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object(Timber\Post)#3742 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_711MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "558428" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(96242) "& p p i c s tat e w i d e s u r v e y Californians Mark Baldassare Dean Bonner Sonja Petek Jui Shrestha in collaboration with The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation CONTENTS About the Survey 2 Pres s Release 3 Env ironmental Issues, Air Pollution 6 Cli mate Change, Energy Policy 13 Re gional Map 24 Met hodology 25 Q uestionnaire and Results 27 the environment j u ly 2 0 1 1 July 2011 Californians and the Environment 2 ABOUT THE SURVEY The PPIC Statewide Sur vey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. Inaugurated in April 1998, this is the 119th PPIC Statewide Sur vey . In all, the sur veys have generated a database of responses from more than 252,000 Californians. The current s u r v e y, Californians and the Environment, was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. I ts goal is to inform state policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about Californians’ opinions on air pollution, global warming, and energy policy. It is the 11th annual PPIC Statewide Sur vey on environmental issues since 2000. As economic concerns have dominated recent federal public policy debates, discussions about climate change policy have faded from the headlines. A lthough state lawmakers have been focused almost exclusively on passing a budget, other state and local officials have been working to implement California’s landmark Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), developing ways to meet its emission reduction targets. T here is also growing emphasis across state budget areas on devolving some state responsibilities down to local governments. This sur vey gauges public opinion on environmental issues in the face of ongoing economic challenges and examines attitudes toward the roles of local, state, and federal leader ship. As for energy policy, Governor Jerr y Brown recently signed legislation requiring utilities to use renewable energy sources for a third of the electricity they provide to California residents by 2020. The sur vey measures views on this policy and tracks opinions on expanding nuclear power in the wake of the recent nuclear crisis in Japan and on expanding oil drilling off California ’s coast. This sur vey presents the responses of 2,504 adult residents throughout California, inter viewed in multiple languages by landline or cell phone. It includes findings on:  Environmental issues —including approval ratings of elected officials ’ handling of env ironmental issues; the state environmental issue that residents consider the most impor tant ; and which level of government they trust to handle environmental problems . It examines perceptions of regional air quality and whether it has changed in the past 10 years , whether ai r pollution poses a health threat , and whether this threat is more serious in lower-income areas .  Climate change, including opinions about the urgency of global warming ; concerns about its possible impacts; whether the state should set its own global warming policies; views of the mandate of AB 32 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020; opinions about specific ways to reduce emissions; and attitudes toward local , state, and federal government actions on global warming. This section also examines residents’ preferences on energy policies and the personal effects of the recent rise in gasoline prices.  Time trends, national comparisons, and variations in perceptions, attitudes, and preferences about environmental issues across the five major regions of the state (Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, Inland Empire, and Orange/San Diego Counties), among Asians, blacks, Latinos, and non- Hispanic whites, and across socioeconomic and political groups. This repor t may be downloaded free of charge from our website ( www.ppic.org). For questions about the sur vey, please contact sur vey@ppic.org . Tr y our PPIC Statewide Sur vey interactive tools online at http://w ww.ppic.org/main/sur vAdvancedSearch.asp. July 2011 Californians and the Environment 3 PPIC Statewide Survey CONTACT Linda Strean 415-291-4412 Andrew Hattori 415- 291-4417 NEWS RELEASE EMBARGOED: Do not publish or broadcast until 9:00 p.m. PDT on Wednesday , July 27, 2011. Para ver e ste comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Support Drops for More Nuclear Plants, Rises for Offshore Drilling ON GLOBAL WARMING, MOST SAY EFFECTS HAVE BEGUN, FAVOR STATE P OLICIES SAN FRANCISCO, July 27 , 2011— In the wake of the Japanese nuclear crisis, support for building mor e nuclear power plants in California has dropped sharply in a statewide survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC), with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Today, 65 percent of adults oppose building more plants and 30 percent are in favor —the lowest level of support since PPIC began asking the question and a 14- point drop since last July (44% in favor). Californians are more divided on another key question of energy policy: whether to allow more oil drill ing off the California coast. With gas prices high— but not as high as the peak in summer 2008—46 percent favor more drilling and 49 percent are opposed. In the year since the BP oil spill, support for drilling has increased 12 points (34% in favor, July 2010). There is a partisan divide on this question. Today, Republicans (71%) are twice as likely as Democrats (35%) and far more likely than independents (40%) to favor more drilling. Regional differences also emerge, with residents in the Central Valley (56%), Orange/San Diego Counties (52%), and the Inland Empire (52%) much more likely than those in Los Angeles County (39%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (37%) to favor more drilling. More than half of residents who live in inland counties (54%) support more drilling compared to 42 percent of those who live in coastal counties. As the Obama administration prepares to announce new fuel -efficiency standards for the U.S. auto industry, there is much more agreement among Californians on this aspect of U.S. energ y policy: state residents overwhelmingly (84%) favor requiring automakers to improve fuel efficiency significantly, as do majorities across parties (90% Democrats, 81% independents, 76% Republicans). “With spikes in gas prices at home and nuclear power failures in Japan, Californians are strongly supportive of policies that encourage more fuel efficiency and renewable energy,” says Mark Baldassare, president and CEO of PPIC. Support is also strong (80%) for increased federal funding to develop renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Solid majorities across parties, regions, and demographic groups hold this view. California policy requires that one- third of the state’s electricity come from renewable energy sources by 2020 . It gets the support of 77 percent of Californians. What if this policy results in higher electricity bills? Just under half (46%) of adults favor it. SUPPORT FOR STATE’S CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY In a year that has seen both lingering economic distress and ext reme weather across the nation, most Californians continue to support the state’s climate change policy. Most believe global warming is a PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 4 serious threat to the state’s future economy, with 47 percent seeing it as a very serious threat and 28 percent saying it is somewhat serious. The principle behind AB 32 —the California law requiring the state to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 —enjoys majority support (67% favor, 21% oppose, 11% don’t know). Most (57%) believe that the state governm ent should make its own policies, separate from the federal government’s , to address global warming. The effects of global warming have already begun in the view of 61 percent of adults. This is an increase of 7 points since last July (5 4%) but similar to previous years (61% in 2009, 64% in 2008, 66% in 2007, and 63% in 2006). Another 22 percent say the impact of global warming will occur sometime in the future: 4 percent say it will start within a few years, 7 percent say within their lifetime, and 11 percent say it will affect future generations. Twelve percent say it will never occur. Across parties, Democrats (69%) and independents (62%) are far more likely than Republicans (40%) to say the effects of global warming have already begun. The view that the effects of global warming have begun is up 10 points among Republicans, up 7 points among independents, and similar to last year among Democrats . MAJORITY FAVOR STATE ACTION TO CUT EMISSI ONS NOW Most adults (58%) say California should act now to reduce e missions, while 38 percent prefer to wait until the economy and job situation improve. How do Californians think action to reduce global warming would affect employment? Nearly half (47%) say state action would result in more jobs and 23 percent say it wou ld result in fewer, while 20 percent foresee no change in employment. “Californians are holding steady in the belief that global warming is underway and threatens the state’s future,” Baldassare says. “In the wake of federal inaction on the issue, they strongly support the state’s climate change policies. With unemployment high, many also see a potential for job creation.” As to their specific concerns about the effects of global warming, Californians are more concerned about increased severity of wildfires (56%), air pollution (48%), and droughts (45%) than about increased flooding (28%). Blacks and Latinos are more likely than Asians and whites to say they are very concerned about each possibility. Less than half of whites are very concerned about any of these potential effects. Residents overwhelmingly favor (79%) government regulation of the release of greenhouse gases from sources such as power plants, cars, and factories to reduce global warming. But they are more divided on one method to do so that is under consideration in California: a cap and trade system. Just over half (54%) favor cap and trade a nd 36 percent are opposed. One other method, a carbon tax, is somewhat more popular, with 60 percent in favor. Strong majorities favor several options under discussion at the state and federal level to address climate change: requiring utilities to increase their use of renewable energy (82%), industry to reduce emissions (82%), and automakers to reduce emissions from new cars (81%); encouraging local governments to change the way they plan so as to reduce driving (79%); and requiring buildings and appliances to be more efficient (74%). TWO -THIRDS S EE REGIONAL AIR POLL UTION AS A PROBLEM Sixty-six percent of Californians consider air pollution in their region a big problem (29%) or somewhat of a problem (37%); 33 percent say it is not a problem. Residents of Los Angeles County (45%), the Central Valley (37%), and the Inland Empire (28%) are more likely than those living in the San Francisco Bay Area (19%) an d Orange/San Diego Counties (15%) to say air pollution is a big problem in their regions. Asked about regional air quality over time, 44 percent of adults say it has gotten worse in the last 10 years, 23 percent say it has gotten better, and 18 percent volunteer that it has stayed the same. At the PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 5 same time, two-thirds of adults are very satisfied (23%) or somewhat satisfied (43%) with the air quality in their region. A third are very dissatisfied (12%) or somewhat dissatisfied (21%). Californians identify vehicle emissions (23% personal vehicles, 19% commercial vehicles) as contributing the most to air pollution in their region, followed by industry and agriculture (15%), population growth and development (14%), pollution from outside the area (8%), and weather and geography (7%). Half of Californians say regional air pollution is a serious health threat (19% very serious, 34% somewhat serious, 43% not too serious). And 42 percent of adults report having asthma or an asthmatic family member. Residents are divided when asked if air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than in other areas in their region (50% yes, 45% no). BLACKS, LATINOS LESS SATISFIED WITH AIR Q UALITY Perceptions of air quality differ among racial groups, with blacks and Latinos having more negative views. Blacks (42%) and Latinos (41%) are more likely than Asians (28%) and far more likely than whites (19%) to say that regional air pollution is a big problem. Latinos and blacks (61% each) are much more likely t han Asians (46%) and whites (30%) to say regional quality is worse today than it was 10 years ago. And most blacks (59%) are dissatisfied with regional air quality ; just 6 percent are very satisfied, compared to 12 percent of Latinos, 18 percent of Asians, and 34 percent of whites . Blacks (36%) and Latinos (26%) are more likely than whites (14%) or Asians (11%) to see regional air pollution as a very serious health threat. DEPEND ING ON CARS, FEELING PAI N AT THE PUMP A solid majority of Californians (70%) who work part - or full -time say they commute by driving alone . Just 12 percent carpool and even fewer take public transit (8%), walk (3%), or bike (2%) to work. Recent gas price hikes have caused households financial hardship, according to 76 percent . Most (59%) report cutting back significantly on driving, a change that is far more common among lower -income Californians (68%) than among upper -income residents (47%). Blacks (76%) and Latinos (66%) are more likely than whites (55%) and Asians (54%) to say the y have reduced their driving. Across regions, Central Valley and Inland Empire residents (68% each ) are the most likely to report cutting back on driving , with residents of the San Francisco Bay Area (51%) the least likely. BROWN’S APPROVAL RATING AT 42 PERCENT—35 PERCENT ON ENVIRONMENT Despite passage of an on-time budget, the job approval ratings of Governor Jerry Brown (42%) and the state legislature (23%) are identical to their ratings in May. When it comes to handling environmental issues, California ns are as likely to be unsure of how the governor is doing (37%) as they are to approve (35%), with 27 percent disapproving. They are more likely to approve of the way the legislature is handling environmental issues (31%) than of the way it is handling issues overall. Still, more than half of Republicans (59%) and independents (54%) and a plurality of Democrats (41%) disapprove of the way the legislature is handling environmental issues. About half of Californians (52%) approve of President Barack Obama’s job performance, similar to March this year (56%) and July 2010 (56%), but down 13 points since July 2009 (65%). When it comes to handling environmental issues, Obama’s rating (47%) is similar to July 2010 (49%) , but is down 11 points since 2009 (58%). Co ngress gets a 25-percent approval rating overall and a 25- percent rating on handling environmental issues. Californians are more likely to trust local government (35%) than the state (24%) or federal governments (20%) to deal with environmental problems. July 2011 Californians and the Environment 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, AIR POLLUTION KEY FINDINGS  Forty -two percent of Californians approve of Governor Brown’s job performance overall and 35 percent say they approve of his handling of environmental issues . While t he state legislatur e generally receives low approval ratings, residents give higher marks for its handling of environmental issues than for its job performance overall. ( page 7 )  Fifty -two percent approve of President Obama’s job performance overall. Nearly half (47%) approve of his handling of environmental issues, but this is down from 58 percent in 2009 ; opinion is sharply divided along partisan lines. One in four Californians approve of the U.S. Congress on their job performance overall or on environmental issues . (page 8 )  A small plurality of residents (27%) continue to name air pollution as the most important environmental issue facing the state , while far fewer mention other issues such as water pollution, water supply, energy or oil drilling, or gas prices . Just 4 percent name global warming. ( page 9)  Los Angeles and Central Valley residents are more likely than residents elsewhere to say air pollution is a big problem in their region. About four in 10 residents say vehicle emissions are the top contributor to ai r pollution in their region. (page s 10 , 11 )  Blacks and Latinos are more likely than whites and Asians to consider regional air pollution a serious health threat and to say that this threat is more serious in lower - income areas. (page 12 ) 55 6466 37 0 20 40 60 80 AsiansBlacksLatinosWhites Percent all adults Percent Saying Regional Air Pollution Is a More Serious Health Threat in Lower-Income Areas 42 23 3531 0 20 40 60 80 Governor BrownCalifornia Legislature Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of State Elected Officials 52 25 47 25 0 20 40 60 80 President ObamaU.S. Congress Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of Federal Elected Officials PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 7 APPROVAL RATINGS OF STATE ELECTED OFFICIAL S About four in 10 Californians (42%) approve of Governor Brown’s overall job performance, while 28 percent disapprove and 29 percent are unsure. Despite passage of an on -time state budget, there was no change in the governor’s approval ratings from May (42% ) and April (40%). Among likely voters, 48 percent approve of the way he is handling his job, also similar to May (46%) and April (46%). Fifty- nine percent of Democrats approv e, while 56 percent of Republicans disapprove. Across racial/ethnic groups, black s (60%) are much more likely than whites (43%), Asians (42%), and Latinos (40%) to approve. When it comes to the governor’s handling of environmental issues, Californians are as likely to be unsure of how he is doing (37%) as they are to approve (35%). Tw enty-seven percent disapprove. Among likely voters, 36 percent approve, 31 percent disapprove, and 33 percent are unsure. Opinion is divided along party lines: a plurality of Democrats approv e and a plurality of Republicans disapprov e. While pluralities of Latinos (41%) and blacks (40%) approve, most Asians (53%) are unsure. Whites are about as likely to be unsure (37%) as they are to approve (34%) of Governor Brown’s handling of environmental issues. “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brow n is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind His job as governor of California Approve 42% 59% 27% 43% 48% Disapprove 28 18 56 30 35 Don't know 29 23 17 27 17 Environmental issues in California Approve 35 49 21 29 36 Disapprove 27 18 49 30 31 Don't know 37 33 30 41 33 The state legislature’s approval ratings are also unchanged after it passed an on -time state budget: 23 percent of Californians approve of its job performance, similar to May (23%) and April (21%). Still, approval has increased slightly within the last two years (15% July 2010, 17% July 2009). Among likely voters, 15 percent appr ove of the state legislature’s job performance , while 74 percent disapprove. Solid majorities across parties disapprove (78% Republicans, 72% independents, 63% Democrats). Latinos (36%) and Asians (27%) are more likely than blacks (17%) and whites (15%) to approve. Californians are more likely to approve of the way the legislature is handling environmental issues (31%) than of the way it is handling its job overall (23%). Still, more than half of Republicans (59%) and independents (54 %) and a plurality of Democrats (41%) disapprove of the way it is handling these issues . “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling …?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 23% 20% 13% 18% 15% Disapprove 59 63 78 72 74 Don't know 18 17 9 10 11 Environmental issues in California Approve 31 33 23 21 24 Disapprove 44 41 59 54 54 Don't know 24 26 19 24 23 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 8 APPROVAL RATINGS OF FEDERAL ELECTED OFFICIALS More than half of Californians (52%) approve of the way Barack Obama is handling his job as president, similar to this March (56%) and July 2010 (56%), but down 13 points since July 2009 (65%). Likely voters are divided, with 48 percent approving and 47 percent disa pproving. An ABC News/ Washington Post poll earlier this month reported 47 percent of adults nationwide approve of Barack Obama’s job performance and 48 percent disapprove. In California, 74 percent of Democrats approve and 72 percent of Republicans disapprove. A n overwhelming majority of blacks (89%) approve, followed by Asians (62%), Latinos (56%), and whites (42%). When it comes to handling environmental issues, President Obama’s ratings are similar to last July (49%), bu t down 11 points since 2009 (58%). Likely voters are divided. Sixty -two percent of Democrats approve, while 61 percent of Republicans disapprove, and independents are divided. Blacks (80%) are far more likely than Latinos (58%), Asians (50%), and whites (37%) to approve of the way President Obama is handling environmental issues. “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind His job as president of the United States Approve 52% 74% 22% 51% 48% Disapprove 42 20 72 46 47 Don't know 7 6 5 4 5 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 47 62 24 42 43 Disapprove 38 25 61 42 43 Don't know 15 12 15 15 14 The U.S. Congress continues to have low approval ratings among Californians. Just 25 percent approve of the way it is handling its job, while 65 percent disapprove. Fewer than one in three residents have approved since March 2010. A July Gallup Poll reported 77 percent of adults nationwide disapprov e and 18 percent approv e of the way Congress is handling its job. Across all regions and most demographic groups, majorities of Californians disapprove. The sole exception is among Asians (33% approve, 45% disapprove). On environmental issues, 25 percent of all adults approve of Congress’s job performance, but far more disapprov e (60%). Fewer than one in four across parties approve, while more than six in 10 disapprove. Across regions and demographic groups, residents are more likely to disapprove than approve. “D o you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling …?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 25% 23% 18% 20% 17% Disapprove 65 70 76 74 78 Don't know 10 7 6 6 5 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 25 24 20 18 18 Disapprove 60 64 66 70 70 Don't know 15 12 14 12 12 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 9 PREFERRED LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT Californians are more likely to trust their local government (35%) than the state (24%) or the federal government (20%) to deal with environmental problems . Twelve percent volunteer that they trust no level of government, while 3 percent say they trust all three. When this question was asked in June 2002, trust in state gover nment (32%) was higher. Support for federal (19%) and local levels of gov ernment ( 36% ) was similar to today’s levels. Today, Republicans (44%) are more likely than independents (34%) and Democrats (33%) to trust their local government the most. Democrats (32%) are more likely than independents (22%) and Republicans (20%) to place trust in state government. Whites (42%) are much more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to trust their local govern ment. Across regions, those in the Central Valley (45%) and Inland Empire (41%) are most likely to trust their local government and those in Los Angeles (28%) the least likely to do so. “Which level of government do you trust the most to deal with environmental problems ?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Local government 35% 33% 44% 34% 39% State government 24 32 20 22 24 Federal government 20 18 17 19 18 All of the above (volunteered) 3 2 – 3 2 None (volunteered) 12 9 17 17 14 Don’t know 6 5 2 5 3 MOST IMPORTANT ENVIR ONMENTAL ISSUE FACING CALIFORNIA In answer to an open -ended question, a plurality of Californians (27%) mention air pollution as the most important environmental issue facing the state today. Since 2000, air pollution has topped the list of environ mental issues , with a high of 34 percent in 2002 and a low of 20 percent in 2009. Eight percent name water pollution , 8 percent water supply or drought, 7 percent energy or oil drilling , and 5 percent gas prices. Four percent mention global warming or global climate change and 4 percent mention landfills or garbage. Residents of Orange/San Diego C ounties (19%) are the least likely to cite air pollution and those in the Inland Empire (34%) are the most likely to do so. Democrats (27%) are slightly more likely than independents (22%) and Republicans (20%) to cite air pollution. Whites are less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to mention air pollution. “What do you think is the most important environmental issue facing California today?” Top five issues mentioned All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Air pollution 27% 28% 24% 31% 19% 34% Water pollution 8 8 7 8 13 5 Water supply, drought 8 13 8 4 10 7 Energy, oil drilling 7 4 9 7 8 6 Gas prices 5 4 4 6 7 2 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 10 REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION Two in three Californians consider air pollution in their region to be a big problem (29%) or somewhat of a problem (37%). One in three say air pollution is not a problem (33%). Since June 2000, solid majorities have said air pollution is at least somewhat of a problem , with more than 20 percent calling it a big problem. The percentage saying big problem was highest in July 2006 (41%) and lowest in July 2009 (23%). Residents of Los Angeles (45%), the Central Valley (37%) , and the Inland Empire (28%) are more likely than those living in the San Francisco Bay Area (19%) and Orange/San Diego Counties (15%) to say air pollution is a big problem in their region today. Since last July, the biggest change in this perception has been in the Central Valley (up 8 points). However, in our annual summer surveys on the environment, this belief has fluctuated greatly within each region over time. The highest and lowest proportion s of residents calling air pollution a big problem are: Central Valley (51% 2006 and 2008, 28% 2000), San Francisco Bay Area (33% 2006, 14% 2010), Los Ang eles County (54 % 2006, 30% 2009), Orange/San Diego Counties ( 30% 2005, 10% 2010), and the Inland Empire (49 % 2007, 27% 2009). Blacks (42%) and Latinos (41%) are more likely than Asians (28%) and far more likely than whites (19%) to say air pollution is a big problem . Residents under 55 and renters are more likely than older residents and homeowners to hold this view. The share saying regional air pollution is a big problem declines as education and income levels rise. “We are interested in the region of California that you live in. Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your region?” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Big problem 29% 37% 19% 45% 15% 28% Somewhat of a problem 37 35 46 37 42 30 Not a problem 33 27 34 19 42 41 Don’t know 1 2 – – 1 1 Two in three Californians are very satisfied (23%) or somewhat satisfied (43%) with the air quality in their region today, while one in three are somewhat dissatisfied (21%) or very dissatisfied (12%) . Fewer than one in four have said they are very satisfied with regional air quality each time we have asked the question (18% 2006, 19 % 2007, 17% 2008, 24% 2009, 22% 2010, 23% today). Whites (34%) are much more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to be very satisfied with their regional air qualit y (18% Asians, 12% Latinos, 6% b lacks). A majority of blacks (59%) are dissatisfied. San Francisco Bay Area (29%) and Orange/San Diego (26%) residents are the most likely —and Los Angeles residents (13%) the least likely —to be very satisfied. Satisfaction with air quality increases as education and income levels rise. “How satisfied are you with the air quality in your region today ?” All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Very satisfied 23% 18% 6% 12% 34% Somewhat satisfied 43 53 34 50 38 Somewhat dissatisfied 21 18 38 23 18 Very dissatisfied 12 11 21 13 9 Don’t know 1 – 1 2 1 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 11 REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION (CONTINUED) When asked about air quality in their region over time, 23 percent of Californians say it has gotten better, 44 percent say it has gotten worse, and 18 percent volunteer that it is the same as it was 10 years ago. Results were similar in 2007, the last time this question was asked (20% better, 48% worse, 15% same). Although residents of Los Angeles are the most likely regional group to say air pollution is a big problem, they are also the most likely (30%) to say air quality has gotten better in the last 10 years. At the same time, they are among the most likely to say air quality has worsened (49% Central Valley, 47% Los Angeles, 46% Inland Empire, 40% San Francisco Bay Area, 38% Orange/San Diego Counties). Latinos and blacks (61% each ) are much more likely than Asians ( 46%) and whites (30%) to say regional air quality is worse today than it was a decade ago. The perception that regional air quality is worse now declines as age, education, and income increase. “Is the air quality in your region better or worse than it was 10 years ago? ” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Better 23% 19% 18% 30% 26% 22% Worse 44 49 40 47 38 46 Same (volunteered) 18 17 24 13 15 19 Haven’t lived here for 10 years (volunteered) 9 8 12 5 12 11 Don’t know 6 7 6 5 9 3 About four in 10 Californians correctly choose vehicle emissions (23% personal vehicles, 19% commercial vehicles) as the top contributor to air pollution in their region. Fewer choose industry and agriculture (15%), population growth and development (14%), pollution from outside the area (8%), and weather and geography (7%). Seven percent volunteer that all these factors contribute the most to regional air pollution. At least four in 10 adults have chosen vehicle emissions as the main cause of regional air pollution since 2003 in the seven surveys in which this question has been asked. Central Valley (28%) and Inland Empire (32%) r esidents are the least likely —and those in Orange/San Diego Counties (53%) the most likely— to name vehicle emissions as the top contributor to air pollution . Central Valley residents (21%) are the most likely to choose industry and agricultu re. “Which of the following do you think contributes the most to air pollution in your region?” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Personal vehicle emissions 23% 18% 29% 24% 31% 14% Commercial vehicle emissions 19 10 17 23 22 18 Industry and agriculture 15 21 15 16 8 12 Population growth and development 14 14 15 12 17 16 Pollution from outside the area 8 13 5 4 7 12 Weather and geography 7 10 4 7 4 10 Something else 4 4 4 2 2 6 All of the above (volunteered) 7 8 8 9 5 8 Don't know 3 3 2 2 3 3 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 12 AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH Half of Californians believe that air pollution in their region is a very serious (19%) or a somewhat serious (34%) health threat to them and their immediate family. Forty -three percent say air pollution is not too serious of a health threat and 3 percent volunteer that it is not at all serious. Since we first asked this question in 2003, between 17 and 25 percent have said that regional air pollution poses a very serious health threat . Asians (11%) and whites (14%) are much less likely to hold this view than Latinos (26%) and blacks (36%). Across regions, residents of Orange/San Diego Count ies (10%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (15%) are less likely than residents of the Inland Empire (21%), Los Angeles (23%), and the Central Valley (26%) to say air pollution is a very serious health threat. Among those saying regional air pollution is a big problem, 86 percent perceive it as a very (43%) or somewhat (43%) serious health threat. Forty -two percent of all adults report having asthma or having an asthmatic family member. About four in 10 have reported these problems since we first asked this question in 2003. Blacks (49%), Latinos (48%), and whites (42%) are more likely than Asians (28%) to report asthma or other resp iratory problems in the family. Women are more likely than men (48% to 35%) to report these problems. “How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your region to you and your immediate family ?” All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Very serious 19% 11% 36% 26% 14% Somewhat serious 34 32 41 41 30 Not too serious 43 51 21 32 50 Not at all serious (volunteered) 3 3 2 1 5 Don’t know 1 3 1 – – Half of Californians say air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than in other areas in their region. Forty -five percent disagree and 6 percent are un sure. O pinion is reversed among likely voters , with 45 percent saying air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas and 50 percent disagreeing . Since first asking this question in 2006, a dults have been divided on this issue except in 2007 (50% yes, 42% no) and 20 10 (41% yes, 52% no). Adults earning less than $40,000 a year (60%) are much more likely than those earning more to believe that air pollution poses a more serious health threat in lower -income areas. Democrats (54%) and independents (47%) are much more likely than Republicans (30%) to believe this. Residents of Los Angeles (61%) are most likely to hold this view, while those in the Central Valley (39%) are the least likely. Latinos (66%) and blacks (64%) are somewhat more likely than Asians (55%) and far more likely than whites (37%) to say air pollution disproportionately affects lower -income areas. Residents unde r 55 and those with a high school education or less are also more likely than others to hold this view. “Do you think that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower-income areas than other areas in your region, or not?” All Adults Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to under $80,000 $80,000 or more Yes 50% 60% 44% 40% No 45 34 50 56 Don’t know 6 6 5 4 July 2011 Californians and the Environment 13 CLIMATE CHANGE, ENERGY POLICY KEY FINDINGS  Six ty-one percent of Californians say the effects of global warming have already begun, up from 54 percent last July. Californians are more likely than adults nationwide to hold this view. ( page 14)  When considering possible impacts of global warming in California, residents are more concerned about more serious wildfires, droughts, and air pollution than about increased flooding . ( page 15 )  Two in three Californians support the state law requiring a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 . Most say the state should take action now and not wait for the economy and unemployment to improve, although Democrats and Republican s are sharply divided. (page 17 )  A vast majority of Californians, including majorities across parties , think government should regulate greenhouse gas emissions and they support specific proposals for doing so, including reducing emissions from new cars. Pluralities say federal, state, and local government s are all fail ing to do enough, especially the federal government. ( pages 18–20)  Support for building more nuclear plants has dropped to its lowest level ever. Support for more oil drilling off the Calif ornia coast has increased since last year. ( pages 21, 22 )  Californians strongly support funding for renewable energy . They also strongly favor a policy requiring a third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable sources by 2020; support drops to 46 percent if the policy meant higher utility bills. (page 22 ) 49 61 0 20 40 60 80 Adults nationwide*Californians Percent all adults Percent Saying Effects of Global Warming Have Already Begun *Gallup Poll, March 2011 44 3430 46 0 20 40 60 80 More nuclearplantsMore coastaloil drilling Percent all adults July 2010 July 2011 Percent Favoring Energy Proposals 57 485358 36 464238 0 20 40 60 80 July08July09July10July11 Percent all adults Right away Wait until economy, jobs improve* When StateShould Take Action on Global Warming *In 2008 and 2009, question said "economy and budget situation." PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 14 PERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Six in 10 Californians (61%) say the effects of global warming have already begun, a rise of 7 points since last July (54%), but similar to July 2009 (61%), 2008 (64%), 2007 (66%), and 2006 (63%). Another 22 percent today believe the effects will manifest sometime in the future: within a few years (4%), within their lifetime s (7%), or for future generations (11%). Just 12 percent say the e ffects of global warming will never occur . In a March Gallup poll, 49 percent of adults nationwide said the effects had already begun, 30 percent said the effects would come in the future, and 18 percent said there will never be any effects. Among Califor nia’s likely voters, 57 percent say global warming has already begun. Across parties, Democrats (69%) and independents (62%) are far more likely than Republicans (40%) to say that the effects of global warming have already begun. Among Republicans, 32 perc ent say there will be no effects. Perceptions among Democrats were similar last year, but the belief that effects have already begun increased 10 points among Republicans and 7 points among independents. Majorities across regions and racial/ethnic groups say the effects of global warming have already begun. San Francisco Bay Area residents (69%) are the most likely —and Central Valley and Orange/San Diego C ounty residents the least likely (55% each) —to hold this view. Latinos (68%) and blacks (65%) are more likely than whites (57%) and Asians (53%) to say effects are already underway. “Which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen— they have already begun to happen; they will start happening within a few years; they will start happening within your lifetime; they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; or they will never happen?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Have already begun 61% 69% 40% 62% 57% Will start w ithin a few years 4 5 1 3 3 Will start within your lifetime 7 9 8 6 8 Will affect f uture generations 11 9 14 16 10 Will n ever happen 12 5 32 11 18 Don’t know 5 3 6 3 4 A large majority of residents (75%) and two in three likely voters (67%) say steps to counter global warming ’s effects should start right away. Findings w ere nearly identical last year ; more than seven in 10 Californians have held this view since July 2003, the first time we asked this. De mocrats (85%) and independents (78%) are far more likely than Republicans (43%) to say immediate steps should be taken. Most Republicans (53%) say steps are unnecessary yet or volunteer that they will never be necessary. More than six in 10 across regi ons and demographic groups say action should be taken right away. “Do you think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, or do you think it is not necessary to take steps yet?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Right away 75% 85% 43% 78% 67% Not necessary yet 19 11 45 17 26 Never necessary (volunteered) 3 1 8 3 5 Don’t know 3 3 3 2 2 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 15 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE When asked to consider some possible effects of global warming in the state, Californians are more likely to be very concerned about more severe wildfires (56%) , more severe droughts (48%), and increased air pollution (45%) than about increased flooding (28%). We first asked about wildfires in July 2009, when a similar 59 percent were very concerned that fires would be more severe . We began asking about the other three issues in July 2005. For each, the share saying they were very concerned was highest in 2007 (55% air pollution, 60% droughts, 37% flooding). “Now I am going to na me a few of the possible impacts of global warming in California, and I would like you to tell me whether you are very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about each one. How about…?” Wildfires that are more severe Increased air pollution Droughts that are more severe Increased flooding Very concerned 56% 48% 45% 28% Somewhat concerned 25 32 30 29 Not too concerned 9 10 13 23 Not at all concerned 10 10 11 19 Don’t know 1 1 1 1 Across regions, more than half are very concerned about more severe wildfires resulting from global warming. Los Angeles residents are the most likely to be very concerned about increased air pollution and more severe droughts . Fewer than one in three residents across regions are very concerned about increased flooding. Opinion varies more markedly across racial/ethnic groups. On each possibility , blacks and Latinos are more likely than Asians and whites to say they are very concerned. Fewer than half of whites are very concerned about any of these possible impacts of global warming . There are also partisan differences , with Democrats and independ ents far more likely than Republicans to be very concerned about more severe wildfires (64%, 54%, 37%, respectively), air pollution (54%, 50%, 25%), and droughts (51%, 47%, 25%). Democrats are also more likely to be very concerned about increased flooding, although fewer than one in three across parties express this view (31% Democrats, 22% independents, 14% Republicans). Percent saying very concerned Wildfires that are more severe Increased air pollution D roughts that are more severe Increased flooding All Adults 56% 48% 45% 28% Likely V oters 50 39 42 21 Region Central Valley 53 44 45 31 San Francisco Bay Area 53 43 43 27 Los Angeles 60 56 52 29 Orange/San Diego 57 48 38 26 Inland Empire 52 50 48 32 Race/Ethnicity Asians 54 52 34 25 Blacks 71 72 54 50 Latinos 66 61 58 41 Whites 48 36 39 19 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 16 CALIFORNIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE Three in four Californians believe that global warming is a serious threat to the state’s future economy and quality of life : 47 percent say very serious and 28 percent say somewhat serious. About one in four say it is either not too serious (12%) or not at all serious (11%) of a threat to the state’s future. Since the questions was first asked in July 2005, majorities of Califor nians have said global warming is a very or somewhat serious threat to the state. In 2005, 39 percent said very serious; this grew to 49 percent in 2006 and to a high of 54 percent in 2007 (52% 2008, 47% 2009, 44% 2010, 47% today). Eighty -two percent of Democrats (54% very, 28% somewhat serious) and 77 percent of independents (44% very, 33% somewhat), consider global warming to be a serious threat to the state’s future, but far fewer Republicans —45 percent —share this view; 51 percent of Republicans say global warming is a not - too -serious (19%) or not -at -all serious (32%) threat. Across regions, strong majorities consider global warming a serious threat , with at least four in 10 saying it is a very serious threat. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (66%) and blacks (63%) are far more likely than whites (38%) and Asians (30%) to say global warming is a very serious threat to California. “How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Very serious 47% 54% 18% 44% 39% Somewhat serious 28 28 27 33 29 Not too serious 12 11 19 11 13 Not at all serious 11 5 32 9 18 Don’t know 2 1 3 2 2 A majority of Californians (57%) and likely voters (61%) say the state government should make its own policies, separate from the federal government ’s, to address global warming. Among all adults, support for California making its own policies is similar to last July (57%) and July 2009 (58%) , but is lower than in July 2006 (65%), 2007 (67%), and 2008 (66%). In 2005, 54 percent held this view. Majorities of Democrats (72%) and independents (63%) favor the state making its own policies to address global warming. Republicans are more likely to oppose (52%) than favor (40%) this idea. Opinion shifted after the presidency changed hands in 2009. Support among Democrats for independent state action declined somewhat in 2009 (66%) and 2010 (63%), but is back up to 72 percent today. Among Republicans, majorities from 200 6 to 2008 favored the state acting on its own, but support dropped beginning in 2009. Majorities of independents have favored this idea over time, but support also declined beginning in 2009. Asians (65%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to support California making its own policies, followed by Latinos and whites (57% each); among blacks, 49 percent are in favor and 42 percent are opposed. Support increases as income and education levels rise . “Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming? ” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 57% 72% 40% 63% 61% Oppose 33 21 52 31 33 Don’t know 10 7 9 6 6 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 17 CALIFORNIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE (CONTINUED) Strong majorities of Californians and likely voters continue to support the principle behind the Global Warming Solution Act passed in 2006 (also known as Assembly Bill 32 or AB 32) , which requires the state to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Two in three California ns (67%) and likely voters (65%) favor this law. S ince 2006, two in three or more Californians have expressed support and support peaked in 2007 at 78 percent (73% 2008, 66% 2009, 67% 2010, 67% today). Strong majorities of Democrats (79%) and independents (68%) favor the law, but Republicans are divided (45% favor, 43% oppose). Majorities of Republicans expressed support from 2006 to 2008; since 2009, support among Republicans has been below 50 percent (43% 2009, 39% 2010, 45% today). At least six in 10 Californians across regions and demographic groups favor AB 32. “To address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020? ” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 67% 79% 45% 68% 65% Oppose 21 9 43 24 26 Don’t know 11 12 12 9 10 Nearly six in 10 Californians (58%) also say the state should take action right away to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, wh ereas 38 percent say the state should wait until the economy and job situation improve. Among likely voters, opinion is divided (50% act right away, 45% wait). Findings among likely voters are similar to last July (48% act right away, 48% wait) when there was a ballot measure — Proposition 23 —set for the November election that would have suspended AB 32 until unemployment dropped to 5.5 percent for a full year. Voters defeated t he measure by a wide margin (62% no, 38% yes). Democrats (67%) say the state should take action immediately to reduce emissions, while Republicans (60%) say it should wait for the economy and unemployment to improve. Among independents, most think the sta te should act right away (57%) rather than wait (39%). Blacks and Latinos (69% each ) are much more likely than Asians (53%) and whites (51%) to say the state should act right away. “When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it take action right away or should it wait until the state economy and job situation improve to take action?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Take action right away 58% 67% 34% 57% 50% Wait until economy, job situation improve 38 30 60 39 45 Don’t know 4 4 6 4 5 How do Californians think action to reduce global warming would affect employment? Nearly half (47%) say that the state taking action would result in more jobs for Californians and 23 percent say it would result in fewer; 20 percent say there would be no change. Results were similar last September and July. A majority of Democrats (56%) think more jobs would result from action on global warming, wh ereas a plurality of Republicans (47%) say there would be fewer. Twenty-seven percent of Republicans say more jobs would result and 18 percent say there would be no effect . A plurality of independents (46%) foresee more jobs (23% fewer jobs, 23% no effect). At least half of Asians (50%), Latinos (51%), and blacks (64%) foresee more jobs, as do a plurality of whites (42%). PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 18 REGULATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS An overwhelming majority of Californians (79%) and likely voters (73%) say th at to reduce global warming, government should regulate the release of greenhouse gases from sources such as power plants, cars, and factories . Results among adults and likely voters have been similar since 2009. Majorities across political parties think the governmen t should regulate greenhouse gases, but Democrats (87%) and independents (78%) are far more likely than Republicans (58%) to hold this view. At least two in three across regions and demographic groups believe greenhouse gas emissions should be regulated. S upport is highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (85%) and Los Angeles County (84%) and lowest in the Central Valley (66%). Asians (88%), Latinos (87%), and blacks (86%) are much more likely than whites (71%) to say emissions should be regulated. Support declines as age rises. “Do you think the government should or should not regulate the release of greenhouse gases from sources like power plants, cars, and factories in an effort to reduce global warming? ” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Should 79% 87% 58% 78 % 73% Should not 16 10 34 19 23 Don’t know 5 3 7 3 4 One controversial method for regulating greenhouse gas emissions is a cap and trade system; officials in state government continue to discuss implementation of cap and trade. Fifty- four percent of Californians would favor this idea and 36 percent would oppose it. Support has been around 50 percent among residents since we first asked this question in 2009 (49% 2009, 50% 2010, 54% today). Opinion is divided among likely voters (47% favor, 44% oppose) and along party lines: 58 percent of Democrats favor cap and trade, while 58 percent of Republicans oppose it. Among independents, 49 percent are in favor and 42 percent are opposed. Support for cap and trade is highest in Los Angeles (59%) and lowest in the San Francisco Bay Area (49%). Across racial/ethnic gro ups, Latinos (65%) and Asians (61%) are more likely than blacks (52%) and whites (45%) to favor this idea. Among those who support regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, 60 percent favor cap and trade. “There’s a proposed system called ‘cap and trade.’ The government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies would find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that would be cheaper than buying permits. Would you favor or oppose this system?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 54% 58% 36% 49% 47% Oppose 36 31 58 42 44 Don’t know 11 10 6 9 9 Another idea for reducing emissions is somewhat more popular with Californians. Sixty percent of adults and 55 percent of likely voters would favor a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions. Support among all adults was identical last ye ar (60%) and similar in 2009 (56%). A strong majority of Democrats (72%) and six in 10 independents (60%) favor a carbon tax, while Republicans are opposed (58% oppose, 37% favor). Among those who support government regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, 69 percent favor a carbon tax. PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 19 EMISSIONS POLICIES Strong majorities of Californians favor several options that state and federal governments are discussing to address global warming. Eight in 10 adults favor requiring an increase in the use of renewable energy sources by utilities (82%) ; requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions (82%) ; requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars (81%) ; and encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less (79%). Three in four Californians also favor requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and for appliances (74%). S upport for each proposal has been similar since we first asked these questions in 2008 . “Officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. How about…? ”* Requiring increase in renewable energy by utilities Requiring industry to reduce emissions Requiring automakers to reduce emissions from new cars Encouraging local governments to change planning to reduce driving Requiring increase in efficiency of buildings/ appliances Favor 82% 82% 81% 79% 74% Oppose 15 14 16 17 21 Don’t know 3 4 3 4 5 * For complete question text, please see questions 25–29 on page 30. Strong majorities of likely voters also voice approval for these measures, with more than three in four favor ing the requirement s for increased use of renewable energy by utilities (78%), reduced emissions from industries (79%), and reduced emissions from new cars (77%) . Likely voters also favor encouraging local government s to change the way they plan so as to reduce driving (75%), and requiring an increase in efficiency of buildings and appliances (73%) . Majorities across parties favor each of these proposals, but Democrats are slightly more likely than independents and far more likely than Republicans to express support . Across regions and demographic groups , about seven in 10 or more support each idea. Among those who say that gov ernment should be regulating greenhouse gases, more than eight in 10 favor each of these proposals. Among those who favor the state law (AB 32) that requires California to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, more than eight in 10 favor these proposals. Percent saying favor Requiring increase in renewable energy by utilities Requiring industry to reduce emissions Requiring automakers to reduce emissions from new cars Encouraging local governments to change planning to reduce driving Requiring increase in efficiency of buildings/ appliances All Adults 82% 82% 81% 79% 74% Likely V oters 78 79 77 75 73 Party Dem 89 90 90 85 82 Rep 66 68 64 62 59 Ind 83 81 82 78 76 Race/ Ethnicity Asians 84 90 87 85 82 Blacks 82 90 80 75 78 Latinos 87 84 87 89 73 Whites 79 79 77 72 72 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 20 STATE AND FEDERAL POLICY More than half of Californians (56%) and likely voters (53%) say the federal government is not doing enough to address global warming. Fewer than one in four say it is doing just enough (24% adults, 22% likely voters), and few say it is doing more than enough (13% adults, 18% likely voters). The perception among all adults that the federal government is not doing enough dropped 18 points after President Obama took office , but has inched up since then (66% 2008, 48% 2009, 52% 2010, 56% today). Partisans differ , with 66 percent of Democrats and 60 percent of independents saying the federal government is not doing enough, while 34 percent of Republicans say the same. Blacks (76%) are much more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to hold this view (60% Latinos, 55% Asians, 54% whites) . Just under half of Californians (47%) say that state government is not doing enough to addre ss global warming. Four in 10 likely voters (41%) hold this view. About one in three adults (32%) and likely voters (34%) say the state government is doing just enough, while fewer say it is doing more than enough (1 4% adults, 20% likely voters). Perceptions among all adults have been similar each time we have asked this question. About half of Democrats (53%) and independents (48%) say the state government is not doing enough, with fewer Republicans agreeing (29%). Residents of Los Angeles (54%) are the most negative about state efforts, followed by residents in Orange/San Diego Counties (47%), the San Francisco Bay Area (45%), the Inland Empire (43%), and the Central Valley (40%). Blacks (65%) are most likely to say the state is not doing enough, fol lowed by Latinos (55%), Asians (47%), and whites (40%). Forty -six percent of Californians say their local government is not doing enough to address global warming, while one in three (34%) say just enough, and about one in 10 (12%) say more than enough. Likely voters are slightly less likely to say not enough (40% not enough, 16% more than enough, 36% just enough) . In 2008, Californians were slightly more likely to say their local government ’s efforts were inadequate (52% 2008, 46% 2009, 46% today). Today, Democ rats (53%) and independents (46%) are much more likely than Republicans (28%) to take this view. Half (51%) of Los Angeles County residents say local government is not doing enough, but fewer elsewhere hold this view (45% San Francisco Bay Area, 44% Orang e/San Diego Counties, 41% Central Valley, and 40% Inland Empire). “Overall, do you think that the … is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? ” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Federal government More than enough 13% 6% 32% 11% 18% Just enough 24 23 27 22 22 Not enough 56 66 34 60 53 Don’t know 7 5 8 6 6 State government More than enough 14 6 33 15 20 Just enough 32 35 32 30 34 Not enough 47 53 29 48 41 Don’t know 7 5 6 6 5 Local government More than enough 12 7 26 14 16 Just enough 34 33 39 34 36 Not enough 46 53 28 46 40 Don’t know 9 6 8 7 8 PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 21 ENERGY POLICY The survey asked about several proposals related to energy policy. In pa st years we included an introductory phrase: “Thinking about the country as a whole, to address the country’s energy needs and reduce dependence on foreign oil sources, do you favor or oppose the fol lowing proposals?” Last year, we asked half of respondents this question with the phrase and the other half without it. The results were similar with and without the introductory language. This year, we did not use the introduction. Most Californians and likely voters (84% each)—and overwhelming majorities across parties—favor requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country. Since we first asked this question in 2004, more than eight in 10 Californians have been in favor. More than three in four across parties express favor for requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country, but Democrats (90%) are more likely than independents (81%) and Republicans (76%) to hold this view. A similar pattern emerges across ideological groups, with self- identified liberals (91%) and moderates (88%) more likel y than conservatives (76%) to favor this proposal. At least 80 percent across all regions and demographic groups express support, with similar opinions held across age, education, and income groups, and among men and women. “How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel eff iciency of cars sold in this country?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 84% 90% 76% 81% 84% Oppose 13 8 22 16 14 Don’t know 3 2 2 3 2 There is less agreement when it comes to allowing mo re oil drilling off the California coast. Californians (46% favor, 49% oppose) and likely voters (49% fa vor, 48% oppose) are divided on this proposal; a year after the BP oil spill off the coast of Louisiana, support for drilling has increased in both groups (up 12 points among all adults, up 11 points among likely voters since July 2010). Since this question was first asked in 2003, support for more drilling surpassed 50 percent only in 2008 and 2009 a mong all adults and likely voters. In an April 2011 CNN/Opinion Research Corporation poll, 69 percent of adults nationwide were in favor of increased drilling for oil and natural gas offshore in U.S. waters. Oil drilling off the California coast divides partisans—R epublicans (71%) are twice as likely as Democrats (35%) and far more likely than independents (40%) to be in favor. Re gional differences also emerge, with residents in the Central Valley (56%), Orange/San Diego Counties (52%) and the Inland Empire (52%) much more likely than residents in Los Angeles (39%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (37%) to favor oil drilling off the California coast. Differences can also be seen between residents who live in coastal counties and those in inland counties, with four in 10 coastal residents (42%) in favor compared to more than half of inland residents (54%). There are also differences in support within the coastal region (45% south coast, 37% north/central coast). Whites (51%) are the most like ly to support more drilling, followed by Asians (44%), Latinos (40%), and blacks (35%). “How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 46% 35% 71% 40% 49% Oppose 49 61 27 57 48 Don’t know 5 5 2 3 4 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 22 ENERGY POLICY (CONTINUED) In the wake of the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant after the March earthquake in Japan, 30 percent of Californians and 38 percent of likely voters favor building more nuclear power plants at this time. This marks a 14- point decline among all adults and a 15 -point decline among likely voters since last July. This is the lowest level of support among residents since we began asking the question in 2001. In an April ABC News/ Washington Post poll conducted in the midst of Japan’s nuclear crisis, one in three Americans (33%) favored building more nuclear plants and 65 percent were opposed. Republicans (48%, down 15 points since last year) are more likely than independents (32%, down 12 points) and Democrats (23%, down 13 points) to favor building more nuclear power plants now. Residents in the Inland Empire (37%) are the most likely to be in favor, followed by residents in Orange/San Diego Counties (34%), the Central Valley (31%), the San Francisco Bay Area (30%) , and Los Angeles (25%). Whites (36%) are more likely than Asians (27%), Latinos (24%), and blacks (17%) , and men (39%) are much more likely than women (21%), to favor building more nuclear plants at this time. “How about building more nuclear power plants at this time?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 30% 23% 48% 32% 38% Oppose 65 72 48 64 57 Don’t know 5 4 5 3 6 Eight in 10 Californians (80%) favor increasing federal funding to develop renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Likely voters (76%) hold similar views. More than three in four adults and likely voters have held this view since we began asking this question in 200 7. Today, solid majorities across parties, regions, and demographic groups favor this idea . Adults nationwide also express support , according to a March Pew Research Center survey (74% favor, 21% oppose). Looking at a state -specific energy policy, which requir es one- third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020, just under half of Californians (46%) are in favor even if it would increase their electric bills. Three in 10 (31%) favor this policy, but not if it means an increase in their bill. Sixteen percent of Californians oppose the policy. Democrats (56%) and independents (52%) are more likely than Republicans (29%) to be in favor even with a bigger electric bill. About half of residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (50%), Los Angeles (48%), and Orange/San Diego Counties (48%) favor the policy even with a larger bill, whereas about four in 10 Inland Empire (40%) and Central Valley (39%) residents hold this vie w. Support is higher among Californians age d 18 to 34 (51%) and college graduates (53%) than among other groups; men and women hold similar views. Support varies little across income groups (45% under $40,000, 51% $40,000 to under $80,000; 48% $80,000 or m ore). “How about requiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2020? ( if favor: Do you still favor this proposal if it means an increas e in your own electricity bill?)” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor, even if it increases bill 46% 56% 29% 52% 45% Favor, but not if it increases bill 31 28 28 26 26 Oppose 16 10 36 18 23 Don’t know 6 7 6 4 5 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 23 GAS PRICES A solid majorit y of Californians (70%) who work full - or part -time say they commute by driving alone, while only 12 percent say they carpool. Even f ewer take public transit (8%), walk (3%), or bike (2%) to work. Given this strong dependence on automobile travel , three in four Californians (7 6%) report that recent gas price hikes have caused their household financial hardship. The incidence of hardship is slightly higher than in 2009 ( 69%), the last time we asked, but is identical to July 2008 (76%). Those living in household s with annual incomes of less than $40,000 (87%) are more likely than those earning $40,000 to under $80,000 (76%) and far more likely than those earning $80,000 or more (61%) to have experience d hardship. Residents in the Inland Empire (86%) are the most likely— and residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (66%) the least likely— to report financial hardship in their household. Latinos (88%) and blacks (84%) are much more likely than whites (70%) and Asians (67%) to say increased gas prices have caused hardship. The i ncidence of hardship decreases with education. “Have price increases in gasoline caused any financial hardship for you or your household?” All Adults Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to under $80,000 $80,000 or more Yes 76% 87% 76% 61% No 23 13 23 38 Don’t know 1 1 – 1 As a result of the recent rise in gasoline prices, six in 10 Californians (59%) report cutting back significantly on their driving. A similar percentage reported cutting back in 2009 (62%). In 2004 (47%) and 2005 (43%), residents were less likely to say gas prices had cau sed them to cut back on driving. The share saying they had cut back on driving because of higher gas prices reached a high of 69 percent in 2008. Cutting back significantly on driving is far more common among lower -income Cali fornians (68%) than among upper -income residents (47%). Those in the Central Valley and Inland Empire (68% each ) are the most likely— and residents of the San Francisco Bay Area (51%) the least likely —to report cut ting back on driving. Blacks (76%) and Latinos (66%) are more likely than whites (55%) and Asians (54%) to report cutting back on driving . Those who have experienced hardship due to increased gas prices (69%) are more likely than those who have not experienced this ( 26%) to have cut back on driving. Most Californians (68%) have thought seriously about getting a more fuel -efficient car as a result of the r ecent rise in gas prices. More than six in 10 have said this since we first asked in 2005. Lower-income residents (74%) are more likely than upper -income residents (62%) to have considered this ; Latinos (82%) are more likely than blacks (74%), Asians (70% ), and whites (58%) to have done so. Consideration of a more fuel -efficient car declines as age and education increase and is more common among those who have experienced hardship due to increased gas prices (73%) than among those who have not (51%). “As a result of the recent rise in gasoline prices would you say that you have or have not …?” All Adults Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to under $80,000 $80,000 or more Cut back significantly on how much you drive Yes 59% 68% 62% 47% No 34 24 33 49 NA/Don’t know 7 8 5 3 Seriously considered getting a more fuel-efficient car the next time you buy a vehicle Yes 68 74 66 62 No 20 16 22 25 NA/Don’t know 12 10 12 12 July 2011 Californians and the Environment 24 REGIONAL MAP July 2011 Californians and the Environment 25 METHODOLOGY The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance from Sonja Petek, project manager for this survey, and survey research associates Dean Bonner and Jui Shrestha, and survey intern Elisa Baeza. This survey was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. We benefited from discussions with Hewlett program staff, PPIC staff, and others; however, the methods, questions, and content of this report were determined solely by Mark Baldassare and the survey team . Findings in this report are based on a survey of 2,504 California adult residents, including 2,002 interviewed on landline telephones and 50 2 interviewed on cell phones. Live interviewing took place on weekday nights and weekend days from July 5– 19, 2011. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Landline interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligibl e for selection and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Cell phone interviews were included in this survey to account for the growing number of Californians who use them. These interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of cell phone numbers. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as eight times to increase the likelihood of reaching an eligible respondent. Once a cell phone user was reached, it was verified that this person was age 18 or older, a California resident, and in a safe place to continue the survey (e.g., not driving). Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the potential cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Landline and cell phone interviewing was conducted in English, Spanish, Chinese (Mandarin or Cantonese), Vietnamese, and Korean, according to respondents’ preferences. We chose these languages because Spanish is the dominant language among non -English -speaking adults in California, followed in prevalence by the three Asian languages. Accent on Language s, Inc. translated the survey into Spanish, with assistance from Renatta DeFever. Abt SRBI Inc. translated the survey into Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean, and conducted all telephone interviewing. With assistance from Abt SRBI we used recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2006– 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) for California to compare certain demo graphic characteristics of the survey sample— region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education —with the characteristics of California’s adult populatio n. The survey sample was comparable to the ACS figures. Abt SRBI used data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey and data from the 2006– 2008 ACS for California, both to estimate landline and cell phone service in California and to compare the data against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party affiliation of registered voters in our sample to statewide party registration. The landline and cell phone samples were then integrated using a frame integration weight , while sample balancing adjusted for any differences across region al, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, telephone service, and party registration groups. PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 26 The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3 percent at the 95 percent confidence level for the total sample of 2,50 4 adults. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 3 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for subgroups is larger: For the 1,619 registered voters , it is ±3.2 percent; for the 1,153 likely voters, it is ±3.6 percent. Sampling error is only one type of err or to which surv eys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. Throughout the report, w e refer to five geographic regions that account for approximately 90 percent of the state population. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sut ter, Tehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “Sa n Francisco Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” refers to Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/ San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. Residents from other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less populated areas are not large enough to rep ort separately. In examining opinions about offshore oil drilling, we refer to coastal and inland counties. Within coastal counties, t he “north/central coast” region refers to the counties along the California coast northward from San Luis Obispo County to Del Norte County and includes all the San Francisco Bay Area counties . The “south coast ” region includes Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties. All other counties are included in the “inland” region. We present sp ecific results for non-Hispanic whites and for Latinos, who account for about a third of the state’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest growing voter groups. We also present results for non- Hispanic Asians, who make up about 13 percent of the state’s adult population, and non- Hispanic blacks, who comprise about 6 percent. Results for other racial/ethnic groups —such as Native Americans —are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes are not large enough for separate analysis. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, Republicans, and decline -to -state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in another party are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters —so designated by their responses to survey questions on voter registration, previous election participation, and current interest in politics . The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to 100 due to rounding. We compare current PPIC Statewide Survey results to those in our earlier surveys and to results from a survey conducted by ABC News/Washington Post , CNN/Opinion Research Corporation, Gallup, and the Pew Research Center. Additional details about our methodology can be found at http://www.ppic.org/content/other/SurveyMethodology.pdf and are available upon request with an email to surveys@ppic.org . July 2011 Californians and the Environment 27 QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESULTS CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT July 5–19, 2011 2,504 California Adult Residents: English , Spanish, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese MARGIN OF ERROR ±3% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE PERCENT AGES MAY NOT ADD TO 100 D UE TO ROUNDING 1. First, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California? 42% approve 28 disapprove 29 don’t know 2. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Governor Brown is handling environmental issues in California? 35% approve 27 disapprove 37 don’t know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? 23% approve 59 disapprove 18 don’t know 4. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling environmental issues in California? 31% approve 44 disapprove 24 don’t know 5. Next, what do you think is the most important environmental issue facing California today? [c ode , don’t read ] 27% air pollution, vehicle emissions, smog 8 water pollution 8 water supply, drought 7 energy, oil drilling 5 gas prices 4 global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases 4 landfills, garbage, waste, recycling 3 loss of forests, forest fires, wildfires 3 pollution in general 3 jobs, economy, budget 2 too much government regulation, environmentalists 12 other 14 don’t know 6. Which level of government do you trust the most to deal with environmental problems — [rotate order ] (1) the federal government, (2) the state government , [or] (3) your local government? 20% federal government 24 state government 35 local government 3 all of the above (volunteered) 12 none (volunteered) 6 don't know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 28 7. We are interested in the region of California that you live in. Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your region? 29% big problem 37 somewhat of a problem 33 not a problem 1 don’t know 8. How satisfied are you with the air quality in your region today —would you say you are very satisfied, somewhat satisfied , somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied? 23% very satisfied 43 somewhat satisfied 21 somewhat dissatisfied 12 very dissatisfied 1 don’t know 9. Is the air quality in your region better or worse than it was 10 years ago? 23% better 44 worse 18 same (volunteered) 9 haven’t lived here for 10 years (volunteered) 6 don’t know 10. How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your region to you and your immediate family —do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat? 19% very serious 34 somewhat serious 43 not too serious 3 not at all serious (volunteered) 1 don’t know 11. Do you think that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than other areas in your region, or not? 50% yes 45 no 6 don’t know 1 2. Do you or does anyone in your immediate family suffer from asthma or other respiratory problems? ( if yes: would that be you or som eone in your immediate family?) 10% yes, respondent 24 yes, someone in immediate family 8 yes, both 58 no – don't know 13. Which of the following do you think contributes the most to air pollution in your region? [ read rotated list, then ask, “or something else?”] 23% personal vehicle emissions 19 commercial vehicle emissions 15 industry and agriculture 14 population growth and development 8 pollution from outside the area 7 weather and geography 4 something else (specify) 7 all of the above (volunteered) 3 don’t know 14. On another topic, which of the fol lowing statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen — [rotate order] (1) they have already begun to happen; (2) they will start happening within a few years; (3) they will start h appening within your lifetime; (4) they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; [or] (5) they will never happen? 61% alrea dy begun 4 within a few years 7 within your lifetime 11 not within lifetime, but will affect future generations 12 will never happen 5 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 29 15. Do you think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, or do you think it is not necessary to take steps yet? 75% right away 19 not necessary yet 3 never necessary (volunteered) 3 don’t know 16. How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future— do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat? 47% very serious 28 some what serious 12 not too serious 11 not at all serious 2 don’t know Now I am going to name a few of the possible impacts of global warming in California, and I would like you to tell me whether you are very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about each one. [rotate questions 17 to 20] 17. How about increased flooding? 28% very concerned 29 somewhat concerned 23 not too concerned 19 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 18. How about droughts that are more severe? 45% very concerned 30 somewhat concerned 13 not too concerned 11 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 19. How about increased air pollution? 48% very concerned 32 somewhat concerned 10 not too concerned 10 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 20. How about wildfires that are more severe? 56% very concerned 25 somewhat concerned 9 not too concerned 10 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 21. Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020? 67% favor 21 oppose 11 don’t know 22. Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to addre ss the issue of global warming? 57% favor 33 oppose 10 don’t know 23. When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it [ rotate ] (1) take ac tion right away [ or should it ] (2) wait until the state economy and job situation improve t o take action? 58% take action right away 38 wait until state economy and job situation improve 4 don’t know 24. Do you think the government should or should not regulate the release of greenhouse gases from sources like power plants, cars, and factories in an e ffort to reduce global warming? 79% should 16 should not 5 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 30 Next, officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce gree nhouse gas emissions. [rotate questions 25 to 29] 25. How about requiring an increase in the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by utilities? 82% favor 15 oppose 3 don’t know 26. How about requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances? 74% favor 21 oppose 5 don’t know 27. How about requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facili ties to reduce their emissions? 82% favor 14 oppose 4 d on’t know 28. How about encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning s o that people could drive less? 79% favor 17 oppose 4 don’t know 29. How about requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse g ases fr om new cars? 81% favor 16 oppose 3 don’t know 30. There’s a proposed system called “cap and trade.” The government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies would find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that would be cheaper than buying permits. Would y ou favor or oppose this system? 54% favor 36 oppose 11 don’t know 31. Would you favor or oppose a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions? 60% favor 32 oppose 8 don’t know 32. Changing topics, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling his job as president of the Unit ed States? 52% approve 42 disapprove 7 don’t know 33. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that President Obama is handling environment al issues in the United States? 47% approve 38 disapprove 15 don’t know 34. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is hand ling its job? 25% approve 65 disapprove 10 don’t know 35. Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling environment al issues in the United States? 25% approve 60 disapprove 15 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 31 [rotate order for questions 36 to 38] 36. Overall, do you think that the federal government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 13% more than enough 24 just enough 56 not enough 7 don’t know 37. Overall, do you think that the state government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 14% more than enough 32 just enough 47 not enough 7 don’t know 38. Overall, do you think that your local government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 12% more than enough 34 just enough 46 not enough 9 don’t know 39. Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for peop le around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jo bs for people around the state? 47% more jobs 23 fewer jobs 20 wouldn’t affect the number of jobs 10 don’t know Next, do you favor or oppose the following proposals? [rotate questions 40 to 43a, keeping 43/43a together ] 40. How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country? 84% favor 13 oppose 3 don’t know 41. How about allowing more oil dril ling off the California coast? 46% favor 49 oppose 5 don’t know 42. How about building more nuclear power plants at this time? 30% favor 65 oppose 5 don’t know 43. How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology? 80% favor 16 oppose 3 don’t know 43a.How about requiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2020? ( if favor: Do you still favor this proposal if it means an increas e in your own electricity bill?) 46% favor, even if it increases electricity bill 31 favor, but not if it increases electricity bill 16 oppose 6 don’t know 44. On another topic, have price increases in gasoline caused any financial hardship for you or your household? 76% yes, caused hardship 23 no, have not caused hardship 1 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 32 [rotate questions 45 and 46] 45. As a result of the recent rise in gasoline prices, would you say that you have or have not cut back significantly on how much you drive? 59% yes, have cut back 34 no, have not cut back 4 don’t drive/don’t have a car (volunteered) 3 yes, have cut back, but not significantly (volunteered) – don’t know 46. As a result of the recent rise in gasoline prices, would you say that you have or have not seriously considered getting a more fuel- efficient car the next time you buy a vehicle? 68% yes, have considered 20 no, have not considered 8 my current vehicle is fuel-efficient (volunteered) 3 don’t drive/don’t have a car/won’t buy another vehicle (volunteered) 1 don’t know I’m now going to ask you some questions about education on the environment, including topics such as air pollution, global warming, and energy, for children in grades K–12. 47. As far as you know, do your local K–12 schools have environmental education? 46% yes 17 no 37 don’t know 48. Do you think your local K–12 schools are doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough when it comes to environmental education? 13% more than enough 30 just enough 36 not enough 21 don’t know 49. Do you think that environmental education should or should not be taught in your local K–12 schools? 90% should 8 should not 2 don’t know 50. And how important to you is it that your local K–12 schools include environmental education—very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important? 65% very important 24 somewhat important 6 not too important 5 not at all important 1 don’t know 51. Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? 65% yes [ask q51a] 35 no [skip to q52b] 51a.Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline-to-state or independent voter? 45% Democrat [ask q52] 32 Republican [skip to q52a] 4 another party (specify) [skip to q53] 19 independent [skip to q52b] 52. Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 51% strong 46 not very strong 4 don’t know [skip to q53] 52a.Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 50% strong 47 not very strong 3 don’t know [skip to q53] PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 33 52b.Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? 21% Republican Party 39 Democratic P arty 33 n either (volunteered) 8 don’t know 53 . Would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom] 9% very liberal 20 somewhat liberal 32 middle -of -the -road 23 somewhat conservative 12 very conservative 4 don’t know 54 . Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics —a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none? 20% great deal 37 fair amount 33 only a little 9 none 1 don’t know D6. [of those employed full - or part -time] How do you usually commute to work —drive alone, carpool, take public bus or transit, walk, or bicycle? 70% drive alone 12 carpool 8 take public bus or transit 3 walk 2 bicycle 3 work at home (volunteered) 1 other (specify) [d1–d5a and d7 –d17: demographic questions] PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY ADVISORY COMMITTEE Ruben Barrales President and CEO San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Paul Brest President The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Mollyann Brodie Senior Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Executive Director University of California Washington Center James E. Canales President The James Irvine Foundation Jon Cohen Director of Polling The Washington Post Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network William Hauck President California Business Roundtable Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning , and Development University of Southern California Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Publisher and CEO La Opinión Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Lisa Pitney Vice President, Government Relations The Walt Disney Company Dan Rosenheim News Director KPIX -TV Robert K. Ross, M.D. President and CEO The California Endowment Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento Cathy Taylor Vice President and Editorial Commentary Director Orange County Register Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS John E. Bryson, Chair Retired Chairman and CEO Edison International Mark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and CEO San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Marí a Blanco Vice President, Civic Engagement California Community Foundation Gary K. Hart Former State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California Robert M. Hertzberg Partner Mayer Brown, LLP Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs David Mas Masumoto Author and farmer Steven A. Merksamer Senior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni , LLP Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Thomas C. Sutton Retired Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decisionmakers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a private operating foundation. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and CEO of PPIC. John E. Bryson is Chair of the Board of Directors. Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the copyright notice below is included. Copyright © 201 1 Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO CENT ER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121 www.ppic.org survey@ppic.org" } ["___content":protected]=> string(102) "

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" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(107) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/ppic-statewide-survey-californians-and-the-environment-july-2011/s_711mbs/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8808) ["ID"]=> int(8808) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:41:02" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(4164) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(8) "S 711MBS" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(8) "s_711mbs" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_711MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "558428" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(96242) "& p p i c s tat e w i d e s u r v e y Californians Mark Baldassare Dean Bonner Sonja Petek Jui Shrestha in collaboration with The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation CONTENTS About the Survey 2 Pres s Release 3 Env ironmental Issues, Air Pollution 6 Cli mate Change, Energy Policy 13 Re gional Map 24 Met hodology 25 Q uestionnaire and Results 27 the environment j u ly 2 0 1 1 July 2011 Californians and the Environment 2 ABOUT THE SURVEY The PPIC Statewide Sur vey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. Inaugurated in April 1998, this is the 119th PPIC Statewide Sur vey . In all, the sur veys have generated a database of responses from more than 252,000 Californians. The current s u r v e y, Californians and the Environment, was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. I ts goal is to inform state policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about Californians’ opinions on air pollution, global warming, and energy policy. It is the 11th annual PPIC Statewide Sur vey on environmental issues since 2000. As economic concerns have dominated recent federal public policy debates, discussions about climate change policy have faded from the headlines. A lthough state lawmakers have been focused almost exclusively on passing a budget, other state and local officials have been working to implement California’s landmark Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), developing ways to meet its emission reduction targets. T here is also growing emphasis across state budget areas on devolving some state responsibilities down to local governments. This sur vey gauges public opinion on environmental issues in the face of ongoing economic challenges and examines attitudes toward the roles of local, state, and federal leader ship. As for energy policy, Governor Jerr y Brown recently signed legislation requiring utilities to use renewable energy sources for a third of the electricity they provide to California residents by 2020. The sur vey measures views on this policy and tracks opinions on expanding nuclear power in the wake of the recent nuclear crisis in Japan and on expanding oil drilling off California ’s coast. This sur vey presents the responses of 2,504 adult residents throughout California, inter viewed in multiple languages by landline or cell phone. It includes findings on:  Environmental issues —including approval ratings of elected officials ’ handling of env ironmental issues; the state environmental issue that residents consider the most impor tant ; and which level of government they trust to handle environmental problems . It examines perceptions of regional air quality and whether it has changed in the past 10 years , whether ai r pollution poses a health threat , and whether this threat is more serious in lower-income areas .  Climate change, including opinions about the urgency of global warming ; concerns about its possible impacts; whether the state should set its own global warming policies; views of the mandate of AB 32 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020; opinions about specific ways to reduce emissions; and attitudes toward local , state, and federal government actions on global warming. This section also examines residents’ preferences on energy policies and the personal effects of the recent rise in gasoline prices.  Time trends, national comparisons, and variations in perceptions, attitudes, and preferences about environmental issues across the five major regions of the state (Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, Inland Empire, and Orange/San Diego Counties), among Asians, blacks, Latinos, and non- Hispanic whites, and across socioeconomic and political groups. This repor t may be downloaded free of charge from our website ( www.ppic.org). For questions about the sur vey, please contact sur vey@ppic.org . Tr y our PPIC Statewide Sur vey interactive tools online at http://w ww.ppic.org/main/sur vAdvancedSearch.asp. July 2011 Californians and the Environment 3 PPIC Statewide Survey CONTACT Linda Strean 415-291-4412 Andrew Hattori 415- 291-4417 NEWS RELEASE EMBARGOED: Do not publish or broadcast until 9:00 p.m. PDT on Wednesday , July 27, 2011. Para ver e ste comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Support Drops for More Nuclear Plants, Rises for Offshore Drilling ON GLOBAL WARMING, MOST SAY EFFECTS HAVE BEGUN, FAVOR STATE P OLICIES SAN FRANCISCO, July 27 , 2011— In the wake of the Japanese nuclear crisis, support for building mor e nuclear power plants in California has dropped sharply in a statewide survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC), with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Today, 65 percent of adults oppose building more plants and 30 percent are in favor —the lowest level of support since PPIC began asking the question and a 14- point drop since last July (44% in favor). Californians are more divided on another key question of energy policy: whether to allow more oil drill ing off the California coast. With gas prices high— but not as high as the peak in summer 2008—46 percent favor more drilling and 49 percent are opposed. In the year since the BP oil spill, support for drilling has increased 12 points (34% in favor, July 2010). There is a partisan divide on this question. Today, Republicans (71%) are twice as likely as Democrats (35%) and far more likely than independents (40%) to favor more drilling. Regional differences also emerge, with residents in the Central Valley (56%), Orange/San Diego Counties (52%), and the Inland Empire (52%) much more likely than those in Los Angeles County (39%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (37%) to favor more drilling. More than half of residents who live in inland counties (54%) support more drilling compared to 42 percent of those who live in coastal counties. As the Obama administration prepares to announce new fuel -efficiency standards for the U.S. auto industry, there is much more agreement among Californians on this aspect of U.S. energ y policy: state residents overwhelmingly (84%) favor requiring automakers to improve fuel efficiency significantly, as do majorities across parties (90% Democrats, 81% independents, 76% Republicans). “With spikes in gas prices at home and nuclear power failures in Japan, Californians are strongly supportive of policies that encourage more fuel efficiency and renewable energy,” says Mark Baldassare, president and CEO of PPIC. Support is also strong (80%) for increased federal funding to develop renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Solid majorities across parties, regions, and demographic groups hold this view. California policy requires that one- third of the state’s electricity come from renewable energy sources by 2020 . It gets the support of 77 percent of Californians. What if this policy results in higher electricity bills? Just under half (46%) of adults favor it. SUPPORT FOR STATE’S CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY In a year that has seen both lingering economic distress and ext reme weather across the nation, most Californians continue to support the state’s climate change policy. Most believe global warming is a PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 4 serious threat to the state’s future economy, with 47 percent seeing it as a very serious threat and 28 percent saying it is somewhat serious. The principle behind AB 32 —the California law requiring the state to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 —enjoys majority support (67% favor, 21% oppose, 11% don’t know). Most (57%) believe that the state governm ent should make its own policies, separate from the federal government’s , to address global warming. The effects of global warming have already begun in the view of 61 percent of adults. This is an increase of 7 points since last July (5 4%) but similar to previous years (61% in 2009, 64% in 2008, 66% in 2007, and 63% in 2006). Another 22 percent say the impact of global warming will occur sometime in the future: 4 percent say it will start within a few years, 7 percent say within their lifetime, and 11 percent say it will affect future generations. Twelve percent say it will never occur. Across parties, Democrats (69%) and independents (62%) are far more likely than Republicans (40%) to say the effects of global warming have already begun. The view that the effects of global warming have begun is up 10 points among Republicans, up 7 points among independents, and similar to last year among Democrats . MAJORITY FAVOR STATE ACTION TO CUT EMISSI ONS NOW Most adults (58%) say California should act now to reduce e missions, while 38 percent prefer to wait until the economy and job situation improve. How do Californians think action to reduce global warming would affect employment? Nearly half (47%) say state action would result in more jobs and 23 percent say it wou ld result in fewer, while 20 percent foresee no change in employment. “Californians are holding steady in the belief that global warming is underway and threatens the state’s future,” Baldassare says. “In the wake of federal inaction on the issue, they strongly support the state’s climate change policies. With unemployment high, many also see a potential for job creation.” As to their specific concerns about the effects of global warming, Californians are more concerned about increased severity of wildfires (56%), air pollution (48%), and droughts (45%) than about increased flooding (28%). Blacks and Latinos are more likely than Asians and whites to say they are very concerned about each possibility. Less than half of whites are very concerned about any of these potential effects. Residents overwhelmingly favor (79%) government regulation of the release of greenhouse gases from sources such as power plants, cars, and factories to reduce global warming. But they are more divided on one method to do so that is under consideration in California: a cap and trade system. Just over half (54%) favor cap and trade a nd 36 percent are opposed. One other method, a carbon tax, is somewhat more popular, with 60 percent in favor. Strong majorities favor several options under discussion at the state and federal level to address climate change: requiring utilities to increase their use of renewable energy (82%), industry to reduce emissions (82%), and automakers to reduce emissions from new cars (81%); encouraging local governments to change the way they plan so as to reduce driving (79%); and requiring buildings and appliances to be more efficient (74%). TWO -THIRDS S EE REGIONAL AIR POLL UTION AS A PROBLEM Sixty-six percent of Californians consider air pollution in their region a big problem (29%) or somewhat of a problem (37%); 33 percent say it is not a problem. Residents of Los Angeles County (45%), the Central Valley (37%), and the Inland Empire (28%) are more likely than those living in the San Francisco Bay Area (19%) an d Orange/San Diego Counties (15%) to say air pollution is a big problem in their regions. Asked about regional air quality over time, 44 percent of adults say it has gotten worse in the last 10 years, 23 percent say it has gotten better, and 18 percent volunteer that it has stayed the same. At the PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 5 same time, two-thirds of adults are very satisfied (23%) or somewhat satisfied (43%) with the air quality in their region. A third are very dissatisfied (12%) or somewhat dissatisfied (21%). Californians identify vehicle emissions (23% personal vehicles, 19% commercial vehicles) as contributing the most to air pollution in their region, followed by industry and agriculture (15%), population growth and development (14%), pollution from outside the area (8%), and weather and geography (7%). Half of Californians say regional air pollution is a serious health threat (19% very serious, 34% somewhat serious, 43% not too serious). And 42 percent of adults report having asthma or an asthmatic family member. Residents are divided when asked if air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than in other areas in their region (50% yes, 45% no). BLACKS, LATINOS LESS SATISFIED WITH AIR Q UALITY Perceptions of air quality differ among racial groups, with blacks and Latinos having more negative views. Blacks (42%) and Latinos (41%) are more likely than Asians (28%) and far more likely than whites (19%) to say that regional air pollution is a big problem. Latinos and blacks (61% each) are much more likely t han Asians (46%) and whites (30%) to say regional quality is worse today than it was 10 years ago. And most blacks (59%) are dissatisfied with regional air quality ; just 6 percent are very satisfied, compared to 12 percent of Latinos, 18 percent of Asians, and 34 percent of whites . Blacks (36%) and Latinos (26%) are more likely than whites (14%) or Asians (11%) to see regional air pollution as a very serious health threat. DEPEND ING ON CARS, FEELING PAI N AT THE PUMP A solid majority of Californians (70%) who work part - or full -time say they commute by driving alone . Just 12 percent carpool and even fewer take public transit (8%), walk (3%), or bike (2%) to work. Recent gas price hikes have caused households financial hardship, according to 76 percent . Most (59%) report cutting back significantly on driving, a change that is far more common among lower -income Californians (68%) than among upper -income residents (47%). Blacks (76%) and Latinos (66%) are more likely than whites (55%) and Asians (54%) to say the y have reduced their driving. Across regions, Central Valley and Inland Empire residents (68% each ) are the most likely to report cutting back on driving , with residents of the San Francisco Bay Area (51%) the least likely. BROWN’S APPROVAL RATING AT 42 PERCENT—35 PERCENT ON ENVIRONMENT Despite passage of an on-time budget, the job approval ratings of Governor Jerry Brown (42%) and the state legislature (23%) are identical to their ratings in May. When it comes to handling environmental issues, California ns are as likely to be unsure of how the governor is doing (37%) as they are to approve (35%), with 27 percent disapproving. They are more likely to approve of the way the legislature is handling environmental issues (31%) than of the way it is handling issues overall. Still, more than half of Republicans (59%) and independents (54%) and a plurality of Democrats (41%) disapprove of the way the legislature is handling environmental issues. About half of Californians (52%) approve of President Barack Obama’s job performance, similar to March this year (56%) and July 2010 (56%), but down 13 points since July 2009 (65%). When it comes to handling environmental issues, Obama’s rating (47%) is similar to July 2010 (49%) , but is down 11 points since 2009 (58%). Co ngress gets a 25-percent approval rating overall and a 25- percent rating on handling environmental issues. Californians are more likely to trust local government (35%) than the state (24%) or federal governments (20%) to deal with environmental problems. July 2011 Californians and the Environment 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, AIR POLLUTION KEY FINDINGS  Forty -two percent of Californians approve of Governor Brown’s job performance overall and 35 percent say they approve of his handling of environmental issues . While t he state legislatur e generally receives low approval ratings, residents give higher marks for its handling of environmental issues than for its job performance overall. ( page 7 )  Fifty -two percent approve of President Obama’s job performance overall. Nearly half (47%) approve of his handling of environmental issues, but this is down from 58 percent in 2009 ; opinion is sharply divided along partisan lines. One in four Californians approve of the U.S. Congress on their job performance overall or on environmental issues . (page 8 )  A small plurality of residents (27%) continue to name air pollution as the most important environmental issue facing the state , while far fewer mention other issues such as water pollution, water supply, energy or oil drilling, or gas prices . Just 4 percent name global warming. ( page 9)  Los Angeles and Central Valley residents are more likely than residents elsewhere to say air pollution is a big problem in their region. About four in 10 residents say vehicle emissions are the top contributor to ai r pollution in their region. (page s 10 , 11 )  Blacks and Latinos are more likely than whites and Asians to consider regional air pollution a serious health threat and to say that this threat is more serious in lower - income areas. (page 12 ) 55 6466 37 0 20 40 60 80 AsiansBlacksLatinosWhites Percent all adults Percent Saying Regional Air Pollution Is a More Serious Health Threat in Lower-Income Areas 42 23 3531 0 20 40 60 80 Governor BrownCalifornia Legislature Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of State Elected Officials 52 25 47 25 0 20 40 60 80 President ObamaU.S. Congress Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of Federal Elected Officials PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 7 APPROVAL RATINGS OF STATE ELECTED OFFICIAL S About four in 10 Californians (42%) approve of Governor Brown’s overall job performance, while 28 percent disapprove and 29 percent are unsure. Despite passage of an on -time state budget, there was no change in the governor’s approval ratings from May (42% ) and April (40%). Among likely voters, 48 percent approve of the way he is handling his job, also similar to May (46%) and April (46%). Fifty- nine percent of Democrats approv e, while 56 percent of Republicans disapprove. Across racial/ethnic groups, black s (60%) are much more likely than whites (43%), Asians (42%), and Latinos (40%) to approve. When it comes to the governor’s handling of environmental issues, Californians are as likely to be unsure of how he is doing (37%) as they are to approve (35%). Tw enty-seven percent disapprove. Among likely voters, 36 percent approve, 31 percent disapprove, and 33 percent are unsure. Opinion is divided along party lines: a plurality of Democrats approv e and a plurality of Republicans disapprov e. While pluralities of Latinos (41%) and blacks (40%) approve, most Asians (53%) are unsure. Whites are about as likely to be unsure (37%) as they are to approve (34%) of Governor Brown’s handling of environmental issues. “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brow n is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind His job as governor of California Approve 42% 59% 27% 43% 48% Disapprove 28 18 56 30 35 Don't know 29 23 17 27 17 Environmental issues in California Approve 35 49 21 29 36 Disapprove 27 18 49 30 31 Don't know 37 33 30 41 33 The state legislature’s approval ratings are also unchanged after it passed an on -time state budget: 23 percent of Californians approve of its job performance, similar to May (23%) and April (21%). Still, approval has increased slightly within the last two years (15% July 2010, 17% July 2009). Among likely voters, 15 percent appr ove of the state legislature’s job performance , while 74 percent disapprove. Solid majorities across parties disapprove (78% Republicans, 72% independents, 63% Democrats). Latinos (36%) and Asians (27%) are more likely than blacks (17%) and whites (15%) to approve. Californians are more likely to approve of the way the legislature is handling environmental issues (31%) than of the way it is handling its job overall (23%). Still, more than half of Republicans (59%) and independents (54 %) and a plurality of Democrats (41%) disapprove of the way it is handling these issues . “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling …?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 23% 20% 13% 18% 15% Disapprove 59 63 78 72 74 Don't know 18 17 9 10 11 Environmental issues in California Approve 31 33 23 21 24 Disapprove 44 41 59 54 54 Don't know 24 26 19 24 23 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 8 APPROVAL RATINGS OF FEDERAL ELECTED OFFICIALS More than half of Californians (52%) approve of the way Barack Obama is handling his job as president, similar to this March (56%) and July 2010 (56%), but down 13 points since July 2009 (65%). Likely voters are divided, with 48 percent approving and 47 percent disa pproving. An ABC News/ Washington Post poll earlier this month reported 47 percent of adults nationwide approve of Barack Obama’s job performance and 48 percent disapprove. In California, 74 percent of Democrats approve and 72 percent of Republicans disapprove. A n overwhelming majority of blacks (89%) approve, followed by Asians (62%), Latinos (56%), and whites (42%). When it comes to handling environmental issues, President Obama’s ratings are similar to last July (49%), bu t down 11 points since 2009 (58%). Likely voters are divided. Sixty -two percent of Democrats approve, while 61 percent of Republicans disapprove, and independents are divided. Blacks (80%) are far more likely than Latinos (58%), Asians (50%), and whites (37%) to approve of the way President Obama is handling environmental issues. “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind His job as president of the United States Approve 52% 74% 22% 51% 48% Disapprove 42 20 72 46 47 Don't know 7 6 5 4 5 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 47 62 24 42 43 Disapprove 38 25 61 42 43 Don't know 15 12 15 15 14 The U.S. Congress continues to have low approval ratings among Californians. Just 25 percent approve of the way it is handling its job, while 65 percent disapprove. Fewer than one in three residents have approved since March 2010. A July Gallup Poll reported 77 percent of adults nationwide disapprov e and 18 percent approv e of the way Congress is handling its job. Across all regions and most demographic groups, majorities of Californians disapprove. The sole exception is among Asians (33% approve, 45% disapprove). On environmental issues, 25 percent of all adults approve of Congress’s job performance, but far more disapprov e (60%). Fewer than one in four across parties approve, while more than six in 10 disapprove. Across regions and demographic groups, residents are more likely to disapprove than approve. “D o you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling …?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 25% 23% 18% 20% 17% Disapprove 65 70 76 74 78 Don't know 10 7 6 6 5 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 25 24 20 18 18 Disapprove 60 64 66 70 70 Don't know 15 12 14 12 12 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 9 PREFERRED LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT Californians are more likely to trust their local government (35%) than the state (24%) or the federal government (20%) to deal with environmental problems . Twelve percent volunteer that they trust no level of government, while 3 percent say they trust all three. When this question was asked in June 2002, trust in state gover nment (32%) was higher. Support for federal (19%) and local levels of gov ernment ( 36% ) was similar to today’s levels. Today, Republicans (44%) are more likely than independents (34%) and Democrats (33%) to trust their local government the most. Democrats (32%) are more likely than independents (22%) and Republicans (20%) to place trust in state government. Whites (42%) are much more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to trust their local govern ment. Across regions, those in the Central Valley (45%) and Inland Empire (41%) are most likely to trust their local government and those in Los Angeles (28%) the least likely to do so. “Which level of government do you trust the most to deal with environmental problems ?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Local government 35% 33% 44% 34% 39% State government 24 32 20 22 24 Federal government 20 18 17 19 18 All of the above (volunteered) 3 2 – 3 2 None (volunteered) 12 9 17 17 14 Don’t know 6 5 2 5 3 MOST IMPORTANT ENVIR ONMENTAL ISSUE FACING CALIFORNIA In answer to an open -ended question, a plurality of Californians (27%) mention air pollution as the most important environmental issue facing the state today. Since 2000, air pollution has topped the list of environ mental issues , with a high of 34 percent in 2002 and a low of 20 percent in 2009. Eight percent name water pollution , 8 percent water supply or drought, 7 percent energy or oil drilling , and 5 percent gas prices. Four percent mention global warming or global climate change and 4 percent mention landfills or garbage. Residents of Orange/San Diego C ounties (19%) are the least likely to cite air pollution and those in the Inland Empire (34%) are the most likely to do so. Democrats (27%) are slightly more likely than independents (22%) and Republicans (20%) to cite air pollution. Whites are less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to mention air pollution. “What do you think is the most important environmental issue facing California today?” Top five issues mentioned All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Air pollution 27% 28% 24% 31% 19% 34% Water pollution 8 8 7 8 13 5 Water supply, drought 8 13 8 4 10 7 Energy, oil drilling 7 4 9 7 8 6 Gas prices 5 4 4 6 7 2 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 10 REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION Two in three Californians consider air pollution in their region to be a big problem (29%) or somewhat of a problem (37%). One in three say air pollution is not a problem (33%). Since June 2000, solid majorities have said air pollution is at least somewhat of a problem , with more than 20 percent calling it a big problem. The percentage saying big problem was highest in July 2006 (41%) and lowest in July 2009 (23%). Residents of Los Angeles (45%), the Central Valley (37%) , and the Inland Empire (28%) are more likely than those living in the San Francisco Bay Area (19%) and Orange/San Diego Counties (15%) to say air pollution is a big problem in their region today. Since last July, the biggest change in this perception has been in the Central Valley (up 8 points). However, in our annual summer surveys on the environment, this belief has fluctuated greatly within each region over time. The highest and lowest proportion s of residents calling air pollution a big problem are: Central Valley (51% 2006 and 2008, 28% 2000), San Francisco Bay Area (33% 2006, 14% 2010), Los Ang eles County (54 % 2006, 30% 2009), Orange/San Diego Counties ( 30% 2005, 10% 2010), and the Inland Empire (49 % 2007, 27% 2009). Blacks (42%) and Latinos (41%) are more likely than Asians (28%) and far more likely than whites (19%) to say air pollution is a big problem . Residents under 55 and renters are more likely than older residents and homeowners to hold this view. The share saying regional air pollution is a big problem declines as education and income levels rise. “We are interested in the region of California that you live in. Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your region?” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Big problem 29% 37% 19% 45% 15% 28% Somewhat of a problem 37 35 46 37 42 30 Not a problem 33 27 34 19 42 41 Don’t know 1 2 – – 1 1 Two in three Californians are very satisfied (23%) or somewhat satisfied (43%) with the air quality in their region today, while one in three are somewhat dissatisfied (21%) or very dissatisfied (12%) . Fewer than one in four have said they are very satisfied with regional air quality each time we have asked the question (18% 2006, 19 % 2007, 17% 2008, 24% 2009, 22% 2010, 23% today). Whites (34%) are much more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to be very satisfied with their regional air qualit y (18% Asians, 12% Latinos, 6% b lacks). A majority of blacks (59%) are dissatisfied. San Francisco Bay Area (29%) and Orange/San Diego (26%) residents are the most likely —and Los Angeles residents (13%) the least likely —to be very satisfied. Satisfaction with air quality increases as education and income levels rise. “How satisfied are you with the air quality in your region today ?” All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Very satisfied 23% 18% 6% 12% 34% Somewhat satisfied 43 53 34 50 38 Somewhat dissatisfied 21 18 38 23 18 Very dissatisfied 12 11 21 13 9 Don’t know 1 – 1 2 1 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 11 REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION (CONTINUED) When asked about air quality in their region over time, 23 percent of Californians say it has gotten better, 44 percent say it has gotten worse, and 18 percent volunteer that it is the same as it was 10 years ago. Results were similar in 2007, the last time this question was asked (20% better, 48% worse, 15% same). Although residents of Los Angeles are the most likely regional group to say air pollution is a big problem, they are also the most likely (30%) to say air quality has gotten better in the last 10 years. At the same time, they are among the most likely to say air quality has worsened (49% Central Valley, 47% Los Angeles, 46% Inland Empire, 40% San Francisco Bay Area, 38% Orange/San Diego Counties). Latinos and blacks (61% each ) are much more likely than Asians ( 46%) and whites (30%) to say regional air quality is worse today than it was a decade ago. The perception that regional air quality is worse now declines as age, education, and income increase. “Is the air quality in your region better or worse than it was 10 years ago? ” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Better 23% 19% 18% 30% 26% 22% Worse 44 49 40 47 38 46 Same (volunteered) 18 17 24 13 15 19 Haven’t lived here for 10 years (volunteered) 9 8 12 5 12 11 Don’t know 6 7 6 5 9 3 About four in 10 Californians correctly choose vehicle emissions (23% personal vehicles, 19% commercial vehicles) as the top contributor to air pollution in their region. Fewer choose industry and agriculture (15%), population growth and development (14%), pollution from outside the area (8%), and weather and geography (7%). Seven percent volunteer that all these factors contribute the most to regional air pollution. At least four in 10 adults have chosen vehicle emissions as the main cause of regional air pollution since 2003 in the seven surveys in which this question has been asked. Central Valley (28%) and Inland Empire (32%) r esidents are the least likely —and those in Orange/San Diego Counties (53%) the most likely— to name vehicle emissions as the top contributor to air pollution . Central Valley residents (21%) are the most likely to choose industry and agricultu re. “Which of the following do you think contributes the most to air pollution in your region?” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Personal vehicle emissions 23% 18% 29% 24% 31% 14% Commercial vehicle emissions 19 10 17 23 22 18 Industry and agriculture 15 21 15 16 8 12 Population growth and development 14 14 15 12 17 16 Pollution from outside the area 8 13 5 4 7 12 Weather and geography 7 10 4 7 4 10 Something else 4 4 4 2 2 6 All of the above (volunteered) 7 8 8 9 5 8 Don't know 3 3 2 2 3 3 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 12 AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH Half of Californians believe that air pollution in their region is a very serious (19%) or a somewhat serious (34%) health threat to them and their immediate family. Forty -three percent say air pollution is not too serious of a health threat and 3 percent volunteer that it is not at all serious. Since we first asked this question in 2003, between 17 and 25 percent have said that regional air pollution poses a very serious health threat . Asians (11%) and whites (14%) are much less likely to hold this view than Latinos (26%) and blacks (36%). Across regions, residents of Orange/San Diego Count ies (10%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (15%) are less likely than residents of the Inland Empire (21%), Los Angeles (23%), and the Central Valley (26%) to say air pollution is a very serious health threat. Among those saying regional air pollution is a big problem, 86 percent perceive it as a very (43%) or somewhat (43%) serious health threat. Forty -two percent of all adults report having asthma or having an asthmatic family member. About four in 10 have reported these problems since we first asked this question in 2003. Blacks (49%), Latinos (48%), and whites (42%) are more likely than Asians (28%) to report asthma or other resp iratory problems in the family. Women are more likely than men (48% to 35%) to report these problems. “How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your region to you and your immediate family ?” All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Very serious 19% 11% 36% 26% 14% Somewhat serious 34 32 41 41 30 Not too serious 43 51 21 32 50 Not at all serious (volunteered) 3 3 2 1 5 Don’t know 1 3 1 – – Half of Californians say air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than in other areas in their region. Forty -five percent disagree and 6 percent are un sure. O pinion is reversed among likely voters , with 45 percent saying air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas and 50 percent disagreeing . Since first asking this question in 2006, a dults have been divided on this issue except in 2007 (50% yes, 42% no) and 20 10 (41% yes, 52% no). Adults earning less than $40,000 a year (60%) are much more likely than those earning more to believe that air pollution poses a more serious health threat in lower -income areas. Democrats (54%) and independents (47%) are much more likely than Republicans (30%) to believe this. Residents of Los Angeles (61%) are most likely to hold this view, while those in the Central Valley (39%) are the least likely. Latinos (66%) and blacks (64%) are somewhat more likely than Asians (55%) and far more likely than whites (37%) to say air pollution disproportionately affects lower -income areas. Residents unde r 55 and those with a high school education or less are also more likely than others to hold this view. “Do you think that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower-income areas than other areas in your region, or not?” All Adults Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to under $80,000 $80,000 or more Yes 50% 60% 44% 40% No 45 34 50 56 Don’t know 6 6 5 4 July 2011 Californians and the Environment 13 CLIMATE CHANGE, ENERGY POLICY KEY FINDINGS  Six ty-one percent of Californians say the effects of global warming have already begun, up from 54 percent last July. Californians are more likely than adults nationwide to hold this view. ( page 14)  When considering possible impacts of global warming in California, residents are more concerned about more serious wildfires, droughts, and air pollution than about increased flooding . ( page 15 )  Two in three Californians support the state law requiring a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 . Most say the state should take action now and not wait for the economy and unemployment to improve, although Democrats and Republican s are sharply divided. (page 17 )  A vast majority of Californians, including majorities across parties , think government should regulate greenhouse gas emissions and they support specific proposals for doing so, including reducing emissions from new cars. Pluralities say federal, state, and local government s are all fail ing to do enough, especially the federal government. ( pages 18–20)  Support for building more nuclear plants has dropped to its lowest level ever. Support for more oil drilling off the Calif ornia coast has increased since last year. ( pages 21, 22 )  Californians strongly support funding for renewable energy . They also strongly favor a policy requiring a third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable sources by 2020; support drops to 46 percent if the policy meant higher utility bills. (page 22 ) 49 61 0 20 40 60 80 Adults nationwide*Californians Percent all adults Percent Saying Effects of Global Warming Have Already Begun *Gallup Poll, March 2011 44 3430 46 0 20 40 60 80 More nuclearplantsMore coastaloil drilling Percent all adults July 2010 July 2011 Percent Favoring Energy Proposals 57 485358 36 464238 0 20 40 60 80 July08July09July10July11 Percent all adults Right away Wait until economy, jobs improve* When StateShould Take Action on Global Warming *In 2008 and 2009, question said "economy and budget situation." PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 14 PERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Six in 10 Californians (61%) say the effects of global warming have already begun, a rise of 7 points since last July (54%), but similar to July 2009 (61%), 2008 (64%), 2007 (66%), and 2006 (63%). Another 22 percent today believe the effects will manifest sometime in the future: within a few years (4%), within their lifetime s (7%), or for future generations (11%). Just 12 percent say the e ffects of global warming will never occur . In a March Gallup poll, 49 percent of adults nationwide said the effects had already begun, 30 percent said the effects would come in the future, and 18 percent said there will never be any effects. Among Califor nia’s likely voters, 57 percent say global warming has already begun. Across parties, Democrats (69%) and independents (62%) are far more likely than Republicans (40%) to say that the effects of global warming have already begun. Among Republicans, 32 perc ent say there will be no effects. Perceptions among Democrats were similar last year, but the belief that effects have already begun increased 10 points among Republicans and 7 points among independents. Majorities across regions and racial/ethnic groups say the effects of global warming have already begun. San Francisco Bay Area residents (69%) are the most likely —and Central Valley and Orange/San Diego C ounty residents the least likely (55% each) —to hold this view. Latinos (68%) and blacks (65%) are more likely than whites (57%) and Asians (53%) to say effects are already underway. “Which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen— they have already begun to happen; they will start happening within a few years; they will start happening within your lifetime; they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; or they will never happen?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Have already begun 61% 69% 40% 62% 57% Will start w ithin a few years 4 5 1 3 3 Will start within your lifetime 7 9 8 6 8 Will affect f uture generations 11 9 14 16 10 Will n ever happen 12 5 32 11 18 Don’t know 5 3 6 3 4 A large majority of residents (75%) and two in three likely voters (67%) say steps to counter global warming ’s effects should start right away. Findings w ere nearly identical last year ; more than seven in 10 Californians have held this view since July 2003, the first time we asked this. De mocrats (85%) and independents (78%) are far more likely than Republicans (43%) to say immediate steps should be taken. Most Republicans (53%) say steps are unnecessary yet or volunteer that they will never be necessary. More than six in 10 across regi ons and demographic groups say action should be taken right away. “Do you think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, or do you think it is not necessary to take steps yet?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Right away 75% 85% 43% 78% 67% Not necessary yet 19 11 45 17 26 Never necessary (volunteered) 3 1 8 3 5 Don’t know 3 3 3 2 2 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 15 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE When asked to consider some possible effects of global warming in the state, Californians are more likely to be very concerned about more severe wildfires (56%) , more severe droughts (48%), and increased air pollution (45%) than about increased flooding (28%). We first asked about wildfires in July 2009, when a similar 59 percent were very concerned that fires would be more severe . We began asking about the other three issues in July 2005. For each, the share saying they were very concerned was highest in 2007 (55% air pollution, 60% droughts, 37% flooding). “Now I am going to na me a few of the possible impacts of global warming in California, and I would like you to tell me whether you are very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about each one. How about…?” Wildfires that are more severe Increased air pollution Droughts that are more severe Increased flooding Very concerned 56% 48% 45% 28% Somewhat concerned 25 32 30 29 Not too concerned 9 10 13 23 Not at all concerned 10 10 11 19 Don’t know 1 1 1 1 Across regions, more than half are very concerned about more severe wildfires resulting from global warming. Los Angeles residents are the most likely to be very concerned about increased air pollution and more severe droughts . Fewer than one in three residents across regions are very concerned about increased flooding. Opinion varies more markedly across racial/ethnic groups. On each possibility , blacks and Latinos are more likely than Asians and whites to say they are very concerned. Fewer than half of whites are very concerned about any of these possible impacts of global warming . There are also partisan differences , with Democrats and independ ents far more likely than Republicans to be very concerned about more severe wildfires (64%, 54%, 37%, respectively), air pollution (54%, 50%, 25%), and droughts (51%, 47%, 25%). Democrats are also more likely to be very concerned about increased flooding, although fewer than one in three across parties express this view (31% Democrats, 22% independents, 14% Republicans). Percent saying very concerned Wildfires that are more severe Increased air pollution D roughts that are more severe Increased flooding All Adults 56% 48% 45% 28% Likely V oters 50 39 42 21 Region Central Valley 53 44 45 31 San Francisco Bay Area 53 43 43 27 Los Angeles 60 56 52 29 Orange/San Diego 57 48 38 26 Inland Empire 52 50 48 32 Race/Ethnicity Asians 54 52 34 25 Blacks 71 72 54 50 Latinos 66 61 58 41 Whites 48 36 39 19 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 16 CALIFORNIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE Three in four Californians believe that global warming is a serious threat to the state’s future economy and quality of life : 47 percent say very serious and 28 percent say somewhat serious. About one in four say it is either not too serious (12%) or not at all serious (11%) of a threat to the state’s future. Since the questions was first asked in July 2005, majorities of Califor nians have said global warming is a very or somewhat serious threat to the state. In 2005, 39 percent said very serious; this grew to 49 percent in 2006 and to a high of 54 percent in 2007 (52% 2008, 47% 2009, 44% 2010, 47% today). Eighty -two percent of Democrats (54% very, 28% somewhat serious) and 77 percent of independents (44% very, 33% somewhat), consider global warming to be a serious threat to the state’s future, but far fewer Republicans —45 percent —share this view; 51 percent of Republicans say global warming is a not - too -serious (19%) or not -at -all serious (32%) threat. Across regions, strong majorities consider global warming a serious threat , with at least four in 10 saying it is a very serious threat. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (66%) and blacks (63%) are far more likely than whites (38%) and Asians (30%) to say global warming is a very serious threat to California. “How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Very serious 47% 54% 18% 44% 39% Somewhat serious 28 28 27 33 29 Not too serious 12 11 19 11 13 Not at all serious 11 5 32 9 18 Don’t know 2 1 3 2 2 A majority of Californians (57%) and likely voters (61%) say the state government should make its own policies, separate from the federal government ’s, to address global warming. Among all adults, support for California making its own policies is similar to last July (57%) and July 2009 (58%) , but is lower than in July 2006 (65%), 2007 (67%), and 2008 (66%). In 2005, 54 percent held this view. Majorities of Democrats (72%) and independents (63%) favor the state making its own policies to address global warming. Republicans are more likely to oppose (52%) than favor (40%) this idea. Opinion shifted after the presidency changed hands in 2009. Support among Democrats for independent state action declined somewhat in 2009 (66%) and 2010 (63%), but is back up to 72 percent today. Among Republicans, majorities from 200 6 to 2008 favored the state acting on its own, but support dropped beginning in 2009. Majorities of independents have favored this idea over time, but support also declined beginning in 2009. Asians (65%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to support California making its own policies, followed by Latinos and whites (57% each); among blacks, 49 percent are in favor and 42 percent are opposed. Support increases as income and education levels rise . “Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming? ” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 57% 72% 40% 63% 61% Oppose 33 21 52 31 33 Don’t know 10 7 9 6 6 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 17 CALIFORNIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE (CONTINUED) Strong majorities of Californians and likely voters continue to support the principle behind the Global Warming Solution Act passed in 2006 (also known as Assembly Bill 32 or AB 32) , which requires the state to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Two in three California ns (67%) and likely voters (65%) favor this law. S ince 2006, two in three or more Californians have expressed support and support peaked in 2007 at 78 percent (73% 2008, 66% 2009, 67% 2010, 67% today). Strong majorities of Democrats (79%) and independents (68%) favor the law, but Republicans are divided (45% favor, 43% oppose). Majorities of Republicans expressed support from 2006 to 2008; since 2009, support among Republicans has been below 50 percent (43% 2009, 39% 2010, 45% today). At least six in 10 Californians across regions and demographic groups favor AB 32. “To address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020? ” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 67% 79% 45% 68% 65% Oppose 21 9 43 24 26 Don’t know 11 12 12 9 10 Nearly six in 10 Californians (58%) also say the state should take action right away to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, wh ereas 38 percent say the state should wait until the economy and job situation improve. Among likely voters, opinion is divided (50% act right away, 45% wait). Findings among likely voters are similar to last July (48% act right away, 48% wait) when there was a ballot measure — Proposition 23 —set for the November election that would have suspended AB 32 until unemployment dropped to 5.5 percent for a full year. Voters defeated t he measure by a wide margin (62% no, 38% yes). Democrats (67%) say the state should take action immediately to reduce emissions, while Republicans (60%) say it should wait for the economy and unemployment to improve. Among independents, most think the sta te should act right away (57%) rather than wait (39%). Blacks and Latinos (69% each ) are much more likely than Asians (53%) and whites (51%) to say the state should act right away. “When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it take action right away or should it wait until the state economy and job situation improve to take action?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Take action right away 58% 67% 34% 57% 50% Wait until economy, job situation improve 38 30 60 39 45 Don’t know 4 4 6 4 5 How do Californians think action to reduce global warming would affect employment? Nearly half (47%) say that the state taking action would result in more jobs for Californians and 23 percent say it would result in fewer; 20 percent say there would be no change. Results were similar last September and July. A majority of Democrats (56%) think more jobs would result from action on global warming, wh ereas a plurality of Republicans (47%) say there would be fewer. Twenty-seven percent of Republicans say more jobs would result and 18 percent say there would be no effect . A plurality of independents (46%) foresee more jobs (23% fewer jobs, 23% no effect). At least half of Asians (50%), Latinos (51%), and blacks (64%) foresee more jobs, as do a plurality of whites (42%). PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 18 REGULATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS An overwhelming majority of Californians (79%) and likely voters (73%) say th at to reduce global warming, government should regulate the release of greenhouse gases from sources such as power plants, cars, and factories . Results among adults and likely voters have been similar since 2009. Majorities across political parties think the governmen t should regulate greenhouse gases, but Democrats (87%) and independents (78%) are far more likely than Republicans (58%) to hold this view. At least two in three across regions and demographic groups believe greenhouse gas emissions should be regulated. S upport is highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (85%) and Los Angeles County (84%) and lowest in the Central Valley (66%). Asians (88%), Latinos (87%), and blacks (86%) are much more likely than whites (71%) to say emissions should be regulated. Support declines as age rises. “Do you think the government should or should not regulate the release of greenhouse gases from sources like power plants, cars, and factories in an effort to reduce global warming? ” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Should 79% 87% 58% 78 % 73% Should not 16 10 34 19 23 Don’t know 5 3 7 3 4 One controversial method for regulating greenhouse gas emissions is a cap and trade system; officials in state government continue to discuss implementation of cap and trade. Fifty- four percent of Californians would favor this idea and 36 percent would oppose it. Support has been around 50 percent among residents since we first asked this question in 2009 (49% 2009, 50% 2010, 54% today). Opinion is divided among likely voters (47% favor, 44% oppose) and along party lines: 58 percent of Democrats favor cap and trade, while 58 percent of Republicans oppose it. Among independents, 49 percent are in favor and 42 percent are opposed. Support for cap and trade is highest in Los Angeles (59%) and lowest in the San Francisco Bay Area (49%). Across racial/ethnic gro ups, Latinos (65%) and Asians (61%) are more likely than blacks (52%) and whites (45%) to favor this idea. Among those who support regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, 60 percent favor cap and trade. “There’s a proposed system called ‘cap and trade.’ The government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies would find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that would be cheaper than buying permits. Would you favor or oppose this system?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 54% 58% 36% 49% 47% Oppose 36 31 58 42 44 Don’t know 11 10 6 9 9 Another idea for reducing emissions is somewhat more popular with Californians. Sixty percent of adults and 55 percent of likely voters would favor a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions. Support among all adults was identical last ye ar (60%) and similar in 2009 (56%). A strong majority of Democrats (72%) and six in 10 independents (60%) favor a carbon tax, while Republicans are opposed (58% oppose, 37% favor). Among those who support government regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, 69 percent favor a carbon tax. PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 19 EMISSIONS POLICIES Strong majorities of Californians favor several options that state and federal governments are discussing to address global warming. Eight in 10 adults favor requiring an increase in the use of renewable energy sources by utilities (82%) ; requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions (82%) ; requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars (81%) ; and encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less (79%). Three in four Californians also favor requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and for appliances (74%). S upport for each proposal has been similar since we first asked these questions in 2008 . “Officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. How about…? ”* Requiring increase in renewable energy by utilities Requiring industry to reduce emissions Requiring automakers to reduce emissions from new cars Encouraging local governments to change planning to reduce driving Requiring increase in efficiency of buildings/ appliances Favor 82% 82% 81% 79% 74% Oppose 15 14 16 17 21 Don’t know 3 4 3 4 5 * For complete question text, please see questions 25–29 on page 30. Strong majorities of likely voters also voice approval for these measures, with more than three in four favor ing the requirement s for increased use of renewable energy by utilities (78%), reduced emissions from industries (79%), and reduced emissions from new cars (77%) . Likely voters also favor encouraging local government s to change the way they plan so as to reduce driving (75%), and requiring an increase in efficiency of buildings and appliances (73%) . Majorities across parties favor each of these proposals, but Democrats are slightly more likely than independents and far more likely than Republicans to express support . Across regions and demographic groups , about seven in 10 or more support each idea. Among those who say that gov ernment should be regulating greenhouse gases, more than eight in 10 favor each of these proposals. Among those who favor the state law (AB 32) that requires California to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, more than eight in 10 favor these proposals. Percent saying favor Requiring increase in renewable energy by utilities Requiring industry to reduce emissions Requiring automakers to reduce emissions from new cars Encouraging local governments to change planning to reduce driving Requiring increase in efficiency of buildings/ appliances All Adults 82% 82% 81% 79% 74% Likely V oters 78 79 77 75 73 Party Dem 89 90 90 85 82 Rep 66 68 64 62 59 Ind 83 81 82 78 76 Race/ Ethnicity Asians 84 90 87 85 82 Blacks 82 90 80 75 78 Latinos 87 84 87 89 73 Whites 79 79 77 72 72 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 20 STATE AND FEDERAL POLICY More than half of Californians (56%) and likely voters (53%) say the federal government is not doing enough to address global warming. Fewer than one in four say it is doing just enough (24% adults, 22% likely voters), and few say it is doing more than enough (13% adults, 18% likely voters). The perception among all adults that the federal government is not doing enough dropped 18 points after President Obama took office , but has inched up since then (66% 2008, 48% 2009, 52% 2010, 56% today). Partisans differ , with 66 percent of Democrats and 60 percent of independents saying the federal government is not doing enough, while 34 percent of Republicans say the same. Blacks (76%) are much more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to hold this view (60% Latinos, 55% Asians, 54% whites) . Just under half of Californians (47%) say that state government is not doing enough to addre ss global warming. Four in 10 likely voters (41%) hold this view. About one in three adults (32%) and likely voters (34%) say the state government is doing just enough, while fewer say it is doing more than enough (1 4% adults, 20% likely voters). Perceptions among all adults have been similar each time we have asked this question. About half of Democrats (53%) and independents (48%) say the state government is not doing enough, with fewer Republicans agreeing (29%). Residents of Los Angeles (54%) are the most negative about state efforts, followed by residents in Orange/San Diego Counties (47%), the San Francisco Bay Area (45%), the Inland Empire (43%), and the Central Valley (40%). Blacks (65%) are most likely to say the state is not doing enough, fol lowed by Latinos (55%), Asians (47%), and whites (40%). Forty -six percent of Californians say their local government is not doing enough to address global warming, while one in three (34%) say just enough, and about one in 10 (12%) say more than enough. Likely voters are slightly less likely to say not enough (40% not enough, 16% more than enough, 36% just enough) . In 2008, Californians were slightly more likely to say their local government ’s efforts were inadequate (52% 2008, 46% 2009, 46% today). Today, Democ rats (53%) and independents (46%) are much more likely than Republicans (28%) to take this view. Half (51%) of Los Angeles County residents say local government is not doing enough, but fewer elsewhere hold this view (45% San Francisco Bay Area, 44% Orang e/San Diego Counties, 41% Central Valley, and 40% Inland Empire). “Overall, do you think that the … is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? ” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Federal government More than enough 13% 6% 32% 11% 18% Just enough 24 23 27 22 22 Not enough 56 66 34 60 53 Don’t know 7 5 8 6 6 State government More than enough 14 6 33 15 20 Just enough 32 35 32 30 34 Not enough 47 53 29 48 41 Don’t know 7 5 6 6 5 Local government More than enough 12 7 26 14 16 Just enough 34 33 39 34 36 Not enough 46 53 28 46 40 Don’t know 9 6 8 7 8 PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 21 ENERGY POLICY The survey asked about several proposals related to energy policy. In pa st years we included an introductory phrase: “Thinking about the country as a whole, to address the country’s energy needs and reduce dependence on foreign oil sources, do you favor or oppose the fol lowing proposals?” Last year, we asked half of respondents this question with the phrase and the other half without it. The results were similar with and without the introductory language. This year, we did not use the introduction. Most Californians and likely voters (84% each)—and overwhelming majorities across parties—favor requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country. Since we first asked this question in 2004, more than eight in 10 Californians have been in favor. More than three in four across parties express favor for requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country, but Democrats (90%) are more likely than independents (81%) and Republicans (76%) to hold this view. A similar pattern emerges across ideological groups, with self- identified liberals (91%) and moderates (88%) more likel y than conservatives (76%) to favor this proposal. At least 80 percent across all regions and demographic groups express support, with similar opinions held across age, education, and income groups, and among men and women. “How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel eff iciency of cars sold in this country?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 84% 90% 76% 81% 84% Oppose 13 8 22 16 14 Don’t know 3 2 2 3 2 There is less agreement when it comes to allowing mo re oil drilling off the California coast. Californians (46% favor, 49% oppose) and likely voters (49% fa vor, 48% oppose) are divided on this proposal; a year after the BP oil spill off the coast of Louisiana, support for drilling has increased in both groups (up 12 points among all adults, up 11 points among likely voters since July 2010). Since this question was first asked in 2003, support for more drilling surpassed 50 percent only in 2008 and 2009 a mong all adults and likely voters. In an April 2011 CNN/Opinion Research Corporation poll, 69 percent of adults nationwide were in favor of increased drilling for oil and natural gas offshore in U.S. waters. Oil drilling off the California coast divides partisans—R epublicans (71%) are twice as likely as Democrats (35%) and far more likely than independents (40%) to be in favor. Re gional differences also emerge, with residents in the Central Valley (56%), Orange/San Diego Counties (52%) and the Inland Empire (52%) much more likely than residents in Los Angeles (39%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (37%) to favor oil drilling off the California coast. Differences can also be seen between residents who live in coastal counties and those in inland counties, with four in 10 coastal residents (42%) in favor compared to more than half of inland residents (54%). There are also differences in support within the coastal region (45% south coast, 37% north/central coast). Whites (51%) are the most like ly to support more drilling, followed by Asians (44%), Latinos (40%), and blacks (35%). “How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 46% 35% 71% 40% 49% Oppose 49 61 27 57 48 Don’t know 5 5 2 3 4 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 22 ENERGY POLICY (CONTINUED) In the wake of the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant after the March earthquake in Japan, 30 percent of Californians and 38 percent of likely voters favor building more nuclear power plants at this time. This marks a 14- point decline among all adults and a 15 -point decline among likely voters since last July. This is the lowest level of support among residents since we began asking the question in 2001. In an April ABC News/ Washington Post poll conducted in the midst of Japan’s nuclear crisis, one in three Americans (33%) favored building more nuclear plants and 65 percent were opposed. Republicans (48%, down 15 points since last year) are more likely than independents (32%, down 12 points) and Democrats (23%, down 13 points) to favor building more nuclear power plants now. Residents in the Inland Empire (37%) are the most likely to be in favor, followed by residents in Orange/San Diego Counties (34%), the Central Valley (31%), the San Francisco Bay Area (30%) , and Los Angeles (25%). Whites (36%) are more likely than Asians (27%), Latinos (24%), and blacks (17%) , and men (39%) are much more likely than women (21%), to favor building more nuclear plants at this time. “How about building more nuclear power plants at this time?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 30% 23% 48% 32% 38% Oppose 65 72 48 64 57 Don’t know 5 4 5 3 6 Eight in 10 Californians (80%) favor increasing federal funding to develop renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Likely voters (76%) hold similar views. More than three in four adults and likely voters have held this view since we began asking this question in 200 7. Today, solid majorities across parties, regions, and demographic groups favor this idea . Adults nationwide also express support , according to a March Pew Research Center survey (74% favor, 21% oppose). Looking at a state -specific energy policy, which requir es one- third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020, just under half of Californians (46%) are in favor even if it would increase their electric bills. Three in 10 (31%) favor this policy, but not if it means an increase in their bill. Sixteen percent of Californians oppose the policy. Democrats (56%) and independents (52%) are more likely than Republicans (29%) to be in favor even with a bigger electric bill. About half of residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (50%), Los Angeles (48%), and Orange/San Diego Counties (48%) favor the policy even with a larger bill, whereas about four in 10 Inland Empire (40%) and Central Valley (39%) residents hold this vie w. Support is higher among Californians age d 18 to 34 (51%) and college graduates (53%) than among other groups; men and women hold similar views. Support varies little across income groups (45% under $40,000, 51% $40,000 to under $80,000; 48% $80,000 or m ore). “How about requiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2020? ( if favor: Do you still favor this proposal if it means an increas e in your own electricity bill?)” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor, even if it increases bill 46% 56% 29% 52% 45% Favor, but not if it increases bill 31 28 28 26 26 Oppose 16 10 36 18 23 Don’t know 6 7 6 4 5 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 23 GAS PRICES A solid majorit y of Californians (70%) who work full - or part -time say they commute by driving alone, while only 12 percent say they carpool. Even f ewer take public transit (8%), walk (3%), or bike (2%) to work. Given this strong dependence on automobile travel , three in four Californians (7 6%) report that recent gas price hikes have caused their household financial hardship. The incidence of hardship is slightly higher than in 2009 ( 69%), the last time we asked, but is identical to July 2008 (76%). Those living in household s with annual incomes of less than $40,000 (87%) are more likely than those earning $40,000 to under $80,000 (76%) and far more likely than those earning $80,000 or more (61%) to have experience d hardship. Residents in the Inland Empire (86%) are the most likely— and residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (66%) the least likely— to report financial hardship in their household. Latinos (88%) and blacks (84%) are much more likely than whites (70%) and Asians (67%) to say increased gas prices have caused hardship. The i ncidence of hardship decreases with education. “Have price increases in gasoline caused any financial hardship for you or your household?” All Adults Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to under $80,000 $80,000 or more Yes 76% 87% 76% 61% No 23 13 23 38 Don’t know 1 1 – 1 As a result of the recent rise in gasoline prices, six in 10 Californians (59%) report cutting back significantly on their driving. A similar percentage reported cutting back in 2009 (62%). In 2004 (47%) and 2005 (43%), residents were less likely to say gas prices had cau sed them to cut back on driving. The share saying they had cut back on driving because of higher gas prices reached a high of 69 percent in 2008. Cutting back significantly on driving is far more common among lower -income Cali fornians (68%) than among upper -income residents (47%). Those in the Central Valley and Inland Empire (68% each ) are the most likely— and residents of the San Francisco Bay Area (51%) the least likely —to report cut ting back on driving. Blacks (76%) and Latinos (66%) are more likely than whites (55%) and Asians (54%) to report cutting back on driving . Those who have experienced hardship due to increased gas prices (69%) are more likely than those who have not experienced this ( 26%) to have cut back on driving. Most Californians (68%) have thought seriously about getting a more fuel -efficient car as a result of the r ecent rise in gas prices. More than six in 10 have said this since we first asked in 2005. Lower-income residents (74%) are more likely than upper -income residents (62%) to have considered this ; Latinos (82%) are more likely than blacks (74%), Asians (70% ), and whites (58%) to have done so. Consideration of a more fuel -efficient car declines as age and education increase and is more common among those who have experienced hardship due to increased gas prices (73%) than among those who have not (51%). “As a result of the recent rise in gasoline prices would you say that you have or have not …?” All Adults Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to under $80,000 $80,000 or more Cut back significantly on how much you drive Yes 59% 68% 62% 47% No 34 24 33 49 NA/Don’t know 7 8 5 3 Seriously considered getting a more fuel-efficient car the next time you buy a vehicle Yes 68 74 66 62 No 20 16 22 25 NA/Don’t know 12 10 12 12 July 2011 Californians and the Environment 24 REGIONAL MAP July 2011 Californians and the Environment 25 METHODOLOGY The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance from Sonja Petek, project manager for this survey, and survey research associates Dean Bonner and Jui Shrestha, and survey intern Elisa Baeza. This survey was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. We benefited from discussions with Hewlett program staff, PPIC staff, and others; however, the methods, questions, and content of this report were determined solely by Mark Baldassare and the survey team . Findings in this report are based on a survey of 2,504 California adult residents, including 2,002 interviewed on landline telephones and 50 2 interviewed on cell phones. Live interviewing took place on weekday nights and weekend days from July 5– 19, 2011. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Landline interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligibl e for selection and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Cell phone interviews were included in this survey to account for the growing number of Californians who use them. These interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of cell phone numbers. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as eight times to increase the likelihood of reaching an eligible respondent. Once a cell phone user was reached, it was verified that this person was age 18 or older, a California resident, and in a safe place to continue the survey (e.g., not driving). Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the potential cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Landline and cell phone interviewing was conducted in English, Spanish, Chinese (Mandarin or Cantonese), Vietnamese, and Korean, according to respondents’ preferences. We chose these languages because Spanish is the dominant language among non -English -speaking adults in California, followed in prevalence by the three Asian languages. Accent on Language s, Inc. translated the survey into Spanish, with assistance from Renatta DeFever. Abt SRBI Inc. translated the survey into Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean, and conducted all telephone interviewing. With assistance from Abt SRBI we used recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2006– 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) for California to compare certain demo graphic characteristics of the survey sample— region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education —with the characteristics of California’s adult populatio n. The survey sample was comparable to the ACS figures. Abt SRBI used data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey and data from the 2006– 2008 ACS for California, both to estimate landline and cell phone service in California and to compare the data against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party affiliation of registered voters in our sample to statewide party registration. The landline and cell phone samples were then integrated using a frame integration weight , while sample balancing adjusted for any differences across region al, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, telephone service, and party registration groups. PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 26 The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3 percent at the 95 percent confidence level for the total sample of 2,50 4 adults. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 3 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for subgroups is larger: For the 1,619 registered voters , it is ±3.2 percent; for the 1,153 likely voters, it is ±3.6 percent. Sampling error is only one type of err or to which surv eys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. Throughout the report, w e refer to five geographic regions that account for approximately 90 percent of the state population. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sut ter, Tehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “Sa n Francisco Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” refers to Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/ San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. Residents from other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less populated areas are not large enough to rep ort separately. In examining opinions about offshore oil drilling, we refer to coastal and inland counties. Within coastal counties, t he “north/central coast” region refers to the counties along the California coast northward from San Luis Obispo County to Del Norte County and includes all the San Francisco Bay Area counties . The “south coast ” region includes Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties. All other counties are included in the “inland” region. We present sp ecific results for non-Hispanic whites and for Latinos, who account for about a third of the state’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest growing voter groups. We also present results for non- Hispanic Asians, who make up about 13 percent of the state’s adult population, and non- Hispanic blacks, who comprise about 6 percent. Results for other racial/ethnic groups —such as Native Americans —are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes are not large enough for separate analysis. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, Republicans, and decline -to -state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in another party are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters —so designated by their responses to survey questions on voter registration, previous election participation, and current interest in politics . The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to 100 due to rounding. We compare current PPIC Statewide Survey results to those in our earlier surveys and to results from a survey conducted by ABC News/Washington Post , CNN/Opinion Research Corporation, Gallup, and the Pew Research Center. Additional details about our methodology can be found at http://www.ppic.org/content/other/SurveyMethodology.pdf and are available upon request with an email to surveys@ppic.org . July 2011 Californians and the Environment 27 QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESULTS CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT July 5–19, 2011 2,504 California Adult Residents: English , Spanish, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese MARGIN OF ERROR ±3% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE PERCENT AGES MAY NOT ADD TO 100 D UE TO ROUNDING 1. First, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California? 42% approve 28 disapprove 29 don’t know 2. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Governor Brown is handling environmental issues in California? 35% approve 27 disapprove 37 don’t know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? 23% approve 59 disapprove 18 don’t know 4. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling environmental issues in California? 31% approve 44 disapprove 24 don’t know 5. Next, what do you think is the most important environmental issue facing California today? [c ode , don’t read ] 27% air pollution, vehicle emissions, smog 8 water pollution 8 water supply, drought 7 energy, oil drilling 5 gas prices 4 global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases 4 landfills, garbage, waste, recycling 3 loss of forests, forest fires, wildfires 3 pollution in general 3 jobs, economy, budget 2 too much government regulation, environmentalists 12 other 14 don’t know 6. Which level of government do you trust the most to deal with environmental problems — [rotate order ] (1) the federal government, (2) the state government , [or] (3) your local government? 20% federal government 24 state government 35 local government 3 all of the above (volunteered) 12 none (volunteered) 6 don't know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 28 7. We are interested in the region of California that you live in. Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your region? 29% big problem 37 somewhat of a problem 33 not a problem 1 don’t know 8. How satisfied are you with the air quality in your region today —would you say you are very satisfied, somewhat satisfied , somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied? 23% very satisfied 43 somewhat satisfied 21 somewhat dissatisfied 12 very dissatisfied 1 don’t know 9. Is the air quality in your region better or worse than it was 10 years ago? 23% better 44 worse 18 same (volunteered) 9 haven’t lived here for 10 years (volunteered) 6 don’t know 10. How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your region to you and your immediate family —do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat? 19% very serious 34 somewhat serious 43 not too serious 3 not at all serious (volunteered) 1 don’t know 11. Do you think that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than other areas in your region, or not? 50% yes 45 no 6 don’t know 1 2. Do you or does anyone in your immediate family suffer from asthma or other respiratory problems? ( if yes: would that be you or som eone in your immediate family?) 10% yes, respondent 24 yes, someone in immediate family 8 yes, both 58 no – don't know 13. Which of the following do you think contributes the most to air pollution in your region? [ read rotated list, then ask, “or something else?”] 23% personal vehicle emissions 19 commercial vehicle emissions 15 industry and agriculture 14 population growth and development 8 pollution from outside the area 7 weather and geography 4 something else (specify) 7 all of the above (volunteered) 3 don’t know 14. On another topic, which of the fol lowing statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen — [rotate order] (1) they have already begun to happen; (2) they will start happening within a few years; (3) they will start h appening within your lifetime; (4) they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; [or] (5) they will never happen? 61% alrea dy begun 4 within a few years 7 within your lifetime 11 not within lifetime, but will affect future generations 12 will never happen 5 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 29 15. Do you think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, or do you think it is not necessary to take steps yet? 75% right away 19 not necessary yet 3 never necessary (volunteered) 3 don’t know 16. How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future— do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat? 47% very serious 28 some what serious 12 not too serious 11 not at all serious 2 don’t know Now I am going to name a few of the possible impacts of global warming in California, and I would like you to tell me whether you are very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about each one. [rotate questions 17 to 20] 17. How about increased flooding? 28% very concerned 29 somewhat concerned 23 not too concerned 19 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 18. How about droughts that are more severe? 45% very concerned 30 somewhat concerned 13 not too concerned 11 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 19. How about increased air pollution? 48% very concerned 32 somewhat concerned 10 not too concerned 10 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 20. How about wildfires that are more severe? 56% very concerned 25 somewhat concerned 9 not too concerned 10 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 21. Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020? 67% favor 21 oppose 11 don’t know 22. Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to addre ss the issue of global warming? 57% favor 33 oppose 10 don’t know 23. When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it [ rotate ] (1) take ac tion right away [ or should it ] (2) wait until the state economy and job situation improve t o take action? 58% take action right away 38 wait until state economy and job situation improve 4 don’t know 24. Do you think the government should or should not regulate the release of greenhouse gases from sources like power plants, cars, and factories in an e ffort to reduce global warming? 79% should 16 should not 5 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 30 Next, officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce gree nhouse gas emissions. [rotate questions 25 to 29] 25. How about requiring an increase in the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by utilities? 82% favor 15 oppose 3 don’t know 26. How about requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances? 74% favor 21 oppose 5 don’t know 27. How about requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facili ties to reduce their emissions? 82% favor 14 oppose 4 d on’t know 28. How about encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning s o that people could drive less? 79% favor 17 oppose 4 don’t know 29. How about requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse g ases fr om new cars? 81% favor 16 oppose 3 don’t know 30. There’s a proposed system called “cap and trade.” The government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies would find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that would be cheaper than buying permits. Would y ou favor or oppose this system? 54% favor 36 oppose 11 don’t know 31. Would you favor or oppose a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions? 60% favor 32 oppose 8 don’t know 32. Changing topics, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling his job as president of the Unit ed States? 52% approve 42 disapprove 7 don’t know 33. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that President Obama is handling environment al issues in the United States? 47% approve 38 disapprove 15 don’t know 34. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is hand ling its job? 25% approve 65 disapprove 10 don’t know 35. Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling environment al issues in the United States? 25% approve 60 disapprove 15 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 31 [rotate order for questions 36 to 38] 36. Overall, do you think that the federal government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 13% more than enough 24 just enough 56 not enough 7 don’t know 37. Overall, do you think that the state government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 14% more than enough 32 just enough 47 not enough 7 don’t know 38. Overall, do you think that your local government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 12% more than enough 34 just enough 46 not enough 9 don’t know 39. Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for peop le around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jo bs for people around the state? 47% more jobs 23 fewer jobs 20 wouldn’t affect the number of jobs 10 don’t know Next, do you favor or oppose the following proposals? [rotate questions 40 to 43a, keeping 43/43a together ] 40. How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country? 84% favor 13 oppose 3 don’t know 41. How about allowing more oil dril ling off the California coast? 46% favor 49 oppose 5 don’t know 42. How about building more nuclear power plants at this time? 30% favor 65 oppose 5 don’t know 43. How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology? 80% favor 16 oppose 3 don’t know 43a.How about requiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2020? ( if favor: Do you still favor this proposal if it means an increas e in your own electricity bill?) 46% favor, even if it increases electricity bill 31 favor, but not if it increases electricity bill 16 oppose 6 don’t know 44. On another topic, have price increases in gasoline caused any financial hardship for you or your household? 76% yes, caused hardship 23 no, have not caused hardship 1 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 32 [rotate questions 45 and 46] 45. As a result of the recent rise in gasoline prices, would you say that you have or have not cut back significantly on how much you drive? 59% yes, have cut back 34 no, have not cut back 4 don’t drive/don’t have a car (volunteered) 3 yes, have cut back, but not significantly (volunteered) – don’t know 46. As a result of the recent rise in gasoline prices, would you say that you have or have not seriously considered getting a more fuel- efficient car the next time you buy a vehicle? 68% yes, have considered 20 no, have not considered 8 my current vehicle is fuel-efficient (volunteered) 3 don’t drive/don’t have a car/won’t buy another vehicle (volunteered) 1 don’t know I’m now going to ask you some questions about education on the environment, including topics such as air pollution, global warming, and energy, for children in grades K–12. 47. As far as you know, do your local K–12 schools have environmental education? 46% yes 17 no 37 don’t know 48. Do you think your local K–12 schools are doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough when it comes to environmental education? 13% more than enough 30 just enough 36 not enough 21 don’t know 49. Do you think that environmental education should or should not be taught in your local K–12 schools? 90% should 8 should not 2 don’t know 50. And how important to you is it that your local K–12 schools include environmental education—very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important? 65% very important 24 somewhat important 6 not too important 5 not at all important 1 don’t know 51. Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? 65% yes [ask q51a] 35 no [skip to q52b] 51a.Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline-to-state or independent voter? 45% Democrat [ask q52] 32 Republican [skip to q52a] 4 another party (specify) [skip to q53] 19 independent [skip to q52b] 52. Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 51% strong 46 not very strong 4 don’t know [skip to q53] 52a.Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 50% strong 47 not very strong 3 don’t know [skip to q53] PPIC Statewide Survey July 2011 Californians and the Environment 33 52b.Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? 21% Republican Party 39 Democratic P arty 33 n either (volunteered) 8 don’t know 53 . Would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom] 9% very liberal 20 somewhat liberal 32 middle -of -the -road 23 somewhat conservative 12 very conservative 4 don’t know 54 . Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics —a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none? 20% great deal 37 fair amount 33 only a little 9 none 1 don’t know D6. [of those employed full - or part -time] How do you usually commute to work —drive alone, carpool, take public bus or transit, walk, or bicycle? 70% drive alone 12 carpool 8 take public bus or transit 3 walk 2 bicycle 3 work at home (volunteered) 1 other (specify) [d1–d5a and d7 –d17: demographic questions] PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY ADVISORY COMMITTEE Ruben Barrales President and CEO San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Paul Brest President The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Mollyann Brodie Senior Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Executive Director University of California Washington Center James E. Canales President The James Irvine Foundation Jon Cohen Director of Polling The Washington Post Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network William Hauck President California Business Roundtable Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning , and Development University of Southern California Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Publisher and CEO La Opinión Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Lisa Pitney Vice President, Government Relations The Walt Disney Company Dan Rosenheim News Director KPIX -TV Robert K. Ross, M.D. President and CEO The California Endowment Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento Cathy Taylor Vice President and Editorial Commentary Director Orange County Register Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS John E. Bryson, Chair Retired Chairman and CEO Edison International Mark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and CEO San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Marí a Blanco Vice President, Civic Engagement California Community Foundation Gary K. Hart Former State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California Robert M. Hertzberg Partner Mayer Brown, LLP Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs David Mas Masumoto Author and farmer Steven A. Merksamer Senior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni , LLP Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Thomas C. Sutton Retired Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decisionmakers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a private operating foundation. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and CEO of PPIC. John E. Bryson is Chair of the Board of Directors. Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the copyright notice below is included. Copyright © 201 1 Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO CENT ER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121 www.ppic.org survey@ppic.org" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:41:02" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(8) "s_711mbs" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:41:02" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:41:02" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(50) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/S_711MBS.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }