The federal government has become the primary source of postsecondary education support for U.S. college students. The Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA), last amended in 1998, authorizes a disparate array of programs that span various federal government offices, employing multiple delivery mechanisms. Programs help make college attendance affordable for low-income students, assist targeted institutions, encourage college-bound high school students, and enhance K-12 teacher training programs at U.S. universities. This report examines HEA’s myriad components-including grants, loans, and other forms of aid-from a California perspective, with an emphasis on California’s share of federal resources. Its focuses primarily on federal activities that provide funds to recipient individuals or institutions using statutorily-prescribed mathematical constructs.