracelsus (a for-profit corporation) owns six. Columbia’s hospitals are smaller than average in the region. Paracelsus’s are somewhat smaller than average for the region, ranging from 85 to 244 beds. The University of California has a significant presence in the Los Angeles area, operating medical centers at UCLA and UC Irvine. UCLA’s medical center includes Santa Monica Hospital, the UCLA Medical Center, UCLA Children’s Hospital, and the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Hospital. Sutter Health, one of the state’s largest hospital corporations, does not operate any hospitals in the Los Angeles area. The main urban areas within the Los Angeles CMSA have similar levels of consolidation as the CMSA as a whole, although there are differences in which corporations are dominant. In the Los Angeles primary statistical area (PMSA),4 47 percent of hospital beds are controlled by the three largest owners: Tenet, Valley Hospital System, and Columbia/HCA (Figure 4.4). It is notable that two for-profit corporations are dominant in this county. In Orange County, nonprofit owners control 38 percent of the hospital beds: CHW, Kaiser, and St. Joseph of Orange (Figure 4.5). Tenet, St. Joseph of Orange, and Columbia/HCA operate 48 percent of the available hospital beds in the ____________ 3The median hospital size in the Los Angeles area is 221 beds. All bed size figures are from the 1995–96 OSHPD data. 4The Los Angeles PMSA consists of Los Angeles County. 35 Percentage of hospital beds 50 45 3 largest owners 40 2 largest owners 35 Largest owner 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.4—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Los Angeles-Long Beach PMSA, 1986–1999 40 35 3 largest owners 30 2 largest owners Largest owner 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.5—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Orange County MSA, 1986–1999 36 Percentage of hospital beds Riverside-San Bernardino PMSA (Figure 4.6). In the Ventura PMSA, the major owners are Tenet, Catholic Healthcare West, and Los Angeles County, accounting for 35 percent of the region’s hospital beds (Figure 4.7). The San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose Area The San Francisco CMSA (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano and Sonoma Counties), which is home to about 18 percent of California’s hospitals, experienced 16.6 percent of California’s changes in hospital ownership. Nearly a third of these changes occurred in Santa Clara County, where only one-sixth of the Bay Area’s hospitals are located. Several hospitals in Santa Clara County have changed hands multiple times. 50 45 40 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 35 Largest owner 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.6—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Bernardino MSA, 1986–1999 37 Percentage of hospital beds Percentage of hospital beds 40 35 3 largest owners 30 2 largest owners Largest owner 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.7—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Ventura MSA, 1986–1999 The San Francisco CMSA has a more consolidated hospital market than the Los Angeles region. As seen in Figure 4.8, 30 percent of the San Francisco region’s hospitals are not affiliated with a major corporation. Between 1995 and 1996, the share of unaffiliated hospitals dropped precipitously from 71 percent to 32 percent. A significant proportion of this decline can be attributed to the merger between Sutter Health and the California Healthcare System in 1996 and acquisitions by CHW (Figure 4.9). By 1996, the three largest corporations (Sutter, Kaiser, and CHW) controlled 41 percent of the region’s hospital beds; in 1999, these same three corporations control 43 percent of beds. In contrast to the Los Angeles CMSA, hospital ownership in the San Francisco Bay Area is heavily concentrated among nonprofit corporations. Kaiser Permanente operates 13 hospitals, most of which 38 Percentage of hospital beds 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.8—Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose CMSA, 1986–1999 50 45 3 largest owners 40 2 largest owners Largest owner 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.9—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose CMSA, 1986–1999 39 Percentage of hospital beds have between 150 and 250 beds.5 Sutter Health has 10 hospitals ranging from the 51-bed Novato Community Hospital to the 534-bed California Pacific Medical Center. Catholic Healthcare West operates seven hospitals, all but one of which have more than 270 beds. The major forprofit presence in the region is Columbia/HCA, with five hospitals. Four of Columbia’s hospitals are in Santa Clara County and two of these four have over 500 beds. Within the San Francisco CMSA, the San Francisco PMSA has become very concentrated in the past five years.6 As seen in Figure 4.10, the three largest entities (CHW, the University of California, and Kaiser) held 30 percent of San Francisco’s hospital beds in 1995. This share jumped to 69 percent in 1996 as a result of growth in CHW’s system and the merger between Sutter Health and the California Healthcare System.7 San Jose’s hospital market is less concentrated than that of the San Francisco PMSA: in recent years, 57 percent of San Jose’s hospital beds have been owned by Columbia/HCA, Kaiser, and Catholic Healthcare West (Figure 4.11). Columbia/HCA owns one-third of this region’s beds, and this figure will rise when Columbia/HCA’s purchase of Alexian Brothers Hospital is complete. The Oakland PMSA’s three biggest owners (Sutter, Kaiser, and Tenet) control 44 percent of the beds (Figure 4.12).8 There has not ____________ 5The median hospital size in the San Francisco area is 212 beds. 6The San Francisco PMSA consists of San Francisco, Marin, and San Mateo Counties. 7As noted above, we do not consider the California Healthcare System an “owner.” 8The Oakland PMSA consists of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties. 40 Percentage of hospital beds 80 70 3 largest owners 60 2 largest owners Largest owner 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.10—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Francisco PMSA, 1986–1999 60 50 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 40 Largest owner 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.11—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Jose PMSA, 1986–1999 41 Percentage of hospital beds Percentage of hospital beds 50 45 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 40 Largest owner 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.12—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Oakland PMSA, 1986–1999 been as much growth in the Oakland PMSA as in other San Francisco Bay Area PMSAs. In 1986, 34 percent of Oakland’s beds were held by Kaiser, Summit Medical Center, and Alameda County. The smaller PMSAs in the San Francisco CMSA have relatively concentrated hospital markets. There are relatively few hospitals in these regions, however, so it is easy for a single owner to become dominant. In Santa Cruz, 68 percent of the hospital beds are in Dominican Hospital, which joined Catholic Healthcare West in 1988. In Sonoma County, the Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange, Sutter Health, and Kaiser operate 58 percent of the hospital beds. The Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange and Kaiser also have a strong presence in the Napa-Vallejo PMSA. Together with Adventist Health, they own 66 percent of the area’s beds. 42 The San Diego Area The San Diego area experienced 12 changes in hospital ownership between 1986 and 1996 (4.1 percent of statewide changes). Today, the San Diego market is concentrated in the hands of Scripps Healthcare and San Diego Hospital Association (also known as Sharp HealthCare). Scripps owns six hospitals and Sharp HealthCare owns seven hospitals. Together, they control over half of the hospital beds in San Diego County (Figure 4.13). Palomar Pomerado Health System operates another 11 percent of the region’s hospital beds. The UC-San Diego Medical Center is a significant presence in this market as well, with hospitals in San Diego and La Jolla. UCSD recently discontinued merger discussions with Sharp HealthCare and is planning to commence merger talks with Scripps Health. Tenet, Columbia/HCA, Kaiser, and Adventist Health also own hospitals in San Diego County. 70 60 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 50 Largest owner 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.13—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Diego PMSA, 1986–1999 43 Percentage of hospital beds Percentage of hospital beds The Sacramento Area In the Sacramento CMSA, there were ten changes in hospital ownership between 1986 and 1996. The Sacramento CMSA area is similar to that of San Diego in that two corporations own over half of the hospitals in the area.9 Catholic Healthcare West operates six facilities and Sutter Health owns five hospitals, together controlling over two-thirds of the hospitals in the region (Figure 4.14). Kaiser owns an additional 15 percent of the area’s hospital beds, placing 82 percent of the Sacramento area’s beds in the hands of the three largest owners. The University of California holds another 13 percent of the area’s hospital beds, leaving less than 5 percent of the beds without a system affiliation (Figure 4.15). 90 80 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 70 Largest owner 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.14—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Sacramento-Yolo CMSA, 1986–1999 ____________ 9The Sacramento CMSA consists of the Sacramento PMSA (Sacramento, El Dorado, and Placer Counties) and the Yolo PMSA (Yolo County). 44 Percentage of hospital beds 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.15—Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, Sacramento-Yolo CMSA, 1986–1999 Other Urban Areas California has smaller urban areas in the Central Valley, along the central coast, and in the Sacramento Valley. Most of these metropolitan areas have only a few hospitals, and thus ownership may appear to be concentrated in the hands of a few corporations when each corporation owns only one hospital. Some of California’s smaller cities have no hospitals with corporate affiliations, whereas in other cities major corporations own nearly all hospitals. In general, nonprofit ownership is dominant in small cities. Central Valley Cities Between 1986 and 1996, relatively few hospital transactions occurred in the Central Valley (Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, 45 San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare Counties). We identified 21 changes in hospital ownership over our 11-year period, accounting for 7.1 percent of the changes. Nearly 12 percent of California’s hospitals are located in this region. As the Central Valley grows and there are fewer opportunities to purchase hospitals in the major cities of California, corporate ownership is likely to increase in the valley. Through 1995, fewer than 5 percent of Stockton’s beds were held by multi-hospital corporations (NME, which became part of Tenet in 1995, and Paracelsus). In 1996, CHW and Sutter both completed purchases of hospitals, giving these corporations 34 and 7 percent of the area’s hospital beds, respectively. Now, 48 percent of the Stockton area’s hospital beds are controlled by three corporations: CHW, Sutter, and Tenet. In Modesto, NME (now Tenet) and Memorial Hospitals Association held about half of the area’s hospital beds until 1996. In 1996, the hospital controlled by Memorial Health Services affiliated with Sutter. Several Stanislaus County hospitals have closed since 1987, increasing the market share of Tenet and Sutter in this region. As of 1996, Tenet’s stake in the market is higher than Sutter’s, with Tenet owning nearly a third of the area’s hospital beds. Catholic Healthcare West has recently entered the market by contracting to manage with a district hospital, accounting for approximately 11 percent of hospital beds. Merced’s hospital market has experienced a rapid consolidation in recent years. Until 1993, none of the county’s hospitals were controlled by a major hospital corporation. In 1994, Memorial Hospitals Association established a presence in the area, controlling about 12 percent of hospital beds. This hospital became part of Sutter in 1996. Between 1996 and 1997, the county hospital affiliated with Sutter, 46 increasing its share of hospital beds to 60 percent. Also in 1996, CHW acquired a hospital through its affiliation with the Dominican Sisters of St. Catherine of Sienna of Kenosha, Wisconsin. Now, Sutter and CHW control all of Merced’s hospital beds. Fresno’s large hospital market is still largely independent of the major hospital corporations. Community Hospitals of Central California operates two hospitals with 32 percent of the beds in the county, and Kaiser has one hospital with about five percent of the area’s hospital beds. St. Agnes Hospital is part of the Holy Cross Health Care System headquartered in Indiana. The remaining hospitals are owned by independent nonprofit corporations, districts, or the county. There is one small for-profit surgery center in Fresno County. Bakersfield’s hospital market has become more concentrated in recent years. Between 1986 and 1995, about 30 percent of the region’s hospital beds were held by two or three multi-hospital firms. Catholic Healthcare West has had a steady presence since 1986, as Mercy Hospital in Bakersfield was one of the original CHW hospitals. Westworld owned one hospital in Kern County until 1987, and Adventist Health entered the market in 1987. In 1996, CHW’s presence in the Bakersfield region increased markedly with the acquisition of Memorial Hospital, previously an independent nonprofit hospital. Local community members, who argued that Memorial Hospital’s merger with CHW resulted in a loss of community assets, filed two lawsuits contesting this merger. One suit was settled in 1999 with the establishment of a $150,000 nonprofit charitable corporation. The other lawsuit is still pending. Today, CHW controls nearly half the hospital beds in Kern County, and Adventist Health has ownership of about 13 percent of beds in Kern County. 47 At this time, none of the hospitals in the Visalia-Tulare-Porterville metropolitan area are owned by a multi-hospital corporation; all are owned by hospital districts. Central Coast Cities In contrast to the Central Valley, for-profit corporations own a large share of hospitals in cities along the central coast. Seventy percent of the hospital beds in San Luis Obispo County are owned by Tenet. Another 29 percent of Santa Barbara’s hospital beds were acquired by CHW in 1997 with the affiliation of the Sisters of St. Francis. Independent companies hold all of Monterey County’s hospital beds at this time. Sacramento Valley Cities Two of Redding’s major hospitals are affiliated with multi-hospital corporations. Catholic Healthcare West has owned over one-third of the area’s hospital beds since Mercy Hospital of Redding became one of the original CHW hospitals in 1986. In 1987, NME acquired a hospital in Redding, accounting for another third of Shasta County’s hospital beds. This hospital is now owned by Tenet. Chico has also experienced stable hospital ownership in the past decade. Enloe Medical Center and Adventist Health control just less than 20 percent of the region’s beds each. None of the Yuba City metropolitan area’s hospitals are affiliated with a multi-hospital corporation. Rural California The bulk of hospital merger activity in California has occurred in urban areas; less than 10 percent of ownership changes between 1986 48 and 1996 occurred in rural areas. About one-third of the rural ownership changes involved Westworld Community Healthcare. Since Westworld’s bankruptcy a decade ago, for-profit multi-hospital corporations have not been willing to enter rural markets in California. Some of California’s rural hospitals are owned by nonprofit multihospital corporations. Adventist Health has a strong presence in rural California, controlling 21 percent of the state’s rural hospital beds. CHW owns 13 percent of rural beds, and Sutter owns 8 percent. The Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange own 5 percent of the rural hospital beds in the state. Over half of the state’s rural hospital beds are not affiliated with one of these corporations. 49 5. Directions for Future Research The data presented in this report show that most ownership changes in California’s hospital industry involved mergers into large, multihospital corporations. The majority of ownership changes occurred in urban areas and did not involve changes in the profit status of the hospital. Substantial public attention has been given to the purchases of nonprofit hospitals by for-profit corporations. Only now is California considering the implications of other kinds of ownership changes. Although AB 254 would regulate many hospital sales, regardless of whether they involve a change in profit status, there is little information that state regulators can use to make decisions about which hospital ownership changes should be permitted. A hospital’s profit status and ownership may affect its organization, service mix, and costs as well as access to and quality of care. Researchers have not reached consensus about the relationships between hospital ownership and these policy concerns. In this chapter, we review some of 51 the research that has been conducted in this area and identify issues that need further research. We then outline related research now under way at PPIC. The Importance of Profit Status Research on the effects of changes in hospital ownership has focused primarily on differences between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. In a for-profit hospital, the owner receives all profits, which are taxable by federal and state jurisdictions. Nonprofit hospitals are not allowed to distribute the “profits” from their operations to individuals. In exchange for exemption from most state and federal taxes, nonprofit hospitals are expected to use any net gains to provide community services and to invest in their facilities. Nonprofit hospital organizations generally view themselves differently than for-profit corporations because of their historical affiliation with charitable and religious groups. Many of the first hospitals in the United States were charity institutions organized by religious organizations and wealthy patrons. By the late nineteenth century, however, the role of hospitals had changed from that of poor houses to institutions of high-level care for all income groups. Growth of the hospital industry to current levels occurred primarily in the nonprofit private sector. In the United States, nonprofit hospitals constitute the majority of the hospital industry, with nearly 80 percent of all hospitals categorized as nonprofits (Sanders, 1995). Community Services and Benefits Most discussions of nonprofit hospitals focus on the charitable and community services they provide. Several researchers have argued that 52 nonprofit hospitals do not provide enough services to the community for the value of their preferential tax treatment (Sanders, 1995). In this argument, however, the definition of “community benefit” is controversial. A narrow view of community benefit focuses on the amount of charity care provided by a hospital, which is easy to define and measure. A broader view of community benefit includes activities that benefit the public more generally, such as contracting with essential community providers or conducting research and health education (Gray, 1997). Although the broader view of community benefit is difficult to quantify and measure, it may be the most appropriate one for policymakers to consider. California has wrestled with measuring the community benefits provided by nonprofit hospitals. In 1994, Governor Wilson signed SB 697, which requires that private nonprofit hospitals report annually on the community benefits they provide. The legislation also requires that hospitals assess the health needs of their communities and develop plans in collaboration with the community for addressing these needs.1 Hospitals were given flexibility in defining “community benefit,” and multi-hospital systems were allowed to provide one report for their member hospitals.2 OSHPD was asked to implement the legislation and to prepare a report to the legislature after the first set of reports were filed (Werdegar, Smoley, and Wilson, 1998). The community benefits most often cited by hospitals include health education classes, charity care, counseling and support groups, health information resources (such as ____________ 1The legislation requires that the needs assessment be reviewed at least once every three years. 2Kaiser Permanente, Adventist Health Systems, and Catholic Healthcare West provided system reports, and some other hospitals with the same ownership reported jointly. 53 health fairs and helplines), patient transportation and home health services, and health screenings. A variety of other services and programs were reported, including the provision of career development support to schools, medical professional training, and “social activities.” OSHPD recommends that consistent methods be developed for measuring the economic value of community benefits activities, as there was substantial variation in the values assigned by hospitals. Adopting the narrow definition of community benefit, many researchers have examined whether for-profit hospitals provide less charity care than nonprofit and public hospitals. One reason for this approach is that charity care is easily measured using hospital financial reports.3 Not surprisingly, most studies find that nonprofit facilities spend more on uncompensated and charity care than do for-profit hospitals (Lewin, Eckles, and Miller, 1988; Marmor, Schlesinger, and Smithey, 1986; Shukla, Pestian, and Clement, 1997). Nonprofit hospitals also appear to admit more uninsured and Medicaid patients than do for-profit hospitals (Frank, Salkever, and Mullan, 1990; Gray, 1997). However, it is difficult to compare charity care provided by nonprofit and for-profit hospitals because the need for charity care varies across cities and states. One study found that for-profit and nonprofit hospitals located in the same area serve an equal number of uninsured patients, but that for-profit hospitals indirectly avoid uninsured patients ____________ 3Most researchers define charity care to include uncompensated care, charity care, and bad debt. Bad debt usually consists of unpaid medical bills due from uninsured recipients of hospital services. These self-paying patients are typically from low-income households and often have limited ability to pay their medical bills. For-profit hospitals appear to be more likely to seek payment from low-income patients (Mateo and Rossi, 1999). Thus, a higher share of the “charity care” they provide is bad debt. Some observers object to considering bad debts as part of charity care (Mateo and Rossi, 1999; Sister Terese Marie Perry, personal communication, September 7, 1999). 54 by locating in areas with high rates of health insurance coverage (Norton and Staiger, 1994). Studies of charity care and other measurable benefits provided by hospitals do not examine all the benefits nonprofit hospitals provide to communities. Nonprofit hospitals may generate several intangible benefits not provided by their for-profit counterparts. First, it can be advantageous for regulators to work with nonprofit hospitals. Because tax exemptions can be used to further government objectives, policymakers have more influence over nonprofit hospitals. For example, policymakers can establish charity care requirements for hospitals to maintain their nonprofit tax status. Second, nonprofit hospitals may be more trustworthy. Because patients have less information about the care they should receive than physicians and hospitals, they are at risk for being exploited by unscrupulous health care providers. Many researchers have established that physician behavior is influenced by the profit motive (Gray, 1997; Gruber and Owings, 1996). Theoretically, nonprofit health care organizations do not have as much conflict between their self-interest and the interests of their patients. Thus, nonprofit hospitals provide additional value to the community insofar as their decisions are less influenced by the desire to maximize profit. Unfortunately, it is not possible to quantify the social value of either tax exemption as a policy tool or the trustworthiness of nonprofit hospitals. Although there are differences in the amount of charity care provided by nonprofit and for-profit hospitals, the full community benefit of nonprofit hospitals cannot be assessed objectively. 55 Hospital Operations, Costs, and Prices Most studies find that for-profit hospitals price their services more aggressively than their nonprofit competitors and thus enjoy higher net incomes (Keeler, Melnick, and Zwanziger, 1999; Lynk, 1995a, 1995b; Pattison and Katz, 1983; Shukla, Pestian, and Clement, 1997; Watt et al., 1986). In addition, they have an incentive to operate more efficiently than nonprofit hospitals. However, many researchers have found no clear difference between the costs and efficiency of nonprofit and forprofit hospitals (Becker and Sloan, 1985; Ermann and Gabel, 1984; Mobley and Bradford, 1997; Register and Bruning, 1987; Renn et al., 1985; Shukla, Pestian, and Clement, 1997; Watt et al., 1986). In fact, some researchers have found that there are higher costs and lower efficiency among for-profit hospitals (Ozcan, Luke, and Haksever, 1992; Pattison and Katz, 1983; Woolhandler and Himmelstein, 1997). For-profit hospitals could achieve lower costs than nonprofit hospitals in several ways. They could use inputs more efficiently (staff, facilities, and supplies), decrease administrative costs, or change the mix of services they provide. Several of the aforementioned studies of hospital costs have examined whether the staffing levels of nonprofit and for-profit hospitals differ. Most researchers find that for-profit hospitals employ fewer staff per patient day or discharge (Mark, 1999; Renn et al., 1985; Watt et al., 1986). However, none of these studies disaggregates staffing enough to consider implications of staffing differences for the quality of care. Most studies find that for-profit hospitals have significantly higher administrative costs than do nonprofit facilities (Watt et al., 1986; Woolhandler and Himmelstein, 1997). There has been virtually no 56 examination of the effect of profit status on the mix of services provided by hospitals. Patient Outcomes Because for-profit and nonprofit hospitals have different financial incentives regarding patient care, there may be ownership-based differences in the quality of care. A few researchers have examined this issue. The Institute of Medicine examined data from the 1980s and concluded there was no overall pattern of either inferior or superior quality in for-profit chain hospitals compared to nonprofit hospitals (Gray, 1986; Gray and McNerney, 1986). Other researchers have reached similar conclusions (Keeler et al., 1992; Shortell and Hughes, 1988), but other studies have identified higher adjusted mortality rates in for-profit hospitals (Hartz et al., 1989). Most of these studies compare for-profit hospitals to nonprofit hospitals in a single year or several-year cross-section. It would be valuable to compare mortality rates of hospitals that convert their ownership status to those with stable ownership. Nonprofit to For-Profit Conversions: Special Policy Issues Under current law, the Attorney General is required to evaluate whether a proposed conversion deal is fair and reasonable, whether there is breach of trust, whether private gain is a possibility, and whether the sale is in the public interest (Isenberg and Battson, 1997). Under this legislation, the Attorney General retains consultants to create a health effect statement for the proposed merger. Protection of public assets in a conversion is governed by state charitable trust laws, under which the dissolution of a charitable organization requires that all proceeds from 57 the sale be used toward charitable purposes to continue to carry out the original purpose of the charitable organization. In most cases, a new foundation is formed. Charitable trust doctrine also applies to the sale of one nonprofit hospital to another nonprofit hospital, although this is rarely an issue. A major issue in the creation of a charitable foundation is the valuation of charitable assets of the hospital. Another issue is the way in which foundations choose to spend the public’s money. One cause for concern is the overlap of board membership and management of the forprofit hospital and the nonprofit foundation. Under Internal Revenue Service rules, charitable foundations and for-profit hospitals must operate independently from each other, but individuals may hold board membership in both organizations. Critics fear that foundations could allow for-profit hospitals to avoid providing services for the community. There is a need for systematic research and monitoring of newly created conversion foundations. The Behavior of Multi-Hospital Corporations The growth of multi-hospital corporations raises a different set of issues than the distinction between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. Regardless of their profit status, hospitals affiliated with multi-hospital organizations may reap benefits from their affiliation, including increased access to capital, lower local administrative costs, and the ability to consolidate expensive services into referral centers. Nonprofit multihospital firms also may allow independent nonprofit hospitals that are losing money to maintain their charitable missions (Claxton et al., 1997). Even so, policymakers and analysts are concerned that multi-hospital firms are less responsive to local needs than locally controlled hospitals, 58 that they reduce charitable services to communities, and that they raise costs by engaging in monopolistic behavior. There is a small but growing literature on these issues. Hospital Costs and Market Power In regions with concentrated hospital ownership, it is possible that hospitals use their market power to increase reimbursement rates from insurance companies. In fact, this happened in Sacramento last year. In May 1998, Sutter Health, which has a strong presence in the San Francisco and Sacramento areas, threatened to cancel its contracts for Blue Cross’s Prudent Buyer and CaliforniaCare insurance plans because the reimbursements offered by Blue Cross were lower than Sutter desired. While negotiations continued between Sutter and Blue Cross, Mercy Healthcare of Sacramento, an affiliate of Catholic Healthcare West, threatened to drop its contract unless reimbursements were increased. These developments left Blue Cross with the prospect that only the UC Davis Medical Center would accept Blue Cross patients in the Sacramento area. In June, Blue Cross and Sutter reached a three-year agreement for Sutter’s acute care hospitals. By this time, however, Catholic Healthcare West and Columbia/HCA had joined the group of hospitals demanding higher reimbursements from Blue Cross. As in the Sutter Health negotiations, Catholic Healthcare West announced the cancellation of its contract with Blue Cross. A last-minute agreement was reached in early July. Although the details of these agreements were not made public, they almost certainly involved substantial increases in hospital reimbursements. Recent reports indicate that other hospitals have learned from the experience of Sutter and Catholic Healthcare West in Sacramento. 59 Three San Gabriel Valley hospitals reportedly forced Blue Cross to increase reimbursement rates (Reich, 1999), Orange County’s St. Joseph Health System reportedly is pushing two health maintenance organizations to provide greater reimbursements, and the San Mateo County independent practice association is taking a firm stance in its negotiation with Aetna (Crabtree, 1999). In all of these cases, the hospitals state that insurance reimbursements have not been covering their costs and they are bargaining more aggressively to maintain their financial viability. Systematic studies of hospital mergers generally found that hospital prices are higher in more concentrated markets (Gaynor and Vogt, 1999). In addition, most studies of hospital mergers found that these mergers increase prices (Gaynor and Vogt, 1999). In their own analysis, Melnick, Keeler, and Zwanziger (1999) also found significant price increases among hospitals that merge. The price increases identified in most of the studies published to date do not necessarily reflect increases in the cost of hospital care. For example, using 1990 data, Menke (1997) found that hospitals affiliated with multi-hospital corporations had lower costs. Other studies, however, have measured higher costs among affiliated hospitals (Ermann and Gabel, 1984; Levitz and Brooke, 1985). Multi-hospital firms might be more efficient and thus have lower costs than independent hospitals for several reasons. First, corporate and system-affiliated hospitals may have greater access to capital and thus be better able to invest in improvements, as found in some studies (Levitz and Brooke, 1985). Second, multi-hospital corporations might lead to a reorganization of hospital services by the new owner. For example, Sinay (1997) found that hospital mergers led to a reduction of costs because 60 hospitals eliminated excess beds and hired part-time personnel. In contrast, Ermann and Gabel (1984), using data from 1960 through 1980, found no difference in service mix or staff qualifications after hospital mergers. Alexander, Halpern, and Lee (1996) found modest operational changes with mergers, and that those mergers occurring in the late 1980s produced more pronounced changes than those in the early part of the decade. There is a dearth of recent research on the effects of hospital mergers on the operations of hospitals; we do not know whether and to what extent multi-hospital corporations consolidate services, alter staffing, or increase administrative overhead. State and federal agencies can challenge mergers and acquisitions on antitrust grounds. Merger decisions of the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice are based on careful definition of the relevant hospital market (which may not be the MSA in which the hospital is located), examination of the concentration of the hospital market, consideration of other independent hospitals in the market, and an assessment of whether efficiencies gained from the merger might offset anticompetitive effects (Gaynor and Vogt, 1999; Vistnes, 1995). The possibility that multi-hospital firms are more efficient than independent hospitals has affected some antitrust decisions. In Michigan, the courts were persuaded that a nonprofit merger would lead to price reductions rather than increases and allowed the merger to proceed (Pak, 1997). Moreover, increasing health care costs are not necessarily detrimental to the public. Rising health care costs may reflect higher quality of patient care or a greater dedication of resources to charity care; on the other hand, increases in health care costs can reduce access to medical care for the poor. 61 A recent study found that state agencies are more willing to approve mergers than federal authorities (Hellinger, 1998). State agencies often establish requirements for mergers, such as agreements to restrain price increases, provide charity care, and limit profits. The acquisition of Alexian Brothers Hospital in San Jose by Columbia/HCA provides an example of conditional approval provided by state authorities (Shinkman, 1999). The Alexian Brothers, a Catholic health system based in Illinois, and Columbia/HCA agreed to exchange Alexian Brothers Hospital in San Jose for two Columbia/HCA hospitals in Illinois. Columbia/HCA owns three other hospitals in Santa Clara County, and the addition of Alexian Brothers Hospital would give Columbia/HCA over half the hospital beds in San Jose. The Attorney General delayed the transaction to complete an anti-trust analysis and approved the deal with the provision that Columbia/HCA make $15 million in capital improvements, spend at least $2 million annually on charity care, limit price increases, donate $4 million to a nearby Catholic-owned hospital, and file annual compliance reports for five years (Consumers Union and Community Catalyst, 1999). Access to Care Analysts have expressed concern about the transfer of charitable assets from local control in independent nonprofit hospitals to corporate control in multi-hospital firms (Alexander and Schroer, 1985; Scott, 1997). Differences in the charitable strategies of independent and affiliated hospitals may lead to differences in access to care in local communities. For example, if a multi-hospital firm dedicates its charitable resources to inpatient hospital care rather than operating outpatient clinics, primary care access may decline when that multi- 62 hospital firm acquires a local hospital. This possibility is partially offset by California’s requirement that nonprofit hospitals develop charitable benefits plans in conjunction with their local communities. Access to care also might be affected by changes in the services offered by multi-hospital firms. A multi-hospital firm may elect to consolidate expensive services into referral centers, thus reducing unnecessary duplication of services and lowering costs. This cost-saving behavior may reduce access to care by local residents. The extent to which this is a concern depends on which services are consolidated and characteristics of the communities involved. We identified no research that considers these issues. Patient Outcomes Changes in the operations of hospitals and the consolidation of services may lead to changes in the quality of medical care. Quality of care can be measured in several ways, including length of stay and mortality, readmission, complication, and procedure rates. In a recent study, Hamilton and Ho (1998) found that mergers and acquisitions did not have an effect on inpatient mortality for myocardial infarction and stroke, but that consolidations increased readmission rates for Medicare patients with myocardial infarction. They also identified a correlation between hospital consolidations and length of stay for certain groups of patients. They concluded that there was no systematic evidence that changes in hospital ownership were associated with increases in length of stay or mortality. We hope this study lays the groundwork for further research on whether multi-hospital firms provide higher or lower quality medical care than independent hospitals. 63 The PPIC Study More information about the effects of ownership on hospital operations is necessary to make decisions about the delivery of care that affects the health of Californians. For this reason, we are continuing our research of changes in hospital ownership in California, using the data described in this report as a starting point for our analyses. We plan to continue updating our data on changes in hospital ownership, but we hope that OSHPD will track this information more thoroughly in the future. If AB 254 is enacted, many future ownership changes will be considered by the Attorney General, providing policymakers and researchers with substantially more information about changes in hospital ownership than is available now. In our ongoing study, we are examining • Whether changes in hospital ownership affect the staffing of registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, unlicensed aides and orderlies, salaried physicians, management and supervisory staff, and clerical and administrative staff. We are considering the effects of both mergers and changes in profit status on staffing patterns and whether the major hospital corporations in California have standard staffing patterns to which their newly acquired hospitals conform. • Whether multi-hospital firms consolidate their services into referral centers. If they do, we will examine which services are consolidated and what factors might lead a corporation to decide to create referral centers. We also are studying whether forprofit conversions result in changes in the mix of services provided by hospitals. • The effects of hospital ownership changes on access to care and the provision of charity care. 64 • Whether changes in hospital ownership affect the quality of medical care provided, by considering mortality rates, cesarean section rates, and complication rates. We hope that our analyses, combined with previous and new research by others, will help policymakers make informed decisions about changes in hospital ownership. 65 6. Conclusion Over the past decade, a large number of hospitals changed ownership. In 1993 and 1994, nearly 10 percent of California’s hospitals changed hands. Contrary to public perception, however, few of these transactions involved the conversion of a hospital from nonprofit to forprofit ownership. The vast majority of ownership changes have been affiliations and transfers either between nonprofit hospitals and nonprofit organizations or among for-profit companies. The consolidation of hospitals into multi-hospital corporations is becoming increasingly important in the health care industry, as multi-hospital firms are associated with higher prices for medical care (Bellandi, 1999; Hassett and Hubbard, 1998; Hyman, 1998). The trend toward consolidation in the hospital industry has led to the concentration of hospital ownership in the hands of several major nonprofit and for-profit corporations in California, including Tenet Healthcare Corporation, Columbia/HCA, Catholic Healthcare West, and Sutter Health. Catholic Healthcare West controls the largest 67 number of hospitals in California and, with the recent purchase of UniHealth, has a strong presence in the Sacramento, San Francisco, and Los Angeles regions. Kaiser Permanente also operates a large number of hospitals in these three regions. Sutter Health is expanding its presence in the San Francisco Bay area to the extent that the Attorney General is seeking to block a proposed merger. Sales of nonprofit hospitals to for-profit corporations caused such concern that state legislators intervened. Assembly Bill 3101 strengthened the state’s authority over the conversion of assets from nonprofit hospitals. This bill was landmark legislation in the health care arena. Previously unregulated transactions involving nonprofit hospitals are now carefully scrutinized by state regulators using new criteria to protect the loss of public assets. At the same time, the vast majority of hospital ownership changes in California have not involved a change in the profit status of the hospital and thus have not been closely examined. The state has relatively little ability to regulate these transactions, and there is little documentation of them. Changes in hospital ownership raise many concerns for policymakers. Community health and hospital costs may be affected by the development of monopolies, the conversion of nonprofit hospitals, the loss of local control over charitable assets, the consolidation of services, and changes in staffing. Because there is an urgent need for policymakers and regulators to understand how hospital ownership changes affect Californians, we are continuing our research on this important issue. By providing information about how the ownership of hospitals is changing in California, we hope this report sparks a discussion of the issues raised here and encourages other researchers to examine the changing hospital industry in California. 68 Appendix Hospital Ownership Changes This appendix lists changes in hospital ownership identified for this study. We list the date of the ownership change as the beginning of the first fiscal year for which the new owner reported data to OSHPD. Although we made every effort to ensure that these data are accurate, there may be errors. We ask that we be notified of any additions or corrections so that these data are as complete as possible. 69 Table A.1 List of Hospitals That Changed Ownership Between 1986 and 1996 in California 70 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1986 Hospital Name North Kern Hospital 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 Church of St. Matthew Mills Memorial Hospital Sutter Solano Medical Center St. Luke Medical Center Mercy General Hospital Mercy San Juan Hospital Mercy Hospital of Folsom French Hospital Medical Center 1986 Modoc Medical Center 1986 Bay Cities Medical Center 1986 1986 Buena Park Doctors Hospital Anaheim General Hospital New Owner Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Mills-Peninsula Corporation Previous Owner Lynne E. Gair, MD, and Thetis Gair Church of St. Matthew Mills Sutter Solano Medical Center Summit Health, Ltd. Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Summit Health, Ltd. Washoe Medical Center/County of Modoc Jupiter Hospital Corporation Jupiter Hospital Corporation Anaheim General Hospital Ltd. Partnership Vallejo General Hospital Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange Sisters of Mercy of Auburn Sisters of Mercy of Auburn Sister of Mercy of Auburn American Medical International, Inc. Mercy Hospitals of Modoc, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. American Medical International American Medical International City Wasco San Mateo Vallejo Pasadena Sacramento Carmichael Folsom San Luis Obispo Alturas Hawthorne Buena Park Anaheim Table A.1 (continued) 71 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1986 1986 1986 Hospital Name The General Hospital Mercy Hospital, Bakersfield Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 Mercy Hospital St. Mary’s Hospital and Medical Center Mayers Memorial Hospital Sierra Valley Community Hospital Mercy Hospital of Mt. Shasta St. John’s Regional Medical Center Calexico Hospital 1986 1986 1986 Long Beach Health and Allied Services, Inc. Huntington Intercommunity Hospital, Inc. Willits Hospital, Inc. New Owner Brim and Associates Catholic Healthcare West St. Mary’s Central Nevada Health Care Corp. Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Washoe Health System Washoe Health System Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Long Beach Health and Allied Services, Inc. Humana Hospitals, Inc. Adventist Health Systems Previous Owner Hospital Corporation of California Sisters of Mercy Eskaton Health Corporation City Eureka Bakersfield Susanville Sisters of Mercy Mercy Health System San Diego San Francisco Mayers Memorial Hospital District Sierra Valley Hospital District Eskaton Health Corp. Sisters of Mercy, Burlingame Heffernan Memorial Hospital District Long Beach Hospital, Inc. Fall River Mills Loyalton Mt. Shasta Oxnard Calexico Long Beach Huntington Intercommunity Hospital Frank R. Howard Memorial Hospital Huntington Beach Willits Table A.1 (continued) 72 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1986 1986 1986 1986 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 Hospital Name Scripps Memorial Hospital-Chula Vista Laurel Grove Hospital American Hospital Management Corp. American River Hospital Sutter Coast Hospital Hanford Community Hospital Robert F. Kennedy Medical Center Chowchilla District Memorial Hospital Mission Community Hospital Northbay Hospital Group Sonora Community Hospital Valley Hospital Limited Partnership Corning Hospital District New Owner Scripps Memorial Corporation Previous Owner Bay Hospital Medical Center City Chula Vista Eden Township Hospital District Community Hospital Association Alta Bates Health Corporation Sutter Health Adventist Health Systems Robert F. Kennedy Medical Center Chowchilla District Memorial Hospital Mission Viejo Medical Company Northbay Hospital Group Adventist Health Systems Valley Hospital Limited Partnership Corning Hospital District Republic Health Corporation Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Eskaton Health Corporation District hospital Hanford Community Hospital Hawthorne Community Hospital, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Mission Community Hospital, Inc. Central Solano County Hospital Foundation Sonora Community Hospital American Healthcare Management, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Castro Valley Hoopa Carmichael Crescent City Hanford Hawthorne Chowchilla Mission Viejo Fairfield Sonora Pomona Corning 73 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1987 1987 Hospital Name Heffernan Memorial Hospital District Trinity Hospital 1987 H & W Medical Facilities, Inc. 1987 1987 1987 Ojai Valley Community Hospital Marin General Hospital Bear Valley Community Hospital 1987 Mountains Community Hospital 1987 City of Needles, California 1987 General Health Services, Inc. 1987 Community Hospital of Gardena 1987 Encino Hospital Corp., Inc. 1987 Ukiah Hospital Corporation Table A.1 (continued) New Owner Heffernan Memorial Hospital District Trinity County H & W Medical Facilities, Inc. Affiliated Medical Enterprises, Inc . Marin Health Systems, Inc. Bear Valley Community Hospital District Mountains Community Hospital District City of Needles, California Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Previous Owner Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Metropolitan Investment Company, Inc. Nme Hospitals, Inc. Marin Hospital District Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Hospital Corporation of America, Inc. Hospital Corporation of America, Inc. Hospital Corporation of America, Inc. Hospital Corporation of America City Calexico Weaverville Los Angeles Ojai Greenbrae Big Bear Lake Lake Arrowhead Needles Culver City Gardena Encino Ukiah Table A.1 (continued) 74 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 Hospital Name College Hospital Costa Mesa New Owner College Hospital La Habra Community Hospital, Inc. Health Services Acquisition, Inc. Sebastopol Hospital Corporation Unihealth America Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Unihealth America Pioneer Hospital, a California Ltd. Partnership Santa Monica Hospital Medical Center Martin Luther Hospital Medical Center Herrick Foundation Hospital Corporation of La Habra Methodist Hospital of Sacramento Barstow Health Systems, Inc. Ralph K. Davies Medical Center Santa Barbara Cottage Care Center Healdsburg General Hospital Delamo Corp., Medical Vesting Corp. Unihealth America Unihealth America Alta Bates Corporation Hospital Associates of La Habra Valley Health Care Corporation City of Barstow Franklin Holding Corporation Santa Barbara Cottage Care Center Epic Healthcare Group, Inc. Previous Owner Costa Mesa Medical Center Hospital Hospital Corporation of America Hospital Corporation of America Hospital Corporation of America Lutheran Hospital Society of Southern California Del Amo Corporation and Kathryn Mullikin-Johnson Lutheran Hospital Society of Southern California Martin Luther Hospital, Inc. Herrick Foundation Healthtrust, Inc. Methodist Hospital of Sacramento City of Barstow Ralph K. Davies Medical Center Pinecrest Hospital American Medical International, Inc. City Costa Mesa La Habra Chino Sebastopol Los Angeles Artesia Santa Monica Anaheim Berkeley La Habra Sacramento Barstow San Francisco Santa Barbara Healdsburg Table A.1 (continued) 75 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1989 1989 1989 1989 Hospital Name Sun Valley Health Group, Inc. Huntington Health Group, Inc. Northridge Hospital Medical Center Valley Hospital Medical Center La Palma Hospital Medical Center Lindsay Hospital Medical Center Visalia Community Hospital Centinela Mammoth Hospital Dominican Santa Cruz Hospital Westside Hospital Valley Medical Center TPHC, Inc. Herrick Foundation Loma Linda Community Hospital Affiliated Medical Enterprises Brotman Partners, Ltd. Partnership New Owner Affiliated Medical Enterprises Affiliated Medical Enterprises Unihealth America Unihealth America Unihealth America Unihealth America Epic Healthcare Group Southern Mono Hospital District Catholic Healthcare West Epic Healthcare Group Epic Healthcare Group Nu Med, Inc., and TPHC, Inc. Alta Bates Corporation Adventist Health Systems Affiliated Medical Enterprises Brotman Partners, Ltd. Partnership Previous Owner American Health Group International, Inc. American Health Group International, Inc. Healthwest Foundation Healthwest Foundation Healthwest Healthwest American Medical International, Inc. Centinela Mammoth Hospital Dominican Santa Cruz Hospital American Medical International, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. Nu Med, Inc. Alta Bates Corporation Loma Linda Community Hospital Palmdale Health Group, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. City Sun Valley Huntington Beach Northridge Van Nuys La Palma Lindsay Visalia Mammoth Lakes Santa Cruz Los Angeles El Cajon Baldwin Park Berkeley Loma Linda Palmdale Culver City Table A.1 (continued) 76 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1989 1989 Hospital Name Samaritan Medical Center-San Clemente Long Beach Doctors Hospital 1989 Modoc Medical Center 1989 O’Connor Hospital 1989 1989 Mayers Memorial Hospital Kingsburg District Hospital 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 Bellflower Doctors Hospital Bay Cities Medical Center Rio Hondo Hospital Los Angeles Doctors Hospital CHHSC, Inc. San Bernardino Mountains Community Hospital District San Gabriel Valley Medical Center Long Beach Community Hospital Association New Owner Physican Associates Committed to Excellence (PACE) Long Beach Beach Doctors Hospital County of Modoc Daughters of Charity Health Systems West Mayers Memorial Hospital District Kingsburg Hospital District Asklepios Hospital Corporation Asklepios Hospital Corporation Rio Hondo Hospital Asklepios Hospital Corporation CHHSC, Inc. Mountains Community Hospital District Unihealth Unihealth Previous Owner American Healthcare Management Corp. Long Beach Health and Allied Services, Inc. Washoe Health Network/Modoc County O’Connor Health Services Corporation Washoe Health Systems Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Jupiter Hospital Corporation Jupiter Hospital Corporation Republic Health Corporation Jupiter Hospital Corporation Republic Health Corporation Mountains Community Hospital District San Gabriel Valley Medical Center Long Beach Community Hospital, Inc. City San Clemente Long Beach Alturas San Jose Fall River Mills Kingsburg Bellflower Hawthorne Downey Los Angeles Sacramento Lake Arrowhead San Gabriel Long Beach Table A.1 (continued) 77 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1989 1989 1989 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 Hospital Name Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital Doctors Hospital of West Covina Pacific Alliance Medical Center Mark Twain Saint Joseph’s Hospital Marina Hills Hospital Glendale Adventist Medical Center Universal Health Services of Westlake, Inc. Linda Vista Community Hospital Partners Glencomm Ltd. New Owner Santa Clarita Health Care Association Doctors Hospital of West Covina Pacific Alliance Medical Center Ltd. Mark Twain St. Joseph’s Healthcare Corporation Ladera Heights Community Hospital, Inc. Adventist Health Systems Westlake Community Hospital Linda Vista Hospital Partners Glencomm Ltd. 1990 1990 1990 1990 TPHC, Inc. Sanders Medical Complex, Inc. Rio Hondo Memorial Hospital Desert Hospital Corporation Terrace Plaza Joint Venture Sanders Medical Complex, Inc. Downey Health Services Foundation Desert Hospital Systems Previous Owner Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital Paracelsus Healthcare Corporation French Hospital of Los Angeles City Valencia West Covina Los Angeles Mark Twain Hospital District San Andreas Marina Hills Los Angeles Glendale Adventist Medical Center Glendale Universal Health Services, Inc. Westlake Village American Healthcare Management, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. Nu Med, Inc., and TPHC, Inc. O. Richard Harris Rio Hondo Hospital Los Angeles Glendora Baldwin Park Sanger Downey Desert Hospital Systems Palm Springs Table A.1 (continued) 78 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 Hospital Name New Owner Mount Zion Hospital & Medical University of California Center of UCSF Rideout Hospital Foundation United Communities Medical Services Healthcare Medical Center of Tustin Concept Health Group, Inc. Buena Park Doctors Hospital Asklepios Hospital Corporation Bear Valley Community Hospital Bear Valley Community Hospital District District Thompson Memorial Medical Gateway Healthcare of Burbank, Center Inc. Valley Hospital Linda Valenti Coast Plaza Doctors Hospital Coast Plaza Doctors Hospital California Pacific Medical Center— California Pacific Medical Center California Campus Hospital Affiliates of Florida, Inc. Hospital Affiliates of Florida, Inc. Vista Hospital Systems, Inc. Vista Hospital Systems, Inc. 1991 Sherman Oaks Hospital & Health Center Triad Healthcare Previous Owner Mount Zion Hospital and Medical Center Rideout Hospital Foundation, Inc. City San Francisco Marysville Healthcare International, Inc. Jupiter Hospital Corporation Bear Valley Hospital District Tustin Buena Park Big Bear Lake Burbank Community Hospital Burbank Valley Hospital Ltd. Partnership Nu-Med, Inc. Children’s Hospital of San Francisco Republic Health Corporation American Medical International, Inc. Nu Med, Inc. Pomona Norwalk San Francisco Los Angeles Arroyo Grande Sherman Oaks Table A.1 (continued) 79 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 Hospital Name West Valley Hospital & Health Center Mercy American River Hospital Sanger General Hospital Grossmont Hospital Corporation Bakersfield Memorial Hospital Hemet Valley Medical Center Menifee Valley Medical Center California Pacific Medical Center— Pacific Campus The Good Samaritan Hospital of Santa Clara Valley San Jose Medical Center Fremont Hospital Rideout Hospital Foundation Memorial Hospital of Gardena New Owner Triad Healthcare Previous Owner Nu Med, Inc. Catholic Healthcare West Sanger General Hospital, a General Partnership Grossmont Hospital Corporation Memorial Health System, Inc. Valley Health System, A California Hospital District Valley Health System California Pacific Medical Center Health Dimensions, Inc. Health Dimensions, Inc. Fremont Rideout Health Group Fremont Rideout Health Group Century Medicorp Alta Bates Corporation Sanders Medical Complex, Inc. Grossmont District Hospital Bakersfield Memorial Hospital Association Hemet Valley Hospital District Hemet Valley Hospital District Pacific Presbyterian Medical Center Good Samaritan Hospital of Santa Clara Valley San Jose Medical Center Fremont Hospital United Communities Medical Services Republic Health Corporation City Canoga Park Carmichael Sanger La Mesa Bakersfield Hemet Sun City San Francisco San Jose San Jose Yuba City Marysville Gardena Table A.1 (continued) 80 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 Hospital Name Alhambra Hospital Coastal Communities Hospital Harbor View Health Partners Glendale Memorial Hospital and Health Center Green Hospital of Scripps Clinic Delta Memorial Hospital Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. New Owner Alhambra Community Hospital Ltd. Partnership OrNda HealthCorp OrNda HealthCorp Unihealth America Scripps Memorial Corporation Sutter Health Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. Gardena Physicians’ Hospital Auburn Faith Community Hospital, Inc. Corona Regional Medical Center Gardena Physicians Hospital Sutter Healthcommunity Hospital, Inc. Corona Regional Medical Center Summit Medical Center Summit Medical Center National Health Administrators National Health Administrators Healthcare Medical Center of Tustin Healthcare International, Inc. Central California Foundation for Central California Foundation for Health Health Previous Owner Alhambra Community Hospital Republic Health Corporation Republic Health Corporation Glendale Memorial Health Corporation Hospital Corporation of America Delta Memorial Hospital St. Mary’s Central Nevada Health Care Corp. Healthtrust, Inc. Auburn Faith Community Hospital, Inc. Circle City Medical Center—Vista Hospital System Merritt Peralta Medical Center Sunshine Health Systems, Inc. Concept Health Group, Inc. Wesley Bilson City Alhambra Santa Ana San Diego Glendale La Jolla Antioch Susanville Gardena Auburn Corona Oakland Perris Tustin Delano 81 Table A.1 (continued) First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 Hospital Name Lakeside Community Hospital Hospital Subsidiary, Inc. El Camino Healthcare System South Valley Hospital Mercy Hospital of Redding, Inc. Sierra Valley Hospital District SLCO, Inc. Bellflower Medical Center Hawthorne Hospital Los Angeles Metropolitan Medical Center West Hills Hospital Buena Park Medical Center Huntington Intercommunity Hospital West Anaheim Community Hospital Grossmont Hospital Corporation Panorama Community Hospital Pacifica Hospital Care Center New Owner Sutter Lakeside Hospital Foundation Health El Camino Healthcare System Health Dimensions, Inc. Catholic Healthcare West Sierra Valley Hospital SLCO, Inc. Pacific Health Corporation Pacific Health Corporation Pacific Health Corporation Galen, Inc. Pacific Health Corporation Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corporation Columbia Healthcare Corporation San Diego Hospital Association Panorama Community Hospital Tom Broderick, Craig Johnson and Burr Dilday Previous Owner Lakeside Community Hospital Century Medicorp El Camino Hospital District South Valley Hospital Mercy Hospital of Redding, Inc. Washoe Health System Humana, Inc. Asklepios Hospital Corporation Asklepios Hospital Corporation Asklepios Hospital Corporation Humana, Inc. Asklepios Hospital Corporation Humana, Inc. Humana, Inc. Grossmont Hospital Universal Health Services, Inc. Affiliated Medical Enterprises City Lakeport Gardena Mountain View Gilroy Redding Loyalton San Leandro Bellflower Hawthorne Los Angeles West Hills Buena Park Huntington Beach Anaheim La Mesa Panorama City Huntington Beach Table A.1 (continued) 82 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 Hospital Name Biggs-Gridley Memorial Hospital Encino/Tarzana Regional Medical Center Cigna Hospital of Los Angeles, Inc. AHM/CGH, Inc. Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Samaritan Medical Center—San Clemente Palo Verde Hospital St. Mary Desert Valley Hospital Mills Peninsula Hospitals—Mills Hospital Mills Peninsula Hospitals— Peninsula Hospital Hospital of Barstow, Inc. Central Valley General Hospital Sutter Amador Hospital Scripps Hospital East County New Owner Bloss Memorial Hospital American Medical International Previous Owner Biggs-Gridley Memorial Hospital, Inc. Health Trust, Inc. City Gridley Encino Cigna Hospital of Los Angeles OrNda HealthCorp Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Samaritan Health Services Brim Hospitals, Inc. St. Joseph Health System Mills-Peninsula Health System Power, Inc. American Healthcare Management, Inc. Hospital Associates of La Habra Physician Associates Committed to Excellence Palo Verde Hospital Association St. Mary Desert Valley Hospital Mills-Peninsula Corporation Los Angeles Orange La Habra San Clemente Blythe Apple Valley San Mateo Mills-Peninsula Health System Mills-Peninsula Corporation Burlingame Community Health Systems, Inc. Central Valley General Hospital Sutter Health Scripps Hospital Institutes City of Barstow Catholic Health Corp. Amador County Epic Healthcare Group Barstow Hanford Jackson El Cajon Table A.1 (continued) 83 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 Hospital Name Greater El Monte Community Hospital Visalia Community Hospital Avalon Medical Development Corporation Inter-Community Medical Center Long Beach Doctors Hospital Midway Hospital Medical Center San Pedro Peninsula Hospital Santa Marta Hospital Whittier Hospital Medical Center Santa Ana Hospital Medical Center Methodist Hospital of Sacramento French Hospital Medical Center Valley Community Hospital Good Samaritan Hospital of Santa Clara Valley San Jose Medical Center South Valley Hospital New Owner OrNda HealthCorp Kaweah Delta Hospital District Avalon Medical Development Corporation Citrus Valley Health Partners Paced Properties OrNda HealthCorp Little Company of Mary Health Services Carondelet Health System OrNda HealthCorp OrNda HealthCorp Catholic Healthcare West OrNda HealthCorp OrNda HealthCorp Good Samaritan Health System Good Samaritan Health System Good Samaritan Health System Previous Owner City American Healthcare Management South El Monte Epic Healthcare Group City of Avalon Visalia Avalon Inter-Community Health Services Long Beach Doctors Hospital Summit Health Ltd. San Pedro Peninsula Hospital Covina Long Beach Los Angeles San Pedro Daughters of Saint Joseph Summit Health Ltd. Summit Health Ltd. Valley Health Care Corporation Summit Health Ltd. Summit Health Ltd. Health Dimensions, Inc. Los Angeles Whittier Santa Ana Sacramento San Luis Obispo Santa Maria San Jose Health Dimensions, Inc. Health Dimensions, Inc. San Jose Gilroy Table A.1 (continued) 84 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994 1994 1994 1994 Hospital Name St. John’s Pleasant Valley Hospital Brotman Medical Center Monterey Park Hospital New Owner Sisters of Mercy, Burlingame OrNda HealthCorp OrNda HealthCorp Palmdale Hospital Medical Center West Hills Hospital Coastal Communities Hospital Covina Valley Community Hospital Charter Suburban Hospital Fountain Valley Regional Hospital Paracelsus Healthcare Corporation Columbia HCA Healthcare Corporation Republic Health Covina Valley Community Hospital Ltd. Quorum Health Resources OrNda HealthCorp Mission Bay Memorial Hospital Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. Mullikin Medical Enterprises Healthtrust, Inc. Saint Mary’s Health Care Corporation Mullikin Management, Inc. Sun Valley Health Group, Inc. Woodruff Community Hospital Pacifica Optima Partners OrNda HealthCorp Previous Owner St. John’s Pleasant Valley Hospital Brotman Partners Ltd. Partnership American Health Care Management, Inc. Affiliated Medical Enterprises Galen, Inc. City Camarillo Culver City Monterey Park Palmdale West Hills OrNda Healthcorp San Gabriel Valley Medical Investments Charter Medical Corporation Fountain Valley Medical Development Company Epic Healthcare Group Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. Santa Ana West Covina Paramount Fountain Valley San Diego Susanville Del Amo Corporation; Medical Vesting Corporation Affiliated Medical Enterprises American Healthcare Management, Inc. Artesia Sun Valley Long Beach Table A.1 (continued) 85 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 Hospital Name Los Robles Regional Medical Center Ojai Valley Community Hospital Notami Hospitals of California Tustin Hospital, Inc. Tarzana/Encino Regional Medical Center Doctors Hospital of Pinole San Ramon Regional Medical Center Garfield Medical Center USC University Hospital—Richard K. Eamer Los Alamitos Medical Center Placentia Linda Community Hospital John F. Kennedy Memorial Hospital Alvarado Hospital Medical Center Doctors Hospital of Manteca Twin Cities Community Hospital Community Hospital of Los Gatos Redding Medical Center New Owner Columbia/HCA Brim Hospitals, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Healthcare America Management Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Previous Owner Hospital Corporation of America Affiliated Medical Enterprises Epic Healthcare Group Healthcare International, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises City Thousand Oaks Ojai Healdsburg Tustin Tarzana Pinole San Ramon Monterey Park Los Angeles Los Alamitos Placentia Indio San Diego Manteca Templeton Los Gatos Redding Table A.1 (continued) 86 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 Hospital Name Doctors Medical Center of Modesto Camino Healthcare San Fernando Community Hospital Tenet (South Bay Community Hospital) St. Francis Medical Center New Owner Tenet Healthcare Corporation Camino Healthcare Mission Community Hospital Tenet Healthcare Corporation Catholic Healthcare West 1994 1994 St. Francis Memorial Hospital Seton Medical Center Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West 1994 O’Connor Hospital Catholic Healthcare West 1994 Saint Louise Hospital Catholic Healthcare West 1994 1994 U.S. Family Care Medical Center— U.S. Family Care Medical Center Montclair Sierra Vista Regional Medical Center Tenet Healthcare Corporation 1994 San Dimas Community Hospital Tenet Healthcare Corporation Previous Owner National Medical Enterprise, Inc. El Camino Healthcare System Panorama Community Hospital American Medical International, Inc. Daughters of Charity National Health System St. Francis Memorial Hospital Daughters of Charity National Health System Daughters of Charity Health Systems West Daughters of Charity Health Systems West National Medical Enterprises American Medical International, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. City Modesto Mountain View Panorama City Redondo Beach Lynwood San Francisco Daly City San Jose Morgan Hill Montclair San Luis Obispo San Dimas Table A.1 (continued) 87 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 Hospital Name St. Luke Medical Center Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center Irvine Medical Center Sebastopol Hospital Corporation Visalia Community Hospital Suburban Medical Center Brea Community Hospital Corp. Mission Bay Memorial Hospital East Valley Huntington Hospital Medical Center of North Hollywood Sutter Roseville Medical Center Southwest Hospital Development Group, Inc. Vencor Hospital California, Inc. Sherman Oaks Health System Tenet–Garden Grove Hospital and Medical Center New Owner OrNda HealthCorp St. Joseph Health System Tenet Healthcare Corporation Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp. Kaweah Delta Health Care District OrNda HealthCorp Capital America Columbia/HCA Corp. Southern California Healthcare Systems Tenet Healthcare Corporation Sutter Roseville Medical Center Southwest Hospital Development Vencor, Inc. Sherman Oaks Health System Tenet Healthcare Corporation Previous Owner Summit Health Ltd. Mission Viejo Medical Development Co. American Medical International, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Kaweah Delta Hospital District Quorum Health Resources Brea Medical Development Healthtrust, Inc. Glencomm Limited American Medical International, Inc. Roseville Hospital National Health Administrators National Medical Enterprises Triad Healthcare American Medical International, Inc. City Pasadena Mission Viejo Irvine Sebastopol Visalia Paramount Brea San Diego Glendora North Hollywood Roseville Perris Ontario Sherman Oaks Garden Grove Table A.1 (continued) 88 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 Hospital Name Notami Hospitals of California Westside Hospital Samaritan Medical Center Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Bakersfield Memorial Hospital St. Mary Medical Center 1995 1995 Santa Monica Hospital Medical Center St. Vincent Medical Center 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 Mercy Hospital Mercy Healthcare North Columbia Chino Valley Medical Center Lindsay District Hospital Alta Bates Medical Center Columbia-San Leandro Hospital Foothill Hospital—Morris C. Johnston Medpartners New Owner Columbia/HCA Columbia Healthcare Columbia/HCA Caremark Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Regents of the University of California Catholic Healthcare West Scripps Health Catholic Healthcare West Columbia Healthcare Previous Owner Healthtrust, Inc. Epic Healthcare Group Samaritan Health Systems Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Memorial Health Systems Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word Unihealth City Healdsburg Los Angeles San Clemente La Habra Bakersfield Long Beach Santa Monica Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent De Paul Catholic Healthcare West Sisters of Mercy Health Trust, Inc. Los Angeles San Diego Red Bluff Chino Sierra View District Hospital Sutter Health Columbia/HCA Citrus Valley Health Partners, Inc. Medpartners Unihealth Alta Bates Health System SLCO Inc., Columbia Foothill Hospital—Morris L. Johnston Memorial Mullikin Management, Inc. Lindsay Berkeley San Leandro Glendora Artesia Table A.1 (continued) 89 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 Hospital Name Citrus Valley Medical Center— Queen of the Valley Campus Westlake Regional Medical Center, Inc. Marin General Hospital Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Columbia San Clemente Hospital Palo Verde Hospital California Pacific Medical Center— Pacific Campus Sutter Tracy Community Hospital New Owner Citrus Valley Health Partners Columbia/HCA Sutter Health Medpartners Samaritan/Columbia/HCA Joint Venture Principal Hospital Corporation Sutter Health Sutter Health 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 Mills Peninsula Hospitals—Mills Hospital Mills Peninsula Hospitals— Peninsula Hospital Columbia—Good Samaritan Hospital Columbia—San Jose Medical Ctr. Columbia—South Valley Hospital Sutter Health Sutter Health Columbia/HCA Columbia/HCA Columbia/HCA Previous Owner Queen of the Valley Hospital, a California Corp. Westlake Community Hospital City West Covina Westlake Village Marin Health Systems, Inc. Caremark Columbia/HCA Greenbrae La Habra San Clemente Brim Hospitals, Inc. Blythe California Pacific Medical Center San Francsico Tracy Community Memorial Hospital Mills-Peninsula Health System Tracy San Mateo Mills-Peninsula Health System Burlingame Good Samaritan Health System San Jose Good Samaritan Health System Good Samaritan Health System San Jose Gilroy Table A.1 (continued) 90 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 Hospital Name Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center Medpartners Sutter Sonoma Medical Center Providence Holy Cross Medical Center Westside Hospital Centinela Hospital Medical Center 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 Brotman Medical Center Monterey Park Hospital Suburban Medical Center Woodruff Community Hospital Coastal Communities Hospital Santa Ana Hospital Medical Center Charter Community Hospital Memorial Hospital Los Banos Memorial Medical Center Brookside Hospital (now Doctors Medical Center—San Pablo Campus) New Owner Memorial Health Services Previous Owner FHP, Inc. Medpartners Sutter Health Sister of Providence Health System OrNda HealthCorp Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Magellan Health Services Sutter Health Sutter Health Tenet Healthcare Corporation U.S. Family Care Medical Center County of Sonoma Sister of the Holy Cross (NonProfit Corp.) Columbia Healthcare Centinela Valley Health Services, Inc. OrNda Healthcorp OrNda Healthcare Corp. OrNda OrNda Healthcorp OrNda OrNda Health Corporation Charter Medical Corporation Memorial Hospitals Association Memorial Hospitals Association West Contra Costa Hospital District City Fountain Valley Montclair Santa Rosa Mission Hills Los Angeles Inglewood Culver City Monterey Park Paramount Long Beach Santa Ana Santa Ana Hawaiian Gardens Los Banos Modesto San Pablo References Alexander, J. A., M. T. Halpern, and S. Y. 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Hospital to Buy Not-for-Profit, Healthcare Systems Strategy Report, 1995, pp. 1–2, 5. 93 Hellinger, Fred J., “Antitrust Enforcement in the Health Care Industry: The Expanding Scope of State Activity,” Health Services Research, Vol. 33, No. 5, 1998, pp. 1477–1494. Hyman, David A., “Hospital Conversions: Fact, Fantasy, and Regulatory Follies,” Journal of Corporate Law, Vol. 23, 1998, p. 741. Isenberg, Phillip L., and Richard Battson, J., “Assembly Bill 3103—The Economics, Politics, and Social Values That Shaped the New Legislation,” California Health Law Notes, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1997, pp. 4–13. Japsen, Bruce, “Principal to Acquire Brim Hospital Business,” Modern Healthcare, Vol. 26, No. 50, 1996, pp. 4–5. Japsen, Bruce, “Deal Positions Principal for Growth,” Modern Healthcare, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1997, p. 13. Keeler, E. B., G. Melnick, and J. 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Pillari, “The Comparative Economic Performance of Investor-Owned Chain and Not-for- 97 Profit Hospitals,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 314, No. 2, 1986, pp. 89–96. Werdegar, D., S. Smoley, and P. Wilson, Senate Bill 697 Report to the Legislature, Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, Sacramento, California, 1998. Woolhandler, S., and D. U. Himmelstein, “Costs of Care and Administration at For-profit and Other Hospitals in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 336, No. 11, 1997, pp. 769–774. 98 About the Authors JOANNE SPETZ Joanne Spetz is a research fellow at the Public Policy Institute of California. Her research interests include the hospital industry, the nursing profession, and maternal and child health. She is the author of several publications on nurse staffing and hospital uses of medical technology. She is a consultant with the Center for California Health Workforce Studies based at the University of California, San Francisco, and she serves on the Advisory Committee of the California Strategic Planning Committee for Nursing. Her current projects include studies of nursing shortages, changes in hospital ownership, and cesarean section rates in California. Before coming to PPIC, she was a health science specialist at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Palo Alto. She holds a B.S. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University. JEAN ANN SEAGO Jean Ann Seago is an assistant professor in the Department of Community Health Systems in the School of Nursing at the University of California, San Francisco. Before coming to UCSF, she was Assistant Medical Center Administrator and Chief Nurse Executive at Kaiser Foundation Hospitals in Martinez, California. She was also Assistant Director of Nursing for Adult Critical Care at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center in San Jose, California. Her scholarly work, which has focused on the nursing workforce and nursing systems that influence patient outcomes, has appeared in leading nursing and medical journals. She has a B.S.N. from San Jose State University, an M.S. from the University of Oklahoma, and a Ph.D. from the University of California, San Francisco. SHANNON MITCHELL Shannon Mitchell is a doctoral student in health services and policy analysis at the School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests include health care organization and management, hospital industry consolidation, and inter-organizational 99 networks. She has consulted for RAND and is currently a research assistant at the University of California, Berkeley, and at PPIC. She holds a B.A. in psychology and an M.P.H. in health services from the University of California, Los Angeles. 100" } ["___content":protected]=> string(104) "

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" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(87) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/changes-in-hospital-ownership-in-california/r_1099jsr/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8067) ["ID"]=> int(8067) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:34:37" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(3145) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(9) "R 1099JSR" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(9) "r_1099jsr" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(13) "R_1099JSR.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "272575" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(153700) "Changes in Hospital Ownership in California ••• Joanne Spetz Jean Ann Seago Shannon Mitchell 1999 PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA Foreword Californians are understandably concerned about rapid changes in the health care industry. One concern that has prompted state legislation is the increased merger activity between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. Many critics view the potential decline of nonprofit hospitals as another restriction on choice in health care. In response to this concern, Joanne Spetz and her colleagues Jean Ann Seago and Shannon Mitchell have undertaken a careful study of the state’s hospital mergers and their consequences. Their findings indicate that nonprofit hospitals are in no danger of extinction. About 80 percent of hospital mergers and acquisitions between 1986 and 1996 did not involve any change in the profit status of the hospitals. The remaining mergers were almost equally divided between conversions to for-profit and to nonprofit status. Although these mergers have not altered the overall balance between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals, they have raised new concerns about the concentration of hospital ownership in California. At least half of the iii state’s hospitals are now affiliated with multi-site hospital corporations, and the six largest firms in the state operate over one-third of its hospitals. The three largest hospital firms in both Sacramento and San Diego control more than 60 percent of the beds. Although hospital ownership is less concentrated in the Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas, both markets are far more consolidated than they were ten years ago. With these patterns in mind, the authors plan to continue their study of ownership changes and their consequences. Their questions speak directly to hospital competitiveness and accountability. If some regions are served by fewer firms, will hospitals be less responsive to the needs of patients and local communities? How will mergers affect professional staffing, access to care, and quality of care? If big corporations enjoy economies of scale, will cost reductions be passed on to insurers and consumers? The authors’ early findings differ significantly from popular characterizations. Change is certainly under way, but the conclusion that this change will necessarily reduce quality of care and consumer service is premature. The authors will have more to say on these topics in subsequent PPIC publications. David W. Lyon President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California iv Summary In the past five years, legislators, health care workers, and the public have expressed concern that for-profit companies are taking over hospitals and health care organizations. Many observers argue that forprofit hospitals give little thought to patient care, remove charitable assets from public control, and focus too intently on the financial “bottom line.” In 1996, the California Legislature passed Assembly Bill 3101, which requires that the state Attorney General review proposed conversions of hospitals from nonprofit to for-profit status. Recent studies indicate that mergers of nonprofit firms may affect the provision of health care in California as well. This year the California legislature passed AB 254, which would regulate most hospital transactions in a fashion similar to that established by AB 3101. Despite spirited debate about hospital conversions to for-profit status, there are no systematic studies of hospital ownership changes in California. Furthermore, the effects of these ownership changes on costs, services, access to care, and patient outcomes are largely unknown. v Thus, there is little empirical evidence to guide the Attorney General and state policymakers in deciding whether hospital purchases and mergers should be allowed. This report is the first part of a longer study of hospital ownership and its effect on health care in California. It tracks ownership changes in short-term general hospitals from 1986 to 1996, describes the major hospital corporations in California, examines regional patterns of hospital ownership, and offers ideas for future research. Changes in Hospital Ownership in California There has been little change over the past 15 years in the overall share of hospitals held by nonprofit and for-profit owners. Of the 296 ownership changes between 1986 and 1996 (Figure S.1), only 13 involved conversions from nonprofit to for-profit ownership (Figure S.2). During that same period, 12 hospitals switched from for-profit to nonprofit status. About 80 percent of hospital ownership changes in California did not involve any change in the nonprofit or for-profit status of the hospital. These figures indicate that the public debate has focused disproportionately on conversions to for-profit ownership. At the same time, other aspects of hospital ownership changed dramatically. Most of the ownership changes between 1986 and 1996 were the result of hospital mergers. As a result of these consolidations, multi-hospital organizations grew significantly. At least half of all hospitals in California are now affiliated with multi-site hospital corporations, and six organizations operate over one-third of the state’s hospitals. This increased concentration of hospital ownership may affect the cost and quality of health care and therefore has important policy implications. These implications are perhaps best understood in vi 45 40 35 Number of changes 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 NOTE: 1996 data are incomplete. Year Figure S.1—Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership per Year in California, 1986–1996 ,2% 4% 4% 4% 0% 4% ,,1% 48% For-profit to for-profit Nonprofit to nonprofit Government to government Nonprofit to for-profit For-profit to nonprofit Nonprofit to government For-profit to government Government to nonprofit 33% Government to for-profit Figure S.2—Types of Ownership Change as Percentages of the Total, 1986–1996 vii their regional contexts, where there were substantial variations in ownership and merger activity. Regional Patterns of Hospital Ownership The most striking changes in hospital ownership occurred in California’s urban areas, which accounted for 90 percent of the state’s mergers. Among major cities, Sacramento now has the most concentrated hospital market. Ten changes in hospital ownership in Sacramento between 1986 and 1995 led to a steady increase in the percentage of hospital beds owned by multi-hospital firms (Figure S.3). By 1995, 82 percent of Sacramento’s hospital beds were owned by the three largest firms in the area, and over 95 percent were controlled by multi-hospital corporations. 90 Sacramento area San Diego area 80 San Francisco area 70 Los Angeles area 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure S.3—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by the Three Largest Owners in Major Cities in California, 1986–1999 viii Percentage of hospital beds The San Diego market is also highly concentrated. Two multihospital corporations own over half of the hospital beds in San Diego County, and a third company operates another 11 percent of the region’s hospital beds (Figure S.3). Between 1986 and 1995, there were 12 changes in hospital ownership in San Diego County (Figure S.3). The greater Los Angeles and San Francisco areas accounted for most of the state’s merger activity, and hospital ownership in both areas became more concentrated. In 1994, only 14 percent of hospital beds in the greater Los Angeles area were controlled by the largest three firms; by 1998, that figure had risen to 33 percent (Figure S.3). In the San Francisco area, where ownership is heavily concentrated among nonprofit organizations, the three largest corporations controlled 43 percent of the region’s hospital beds in 1998 compared to 18 percent four years earlier. California’s smaller urban areas, which have seen relatively few hospital transactions since 1986, vary widely in their ownership patterns. For example, none of the hospitals in the Visalia-Tulare-Porterville, Yuba City, or Monterey-Salinas metropolitan areas are owned by multihospital corporations, yet two firms control over 90 percent of Merced’s hospital beds. About half of California’s rural hospitals are owned by four nonprofit multi-hospital corporations. Policy Issues and Directions for Future Research These patterns of hospital ownership raise new questions about hospital costs, quality, and access. Previous research has focused primarily on differences between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. Many studies have examined whether for-profit hospitals provide less charity care than nonprofit and public hospitals. Most found that forprofit hospitals spend less on uncompensated care, although such ix comparisons might be complicated by regional differences. For example, one study found that for-profit and nonprofit hospitals located in the same area serve an equal number of uninsured patients, but that forprofit hospitals avoid uninsured patients by locating in areas with high rates of health insurance coverage. Although for-profit hospitals have incentives to operate more efficiently than their nonprofit competitors, few studies have found differences in efficiency between the two sorts of hospitals. In general, for-profit hospitals charge higher prices, enjoy higher net income, and employ fewer staff than nonprofit hospitals. However, they also pay significantly higher administrative costs. There has been virtually no investigation of the relationship between a hospital’s profit status and the mix of services it provides. Financial incentives for nonprofit and for-profit hospitals could lead to differences in the quality of care as well. Of the few studies investigating this question, however, most detected no overall pattern. Most of these studies compare for-profit hospitals to nonprofit hospitals in a single year; it would be valuable to examine whether mortality rates change among hospitals that convert their ownership status relative to those with stable ownership across several years. The growth of multi-hospital corporations suggests a new set of policy issues and research questions. Multi-hospital organizations may benefit from increased access to capital, lower administrative costs, and the consolidation of expensive services, but they also may be less responsive to local needs than their independent counterparts. In addition, larger multi-hospital organizations have pushed insurers to reimburse at higher rates, thus raising health care costs, although these same firms could lower costs by consolidating services and technologies x into referral centers. Most studies indicate that concentrated hospital markets have higher hospital prices and that mergers raise those prices. These increases may be caused by inefficiencies among multi-hospital corporations. There is little research exploring whether multi-hospital corporations enjoy economies of scale; in particular, we do not know the extent to which these firms consolidate services, alter staffing, or decrease administrative overhead. Analysts have expressed concern about the transfer of charitable assets from independent nonprofit hospitals to multi-hospital and forprofit firms. Differences among hospital organizations regarding charity care are likely to affect access to care in local communities. California’s Senate Bill 697, passed in 1994, requires that nonprofit hospitals develop charitable benefits plans in conjunction with their local communities to ensure that hospitals focus on local needs. Changes in the services offered by multi-hospital firms may affect access to and quality of care. For example, consolidating expensive services into referral centers could reduce access for local residents. At the same time, such consolidations could increase the quality of that care, as hospitals with high volumes of specialized procedures tend to have better patient outcomes. These effects would depend on which services were consolidated as well as the characteristics of the communities involved. We identified no research on these issues. What’s Next? The Ongoing PPIC Study More information is needed concerning the effects of ownership changes on hospital operations in California. For this reason, we are continuing our research, using the data described in this report as a starting point for our analyses. In our ongoing study, we examine xi • Whether changes in hospital ownership affect the staffing of registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, unlicensed aides and orderlies, salaried physicians, management and supervisory staff, and clerical and administrative staff; • Whether multi-hospital firms consolidate their services into referral centers. If they do, we will examine which services are consolidated and what factors lead a corporation to create referral centers; • The effects of ownership changes on access to care and the provision of charity care; and • Whether changes in hospital ownership affect the quality of medical care, as measured by mortality rates, cesarean section rates, and complication rates. We hope that this preliminary report, as well as the ongoing study of which it is a part, will help policymakers make informed decisions about changes in hospital ownership. xii Contents Foreword ..................................... Summary..................................... Figures ...................................... Tables ....................................... Acknowledgments ............................... iii v xv xvii xix 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND .......... 2. CHANGES IN CALIFORNIA HOSPITAL OWNERSHIP SINCE 1986 ............................... Data and Methods ............................ The Hospital Industry in California ................. The Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership ......... Nonprofit, For-Profit, and Government Ownership ....... Corporate Mergers and Takeovers .................. The Size of Hospitals Involved in Ownership Changes ..... Ownership Changes in Recent Years................. Management Companies ........................ 3. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR HOSPITAL CORPORATIONS IN CALIFORNIA? .............. California’s Major Hospital Corporations ............. Catholic Healthcare West ...................... Tenet/OrNda ............................. 1 5 5 9 11 13 15 16 17 19 21 21 22 23 xiii Kaiser Foundation Hospitals .................... Sutter Health .............................. Adventist Health............................ Columbia/HCA ............................ University of California ....................... 4. REGIONAL OWNERSHIP PATTERNS AND MARKET CONCENTRATION ......................... The Los Angeles-Orange-Riverside-San Bernardino Area .... The San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose Area ............. The San Diego Area ........................... The Sacramento Area .......................... Other Urban Areas ............................ Central Valley Cities ......................... Central Coast Cities ......................... Sacramento Valley Cities ...................... Rural California.............................. 5. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH .......... The Importance of Profit Status ................... Community Services and Benefits ................. Hospital Operations, Costs, and Prices.............. Patient Outcomes ........................... Nonprofit to For-Profit Conversions: Special Policy Issues ................................. The Behavior of Multi-Hospital Corporations .......... Hospital Costs and Market Power ................. Access to Care ............................. Patient Outcomes ........................... The PPIC Study ............................. 6. CONCLUSION ............................. Appendix: Hospital Ownership Changes ................ References .................................... About the Authors ............................... 25 26 27 27 28 31 32 37 43 44 45 45 48 48 48 51 52 52 56 57 57 58 59 62 63 64 67 69 91 99 xiv Figures S.1. Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership per Year in California, 1986–1996 ....................... vii S.2. Types of Ownership Change as Percentages of the Total, 1986–1996 .............................. vii S.3. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by the Three Largest Owners in Major Cities in California, 1986– 1999 .................................. viii 2.1. Number of Hospitals in California, 1986–1995 ....... 10 2.2. Percentage of Hospitals by Ownership Type, 1986– 1995 .................................. 10 2.3. Distribution of Hospital Beds Across Ownership Types, 1986–1995 .............................. 11 2.4. Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership per Year in California, 1986–1996 ....................... 12 2.5. Percentage of Hospitals Changing Ownership per Year in California, 1987–1996 ....................... 13 2.6. Types of Ownership Change as Percentages of the Total, 1986–1996 .............................. 14 2.7. Average Size of Hospitals That Did and Did Not Change Ownership, 1986–1995 ................ 16 xv 3.1. Family Tree of For-Profit Companies ............. 4.1. Regional Percentage Distribution of Changes in Hospital Ownership, 1986–1996 ...................... 4.2. Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, Los Angeles CMSA, 1986–1999 ................ 4.3. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Los Angeles CMSA, 1986–1999 ........... 4.4. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Los Angeles-Long Beach PMSA, 1986–1999 ... 4.5. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Orange County MSA, 1986–1999 ......... 4.6. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Bernardino MSA, 1986–1999 ......... 4.7. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Ventura MSA, 1986–1999 .............. 4.8. Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose CMSA, 1986–1999 ... 4.9. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose CMSA, 1986– 1999 .................................. 4.10. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Francisco PMSA, 1986–1999 ......... 4.11. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Jose PMSA, 1986–1999 ............. 4.12. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Oakland PMSA, 1986–1999 ............. 4.13. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Diego PMSA, 1986–1999 ............ 4.14. Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Sacramento-Yolo CMSA, 1986–1999 ....... 4.15. Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, Sacramento-Yolo CMSA, 1986–1999 ............. 24 32 33 34 36 36 37 38 39 39 41 41 42 43 44 45 xvi Tables 2.1. Types of Ownership Changes in Each Year in California, 1986–1996 .............................. A.1. List of Hospitals That Changed Ownership Between 1986 and 1996 in California ................... 14 70 xvii Acknowledgments The authors thank Rod Pedersen for his research assistance, Sister Terese Marie Perry and Liz Alexander-Asher at Catholic Healthcare West for providing information about that organization, Phil Isenberg for his comments and references, and Amy Dalton for her helpful suggestions and information. David Benn, Amy Dalton, Phil Isenberg, Paul Lewis, Julio Mateo, Sister Terese Marie Perry, Joyce Peterson, Belinda Reyes, Peter Richardson, Steve Shortell, and Michael Teitz provided useful comments on an earlier draft of this report. xix 1. Introduction and Background In the past five years, legislators, health care workers, and the public have expressed concern that for-profit companies are taking over hospitals and health care organizations (Health Care Strategic Management, 1994; Healthcare Systems Strategy Report, 1995; Business and Health, 1997; Anderson, 1997; Butler, 1997). Many observers argue that for-profit hospitals give little thought to patient care, remove charitable assets from public control, and focus too intently on the financial “bottom line” (Butler, 1997; Woolhandler and Himmelstein, 1997). In response to these concerns, the California legislature passed Assembly Bill 3101 in 1996 (Isenberg and Battson, 1997). This legislation requires that the state Attorney General scrutinize proposed conversions of hospitals from nonprofit to for-profit status. Most of the discussion regarding conversions of nonprofit hospitals to for-profit ownership revolves around issues of asset valuation and definitions of community benefit. 1 Although policymakers have focused on conversions of nonprofit hospitals to for-profit status, recent examinations of the data suggest that these conversions are relatively uncommon and that mergers of nonprofit organizations are becoming more important (Bellandi, 1999; Hassett and Hubbard, 1998; Hyman, 1998). California has experienced a high level of hospital merger activity. For example, in 1995, 43 mergers and purchases were initiated in California’s approximately 400 hospitals—the highest number in the United States (Simonson, Zwanziger, and Chung, 1997). This year, Assembly Member Gil Cedillo introduced AB 254 to regulate a large share of hospital transactions in a fashion similar to that established with AB 3101.1 At present, regulatory authorities have limited ability to scrutinize ownership changes that do not involve a conversion to for-profit ownership, even though these changes have significant effects on the provision of health care. Despite substantial debate about hospital conversions to for-profit status, little systematic study of hospital ownership changes in California has been conducted (Mateo and Rossi, 1999). Furthermore, the effects of these ownership changes on costs, services, access to care, and patient outcomes are largely unknown. Thus, there are few empirical studies about the effects of ownership changes to guide the Attorney General and state policymakers in deciding whether purchases, mergers, and affiliations should be allowed. This report is the first part of a study of how changes in hospital ownership affect hospital operations, access to care, and quality of care. ____________ 1The legislature has passed AB 254; Governor Davis has not yet signed this bill. Last year, Cedillo introduced similar legislation (AB 2527), an amended version of which was passed by the legislature but was vetoed by Governor Wilson. 2 Before we can study these effects, however, we must understand current patterns of hospital ownership. This report provides • A complete accounting of ownership changes in acute care hospitals in California from 1986 to 1996, with additional information on more recent ownership changes; • A description of the major hospital corporations in California, their histories, their strategies, and their market power; • An examination of regional patterns of hospital ownership; and • Directions for future research. We find that most hospital ownership changes in California are associated with the growth of large multi-hospital corporations, not with nonprofit to for-profit conversions. These multi-hospital corporations are changing the structure of the hospital industry and are likely to affect health care quality and costs. The larger study will help state policymakers keep pace with the rapid changes in the hospital industry. 3 2. Changes in California Hospital Ownership Since 1986 Data and Methods To track changes in hospital ownership in California, we examined annual Hospital Disclosure Reports collected by California’s Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) from 1986–87 to 1996–97 (California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, 1986–1997). In these reports, OSHPD gathers information about hospital service provision, finances, and resource utilization in a fiscal year.1 We further limited our study to short-term general (acute care) hospitals because they have generated the most public concern. ____________ 1Every non-federal hospital in California is required to submit a short report to OSHPD. However, OSHPD does not collect information about federal hospitals (Veterans Affairs, military, Bureau of Indian Affairs), but these rarely change ownership and thus are not of interest here. Kaiser Foundation hospitals do not respond to every page of the survey, but they provide enough information for the analysis presented here. 5 Although hospitals provide information to OSHPD for their fiscal years, OSHPD collects these data by its own reporting year. For example, the most recent year of OSHPD’s Hospital Disclosure Reports contains hospital information for June 30, 1996, to June 29, 1997. If a hospital’s fiscal year ended during this period, its data will be included in the 1996–97 reporting year. Thus, the 1996–97 OSHPD data will contain information about hospitals covering the calendar years from 1995 through 1997, depending on when each hospital’s fiscal year ended. To identify changes in hospital ownership, we looked for changes in the name of the hospital, the name of the owner, and the type of control (for-profit, nonprofit, church, state, or county). We focused on the reported name of the owner to identify changes. Some hospitals filed multiple reports in a reporting year; this practice was usually associated with a change in the hospital’s fiscal year (often due to a change in ownership). Many changes in hospital ownership were apparent, but some hospitals reported their ownership in ways that made it unclear whether an ownership change had occurred. The concept of ownership among hospitals, especially nonprofit organizations, can be confusing; indeed, a hospital’s personnel may not know who “owns” the hospital. Hospital and corporate office personnel make a distinction between “ownership,” as the term is used with forprofit corporations, and “affiliation.” One official at the corporate office of Catholic Healthcare West commented that each of their hospitals is closely tied to a specific religious order and that all the hospitals are owned by their individual orders under canonical law (personal communication, Sister Terese Marie Perry, September 30, 1998). It is unclear how much control of the hospital is exercised by the larger 6 organization, although it is unlikely that the hospital could withdraw from the organization at will. Unfortunately, we were unable to identify the subtleties of every nonprofit affiliation; thus, we state that a hospital is “owned” by a nonprofit corporation if it is clearly affiliated with and operated by that corporation. The exact contractual relationships, however, may vary greatly between nonprofit corporations and the individual hospitals affiliated with them. By comparison, for-profit multi-hospital systems are easily identified and the ownership of their facilities is usually obvious. Some partnerships between for-profit and nonprofit organizations make relationships more difficult to track. To determine whether unclear reports represented real ownership changes, we compared our list of ownership changes with a History of Hospitals file provided by OSHPD (Werdegar, Smoley, and Wilson, 1998). Most of the ownership changes listed in the History of Hospitals file appear to be identified by changes in the name of the hospital rather than the owner. We found that some of the changes listed in OSHPD’s History of Hospitals file did not correspond to actual changes in hospital ownership. When our identification of an ownership change did not coincide with OSHPD’s list or we were uncertain whether an ownership change had occurred, we contacted the hospital directly. We made over 100 phone calls to verify changes in ownership. OSHPD data on hospital ownership are often inaccurate. To illustrate this, we carefully examined the differences between data provided by Catholic Healthcare West (CHW) and OSHPD. Of 23 changes to CHW ownership that could have been matched to OSHPD data, 11 were reported more than one year late or not at all. We also examined our data to identify consolidations of multiple hospitals into single organizations. Consolidations are identified in the 7 OSHPD History of Hospitals file and can be defined as hospitals that close or are merged into, become a part of, are acquired by, or are subsumed into another hospital. Consolidations may or may not involve a change in ownership. We compared the consolidations reported by OSHPD with our list of actual changes in ownership to identify which consolidations involved change in ownership and which did not. Our analysis identifies the date of ownership change as nearly as possible and provides information about these changes for calendar years rather than for OSHPD reporting years. We define an ownership change as occurring on the first day that we see a new owner listed in the data. For example, if a hospital’s report for July 1, 1994, to June 30, 1995, has one owner and that hospital lists another owner for the report from July 1, 1995, to June 30, 1996, we say that ownership change occurred on July 1, 1995. In some cases, ownership changes occurred during the fiscal year (e.g., on January 1, 1996). We thus misclassify the year of the ownership change with our methodology. This error is not substantial and does not affect our analysis or conclusions. In the last year of available data, 190 hospitals had fiscal years ending before December 31, 1996. Therefore, it is possible that an ownership change occurred in calendar year 1996 but was reported in next year’s OSHPD data. To track recent trends in hospital ownership, we obtained lists of owned and affiliated hospitals from the major hospital corporations in California. Many hospital corporations provide this information on the Internet. When our list of hospital owners in 1996 did not agree with a corporation’s list, we contacted individual hospitals and corporations to determine whether and when a change in ownership occurred. 8 OSHPD asks hospitals to report whether their ownership falls into a number of for-profit, nonprofit, and government categories. We found that many hospitals did not consistently report their ownership; for example, some district hospitals reported in various years that nonprofit corporations owned them. (District and other government hospitals were most likely to report ownership inconsistently.) We corrected the data as much as possible. We also grouped these ownership types into three main categories: nonprofit, for-profit, and government. In most of this analysis, we categorized district hospitals as nonprofit entities because their operations often resemble nonprofits more than they do state, city, or county hospitals. The Hospital Industry in California The number of hospitals in California has declined over time; we identified 457 short-term general hospitals in 1987 and 408 in 1995 (Figure 2.1). On average, hospitals are the same size (approximately 185 beds) as a decade ago, resulting in a net loss of hospital beds in California. There has been little change over the past 15 years in the overall share of hospitals held by nonprofit, for-profit, and government owners. As seen in Figure 2.2, between 44 and 48 percent of hospitals have been owned by nonprofit organizations in the past decade. Another 31 to 35 percent of hospitals have for-profit ownership, with that share declining slightly over the decade. Hospital districts control 10 to 11 percent of California’s hospitals, and government entities operate 9 to 12 percent. 9 Number of hospitals 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Year Figure 2.1—Number of Hospitals in California, 1986–1995 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Year Government District For-profit Nonprofit Figure 2.2—Percentage of Hospitals by Ownership Type, 1986–1995 Percentage of hospitals 10 California’s for-profit hospitals are, on average, smaller than their nonprofit counterparts, as seen in Figure 2.3. Although 31 percent of hospitals had for-profit ownership in 1995, these hospitals accounted for only 18 percent of hospital beds in the state. District hospitals also are smaller than average, accounting for 6 percent of beds (compared to 11 percent of hospitals in 1995). Nonprofit organizations operate over 50 percent of the hospital beds in California, and government agencies operate over 20 percent of the beds. Percentage of hospital beds 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Year Government District For-profit Nonprofit Figure 2.3—Distribution of Hospital Beds Across Ownership Types, 1986–1995 The Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership Although there has been little change in the relative shares of nonprofit and for-profit ownership, there has been a high degree of change in hospital ownership in California. In the ten years between 1986 and 1995, we identified 265 hospital ownership changes in 11 California. An additional 31 changes occurred in 1996, as seen in the available OSHPD data, for a total of 296 changes. OSHPD’s History of Hospital file reports five changes in 1996 that we could not observe in the most recently released data. We do not yet have OSHPD data for about 190 other hospitals that might have changed ownership in 1996. The number of changes varies widely over time, ranging from 15 to 41 per year (Figure 2.4). The portion of hospitals changing ownership in a single year ranged from 3.4 percent in 1990 to 9.8 percent in 1994 (Figure 2.5). There were many ownership changes in the mid-1980s, with 29 changes in 1986 and 29 changes in 1987. There was another flurry of activity in 1993, with 40 changes accounting for 9.5 percent of hospitals. In 1994, 41 hospitals changed ownership, accounting for 9.8 percent of hospitals. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Year NOTE: 1996 data are incomplete. Figure 2.4—Number of Changes in Hospital Ownership per Year in California, 1986–1996 12 Number of changes Percentage of hospitals with a change 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Year NOTE: 1996 data are incomplete. Figure 2.5—Percentage of Hospitals Changing Ownership per Year in California, 1987–1996 Nonprofit, For-Profit, and Government Ownership About 80 percent of hospital ownership changes in California did not involve a change in the nonprofit or for-profit status of the hospital (Figure 2.6 and Table 2.1). Of the 296 changes we identified over the 11-year period, 140 (48 percent) were transfers between for-profit owners. Another 96 changes (33 percent) were between nonprofit owners. Policymakers, the public, and the media have focused largely on conversions of nonprofit hospitals to for-profit ownership. Only 13 such conversions occurred in the 11-year period for which we have data. Over the same period, 12 hospitals switched from for-profit to nonprofit status. These figures suggest that the attention paid to nonprofit to for- 13 4% 4% 0% ,2% 4% 4% ,,1% 48% For-profit to for-profit Nonprofit to nonprofit Government to government Nonprofit to for-profit For-profit to nonprofit Nonprofit to government For-profit to government Government to nonprofit 33% Government to for-profit Figure 2.6—Types of Ownership Change as Percentages of the Total, 1986–1996 Table 2.1 Types of Ownership Changes in Each Year in California, 1986–1996 For-profit to for-profit Nonprofit to nonprofit Govt. to govt. Nonprofit to for-profit For-profit to nonprofit Nonprofit to govt. For-profit to govt. Govt. to nonprofit Govt. to for-profit Total ’86 ’87 ’88 ’89 ’90 ’91 ’92 ’93 ’94 ’95 ’96 Total 9 13 8 8 8 7 14 20 31 7 15 140 15 9 8 7 2 9 7 14 8 7 10 96 0 0011 2 0 00 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 2 4 13 0 0 0 1 0 4 2 2 1 1 1 12 0 0121 0 1 00 1 0 6 1 6 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 11 2 1 1 0 3 1 2 1 0 1 1 13 1 0000 0 0 00 0 0 1 29 29 18 22 15 26 26 40 41 19 31 296 14 profit conversions in California is disproportionate to the actual number of conversions. Some ownership changes involved the sale or purchase of a government hospital by a nonprofit or for-profit company. Thirteen hospitals switched from government to nonprofit ownership and another six changed from nonprofit to government ownership. One hospital was sold by a government entity to a for-profit organization. For-profit owners sold 11 hospitals to government agencies. Of these, eight involved Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc., which sold one hospital to a county, one to a city, and six to hospital districts. Westworld Community Healthcare was a for-profit company that sought to specialize in the management of troubled rural hospitals. At its peak in 1986, Westworld operated 40 hospitals. Over the next two years, it reduced its operations to 14 hospitals and filed for bankruptcy. Many of its hospitals were closed, but several were returned to local control and continue to operate. Corporate Mergers and Takeovers Many ownership changes between 1986 and 1996 were the result of consolidations. For example, nearly half of the 15 nonprofit to nonprofit changes recorded in 1986 resulted from the merger of two Catholic healthcare associations to form Catholic Healthcare West. The following year, seven of the 13 for-profit to for-profit changes occurred when Healthtrust acquired hospitals from the Hospital Corporation of America. Over half of the for-profit ownership changes observed between 1993 and 1996 arose from large mergers between for-profit corporations. The next chapter provides more information about these corporations. 15 Average number of hospital beds The Size of Hospitals Involved in Ownership Changes Hospitals that changed ownership in California were smaller than average, as seen in Figure 2.7. Between 1986 and 1995, the average size of a hospital in California was approximately 185 beds. Before 1991, hospitals that changed ownership were 40 to 50 beds smaller than average. In 1991 and 1995, the hospitals changing ownership were slightly larger than those that did not experience an ownership change. Between 1992 and 1994, hospitals that changed ownership were about 25 beds smaller than other facilities. 250 200 Did not change owner 150 Changed owner 100 50 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Year Figure 2.7—Average Size of Hospitals That Did and Did Not Change Ownership, 1986–1995 16 Ownership Changes in Recent Years The OSHPD data analyzed above end in 1996; a substantial number of ownership changes have occurred since then. We examined OSHPD’s History of Hospitals file and documents from the major hospital corporations in California to identify recent changes in hospital ownership. Although the data obtained from these sources are incomplete, they provide some indication of current trends in hospital ownership. The most significant event in hospital ownership in California in recent years was Tenet Healthcare Corporation’s acquisition of OrNda. Sixteen hospitals changed hands in this transaction, making Tenet the largest for-profit hospital corporation in California. Four hospitals acquired by Tenet were subsequently closed. Tenet has continued to acquire hospitals in addition to incorporating OrNda’s facilities to its system. Tenet also agreed to lease Desert Hospital in Palm Springs and acquired Pioneer Hospital in Artesia from MedPartners in 1997. In late 1998, Tenet acquired Sharp Healthcare Murrieta Hospital (now named Rancho Springs Medical Center). Tenet recently has reported that it intends to sell up to 20 of its hospitals this year; analysts speculate that it will divest hospitals in regions where it does not have a strong market presence (Kirchheimer, 1999). Columbia/HCA, the second largest for-profit hospital corporation in California, has been selling hospitals throughout the United States to address large financial losses and debts acquired in recent years. In the past six months, Columbia/HCA sold Palm Drive Hospital in Sebastopol and Healdsburg General Hospital, thus ending its involvement in Sonoma County. At the same time, Columbia/HCA has sought to expand its holdings in other parts of California. In 1997, it finalized a 17 joint venture with nonprofit Riverside Community Hospital, leaving Columbia/HCA with a 75 percent stake in the operation of the hospital. More recently, Columbia/HCA acquired Alexian Brothers Hospital in San Jose in an exchange of hospitals that did not come under the scrutiny of AB 3101. Several other for-profit hospital conversions have occurred in the past two years or are under way now. Long Beach Community Medical Center became a for-profit corporation in 1997 when it was sold to a group of local physicians. The Attorney General approved the sale of Watsonville Community Hospital to Community Health Systems in late 1998. Proceeds from the sale will be used to establish a new foundation. Over the past three years, Catholic Healthcare West has affiliated with several hospital corporations. Most of these affiliations involve various charitable Catholic orders. In 1996, the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word and the Dominican Sisters of San Rafael joined the CHW family, adding four acute care hospitals to the organization. In the same year, CHW affiliated with Woodland Memorial Hospital, Sequoia Hospital in Redwood City, the Robert F. Kennedy Medical Center, Bakersfield Memorial Hospital, and Mercy Hospital and Health Services in Merced. In 1997, two more Catholic orders affiliated with CHW, adding two hospitals to the system. In 1998, CHW added Community Hospital of San Bernardino and merged with UniHealth, which owned eight hospitals in the Los Angeles area. Sutter Health is also continuing to expand. In 1997, Merced Community Medical Center joined the Sutter Health system and changed its name to Sutter Merced hospital. Eden Medical Center and Davies Medical Center were added to Sutter Health in 1998. At present, 18 Sutter is negotiating to buy Summit Medical Center in Alameda County, as discussed below. At least two for-profit hospitals returned to nonprofit ownership in 1998. As noted above, two of Columbia/HCA’s hospitals were sold to community organizations in Sonoma County. Other small mergers and ownership changes have occurred recently or are under way. In 1996, Citrus Valley Health Partners bought Foothill Presbyterian Hospital, Memorial Health Services bought Anaheim Memorial Hospital, Southern California Healthcare Systems bought Beverly Hospital and Verdugo Hills Hospital, and Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital bought Santa Ynez Valley Hospital and Goleta Valley Community Hospital. In 1997, Sharp Healthcare bought Mesa Vista Hospital and Legacy Health System bought Baldwin Park Medical Center. In 1998, Enloe Medical Center purchased Chico Community Hospital. In that same year, Kaweah Delta Health Care District purchased Exeter-based Memorial Hospital. More transactions will be identified as new data become available. Management Companies Some hospitals hire firms to provide management services, and some companies both own hospitals and offer management services. At present in California, management companies do not control a significant number of hospitals. In the most recent OSHPD data, 34 California hospitals reported that other corporations managed them. Brim Healthcare, Inc., manages five hospitals, and Pacific Health Corporation of Long Beach, California, manages four hospitals. Adventist Health, FHP, Alpha Partners, Primus Hospital Management, Delta-One Management, and Valley Health manage two hospitals each. 19 In the 1980s, mergers and consolidations of companies with varying interests accelerated nationwide (Nemes, 1992). Brim and Associates, based in Portland, Oregon, was the first private non-profit firm to provide contract management services (Kim, 1989). Principal Hospital Company acquired Brim’s hospital business in 1997 (Japsen 1996, 1997), and Brim recently has taken over Aligned Business Consortium, a medical group purchasing firm, formerly run by Columbia/HCA. Some companies, such as Adventist Health, both own and manage hospitals. Sutter Health has managed two hospitals: Amador Hospital, owned by Amador County until 1993 when it became affiliated with Sutter, and Plumas District Hospital. Other relationships, such as those between Tenet and MedPartners and between Catholic Healthcare West and MedPartners, combine hospitals and medical practice management companies (Nordhaus-Bike, 1997; Shinkman, 1997). These relationships further confuse the public about who controls hospitals in California. Without a clear understanding of hospital ownership, corporate structures, and management companies, it is difficult for legislators to determine the type and level of regulation necessary to protect consumers. More information about the effects of ownership on hospital operations is needed to make decisions about the delivery of care that affects the health of Californians. 20 3. What Are the Major Hospital Corporations in California? California’s Major Hospital Corporations Most of the ownership changes between 1986 and 1996 were the result of consolidations and mergers between hospital corporations. Multi-hospital firms have grown substantially over the past decade; at least half of all hospitals in California are now affiliated with multi-site hospital corporations. Six hospital organizations operate over one-third of the state’s hospitals. The nonprofit organizations with the largest number of hospitals are Catholic Healthcare West, Kaiser Foundation Hospitals, Sutter Health, and Adventist Health. The largest for-profit hospital corporations in California are Tenet Healthcare Corporation and Columbia/HCA. The University of California is also an important player in California’s hospital industry, operating five medical centers and two neuropsychiatric institutes. These organizations are changing 21 hospital markets throughout the state. In this chapter, we describe them, their histories, and their strategies. Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West (CHW) was formed in 1986 by the merger of two communities of the Sisters of Mercy: the Sisters of Mercy, Auburn, and the Sisters of Mercy, Burlingame. Ten California hospitals were affected by the creation of Catholic Healthcare West, accounting for nearly half of the 16 nonprofit to nonprofit changes we observed in 1986. Between 1988 and 1997, several other religious orders became cosponsors of CHW: the Sisters of St. Dominic of Adrian, Michigan (1988, two hospitals, one in California); the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent De Paul, Province of the West (1995, five hospitals); the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word of Houston, Texas (1996, two hospitals); the Dominican Sisters of San Rafael (1996, two acute care hospitals); the Sisters of St. Catherine of Siena of Kenosha, Wisconsin (1996, one hospital); the Franciscan Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Frankfort, Illinois (1997, one hospital); and the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity of Redwood City (1997; one hospital). Several of these affiliations occurred in the mid-1990s, increasing CHW’s presence substantially. In 1998, CHW acquired eight hospitals from UniHealth. This was CHW’s first acquisition of a large hospital corporation that was not sponsored by a Catholic order. The acquisition provided CHW with a strong presence in the Los Angeles area. CHW now represents nine religious orders and operates 46 acute care hospitals throughout California, Arizona, and Nevada; of these, 44 are in California. CHW has managed one district hospital on a contractual basis since 1998 22 (which we do not count as an ownership change). The organization is the largest nonprofit hospital group in California.1 CHW has been financially healthy in past years, recording positive net income in between 1995 and 1998. However, CHW expects to report an operating loss of $225 million in the fiscal year ending in 1999. Tenet/OrNda Tenet Healthcare Corporation owns or operates 130 acute care hospitals and related businesses serving communities in 18 states.2 Of these, 42 hospitals are in California. Tenet was formed in 1995 by the merger of two for-profit hospital corporations, National Medical Enterprises (NME) and American Medical Holdings (AMI). This merger of NME and AMI accounts for 18 of the ownership changes we identify in 1994 and two in 1995. Figure 3.1 charts the history of Tenet and the companies that have been incorporated into Tenet. The company, which is headquartered in Santa Barbara, is publicly held. In January 1997, Tenet Healthcare Corporation merged with OrNda, another for-profit corporation. OrNda owned 17 hospitals in California at the time it merged with Tenet. OrNda HealthCorp was created in 1994 by the merger of for-profit American Healthcare Management and for-profit Summit Health Ltd. (see Figure 3.1). Our data indicate that eight ownership changes in 1993 and two ownership changes in 1994 resulted from the merger of Summit Health and American Healthcare Management. At the time of its merger with Tenet, OrNda was the country’s third largest for-profit healthcare ____________ 1Information about Catholic Healthcare West was obtained from www.chw.org.edu and other sites linked to this page. 2Tenet’s information can be found at www.tenethealth.com. 23 Health- Epic Trust, Inc. Healthcare May 94 Basic American Medical Galen Healthcare Corp. Hospital Corp. of America Medical Care America, Inc. HealthTrust, Inc. American Summit Healthcare Health Mgmt. Ltd. National American Medical Medical Enterprises Holdings Jul 92 Sep 93 Feb 94 Sep 94 Apr 95 Apr 94 OrNda Mar 95 Tenet Columbia/HCA Jan 97 Tenet Figure 3.1—Family Tree of For-Profit Companies provider, with 48 facilities throughout the United States. Six of the ownership changes reported for fiscal years starting in 1996 were caused by the acquisition of OrNda by Tenet. Another ten California hospitals were owned by OrNda in 1996 and were transferred to Tenet in 1997.3 In contrast to Tenet’s aggressive expansion in the past, Tenet is now selling at least 18 hospitals outside California. Lower-than-expected earnings in the third quarter of the 1999 fiscal year may have prompted the sell-off. Tenet has reported positive net income for the past several years but experienced a 4 percent drop in net income between 1998 and 1999. ____________ 3Four of these hospitals subsequently closed. 24 Kaiser Foundation Hospitals In 1933, Sidney A. Garfield, M.D., began to deliver health care on a prepaid basis to men building the Los Angeles Aqueduct. In 1938, Henry J. Kaiser’s son, Edgar, invited Garfield to provide the same health care program to Kaiser’s workers, who were building the Grand Coulee Dam, and their families. This health program expanded during World War II, when Kaiser operated wartime shipyards in California and Oregon. Kaiser bought and renovated a hospital in Oakland in 1942 to improve the health care services provided to employees at the Richmond shipyard. In 1945, Kaiser’s health plan opened to the general public as a nonprofit corporation. Two unions—the International Longshoremen and Warehousemen Union and the Retail Clerks Union—were instrumental in taking the health plan to Los Angeles. Many opposed this prepaid health plan; some observers believed it was a “communist” system, and the American Medical Society actively undermined it and the physicians who worked for it. Kaiser Permanente built a second hospital in Walnut Creek in 1953, in part because other hospitals were reluctant to allow Kaiser physicians to admit patients to their facilities.4 Kaiser Permanente is now the largest nonprofit health maintenance organization in the United States, serving 9.2 million members in 19 states and the District of Columbia. It is an integrated health delivery system, providing care through exclusively contracted physicians and its hospitals and outpatient centers. Kaiser is engaged in many social benefit activities, including assistance to the uninsured and special populations, ____________ 4The information in this section was obtained from Kaiser Permanente’s pages at www.kaiserpermanente.org. 25 instruction for new health professionals, medical research, and costeffectiveness research. Kaiser Foundation Hospitals, one part of Kaiser Permanente, owns 27 hospitals in California. Sutter Health Sutter Health traces its history to 1923, when Sutter Hospital was established in Sacramento. In 1937, Sutter Hospital opened a maternity hospital in Sacramento, and in 1981 the governing organization of these two hospitals established Sutter Health. Between 1981 and 1996, Sutter became affiliated with several hospitals in Northern California. In 1996, Sutter merged with the California Healthcare System, which was founded in 1986 by Alta Bates Medical Center, California Pacific Medical Center, Marin General Hospital, and Mills–Peninsula Medical Center. In our analyses, we do not consider the California Healthcare System an “owner,” as none of the member hospitals reported it as such. The merger between Sutter and the California Healthcare System gave Sutter a strong presence in the San Francisco area. In more recent years, Sutter has affiliated with Merced Medical Center, Memorial Hospitals Association, Davies Medical Center, and Eden Medical Center. Sutter Health is in the process of merging Alta Bates Medical Center with Summit Medical Center, a major independent hospital in Oakland. Although the Federal Trade Commission investigated this merger on antitrust grounds, as of this writing, the merger has been approved by federal regulators. However, California’s Attorney General is challenging the transaction. Sutter Health’s position in the Oakland market is discussed in more detail in Chapter 4. Sutter Health serves more than three million people throughout Northern California. The organization operates a provider network that 26 includes 21 acute care general hospitals, eight long-term care facilities, two behavioral health hospitals, various physician offices and outpatient centers, and home health, hospice, and occupational health services.5 Sutter is financially healthy, recording positive net income in 1997 and 1998. Adventist Health Adventist Health is a nonprofit healthcare system sponsored by the Seventh-Day Adventist Church and is headquartered in Roseville, California.6 The West Coast system is part of an international network that includes hospitals, medical clinics and groups, hospices, home-health agencies, and pharmacy and medical equipment services in California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. In the West Coast system, Adventist Health owns 20 hospitals, 15 of which are in California. Adventist Health has not expanded aggressively and remains one of the smallest systems in California. It has recorded positive net revenue for the past few years, but faced operating losses in 1998. Adventist is in the process of purchasing Selma District Hospital, which would provide Adventist with five hospitals in the Central Valley and three in the Hanford area. Columbia/HCA As the largest for-profit hospital corporation in the United States, Columbia/HCA has garnered much public scrutiny. Over the past decade, Columbia/HCA expanded as a result of mergers between and acquisitions of many for-profit hospital companies (Figure 3.1). Basic American Medical was acquired by Columbia in 1992, Galen Healthcare ____________ 5Information about Sutter Health is available at www.sutterhealth.org. 6Information about Adventist Health was obtained from www.adventisthealth.org. 27 Corp. was added in 1993, and a merger with Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) followed in 1994. This last merger accounted for eight of the for-profit to for-profit ownership changes identified between 1993 and 1995. Medical Care America, Inc., was also acquired in 1994. In 1995 HealthTrust Inc. was added to the system. HealthTrust itself had acquired seven hospitals from the Hospital Corporation of America in 1987, accounting for over half of the 13 for-profit to for-profit changes observed in 1987.7 Columbia/HCA made newspaper headlines in 1997 and 1998 when the federal government began a large Medicare fraud investigation. The investigation led to unprecedented turnover in senior management. At the same time, Columbia/HCA faced declining profits and sold a substantial number of its hospitals. Columbia/HCA now owns and operates 221 hospitals, down from its peak of 340, 11 of which are in California. University of California The University of California has five medical schools: Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Diego, and San Francisco. Each of these medical schools is associated with at least one acute care hospital. The university medical centers influence the markets in which they operate because they provide a wide range of advanced medical services. In 1997, the UCSF Medical Center and UCSF/Mt. Zion Hospital merged with Stanford University’s two hospitals to form UCSF Stanford Health Care. This new health care system was controversial, largely because it involved the transfer of public assets to an independent (though nonprofit) ____________ 7Columbia/HCA provides information at www.columbia-hca.com. 28 corporation. UCSF Stanford reported an operating return of $20 million in its first year but experienced a $10 million loss in the first quarter of its second year. Losses are mounting, and the future of the merger is in question. 29 4. Regional Ownership Patterns and Market Concentration There is substantial regional variation in hospital ownership in California. The degree to which a region’s hospital market is concentrated in the hands of one or two hospital corporations is likely to affect the cost of medical care and also may affect access to and quality of care. In this chapter, we describe the level of merger activity and the degree of hospital market concentration for the different regions of California.1 The policy issues raised by the concentration of hospital ownership are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. ____________ 1For this study, we define metropolitan areas according to the Census regions. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) are composed of counties that house urban centers and are not contiguous with other major urban centers (e.g., Fresno, Redding, San Diego). Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs) are composed of more than one Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA). There are three CMSAs in California: Los Angeles-Orange-San Bernardino-Riverside, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, and Sacramento-Yolo. A PMSA is an urban component of a CMSA and is analogous to a MSA. For example, the Los Angeles CMSA consists of four PMSAs: Los Angeles, Orange, Ventura, and San Bernardino-Riverside. 31 The Los Angeles-Orange-Riverside-San Bernardino Area The Los Angeles CMSA has experienced the greatest share of hospital ownership change activity. There have been 166 changes (56 percent) in the greater Los Angeles area (Figure 4.1), where approximately 45 percent of California’s hospitals are located. The majority of ownership changes occurred in Los Angeles and Orange counties, which account for 77 percent of the hospitals in the consolidated Los Angeles metropolitan area and 83 percent of the changes in this region. In the Los Angeles CMSA, many hospitals have become part of multi-hospital corporations. As seen in Figure 4.2, fewer than 35 percent of the region’s hospital beds are independent of a major corporation, down from 60 percent in 1986. Between 1986 and 1995, the share of 12.8% 4.0% 7.1% ,, ,16.8% 55.9% Los Angeles Sacramento San Francisco Central Valley San Diego Other , 3.4% Figure 4.1—Regional Percentage Distribution of Changes in Hospital Ownership, 1986–1996 32 Percentage of hospital beds 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.2—Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, Los Angeles CMSA, 1986–1999 independent hospital beds remained relatively stable. However, between 1995 and 1996 there was a dramatic decrease in independent beds, indicating that a number of hospitals were purchased by or affiliated with multi-hospital firms in those years. Figure 4.3 charts the percentage of hospital beds over time controlled by the largest, two largest, and three largest owners in the Los Angeles area.2 Consistent with Figure 4.2, the largest owners in the Los Angeles CMSA have experienced significant increases in market share since 1995. In that year, the three largest firms controlled only 14 percent of the ____________ 2The figures for 1986 through 1995 were computed directly from the OSHPD data. After 1995, we estimated the share of beds owned by each system based on the number of beds in each hospital in the most recent year of OSHPD data. Because the ownership data may be incomplete and hospitals may have changed the number of beds they have available, the figures for 1996 through 1999 should be considered preliminary. 33 Percentage of hospital beds 35 30 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 25 Largest owner 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.3—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Los Angeles CMSA, 1986–1999 region’s hospital beds. By 1998, the three largest owners held 33 percent of the beds. In Figure 4.3 and subsequent similar figures, the largest owners are not the same in every year. Between 1988 and 1993, the three largest owners in the Los Angeles CMSA were Los Angeles County, Kaiser, and Unihealth. In 1994, OrNda displaced Unihealth from its “top three” status. By 1998, after the Tenet-OrNda and the CHW-Unihealth mergers, the largest owners in the Los Angeles CMSA were Tenet, Catholic Healthcare West, and Kaiser. A wide range of corporations owns hospitals in the Los Angeles CMSA. For-profit hospitals are more common in this region than elsewhere in the state, largely due to the presence of Tenet, which holds 29 hospitals in the Los Angeles region, 17 of which are in Los Angeles County and 10 of which are in Orange County. Each of these hospitals 34 has over 100 available beds and four have over 300 beds.3 Catholic Healthcare West owns the largest number of nonprofit hospitals in the region. It now operates 10 percent of the total beds in the region. Kaiser Permanente’s nine hospitals also establish a strong presence. All of Kaiser’s facilities are large, ranging from 150 to nearly 600 beds. Columbia/HCA owns seven hospitals and Paracelsus (a for-profit corporation) owns six. Columbia’s hospitals are smaller than average in the region. Paracelsus’s are somewhat smaller than average for the region, ranging from 85 to 244 beds. The University of California has a significant presence in the Los Angeles area, operating medical centers at UCLA and UC Irvine. UCLA’s medical center includes Santa Monica Hospital, the UCLA Medical Center, UCLA Children’s Hospital, and the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Hospital. Sutter Health, one of the state’s largest hospital corporations, does not operate any hospitals in the Los Angeles area. The main urban areas within the Los Angeles CMSA have similar levels of consolidation as the CMSA as a whole, although there are differences in which corporations are dominant. In the Los Angeles primary statistical area (PMSA),4 47 percent of hospital beds are controlled by the three largest owners: Tenet, Valley Hospital System, and Columbia/HCA (Figure 4.4). It is notable that two for-profit corporations are dominant in this county. In Orange County, nonprofit owners control 38 percent of the hospital beds: CHW, Kaiser, and St. Joseph of Orange (Figure 4.5). Tenet, St. Joseph of Orange, and Columbia/HCA operate 48 percent of the available hospital beds in the ____________ 3The median hospital size in the Los Angeles area is 221 beds. All bed size figures are from the 1995–96 OSHPD data. 4The Los Angeles PMSA consists of Los Angeles County. 35 Percentage of hospital beds 50 45 3 largest owners 40 2 largest owners 35 Largest owner 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.4—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Los Angeles-Long Beach PMSA, 1986–1999 40 35 3 largest owners 30 2 largest owners Largest owner 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.5—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Orange County MSA, 1986–1999 36 Percentage of hospital beds Riverside-San Bernardino PMSA (Figure 4.6). In the Ventura PMSA, the major owners are Tenet, Catholic Healthcare West, and Los Angeles County, accounting for 35 percent of the region’s hospital beds (Figure 4.7). The San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose Area The San Francisco CMSA (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano and Sonoma Counties), which is home to about 18 percent of California’s hospitals, experienced 16.6 percent of California’s changes in hospital ownership. Nearly a third of these changes occurred in Santa Clara County, where only one-sixth of the Bay Area’s hospitals are located. Several hospitals in Santa Clara County have changed hands multiple times. 50 45 40 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 35 Largest owner 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.6—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Bernardino MSA, 1986–1999 37 Percentage of hospital beds Percentage of hospital beds 40 35 3 largest owners 30 2 largest owners Largest owner 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.7—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Ventura MSA, 1986–1999 The San Francisco CMSA has a more consolidated hospital market than the Los Angeles region. As seen in Figure 4.8, 30 percent of the San Francisco region’s hospitals are not affiliated with a major corporation. Between 1995 and 1996, the share of unaffiliated hospitals dropped precipitously from 71 percent to 32 percent. A significant proportion of this decline can be attributed to the merger between Sutter Health and the California Healthcare System in 1996 and acquisitions by CHW (Figure 4.9). By 1996, the three largest corporations (Sutter, Kaiser, and CHW) controlled 41 percent of the region’s hospital beds; in 1999, these same three corporations control 43 percent of beds. In contrast to the Los Angeles CMSA, hospital ownership in the San Francisco Bay Area is heavily concentrated among nonprofit corporations. Kaiser Permanente operates 13 hospitals, most of which 38 Percentage of hospital beds 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.8—Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose CMSA, 1986–1999 50 45 3 largest owners 40 2 largest owners Largest owner 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.9—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose CMSA, 1986–1999 39 Percentage of hospital beds have between 150 and 250 beds.5 Sutter Health has 10 hospitals ranging from the 51-bed Novato Community Hospital to the 534-bed California Pacific Medical Center. Catholic Healthcare West operates seven hospitals, all but one of which have more than 270 beds. The major forprofit presence in the region is Columbia/HCA, with five hospitals. Four of Columbia’s hospitals are in Santa Clara County and two of these four have over 500 beds. Within the San Francisco CMSA, the San Francisco PMSA has become very concentrated in the past five years.6 As seen in Figure 4.10, the three largest entities (CHW, the University of California, and Kaiser) held 30 percent of San Francisco’s hospital beds in 1995. This share jumped to 69 percent in 1996 as a result of growth in CHW’s system and the merger between Sutter Health and the California Healthcare System.7 San Jose’s hospital market is less concentrated than that of the San Francisco PMSA: in recent years, 57 percent of San Jose’s hospital beds have been owned by Columbia/HCA, Kaiser, and Catholic Healthcare West (Figure 4.11). Columbia/HCA owns one-third of this region’s beds, and this figure will rise when Columbia/HCA’s purchase of Alexian Brothers Hospital is complete. The Oakland PMSA’s three biggest owners (Sutter, Kaiser, and Tenet) control 44 percent of the beds (Figure 4.12).8 There has not ____________ 5The median hospital size in the San Francisco area is 212 beds. 6The San Francisco PMSA consists of San Francisco, Marin, and San Mateo Counties. 7As noted above, we do not consider the California Healthcare System an “owner.” 8The Oakland PMSA consists of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties. 40 Percentage of hospital beds 80 70 3 largest owners 60 2 largest owners Largest owner 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.10—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Francisco PMSA, 1986–1999 60 50 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 40 Largest owner 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.11—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Jose PMSA, 1986–1999 41 Percentage of hospital beds Percentage of hospital beds 50 45 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 40 Largest owner 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.12—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Oakland PMSA, 1986–1999 been as much growth in the Oakland PMSA as in other San Francisco Bay Area PMSAs. In 1986, 34 percent of Oakland’s beds were held by Kaiser, Summit Medical Center, and Alameda County. The smaller PMSAs in the San Francisco CMSA have relatively concentrated hospital markets. There are relatively few hospitals in these regions, however, so it is easy for a single owner to become dominant. In Santa Cruz, 68 percent of the hospital beds are in Dominican Hospital, which joined Catholic Healthcare West in 1988. In Sonoma County, the Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange, Sutter Health, and Kaiser operate 58 percent of the hospital beds. The Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange and Kaiser also have a strong presence in the Napa-Vallejo PMSA. Together with Adventist Health, they own 66 percent of the area’s beds. 42 The San Diego Area The San Diego area experienced 12 changes in hospital ownership between 1986 and 1996 (4.1 percent of statewide changes). Today, the San Diego market is concentrated in the hands of Scripps Healthcare and San Diego Hospital Association (also known as Sharp HealthCare). Scripps owns six hospitals and Sharp HealthCare owns seven hospitals. Together, they control over half of the hospital beds in San Diego County (Figure 4.13). Palomar Pomerado Health System operates another 11 percent of the region’s hospital beds. The UC-San Diego Medical Center is a significant presence in this market as well, with hospitals in San Diego and La Jolla. UCSD recently discontinued merger discussions with Sharp HealthCare and is planning to commence merger talks with Scripps Health. Tenet, Columbia/HCA, Kaiser, and Adventist Health also own hospitals in San Diego County. 70 60 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 50 Largest owner 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.13—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, San Diego PMSA, 1986–1999 43 Percentage of hospital beds Percentage of hospital beds The Sacramento Area In the Sacramento CMSA, there were ten changes in hospital ownership between 1986 and 1996. The Sacramento CMSA area is similar to that of San Diego in that two corporations own over half of the hospitals in the area.9 Catholic Healthcare West operates six facilities and Sutter Health owns five hospitals, together controlling over two-thirds of the hospitals in the region (Figure 4.14). Kaiser owns an additional 15 percent of the area’s hospital beds, placing 82 percent of the Sacramento area’s beds in the hands of the three largest owners. The University of California holds another 13 percent of the area’s hospital beds, leaving less than 5 percent of the beds without a system affiliation (Figure 4.15). 90 80 3 largest owners 2 largest owners 70 Largest owner 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.14—Percentage of Hospital Beds Controlled by Three Largest Owners, Sacramento-Yolo CMSA, 1986–1999 ____________ 9The Sacramento CMSA consists of the Sacramento PMSA (Sacramento, El Dorado, and Placer Counties) and the Yolo PMSA (Yolo County). 44 Percentage of hospital beds 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year Figure 4.15—Percentage of Hospital Beds with No Major Affiliation, Sacramento-Yolo CMSA, 1986–1999 Other Urban Areas California has smaller urban areas in the Central Valley, along the central coast, and in the Sacramento Valley. Most of these metropolitan areas have only a few hospitals, and thus ownership may appear to be concentrated in the hands of a few corporations when each corporation owns only one hospital. Some of California’s smaller cities have no hospitals with corporate affiliations, whereas in other cities major corporations own nearly all hospitals. In general, nonprofit ownership is dominant in small cities. Central Valley Cities Between 1986 and 1996, relatively few hospital transactions occurred in the Central Valley (Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, 45 San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare Counties). We identified 21 changes in hospital ownership over our 11-year period, accounting for 7.1 percent of the changes. Nearly 12 percent of California’s hospitals are located in this region. As the Central Valley grows and there are fewer opportunities to purchase hospitals in the major cities of California, corporate ownership is likely to increase in the valley. Through 1995, fewer than 5 percent of Stockton’s beds were held by multi-hospital corporations (NME, which became part of Tenet in 1995, and Paracelsus). In 1996, CHW and Sutter both completed purchases of hospitals, giving these corporations 34 and 7 percent of the area’s hospital beds, respectively. Now, 48 percent of the Stockton area’s hospital beds are controlled by three corporations: CHW, Sutter, and Tenet. In Modesto, NME (now Tenet) and Memorial Hospitals Association held about half of the area’s hospital beds until 1996. In 1996, the hospital controlled by Memorial Health Services affiliated with Sutter. Several Stanislaus County hospitals have closed since 1987, increasing the market share of Tenet and Sutter in this region. As of 1996, Tenet’s stake in the market is higher than Sutter’s, with Tenet owning nearly a third of the area’s hospital beds. Catholic Healthcare West has recently entered the market by contracting to manage with a district hospital, accounting for approximately 11 percent of hospital beds. Merced’s hospital market has experienced a rapid consolidation in recent years. Until 1993, none of the county’s hospitals were controlled by a major hospital corporation. In 1994, Memorial Hospitals Association established a presence in the area, controlling about 12 percent of hospital beds. This hospital became part of Sutter in 1996. Between 1996 and 1997, the county hospital affiliated with Sutter, 46 increasing its share of hospital beds to 60 percent. Also in 1996, CHW acquired a hospital through its affiliation with the Dominican Sisters of St. Catherine of Sienna of Kenosha, Wisconsin. Now, Sutter and CHW control all of Merced’s hospital beds. Fresno’s large hospital market is still largely independent of the major hospital corporations. Community Hospitals of Central California operates two hospitals with 32 percent of the beds in the county, and Kaiser has one hospital with about five percent of the area’s hospital beds. St. Agnes Hospital is part of the Holy Cross Health Care System headquartered in Indiana. The remaining hospitals are owned by independent nonprofit corporations, districts, or the county. There is one small for-profit surgery center in Fresno County. Bakersfield’s hospital market has become more concentrated in recent years. Between 1986 and 1995, about 30 percent of the region’s hospital beds were held by two or three multi-hospital firms. Catholic Healthcare West has had a steady presence since 1986, as Mercy Hospital in Bakersfield was one of the original CHW hospitals. Westworld owned one hospital in Kern County until 1987, and Adventist Health entered the market in 1987. In 1996, CHW’s presence in the Bakersfield region increased markedly with the acquisition of Memorial Hospital, previously an independent nonprofit hospital. Local community members, who argued that Memorial Hospital’s merger with CHW resulted in a loss of community assets, filed two lawsuits contesting this merger. One suit was settled in 1999 with the establishment of a $150,000 nonprofit charitable corporation. The other lawsuit is still pending. Today, CHW controls nearly half the hospital beds in Kern County, and Adventist Health has ownership of about 13 percent of beds in Kern County. 47 At this time, none of the hospitals in the Visalia-Tulare-Porterville metropolitan area are owned by a multi-hospital corporation; all are owned by hospital districts. Central Coast Cities In contrast to the Central Valley, for-profit corporations own a large share of hospitals in cities along the central coast. Seventy percent of the hospital beds in San Luis Obispo County are owned by Tenet. Another 29 percent of Santa Barbara’s hospital beds were acquired by CHW in 1997 with the affiliation of the Sisters of St. Francis. Independent companies hold all of Monterey County’s hospital beds at this time. Sacramento Valley Cities Two of Redding’s major hospitals are affiliated with multi-hospital corporations. Catholic Healthcare West has owned over one-third of the area’s hospital beds since Mercy Hospital of Redding became one of the original CHW hospitals in 1986. In 1987, NME acquired a hospital in Redding, accounting for another third of Shasta County’s hospital beds. This hospital is now owned by Tenet. Chico has also experienced stable hospital ownership in the past decade. Enloe Medical Center and Adventist Health control just less than 20 percent of the region’s beds each. None of the Yuba City metropolitan area’s hospitals are affiliated with a multi-hospital corporation. Rural California The bulk of hospital merger activity in California has occurred in urban areas; less than 10 percent of ownership changes between 1986 48 and 1996 occurred in rural areas. About one-third of the rural ownership changes involved Westworld Community Healthcare. Since Westworld’s bankruptcy a decade ago, for-profit multi-hospital corporations have not been willing to enter rural markets in California. Some of California’s rural hospitals are owned by nonprofit multihospital corporations. Adventist Health has a strong presence in rural California, controlling 21 percent of the state’s rural hospital beds. CHW owns 13 percent of rural beds, and Sutter owns 8 percent. The Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange own 5 percent of the rural hospital beds in the state. Over half of the state’s rural hospital beds are not affiliated with one of these corporations. 49 5. Directions for Future Research The data presented in this report show that most ownership changes in California’s hospital industry involved mergers into large, multihospital corporations. The majority of ownership changes occurred in urban areas and did not involve changes in the profit status of the hospital. Substantial public attention has been given to the purchases of nonprofit hospitals by for-profit corporations. Only now is California considering the implications of other kinds of ownership changes. Although AB 254 would regulate many hospital sales, regardless of whether they involve a change in profit status, there is little information that state regulators can use to make decisions about which hospital ownership changes should be permitted. A hospital’s profit status and ownership may affect its organization, service mix, and costs as well as access to and quality of care. Researchers have not reached consensus about the relationships between hospital ownership and these policy concerns. In this chapter, we review some of 51 the research that has been conducted in this area and identify issues that need further research. We then outline related research now under way at PPIC. The Importance of Profit Status Research on the effects of changes in hospital ownership has focused primarily on differences between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. In a for-profit hospital, the owner receives all profits, which are taxable by federal and state jurisdictions. Nonprofit hospitals are not allowed to distribute the “profits” from their operations to individuals. In exchange for exemption from most state and federal taxes, nonprofit hospitals are expected to use any net gains to provide community services and to invest in their facilities. Nonprofit hospital organizations generally view themselves differently than for-profit corporations because of their historical affiliation with charitable and religious groups. Many of the first hospitals in the United States were charity institutions organized by religious organizations and wealthy patrons. By the late nineteenth century, however, the role of hospitals had changed from that of poor houses to institutions of high-level care for all income groups. Growth of the hospital industry to current levels occurred primarily in the nonprofit private sector. In the United States, nonprofit hospitals constitute the majority of the hospital industry, with nearly 80 percent of all hospitals categorized as nonprofits (Sanders, 1995). Community Services and Benefits Most discussions of nonprofit hospitals focus on the charitable and community services they provide. Several researchers have argued that 52 nonprofit hospitals do not provide enough services to the community for the value of their preferential tax treatment (Sanders, 1995). In this argument, however, the definition of “community benefit” is controversial. A narrow view of community benefit focuses on the amount of charity care provided by a hospital, which is easy to define and measure. A broader view of community benefit includes activities that benefit the public more generally, such as contracting with essential community providers or conducting research and health education (Gray, 1997). Although the broader view of community benefit is difficult to quantify and measure, it may be the most appropriate one for policymakers to consider. California has wrestled with measuring the community benefits provided by nonprofit hospitals. In 1994, Governor Wilson signed SB 697, which requires that private nonprofit hospitals report annually on the community benefits they provide. The legislation also requires that hospitals assess the health needs of their communities and develop plans in collaboration with the community for addressing these needs.1 Hospitals were given flexibility in defining “community benefit,” and multi-hospital systems were allowed to provide one report for their member hospitals.2 OSHPD was asked to implement the legislation and to prepare a report to the legislature after the first set of reports were filed (Werdegar, Smoley, and Wilson, 1998). The community benefits most often cited by hospitals include health education classes, charity care, counseling and support groups, health information resources (such as ____________ 1The legislation requires that the needs assessment be reviewed at least once every three years. 2Kaiser Permanente, Adventist Health Systems, and Catholic Healthcare West provided system reports, and some other hospitals with the same ownership reported jointly. 53 health fairs and helplines), patient transportation and home health services, and health screenings. A variety of other services and programs were reported, including the provision of career development support to schools, medical professional training, and “social activities.” OSHPD recommends that consistent methods be developed for measuring the economic value of community benefits activities, as there was substantial variation in the values assigned by hospitals. Adopting the narrow definition of community benefit, many researchers have examined whether for-profit hospitals provide less charity care than nonprofit and public hospitals. One reason for this approach is that charity care is easily measured using hospital financial reports.3 Not surprisingly, most studies find that nonprofit facilities spend more on uncompensated and charity care than do for-profit hospitals (Lewin, Eckles, and Miller, 1988; Marmor, Schlesinger, and Smithey, 1986; Shukla, Pestian, and Clement, 1997). Nonprofit hospitals also appear to admit more uninsured and Medicaid patients than do for-profit hospitals (Frank, Salkever, and Mullan, 1990; Gray, 1997). However, it is difficult to compare charity care provided by nonprofit and for-profit hospitals because the need for charity care varies across cities and states. One study found that for-profit and nonprofit hospitals located in the same area serve an equal number of uninsured patients, but that for-profit hospitals indirectly avoid uninsured patients ____________ 3Most researchers define charity care to include uncompensated care, charity care, and bad debt. Bad debt usually consists of unpaid medical bills due from uninsured recipients of hospital services. These self-paying patients are typically from low-income households and often have limited ability to pay their medical bills. For-profit hospitals appear to be more likely to seek payment from low-income patients (Mateo and Rossi, 1999). Thus, a higher share of the “charity care” they provide is bad debt. Some observers object to considering bad debts as part of charity care (Mateo and Rossi, 1999; Sister Terese Marie Perry, personal communication, September 7, 1999). 54 by locating in areas with high rates of health insurance coverage (Norton and Staiger, 1994). Studies of charity care and other measurable benefits provided by hospitals do not examine all the benefits nonprofit hospitals provide to communities. Nonprofit hospitals may generate several intangible benefits not provided by their for-profit counterparts. First, it can be advantageous for regulators to work with nonprofit hospitals. Because tax exemptions can be used to further government objectives, policymakers have more influence over nonprofit hospitals. For example, policymakers can establish charity care requirements for hospitals to maintain their nonprofit tax status. Second, nonprofit hospitals may be more trustworthy. Because patients have less information about the care they should receive than physicians and hospitals, they are at risk for being exploited by unscrupulous health care providers. Many researchers have established that physician behavior is influenced by the profit motive (Gray, 1997; Gruber and Owings, 1996). Theoretically, nonprofit health care organizations do not have as much conflict between their self-interest and the interests of their patients. Thus, nonprofit hospitals provide additional value to the community insofar as their decisions are less influenced by the desire to maximize profit. Unfortunately, it is not possible to quantify the social value of either tax exemption as a policy tool or the trustworthiness of nonprofit hospitals. Although there are differences in the amount of charity care provided by nonprofit and for-profit hospitals, the full community benefit of nonprofit hospitals cannot be assessed objectively. 55 Hospital Operations, Costs, and Prices Most studies find that for-profit hospitals price their services more aggressively than their nonprofit competitors and thus enjoy higher net incomes (Keeler, Melnick, and Zwanziger, 1999; Lynk, 1995a, 1995b; Pattison and Katz, 1983; Shukla, Pestian, and Clement, 1997; Watt et al., 1986). In addition, they have an incentive to operate more efficiently than nonprofit hospitals. However, many researchers have found no clear difference between the costs and efficiency of nonprofit and forprofit hospitals (Becker and Sloan, 1985; Ermann and Gabel, 1984; Mobley and Bradford, 1997; Register and Bruning, 1987; Renn et al., 1985; Shukla, Pestian, and Clement, 1997; Watt et al., 1986). In fact, some researchers have found that there are higher costs and lower efficiency among for-profit hospitals (Ozcan, Luke, and Haksever, 1992; Pattison and Katz, 1983; Woolhandler and Himmelstein, 1997). For-profit hospitals could achieve lower costs than nonprofit hospitals in several ways. They could use inputs more efficiently (staff, facilities, and supplies), decrease administrative costs, or change the mix of services they provide. Several of the aforementioned studies of hospital costs have examined whether the staffing levels of nonprofit and for-profit hospitals differ. Most researchers find that for-profit hospitals employ fewer staff per patient day or discharge (Mark, 1999; Renn et al., 1985; Watt et al., 1986). However, none of these studies disaggregates staffing enough to consider implications of staffing differences for the quality of care. Most studies find that for-profit hospitals have significantly higher administrative costs than do nonprofit facilities (Watt et al., 1986; Woolhandler and Himmelstein, 1997). There has been virtually no 56 examination of the effect of profit status on the mix of services provided by hospitals. Patient Outcomes Because for-profit and nonprofit hospitals have different financial incentives regarding patient care, there may be ownership-based differences in the quality of care. A few researchers have examined this issue. The Institute of Medicine examined data from the 1980s and concluded there was no overall pattern of either inferior or superior quality in for-profit chain hospitals compared to nonprofit hospitals (Gray, 1986; Gray and McNerney, 1986). Other researchers have reached similar conclusions (Keeler et al., 1992; Shortell and Hughes, 1988), but other studies have identified higher adjusted mortality rates in for-profit hospitals (Hartz et al., 1989). Most of these studies compare for-profit hospitals to nonprofit hospitals in a single year or several-year cross-section. It would be valuable to compare mortality rates of hospitals that convert their ownership status to those with stable ownership. Nonprofit to For-Profit Conversions: Special Policy Issues Under current law, the Attorney General is required to evaluate whether a proposed conversion deal is fair and reasonable, whether there is breach of trust, whether private gain is a possibility, and whether the sale is in the public interest (Isenberg and Battson, 1997). Under this legislation, the Attorney General retains consultants to create a health effect statement for the proposed merger. Protection of public assets in a conversion is governed by state charitable trust laws, under which the dissolution of a charitable organization requires that all proceeds from 57 the sale be used toward charitable purposes to continue to carry out the original purpose of the charitable organization. In most cases, a new foundation is formed. Charitable trust doctrine also applies to the sale of one nonprofit hospital to another nonprofit hospital, although this is rarely an issue. A major issue in the creation of a charitable foundation is the valuation of charitable assets of the hospital. Another issue is the way in which foundations choose to spend the public’s money. One cause for concern is the overlap of board membership and management of the forprofit hospital and the nonprofit foundation. Under Internal Revenue Service rules, charitable foundations and for-profit hospitals must operate independently from each other, but individuals may hold board membership in both organizations. Critics fear that foundations could allow for-profit hospitals to avoid providing services for the community. There is a need for systematic research and monitoring of newly created conversion foundations. The Behavior of Multi-Hospital Corporations The growth of multi-hospital corporations raises a different set of issues than the distinction between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. Regardless of their profit status, hospitals affiliated with multi-hospital organizations may reap benefits from their affiliation, including increased access to capital, lower local administrative costs, and the ability to consolidate expensive services into referral centers. Nonprofit multihospital firms also may allow independent nonprofit hospitals that are losing money to maintain their charitable missions (Claxton et al., 1997). Even so, policymakers and analysts are concerned that multi-hospital firms are less responsive to local needs than locally controlled hospitals, 58 that they reduce charitable services to communities, and that they raise costs by engaging in monopolistic behavior. There is a small but growing literature on these issues. Hospital Costs and Market Power In regions with concentrated hospital ownership, it is possible that hospitals use their market power to increase reimbursement rates from insurance companies. In fact, this happened in Sacramento last year. In May 1998, Sutter Health, which has a strong presence in the San Francisco and Sacramento areas, threatened to cancel its contracts for Blue Cross’s Prudent Buyer and CaliforniaCare insurance plans because the reimbursements offered by Blue Cross were lower than Sutter desired. While negotiations continued between Sutter and Blue Cross, Mercy Healthcare of Sacramento, an affiliate of Catholic Healthcare West, threatened to drop its contract unless reimbursements were increased. These developments left Blue Cross with the prospect that only the UC Davis Medical Center would accept Blue Cross patients in the Sacramento area. In June, Blue Cross and Sutter reached a three-year agreement for Sutter’s acute care hospitals. By this time, however, Catholic Healthcare West and Columbia/HCA had joined the group of hospitals demanding higher reimbursements from Blue Cross. As in the Sutter Health negotiations, Catholic Healthcare West announced the cancellation of its contract with Blue Cross. A last-minute agreement was reached in early July. Although the details of these agreements were not made public, they almost certainly involved substantial increases in hospital reimbursements. Recent reports indicate that other hospitals have learned from the experience of Sutter and Catholic Healthcare West in Sacramento. 59 Three San Gabriel Valley hospitals reportedly forced Blue Cross to increase reimbursement rates (Reich, 1999), Orange County’s St. Joseph Health System reportedly is pushing two health maintenance organizations to provide greater reimbursements, and the San Mateo County independent practice association is taking a firm stance in its negotiation with Aetna (Crabtree, 1999). In all of these cases, the hospitals state that insurance reimbursements have not been covering their costs and they are bargaining more aggressively to maintain their financial viability. Systematic studies of hospital mergers generally found that hospital prices are higher in more concentrated markets (Gaynor and Vogt, 1999). In addition, most studies of hospital mergers found that these mergers increase prices (Gaynor and Vogt, 1999). In their own analysis, Melnick, Keeler, and Zwanziger (1999) also found significant price increases among hospitals that merge. The price increases identified in most of the studies published to date do not necessarily reflect increases in the cost of hospital care. For example, using 1990 data, Menke (1997) found that hospitals affiliated with multi-hospital corporations had lower costs. Other studies, however, have measured higher costs among affiliated hospitals (Ermann and Gabel, 1984; Levitz and Brooke, 1985). Multi-hospital firms might be more efficient and thus have lower costs than independent hospitals for several reasons. First, corporate and system-affiliated hospitals may have greater access to capital and thus be better able to invest in improvements, as found in some studies (Levitz and Brooke, 1985). Second, multi-hospital corporations might lead to a reorganization of hospital services by the new owner. For example, Sinay (1997) found that hospital mergers led to a reduction of costs because 60 hospitals eliminated excess beds and hired part-time personnel. In contrast, Ermann and Gabel (1984), using data from 1960 through 1980, found no difference in service mix or staff qualifications after hospital mergers. Alexander, Halpern, and Lee (1996) found modest operational changes with mergers, and that those mergers occurring in the late 1980s produced more pronounced changes than those in the early part of the decade. There is a dearth of recent research on the effects of hospital mergers on the operations of hospitals; we do not know whether and to what extent multi-hospital corporations consolidate services, alter staffing, or increase administrative overhead. State and federal agencies can challenge mergers and acquisitions on antitrust grounds. Merger decisions of the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice are based on careful definition of the relevant hospital market (which may not be the MSA in which the hospital is located), examination of the concentration of the hospital market, consideration of other independent hospitals in the market, and an assessment of whether efficiencies gained from the merger might offset anticompetitive effects (Gaynor and Vogt, 1999; Vistnes, 1995). The possibility that multi-hospital firms are more efficient than independent hospitals has affected some antitrust decisions. In Michigan, the courts were persuaded that a nonprofit merger would lead to price reductions rather than increases and allowed the merger to proceed (Pak, 1997). Moreover, increasing health care costs are not necessarily detrimental to the public. Rising health care costs may reflect higher quality of patient care or a greater dedication of resources to charity care; on the other hand, increases in health care costs can reduce access to medical care for the poor. 61 A recent study found that state agencies are more willing to approve mergers than federal authorities (Hellinger, 1998). State agencies often establish requirements for mergers, such as agreements to restrain price increases, provide charity care, and limit profits. The acquisition of Alexian Brothers Hospital in San Jose by Columbia/HCA provides an example of conditional approval provided by state authorities (Shinkman, 1999). The Alexian Brothers, a Catholic health system based in Illinois, and Columbia/HCA agreed to exchange Alexian Brothers Hospital in San Jose for two Columbia/HCA hospitals in Illinois. Columbia/HCA owns three other hospitals in Santa Clara County, and the addition of Alexian Brothers Hospital would give Columbia/HCA over half the hospital beds in San Jose. The Attorney General delayed the transaction to complete an anti-trust analysis and approved the deal with the provision that Columbia/HCA make $15 million in capital improvements, spend at least $2 million annually on charity care, limit price increases, donate $4 million to a nearby Catholic-owned hospital, and file annual compliance reports for five years (Consumers Union and Community Catalyst, 1999). Access to Care Analysts have expressed concern about the transfer of charitable assets from local control in independent nonprofit hospitals to corporate control in multi-hospital firms (Alexander and Schroer, 1985; Scott, 1997). Differences in the charitable strategies of independent and affiliated hospitals may lead to differences in access to care in local communities. For example, if a multi-hospital firm dedicates its charitable resources to inpatient hospital care rather than operating outpatient clinics, primary care access may decline when that multi- 62 hospital firm acquires a local hospital. This possibility is partially offset by California’s requirement that nonprofit hospitals develop charitable benefits plans in conjunction with their local communities. Access to care also might be affected by changes in the services offered by multi-hospital firms. A multi-hospital firm may elect to consolidate expensive services into referral centers, thus reducing unnecessary duplication of services and lowering costs. This cost-saving behavior may reduce access to care by local residents. The extent to which this is a concern depends on which services are consolidated and characteristics of the communities involved. We identified no research that considers these issues. Patient Outcomes Changes in the operations of hospitals and the consolidation of services may lead to changes in the quality of medical care. Quality of care can be measured in several ways, including length of stay and mortality, readmission, complication, and procedure rates. In a recent study, Hamilton and Ho (1998) found that mergers and acquisitions did not have an effect on inpatient mortality for myocardial infarction and stroke, but that consolidations increased readmission rates for Medicare patients with myocardial infarction. They also identified a correlation between hospital consolidations and length of stay for certain groups of patients. They concluded that there was no systematic evidence that changes in hospital ownership were associated with increases in length of stay or mortality. We hope this study lays the groundwork for further research on whether multi-hospital firms provide higher or lower quality medical care than independent hospitals. 63 The PPIC Study More information about the effects of ownership on hospital operations is necessary to make decisions about the delivery of care that affects the health of Californians. For this reason, we are continuing our research of changes in hospital ownership in California, using the data described in this report as a starting point for our analyses. We plan to continue updating our data on changes in hospital ownership, but we hope that OSHPD will track this information more thoroughly in the future. If AB 254 is enacted, many future ownership changes will be considered by the Attorney General, providing policymakers and researchers with substantially more information about changes in hospital ownership than is available now. In our ongoing study, we are examining • Whether changes in hospital ownership affect the staffing of registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, unlicensed aides and orderlies, salaried physicians, management and supervisory staff, and clerical and administrative staff. We are considering the effects of both mergers and changes in profit status on staffing patterns and whether the major hospital corporations in California have standard staffing patterns to which their newly acquired hospitals conform. • Whether multi-hospital firms consolidate their services into referral centers. If they do, we will examine which services are consolidated and what factors might lead a corporation to decide to create referral centers. We also are studying whether forprofit conversions result in changes in the mix of services provided by hospitals. • The effects of hospital ownership changes on access to care and the provision of charity care. 64 • Whether changes in hospital ownership affect the quality of medical care provided, by considering mortality rates, cesarean section rates, and complication rates. We hope that our analyses, combined with previous and new research by others, will help policymakers make informed decisions about changes in hospital ownership. 65 6. Conclusion Over the past decade, a large number of hospitals changed ownership. In 1993 and 1994, nearly 10 percent of California’s hospitals changed hands. Contrary to public perception, however, few of these transactions involved the conversion of a hospital from nonprofit to forprofit ownership. The vast majority of ownership changes have been affiliations and transfers either between nonprofit hospitals and nonprofit organizations or among for-profit companies. The consolidation of hospitals into multi-hospital corporations is becoming increasingly important in the health care industry, as multi-hospital firms are associated with higher prices for medical care (Bellandi, 1999; Hassett and Hubbard, 1998; Hyman, 1998). The trend toward consolidation in the hospital industry has led to the concentration of hospital ownership in the hands of several major nonprofit and for-profit corporations in California, including Tenet Healthcare Corporation, Columbia/HCA, Catholic Healthcare West, and Sutter Health. Catholic Healthcare West controls the largest 67 number of hospitals in California and, with the recent purchase of UniHealth, has a strong presence in the Sacramento, San Francisco, and Los Angeles regions. Kaiser Permanente also operates a large number of hospitals in these three regions. Sutter Health is expanding its presence in the San Francisco Bay area to the extent that the Attorney General is seeking to block a proposed merger. Sales of nonprofit hospitals to for-profit corporations caused such concern that state legislators intervened. Assembly Bill 3101 strengthened the state’s authority over the conversion of assets from nonprofit hospitals. This bill was landmark legislation in the health care arena. Previously unregulated transactions involving nonprofit hospitals are now carefully scrutinized by state regulators using new criteria to protect the loss of public assets. At the same time, the vast majority of hospital ownership changes in California have not involved a change in the profit status of the hospital and thus have not been closely examined. The state has relatively little ability to regulate these transactions, and there is little documentation of them. Changes in hospital ownership raise many concerns for policymakers. Community health and hospital costs may be affected by the development of monopolies, the conversion of nonprofit hospitals, the loss of local control over charitable assets, the consolidation of services, and changes in staffing. Because there is an urgent need for policymakers and regulators to understand how hospital ownership changes affect Californians, we are continuing our research on this important issue. By providing information about how the ownership of hospitals is changing in California, we hope this report sparks a discussion of the issues raised here and encourages other researchers to examine the changing hospital industry in California. 68 Appendix Hospital Ownership Changes This appendix lists changes in hospital ownership identified for this study. We list the date of the ownership change as the beginning of the first fiscal year for which the new owner reported data to OSHPD. Although we made every effort to ensure that these data are accurate, there may be errors. We ask that we be notified of any additions or corrections so that these data are as complete as possible. 69 Table A.1 List of Hospitals That Changed Ownership Between 1986 and 1996 in California 70 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1986 Hospital Name North Kern Hospital 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 Church of St. Matthew Mills Memorial Hospital Sutter Solano Medical Center St. Luke Medical Center Mercy General Hospital Mercy San Juan Hospital Mercy Hospital of Folsom French Hospital Medical Center 1986 Modoc Medical Center 1986 Bay Cities Medical Center 1986 1986 Buena Park Doctors Hospital Anaheim General Hospital New Owner Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Mills-Peninsula Corporation Previous Owner Lynne E. Gair, MD, and Thetis Gair Church of St. Matthew Mills Sutter Solano Medical Center Summit Health, Ltd. Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Summit Health, Ltd. Washoe Medical Center/County of Modoc Jupiter Hospital Corporation Jupiter Hospital Corporation Anaheim General Hospital Ltd. Partnership Vallejo General Hospital Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange Sisters of Mercy of Auburn Sisters of Mercy of Auburn Sister of Mercy of Auburn American Medical International, Inc. Mercy Hospitals of Modoc, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. American Medical International American Medical International City Wasco San Mateo Vallejo Pasadena Sacramento Carmichael Folsom San Luis Obispo Alturas Hawthorne Buena Park Anaheim Table A.1 (continued) 71 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1986 1986 1986 Hospital Name The General Hospital Mercy Hospital, Bakersfield Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 Mercy Hospital St. Mary’s Hospital and Medical Center Mayers Memorial Hospital Sierra Valley Community Hospital Mercy Hospital of Mt. Shasta St. John’s Regional Medical Center Calexico Hospital 1986 1986 1986 Long Beach Health and Allied Services, Inc. Huntington Intercommunity Hospital, Inc. Willits Hospital, Inc. New Owner Brim and Associates Catholic Healthcare West St. Mary’s Central Nevada Health Care Corp. Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Washoe Health System Washoe Health System Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Long Beach Health and Allied Services, Inc. Humana Hospitals, Inc. Adventist Health Systems Previous Owner Hospital Corporation of California Sisters of Mercy Eskaton Health Corporation City Eureka Bakersfield Susanville Sisters of Mercy Mercy Health System San Diego San Francisco Mayers Memorial Hospital District Sierra Valley Hospital District Eskaton Health Corp. Sisters of Mercy, Burlingame Heffernan Memorial Hospital District Long Beach Hospital, Inc. Fall River Mills Loyalton Mt. Shasta Oxnard Calexico Long Beach Huntington Intercommunity Hospital Frank R. Howard Memorial Hospital Huntington Beach Willits Table A.1 (continued) 72 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1986 1986 1986 1986 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 Hospital Name Scripps Memorial Hospital-Chula Vista Laurel Grove Hospital American Hospital Management Corp. American River Hospital Sutter Coast Hospital Hanford Community Hospital Robert F. Kennedy Medical Center Chowchilla District Memorial Hospital Mission Community Hospital Northbay Hospital Group Sonora Community Hospital Valley Hospital Limited Partnership Corning Hospital District New Owner Scripps Memorial Corporation Previous Owner Bay Hospital Medical Center City Chula Vista Eden Township Hospital District Community Hospital Association Alta Bates Health Corporation Sutter Health Adventist Health Systems Robert F. Kennedy Medical Center Chowchilla District Memorial Hospital Mission Viejo Medical Company Northbay Hospital Group Adventist Health Systems Valley Hospital Limited Partnership Corning Hospital District Republic Health Corporation Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Eskaton Health Corporation District hospital Hanford Community Hospital Hawthorne Community Hospital, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Mission Community Hospital, Inc. Central Solano County Hospital Foundation Sonora Community Hospital American Healthcare Management, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Castro Valley Hoopa Carmichael Crescent City Hanford Hawthorne Chowchilla Mission Viejo Fairfield Sonora Pomona Corning 73 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1987 1987 Hospital Name Heffernan Memorial Hospital District Trinity Hospital 1987 H & W Medical Facilities, Inc. 1987 1987 1987 Ojai Valley Community Hospital Marin General Hospital Bear Valley Community Hospital 1987 Mountains Community Hospital 1987 City of Needles, California 1987 General Health Services, Inc. 1987 Community Hospital of Gardena 1987 Encino Hospital Corp., Inc. 1987 Ukiah Hospital Corporation Table A.1 (continued) New Owner Heffernan Memorial Hospital District Trinity County H & W Medical Facilities, Inc. Affiliated Medical Enterprises, Inc . Marin Health Systems, Inc. Bear Valley Community Hospital District Mountains Community Hospital District City of Needles, California Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Previous Owner Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Metropolitan Investment Company, Inc. Nme Hospitals, Inc. Marin Hospital District Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Hospital Corporation of America, Inc. Hospital Corporation of America, Inc. Hospital Corporation of America, Inc. Hospital Corporation of America City Calexico Weaverville Los Angeles Ojai Greenbrae Big Bear Lake Lake Arrowhead Needles Culver City Gardena Encino Ukiah Table A.1 (continued) 74 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 Hospital Name College Hospital Costa Mesa New Owner College Hospital La Habra Community Hospital, Inc. Health Services Acquisition, Inc. Sebastopol Hospital Corporation Unihealth America Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Unihealth America Pioneer Hospital, a California Ltd. Partnership Santa Monica Hospital Medical Center Martin Luther Hospital Medical Center Herrick Foundation Hospital Corporation of La Habra Methodist Hospital of Sacramento Barstow Health Systems, Inc. Ralph K. Davies Medical Center Santa Barbara Cottage Care Center Healdsburg General Hospital Delamo Corp., Medical Vesting Corp. Unihealth America Unihealth America Alta Bates Corporation Hospital Associates of La Habra Valley Health Care Corporation City of Barstow Franklin Holding Corporation Santa Barbara Cottage Care Center Epic Healthcare Group, Inc. Previous Owner Costa Mesa Medical Center Hospital Hospital Corporation of America Hospital Corporation of America Hospital Corporation of America Lutheran Hospital Society of Southern California Del Amo Corporation and Kathryn Mullikin-Johnson Lutheran Hospital Society of Southern California Martin Luther Hospital, Inc. Herrick Foundation Healthtrust, Inc. Methodist Hospital of Sacramento City of Barstow Ralph K. Davies Medical Center Pinecrest Hospital American Medical International, Inc. City Costa Mesa La Habra Chino Sebastopol Los Angeles Artesia Santa Monica Anaheim Berkeley La Habra Sacramento Barstow San Francisco Santa Barbara Healdsburg Table A.1 (continued) 75 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1989 1989 1989 1989 Hospital Name Sun Valley Health Group, Inc. Huntington Health Group, Inc. Northridge Hospital Medical Center Valley Hospital Medical Center La Palma Hospital Medical Center Lindsay Hospital Medical Center Visalia Community Hospital Centinela Mammoth Hospital Dominican Santa Cruz Hospital Westside Hospital Valley Medical Center TPHC, Inc. Herrick Foundation Loma Linda Community Hospital Affiliated Medical Enterprises Brotman Partners, Ltd. Partnership New Owner Affiliated Medical Enterprises Affiliated Medical Enterprises Unihealth America Unihealth America Unihealth America Unihealth America Epic Healthcare Group Southern Mono Hospital District Catholic Healthcare West Epic Healthcare Group Epic Healthcare Group Nu Med, Inc., and TPHC, Inc. Alta Bates Corporation Adventist Health Systems Affiliated Medical Enterprises Brotman Partners, Ltd. Partnership Previous Owner American Health Group International, Inc. American Health Group International, Inc. Healthwest Foundation Healthwest Foundation Healthwest Healthwest American Medical International, Inc. Centinela Mammoth Hospital Dominican Santa Cruz Hospital American Medical International, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. Nu Med, Inc. Alta Bates Corporation Loma Linda Community Hospital Palmdale Health Group, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. City Sun Valley Huntington Beach Northridge Van Nuys La Palma Lindsay Visalia Mammoth Lakes Santa Cruz Los Angeles El Cajon Baldwin Park Berkeley Loma Linda Palmdale Culver City Table A.1 (continued) 76 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1989 1989 Hospital Name Samaritan Medical Center-San Clemente Long Beach Doctors Hospital 1989 Modoc Medical Center 1989 O’Connor Hospital 1989 1989 Mayers Memorial Hospital Kingsburg District Hospital 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 Bellflower Doctors Hospital Bay Cities Medical Center Rio Hondo Hospital Los Angeles Doctors Hospital CHHSC, Inc. San Bernardino Mountains Community Hospital District San Gabriel Valley Medical Center Long Beach Community Hospital Association New Owner Physican Associates Committed to Excellence (PACE) Long Beach Beach Doctors Hospital County of Modoc Daughters of Charity Health Systems West Mayers Memorial Hospital District Kingsburg Hospital District Asklepios Hospital Corporation Asklepios Hospital Corporation Rio Hondo Hospital Asklepios Hospital Corporation CHHSC, Inc. Mountains Community Hospital District Unihealth Unihealth Previous Owner American Healthcare Management Corp. Long Beach Health and Allied Services, Inc. Washoe Health Network/Modoc County O’Connor Health Services Corporation Washoe Health Systems Westworld Community Healthcare, Inc. Jupiter Hospital Corporation Jupiter Hospital Corporation Republic Health Corporation Jupiter Hospital Corporation Republic Health Corporation Mountains Community Hospital District San Gabriel Valley Medical Center Long Beach Community Hospital, Inc. City San Clemente Long Beach Alturas San Jose Fall River Mills Kingsburg Bellflower Hawthorne Downey Los Angeles Sacramento Lake Arrowhead San Gabriel Long Beach Table A.1 (continued) 77 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1989 1989 1989 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 Hospital Name Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital Doctors Hospital of West Covina Pacific Alliance Medical Center Mark Twain Saint Joseph’s Hospital Marina Hills Hospital Glendale Adventist Medical Center Universal Health Services of Westlake, Inc. Linda Vista Community Hospital Partners Glencomm Ltd. New Owner Santa Clarita Health Care Association Doctors Hospital of West Covina Pacific Alliance Medical Center Ltd. Mark Twain St. Joseph’s Healthcare Corporation Ladera Heights Community Hospital, Inc. Adventist Health Systems Westlake Community Hospital Linda Vista Hospital Partners Glencomm Ltd. 1990 1990 1990 1990 TPHC, Inc. Sanders Medical Complex, Inc. Rio Hondo Memorial Hospital Desert Hospital Corporation Terrace Plaza Joint Venture Sanders Medical Complex, Inc. Downey Health Services Foundation Desert Hospital Systems Previous Owner Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital Paracelsus Healthcare Corporation French Hospital of Los Angeles City Valencia West Covina Los Angeles Mark Twain Hospital District San Andreas Marina Hills Los Angeles Glendale Adventist Medical Center Glendale Universal Health Services, Inc. Westlake Village American Healthcare Management, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. Nu Med, Inc., and TPHC, Inc. O. Richard Harris Rio Hondo Hospital Los Angeles Glendora Baldwin Park Sanger Downey Desert Hospital Systems Palm Springs Table A.1 (continued) 78 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 Hospital Name New Owner Mount Zion Hospital & Medical University of California Center of UCSF Rideout Hospital Foundation United Communities Medical Services Healthcare Medical Center of Tustin Concept Health Group, Inc. Buena Park Doctors Hospital Asklepios Hospital Corporation Bear Valley Community Hospital Bear Valley Community Hospital District District Thompson Memorial Medical Gateway Healthcare of Burbank, Center Inc. Valley Hospital Linda Valenti Coast Plaza Doctors Hospital Coast Plaza Doctors Hospital California Pacific Medical Center— California Pacific Medical Center California Campus Hospital Affiliates of Florida, Inc. Hospital Affiliates of Florida, Inc. Vista Hospital Systems, Inc. Vista Hospital Systems, Inc. 1991 Sherman Oaks Hospital & Health Center Triad Healthcare Previous Owner Mount Zion Hospital and Medical Center Rideout Hospital Foundation, Inc. City San Francisco Marysville Healthcare International, Inc. Jupiter Hospital Corporation Bear Valley Hospital District Tustin Buena Park Big Bear Lake Burbank Community Hospital Burbank Valley Hospital Ltd. Partnership Nu-Med, Inc. Children’s Hospital of San Francisco Republic Health Corporation American Medical International, Inc. Nu Med, Inc. Pomona Norwalk San Francisco Los Angeles Arroyo Grande Sherman Oaks Table A.1 (continued) 79 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 Hospital Name West Valley Hospital & Health Center Mercy American River Hospital Sanger General Hospital Grossmont Hospital Corporation Bakersfield Memorial Hospital Hemet Valley Medical Center Menifee Valley Medical Center California Pacific Medical Center— Pacific Campus The Good Samaritan Hospital of Santa Clara Valley San Jose Medical Center Fremont Hospital Rideout Hospital Foundation Memorial Hospital of Gardena New Owner Triad Healthcare Previous Owner Nu Med, Inc. Catholic Healthcare West Sanger General Hospital, a General Partnership Grossmont Hospital Corporation Memorial Health System, Inc. Valley Health System, A California Hospital District Valley Health System California Pacific Medical Center Health Dimensions, Inc. Health Dimensions, Inc. Fremont Rideout Health Group Fremont Rideout Health Group Century Medicorp Alta Bates Corporation Sanders Medical Complex, Inc. Grossmont District Hospital Bakersfield Memorial Hospital Association Hemet Valley Hospital District Hemet Valley Hospital District Pacific Presbyterian Medical Center Good Samaritan Hospital of Santa Clara Valley San Jose Medical Center Fremont Hospital United Communities Medical Services Republic Health Corporation City Canoga Park Carmichael Sanger La Mesa Bakersfield Hemet Sun City San Francisco San Jose San Jose Yuba City Marysville Gardena Table A.1 (continued) 80 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 Hospital Name Alhambra Hospital Coastal Communities Hospital Harbor View Health Partners Glendale Memorial Hospital and Health Center Green Hospital of Scripps Clinic Delta Memorial Hospital Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. New Owner Alhambra Community Hospital Ltd. Partnership OrNda HealthCorp OrNda HealthCorp Unihealth America Scripps Memorial Corporation Sutter Health Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. Gardena Physicians’ Hospital Auburn Faith Community Hospital, Inc. Corona Regional Medical Center Gardena Physicians Hospital Sutter Healthcommunity Hospital, Inc. Corona Regional Medical Center Summit Medical Center Summit Medical Center National Health Administrators National Health Administrators Healthcare Medical Center of Tustin Healthcare International, Inc. Central California Foundation for Central California Foundation for Health Health Previous Owner Alhambra Community Hospital Republic Health Corporation Republic Health Corporation Glendale Memorial Health Corporation Hospital Corporation of America Delta Memorial Hospital St. Mary’s Central Nevada Health Care Corp. Healthtrust, Inc. Auburn Faith Community Hospital, Inc. Circle City Medical Center—Vista Hospital System Merritt Peralta Medical Center Sunshine Health Systems, Inc. Concept Health Group, Inc. Wesley Bilson City Alhambra Santa Ana San Diego Glendale La Jolla Antioch Susanville Gardena Auburn Corona Oakland Perris Tustin Delano 81 Table A.1 (continued) First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 Hospital Name Lakeside Community Hospital Hospital Subsidiary, Inc. El Camino Healthcare System South Valley Hospital Mercy Hospital of Redding, Inc. Sierra Valley Hospital District SLCO, Inc. Bellflower Medical Center Hawthorne Hospital Los Angeles Metropolitan Medical Center West Hills Hospital Buena Park Medical Center Huntington Intercommunity Hospital West Anaheim Community Hospital Grossmont Hospital Corporation Panorama Community Hospital Pacifica Hospital Care Center New Owner Sutter Lakeside Hospital Foundation Health El Camino Healthcare System Health Dimensions, Inc. Catholic Healthcare West Sierra Valley Hospital SLCO, Inc. Pacific Health Corporation Pacific Health Corporation Pacific Health Corporation Galen, Inc. Pacific Health Corporation Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corporation Columbia Healthcare Corporation San Diego Hospital Association Panorama Community Hospital Tom Broderick, Craig Johnson and Burr Dilday Previous Owner Lakeside Community Hospital Century Medicorp El Camino Hospital District South Valley Hospital Mercy Hospital of Redding, Inc. Washoe Health System Humana, Inc. Asklepios Hospital Corporation Asklepios Hospital Corporation Asklepios Hospital Corporation Humana, Inc. Asklepios Hospital Corporation Humana, Inc. Humana, Inc. Grossmont Hospital Universal Health Services, Inc. Affiliated Medical Enterprises City Lakeport Gardena Mountain View Gilroy Redding Loyalton San Leandro Bellflower Hawthorne Los Angeles West Hills Buena Park Huntington Beach Anaheim La Mesa Panorama City Huntington Beach Table A.1 (continued) 82 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 Hospital Name Biggs-Gridley Memorial Hospital Encino/Tarzana Regional Medical Center Cigna Hospital of Los Angeles, Inc. AHM/CGH, Inc. Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Samaritan Medical Center—San Clemente Palo Verde Hospital St. Mary Desert Valley Hospital Mills Peninsula Hospitals—Mills Hospital Mills Peninsula Hospitals— Peninsula Hospital Hospital of Barstow, Inc. Central Valley General Hospital Sutter Amador Hospital Scripps Hospital East County New Owner Bloss Memorial Hospital American Medical International Previous Owner Biggs-Gridley Memorial Hospital, Inc. Health Trust, Inc. City Gridley Encino Cigna Hospital of Los Angeles OrNda HealthCorp Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Samaritan Health Services Brim Hospitals, Inc. St. Joseph Health System Mills-Peninsula Health System Power, Inc. American Healthcare Management, Inc. Hospital Associates of La Habra Physician Associates Committed to Excellence Palo Verde Hospital Association St. Mary Desert Valley Hospital Mills-Peninsula Corporation Los Angeles Orange La Habra San Clemente Blythe Apple Valley San Mateo Mills-Peninsula Health System Mills-Peninsula Corporation Burlingame Community Health Systems, Inc. Central Valley General Hospital Sutter Health Scripps Hospital Institutes City of Barstow Catholic Health Corp. Amador County Epic Healthcare Group Barstow Hanford Jackson El Cajon Table A.1 (continued) 83 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 Hospital Name Greater El Monte Community Hospital Visalia Community Hospital Avalon Medical Development Corporation Inter-Community Medical Center Long Beach Doctors Hospital Midway Hospital Medical Center San Pedro Peninsula Hospital Santa Marta Hospital Whittier Hospital Medical Center Santa Ana Hospital Medical Center Methodist Hospital of Sacramento French Hospital Medical Center Valley Community Hospital Good Samaritan Hospital of Santa Clara Valley San Jose Medical Center South Valley Hospital New Owner OrNda HealthCorp Kaweah Delta Hospital District Avalon Medical Development Corporation Citrus Valley Health Partners Paced Properties OrNda HealthCorp Little Company of Mary Health Services Carondelet Health System OrNda HealthCorp OrNda HealthCorp Catholic Healthcare West OrNda HealthCorp OrNda HealthCorp Good Samaritan Health System Good Samaritan Health System Good Samaritan Health System Previous Owner City American Healthcare Management South El Monte Epic Healthcare Group City of Avalon Visalia Avalon Inter-Community Health Services Long Beach Doctors Hospital Summit Health Ltd. San Pedro Peninsula Hospital Covina Long Beach Los Angeles San Pedro Daughters of Saint Joseph Summit Health Ltd. Summit Health Ltd. Valley Health Care Corporation Summit Health Ltd. Summit Health Ltd. Health Dimensions, Inc. Los Angeles Whittier Santa Ana Sacramento San Luis Obispo Santa Maria San Jose Health Dimensions, Inc. Health Dimensions, Inc. San Jose Gilroy Table A.1 (continued) 84 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994 1994 1994 1994 Hospital Name St. John’s Pleasant Valley Hospital Brotman Medical Center Monterey Park Hospital New Owner Sisters of Mercy, Burlingame OrNda HealthCorp OrNda HealthCorp Palmdale Hospital Medical Center West Hills Hospital Coastal Communities Hospital Covina Valley Community Hospital Charter Suburban Hospital Fountain Valley Regional Hospital Paracelsus Healthcare Corporation Columbia HCA Healthcare Corporation Republic Health Covina Valley Community Hospital Ltd. Quorum Health Resources OrNda HealthCorp Mission Bay Memorial Hospital Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. Mullikin Medical Enterprises Healthtrust, Inc. Saint Mary’s Health Care Corporation Mullikin Management, Inc. Sun Valley Health Group, Inc. Woodruff Community Hospital Pacifica Optima Partners OrNda HealthCorp Previous Owner St. John’s Pleasant Valley Hospital Brotman Partners Ltd. Partnership American Health Care Management, Inc. Affiliated Medical Enterprises Galen, Inc. City Camarillo Culver City Monterey Park Palmdale West Hills OrNda Healthcorp San Gabriel Valley Medical Investments Charter Medical Corporation Fountain Valley Medical Development Company Epic Healthcare Group Lassen Community Hospital, Inc. Santa Ana West Covina Paramount Fountain Valley San Diego Susanville Del Amo Corporation; Medical Vesting Corporation Affiliated Medical Enterprises American Healthcare Management, Inc. Artesia Sun Valley Long Beach Table A.1 (continued) 85 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 Hospital Name Los Robles Regional Medical Center Ojai Valley Community Hospital Notami Hospitals of California Tustin Hospital, Inc. Tarzana/Encino Regional Medical Center Doctors Hospital of Pinole San Ramon Regional Medical Center Garfield Medical Center USC University Hospital—Richard K. Eamer Los Alamitos Medical Center Placentia Linda Community Hospital John F. Kennedy Memorial Hospital Alvarado Hospital Medical Center Doctors Hospital of Manteca Twin Cities Community Hospital Community Hospital of Los Gatos Redding Medical Center New Owner Columbia/HCA Brim Hospitals, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Healthcare America Management Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Tenet Healthcare Corporation Previous Owner Hospital Corporation of America Affiliated Medical Enterprises Epic Healthcare Group Healthcare International, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises National Medical Enterprises City Thousand Oaks Ojai Healdsburg Tustin Tarzana Pinole San Ramon Monterey Park Los Angeles Los Alamitos Placentia Indio San Diego Manteca Templeton Los Gatos Redding Table A.1 (continued) 86 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 Hospital Name Doctors Medical Center of Modesto Camino Healthcare San Fernando Community Hospital Tenet (South Bay Community Hospital) St. Francis Medical Center New Owner Tenet Healthcare Corporation Camino Healthcare Mission Community Hospital Tenet Healthcare Corporation Catholic Healthcare West 1994 1994 St. Francis Memorial Hospital Seton Medical Center Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West 1994 O’Connor Hospital Catholic Healthcare West 1994 Saint Louise Hospital Catholic Healthcare West 1994 1994 U.S. Family Care Medical Center— U.S. Family Care Medical Center Montclair Sierra Vista Regional Medical Center Tenet Healthcare Corporation 1994 San Dimas Community Hospital Tenet Healthcare Corporation Previous Owner National Medical Enterprise, Inc. El Camino Healthcare System Panorama Community Hospital American Medical International, Inc. Daughters of Charity National Health System St. Francis Memorial Hospital Daughters of Charity National Health System Daughters of Charity Health Systems West Daughters of Charity Health Systems West National Medical Enterprises American Medical International, Inc. American Medical International, Inc. City Modesto Mountain View Panorama City Redondo Beach Lynwood San Francisco Daly City San Jose Morgan Hill Montclair San Luis Obispo San Dimas Table A.1 (continued) 87 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 Hospital Name St. Luke Medical Center Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center Irvine Medical Center Sebastopol Hospital Corporation Visalia Community Hospital Suburban Medical Center Brea Community Hospital Corp. Mission Bay Memorial Hospital East Valley Huntington Hospital Medical Center of North Hollywood Sutter Roseville Medical Center Southwest Hospital Development Group, Inc. Vencor Hospital California, Inc. Sherman Oaks Health System Tenet–Garden Grove Hospital and Medical Center New Owner OrNda HealthCorp St. Joseph Health System Tenet Healthcare Corporation Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp. Kaweah Delta Health Care District OrNda HealthCorp Capital America Columbia/HCA Corp. Southern California Healthcare Systems Tenet Healthcare Corporation Sutter Roseville Medical Center Southwest Hospital Development Vencor, Inc. Sherman Oaks Health System Tenet Healthcare Corporation Previous Owner Summit Health Ltd. Mission Viejo Medical Development Co. American Medical International, Inc. Healthtrust, Inc. Kaweah Delta Hospital District Quorum Health Resources Brea Medical Development Healthtrust, Inc. Glencomm Limited American Medical International, Inc. Roseville Hospital National Health Administrators National Medical Enterprises Triad Healthcare American Medical International, Inc. City Pasadena Mission Viejo Irvine Sebastopol Visalia Paramount Brea San Diego Glendora North Hollywood Roseville Perris Ontario Sherman Oaks Garden Grove Table A.1 (continued) 88 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 Hospital Name Notami Hospitals of California Westside Hospital Samaritan Medical Center Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Bakersfield Memorial Hospital St. Mary Medical Center 1995 1995 Santa Monica Hospital Medical Center St. Vincent Medical Center 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 Mercy Hospital Mercy Healthcare North Columbia Chino Valley Medical Center Lindsay District Hospital Alta Bates Medical Center Columbia-San Leandro Hospital Foothill Hospital—Morris C. Johnston Medpartners New Owner Columbia/HCA Columbia Healthcare Columbia/HCA Caremark Catholic Healthcare West Catholic Healthcare West Regents of the University of California Catholic Healthcare West Scripps Health Catholic Healthcare West Columbia Healthcare Previous Owner Healthtrust, Inc. Epic Healthcare Group Samaritan Health Systems Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Memorial Health Systems Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word Unihealth City Healdsburg Los Angeles San Clemente La Habra Bakersfield Long Beach Santa Monica Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent De Paul Catholic Healthcare West Sisters of Mercy Health Trust, Inc. Los Angeles San Diego Red Bluff Chino Sierra View District Hospital Sutter Health Columbia/HCA Citrus Valley Health Partners, Inc. Medpartners Unihealth Alta Bates Health System SLCO Inc., Columbia Foothill Hospital—Morris L. Johnston Memorial Mullikin Management, Inc. Lindsay Berkeley San Leandro Glendora Artesia Table A.1 (continued) 89 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 Hospital Name Citrus Valley Medical Center— Queen of the Valley Campus Westlake Regional Medical Center, Inc. Marin General Hospital Friendly Hills Healthcare Network Columbia San Clemente Hospital Palo Verde Hospital California Pacific Medical Center— Pacific Campus Sutter Tracy Community Hospital New Owner Citrus Valley Health Partners Columbia/HCA Sutter Health Medpartners Samaritan/Columbia/HCA Joint Venture Principal Hospital Corporation Sutter Health Sutter Health 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 Mills Peninsula Hospitals—Mills Hospital Mills Peninsula Hospitals— Peninsula Hospital Columbia—Good Samaritan Hospital Columbia—San Jose Medical Ctr. Columbia—South Valley Hospital Sutter Health Sutter Health Columbia/HCA Columbia/HCA Columbia/HCA Previous Owner Queen of the Valley Hospital, a California Corp. Westlake Community Hospital City West Covina Westlake Village Marin Health Systems, Inc. Caremark Columbia/HCA Greenbrae La Habra San Clemente Brim Hospitals, Inc. Blythe California Pacific Medical Center San Francsico Tracy Community Memorial Hospital Mills-Peninsula Health System Tracy San Mateo Mills-Peninsula Health System Burlingame Good Samaritan Health System San Jose Good Samaritan Health System Good Samaritan Health System San Jose Gilroy Table A.1 (continued) 90 First Fiscal Year of New Owner 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 Hospital Name Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center Medpartners Sutter Sonoma Medical Center Providence Holy Cross Medical Center Westside Hospital Centinela Hospital Medical Center 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 Brotman Medical Center Monterey Park Hospital Suburban Medical Center Woodruff Community Hospital Coastal Communities Hospital Santa Ana Hospital Medical Center Charter Community Hospital Memorial Hospital Los Banos Memorial Medical Center Brookside Hospital (now Doctors Medical Center—San Pablo Campus) New Owner Memorial Health Services Previous Owner FHP, Inc. 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Pillari, “The Comparative Economic Performance of Investor-Owned Chain and Not-for- 97 Profit Hospitals,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 314, No. 2, 1986, pp. 89–96. Werdegar, D., S. Smoley, and P. Wilson, Senate Bill 697 Report to the Legislature, Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, Sacramento, California, 1998. Woolhandler, S., and D. U. Himmelstein, “Costs of Care and Administration at For-profit and Other Hospitals in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 336, No. 11, 1997, pp. 769–774. 98 About the Authors JOANNE SPETZ Joanne Spetz is a research fellow at the Public Policy Institute of California. Her research interests include the hospital industry, the nursing profession, and maternal and child health. She is the author of several publications on nurse staffing and hospital uses of medical technology. She is a consultant with the Center for California Health Workforce Studies based at the University of California, San Francisco, and she serves on the Advisory Committee of the California Strategic Planning Committee for Nursing. Her current projects include studies of nursing shortages, changes in hospital ownership, and cesarean section rates in California. Before coming to PPIC, she was a health science specialist at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Palo Alto. She holds a B.S. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University. JEAN ANN SEAGO Jean Ann Seago is an assistant professor in the Department of Community Health Systems in the School of Nursing at the University of California, San Francisco. Before coming to UCSF, she was Assistant Medical Center Administrator and Chief Nurse Executive at Kaiser Foundation Hospitals in Martinez, California. She was also Assistant Director of Nursing for Adult Critical Care at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center in San Jose, California. Her scholarly work, which has focused on the nursing workforce and nursing systems that influence patient outcomes, has appeared in leading nursing and medical journals. She has a B.S.N. from San Jose State University, an M.S. from the University of Oklahoma, and a Ph.D. from the University of California, San Francisco. SHANNON MITCHELL Shannon Mitchell is a doctoral student in health services and policy analysis at the School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests include health care organization and management, hospital industry consolidation, and inter-organizational 99 networks. She has consulted for RAND and is currently a research assistant at the University of California, Berkeley, and at PPIC. She holds a B.A. in psychology and an M.P.H. in health services from the University of California, Los Angeles. 100" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:34:37" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(9) "r_1099jsr" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:34:37" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:34:37" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(51) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/R_1099JSR.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }