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object(Timber\Post)#3711 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_712MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "513271" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(94615) "CONTENTS About the Survey 2 Pre ss Release 3 Go vernment Ratings, Air Pollution 6 Cl imate Change, Energy Policy 13 R egional Map 24 M ethodology 2 5 Questionnaire and Results 27 the environment j u ly 2 0 1 2 & P P I C S TAT E W I D E S U R V E Y Californians Mark Baldassare D ean Bonner Sonja Petek jui Shrestha in collaboration with The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation July 2012 Californians and the Environment 2 ABOUT THE SURVEY The PPIC Statewide Sur vey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy- free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. This is the 127th PPIC Statewide Sur vey in a series that was inaugurated in April 1998 and has generated a database of responses from more than 268,000 Californians. Th e current s u r v e y, Californians and the Environment, was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Its goal is to inform state policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about Californians’ opinions on air pollution, global warming, and energy policy. It is the 12 th annual PPIC Statewide Sur vey on environmental issues since 2000. H istoric drought conditions, unseasonably high temperatures, and wildfires this summer , a presidential campaign during an ongoing economic crisis, and controversy over an oil and gas drilling method called hydraulic fracturing or “fracking” set the national context for this year’s sur vey. At the state level, efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the use of renewable energy continue. A major component of the state’s landmark Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) is the cap- and-trade program. Cap and trade will set enforceable limits on the major sources of greenhouse gases, such as refineries, power plants, industrial facilities, and transpor tation fuels , and create a market allowing companies with emission s below their caps to sell excess permits to companies that exceed their limits . The first auction of emissions perm its will occur in November and companies must comply with caps beginning in Januar y 2013. T here are debates about how this new environmental policy will affect employment and the economic recover y , how new state revenues generated from the cap and trade market should be spent , and whether companies that buy permits will create a disparate amount of unhealthful emissions in lower-income areas. T his year’s sur vey focuses on timely and relevant environment al a nd energy issues, including cap and trade and fracking. It presents the responses of 2,500 adult residents throughout California, inter viewed in multiple languages by landline or cell phone, and includes findings on:  The 2012 presidential election, including the role of global warming and energy policy in determining voting preferences, and a pproval ratings of federal and state elected officials ’ handling of environmental issues; perceptions of regional air pollution, associated health risks, and whether the risks are more serious in lower -income areas, and willingness to toughen air pollution standards .  Global warming, including perceptions of its existence and onset; preferences for AB 32 and views of how state action on global warming will affect employment; preferences about ways government can regulate emissions, including a low carbon fuel standard; attitudes toward cap and trade; opinions about local, state, and federal action on global warming ; preferences for energy policy, including rewnewable energy, nuclear power, fuel efficiency, and oil drilling; and, for the first time, knowledge and suppor t of fracking.  Time trends, national comparisons, and the extent to which Californians may differ in their perceptions , attitudes, and preferences based on political par ty affiliation, likelihood of voting, region of residence (Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, Inland Empire, and Orange/San Diego Counties), race/ethnicity ( Asians, blacks, Latinos, and non-Hispanic whites ), and other demographic characteristics . This repor t may be downloaded free of charge from our website ( www.ppic.org). If you have questions about the sur vey, please contact sur vey@ppic.org . Tr y our PPIC Statewide Sur vey interactive tools online at http://www.ppic.org/main/sur vAdvancedSearch.asp. July 2012 Californians and the Environment 3 PPIC Statewide Survey CONTACT Linda Strean 415-291-4412 Andrew Hattori 415- 291-4417 NEWS RELEASE EMBARGOED: Do not publish or broadcast until 9:00 p.m. PDT on Wednesday , August 1, 2012. Para ver este comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Majority See Global Warming , Ener gy as Important Issues—and Prefer Obama STRONG SUPPORT FOR STATE LAW TO CURB EM ISSIONS, BUT PARTISAN SPLIT WIDENS SAN FRANCISCO , August 1, 2012 —Most California likely voters say that the presidential candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy are important in determining their vote, and a majority trust President Obama over Mitt Romney on these issues. These are among the key findings of a statewide survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC), conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. While global warming and energy policy have not been the focus of debate in the campaigns so far, 30 percent of California likely voters say these issues are very important in determining their choice for president and 42 percent say they are somewhat important. A majority— 54 percent—say they trust Obama to handle the se issue s, while 33 percent trust Romney. Likely voters’ concerns about the impact of global warming are echoed in their responses to a number of questions in PPIC’s 12th annual survey on the environment: Most say it is a serious threat (40% very serious, 26% somewhat serious) to the economy and quality of life in California’s future. Most (62%) continue to favor the state law requiring California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and most (64%) say steps need to be taken right away to counter the effects of global warming. Mark Baldassare, PPIC’s president and CEO, points out: “California’s likely voters trust Obama over Romney on global warming policy by a wide margin— even though a majority also say that the federal government is not doing enough to address this issue .” Obama’s 21 -point advantage on global warming and energy issues is much larger than his lead in the overall matchup with Romney. Asked how they would vote if the election were held t oday, 51 percent of likely voters choose Obama and 40 percent choose Romney. Obama’s 11 -point advantage on this question is the same as in May (50% to 39%). Today, both candidates have strong support from likely voters in their respective parties (85% of Democrats favor Obama, 81% of Republicans favor Romney). Among independents, 53 percent choose Obama and 37 percent choose Romney. Obama leads Romney among women (51% to 38%), Latinos (68% to 19%), and voters under 35 (63% to 29%). Other groups are more di vided: men (50% Obama, 43% Romney), whites (44% Obama, 49% Romney), and voters 35 and older (ages 35 –54: 47% Obama, 42% Romney; 55 and older: 49% Obama, 43% Romney). Likely voters’ preference for Obama on global warming and energy policy does not translat e to majority support for his handling of environmental issues. They are evenly divided on this question (46% approve, 46% disapprove). The president’s overall job approval rating is similar, at 50 percent among likely voters (47% disapprove). The U.S. Con gress has low ratings on job performance (15% approve, 81% disapprove) and on handling environmental issues (15% approve, 74% disapprove). PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 4 Asked to assess what government is doing to address global warming, 53 percent of likely voters say the federal government is not doing enough, while 23 percent say it is doing just enough and 21 percent say it is doing more than enough. Fewer say state and local government s are falling short (42% each) . BROWN’S JOB APPROVAL HOLDS AT 46 PERCENT In their evaluations of the state’s elected leaders, 46 percent of likely voters approve of Governor Jerry Brown’s job performance (42% disapprove, 11% don’t know), similar to May (42%) and last July (48%). On environmental issues, 41 percent approve and 36 percent disapprove of the job the governor is doing , while 23 percent are unsure. The state legislature’s job approval rating (21%) is similar to May (17%) despite passing a budget on time for the second straight year . But approval today is slightly higher than last July (15%) a nd much higher than July 2010 (10%). Likely voters give the legislature a higher rating (29%) for its handling of environmental issues than for overall job performance. PARTISAN DIVIDE GROWS SHARPLY ON AB 32 A strong majority of Californians (78%) think th at the world’s temperature has probably gone up in the past 100 years (17% probably not). Most (60%) say the effects of global warming have already begun. But while a solid majority (71%) support the state law requiring emissions reductions —AB 32 —the parti san divide has increased significantly . Just before Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the law in 2006, 65 percent of adults were in favor, including two in three across parties. Today, Democrats (84%) and independents (65%) favor the law, but Republica ns are divided (44% favor, 48% oppose). Asked how state action to curb global warming would affect jobs in the state, 42 percent of adults say the result would be more jobs, 25 percent say fewer jobs, and 25 percent say there would be no effect. M ajoriti es of adults —across party lines —favor various ways the state and federal governments can address global warming:  Requiring increased energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances (77%)  Requiring industrial plants, oil refineries , and commercial facilities to reduce emissions (82%)  Encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less (77%)  Requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new c ars (78%)  Requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020 (79%) WITH CAP-AND -TRADE AUCTIONS SET TO BEGIN, MOST ARE UNAWARE OF PROGRAM Most Californians (57%) have heard nothing about the state’s cap-and -trade program, which will be rolled out in November with the first state auction of emissions permits (12% have heard a lot, 30% a little). A cornerstone of efforts to implement AB 32, this program will set limits on companies’ greenhouse gas emissions and allow those who emit less to sell permits to those who exceed their limits. After hearing a brief description of the program, a slim majority of adults (53%) say they favor it (36% oppose) . Those who say they have heard a lot about cap and trade oppose it (62% vs. 35% in favor). More than half of those who have heard little (53%) or nothing about it (57%) are in favor. The state will generate new revenues from the permit auction s and is expected to raise $1 billion in the first year. B ut most Californians are pessimistic about how the money will be spent. “When they are told about new state revenues that will be generated from the cap- and-trade program, two in three Californians say they have very little or no confidence that the state government will use the money wisely,” Baldassare says . PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 5 Just 5 percent say they have a great deal of confidence that the state will use this money wisely, and 27 percent have only some confidence. The cap-and- trade program has generated controversy because of concerns that companies in low -income areas will buy permits to exceed their emissions caps, worsening health risks for residents. Asked about this issue, about half of Californians (48%) say that companies buying permits under the program will create a disproportionate health threat in low -income communities and 40 percent disagree. AIR POLLUTION A REGIONAL PROBLEM FOR MANY Two-thirds of Californians (64%) say air pollution is a big problem (25%) or somewhat of one (39%) in the region where they live, while 35 percent say it is not a problem. Adults in Los Angeles (35%), the Central Valley (32%), and the Inland Empire (30%) are much more likely than those in Orange/San Diego Counties (17%) and the San Francisco Bay Area ( 16%) to say that regional air pollution is a big problem. Across racial and ethnic groups, Latinos (37%) and blacks (33%) are much more likely than Asians (20%) and whites (18%) to say air pollution is a big problem. About half of Californians (49%) say air pollution in their region is a serious health threat to them and their immediate family (18% very serious, 31% somewhat serious ). Forty -one percent of adults say that they or someone in their immediate family suffers from asthma or other respiratory problems. Blacks are most likely to say this (54%), followed by Latinos (43%), whites (39%), and Asians (32%). Is air pollution a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than others in their region? Californians are divided in their responses to this question (47% yes, 46% no). Asked what policies they would support to reduce regional air pollution, majorities are willing to see tougher air pollution standards on the following:  New passenger vehicles (65%)  Diesel engine vehicles (71%)  Commercial and industrial activities (70%)  Agriculture and farm activities (54%) DIVIDED ON “FRACKING” Most Californians (54%) have heard at least a little about hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” which is used to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations (23% have heard a lot, 31% a little, 46% nothing at all ). Fracking for oil extraction is occurring in the state, and there is debate about expanding and regulating it. Resident s who have heard about fracking are divided about using it in Califor nia (42% favor, 46% oppose, 12% don’t know). On other energy policy issues, just 31 percent of Californians favor building more nuclear power plants at this time —near the record low (30%) of last July. Majorities across regions are opposed. Residents are divided on the question of allowing more oil drilling off California’s coast: 48 percent are in favor, 48 percent are opposed. Across regions, 56 percent of residents living along the state’s northern coast are opposed to more drilling, while south coast residents are divided (47% favor, 50% opposed) and inland residents are in favor (58%). A large majority of residents (78%) favor increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Californians show similar support (77%) for the state policy requiring one -third of electricity to come from renewable energy sources by the year 2020. But support drops to 44 percent on this question if the policy means higher electricity bills. July 2012 Californians and the Environment 6 GOVERNMENT RATINGS, AIR POLLUTION KEY FINDINGS  Seven in 10 likely voters say presidential candidate positions on global warming and energy policy are very ( 30%) or somewhat ( 42 %) important in determining their vote this November. Barack Obama is trusted more than Mitt Romney to handle these issues, with opinion split along party lines. ( page 7 )  Californians are slightly less likely to approve of President Obama’s handling of environmental issues than of his job performance overall . About four in 10 approve of Governor Brown in both areas. Both Congress and the state legislature receive low marks overall , but approval of the legislature’s handling of environmental issues is somewhat higher than of its overall performance. (page s 8, 9 )  Los Angeles, Central Valley , and Inland Empire residents are more likely than those in Orange/San Diego Counties or the San Francisco Bay Area to say air pollution is a big regional problem . Los Angeles residents are the most likely to consider it a serious health threat . Majorities of Latinos and blacks say health risks from air pollution are greater in the lower -income areas of their region , and are also more likely than whites and Asians to say they or an immediate family member have respiratory problems. ( pages 10, 11 )  To reduce regional air pollution, solid majorities of Californians support tougher standards on new passenger and diesel - engine vehicles and on commercial and industrial activities ; a smaller majority back tougher standards on ag ricultural activities. But support for each has hit a record low. ( page 12 ) 42 29 3936 0 20 40 60 80 Governor BrownCalifornia Legislature Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of State Elected Officials 57 27 51 27 0 20 40 60 80 President ObamaU.S. Congress Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of Federal Elected Officials 5154 40 33 0 20 40 60 80 Presidential raceTrust to handle globalwarming, energy policy Percent likely voters Barack Obama Mitt Romney 2012 Presidential Election PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 7 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION With the presidential campaign in full swing, most California likely voters say the candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy a re important in determining their vote. Seven in 10 say the issue is very (30%) or somewhat (42%) important . Twenty-eight percent say it is not too important. Majorities across party lines say that global warming and energy policy are at least somewhat important ; Democrats (40%) are much more likely than independents (28%) and Republicans (17%) to say they are very important. Among those who plan to vote for Barack Obama, 40 percent say that the candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy are very important, compared to just 18 percent among those w ho plan to vote for Mitt Romney. Among Romney supporters, 44 percent say this issue is not too important. “In thinking about the presidential election in November, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy in determining your vote?” Likely voters only All Likely Voters Party Presidential Vote Preference Dem Rep Ind Barack Obama Mitt Romney Very important 30% 40% 17% 28% 40% 18% Somewhat important 42 48 36 44 47 37 Not too important 28 12 47 28 13 44 Don’t know 1 – 1 – – 1 Majorities of likely voters say they trust Barack Obama more than Mitt Romney to handle global warming and energy policy (54% to 33%). There are strong political differences, with Democrats and liberals favoring Obama and Republicans and conservatives favoring Romney on global warming and energy policy. On this issue, li kely voters trust Obama more than Romney across all age, education, gender, income, and racial /ethnic groups. In Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area voters trust Obama on this issue, while Central Valley voters favor Romney and Other Southern California voters are divided . In the presidential matchup, California likely voters prefer Barack Obama over Mitt Romney by 11 points (51% to 40%). Obama’s lead over Romney today is the same as it was in May (50% to 39%). Obama has strong support among Democrats (85%) and liberals (90%), and Romney has strong support among Republicans (81%) and conservatives (72%). Obama leads Romney among women and enjoys a wide margin of support among Latinos and voters under 35. W hites, men, and voters age 35 and older are more divided. (Sample sizes for Asian and black likely voters are too small for separate analysis.) “If the November 6th presidential election were being held today, would you vote for Barack Obama, the Democrat , or Mitt Romney, the Republican?” Likely voters only Barack Obama Mitt Romney Someone else (volunteered) Don’t know All Likely Voters 51% 40% 2% 7% Party Democrats 85 9 – 6 Republicans 10 81 2 7 Independents 53 37 1 9 Gender Men 50 43 2 4 Women 51 38 2 10 Race/Ethnicity Latinos 68 19 1 12 Whites 44 49 2 5 Age 18–34 63 29 1 7 35–54 47 42 3 7 55 and older 49 43 1 7 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 8 APPROVAL RATINGS OF FEDERAL ELECTED OFFICIALS A majority of Californians (57%) approve of the way Barack Obama is handling his job as president, similar to May (56%) and last July (52%), but down 8 points from July 2009 (65%). Nationally, the Gallup daily tracking poll s from our interviewing period find the pres ident’s approval ratings between 44 and 47 percent. In California, likely voters are divided, with 50 percent approving and 47 percent disapproving. There are strong partisan differences, with 82 percent of Democrats approving and 80 percent of Republicans disapproving of the way Obama is handling his job; independents are divided. Majorities across age, education, gender, and income categories are approving. Blacks (91%) and Latinos (68%) are much more likely than Asians (54%) and whites (46%) to approve of Obama. When it comes to handling environmental issues, 51 percent approve of Barack Obama, similar to last July (47%) but down 7 points from July 2009 (58%). Likely voters are divided (46% approve, 46% disapprove). Seventy -three percent of Democrats approve, while 73 percent of Republicans disapprove, and independents are divided. Blacks (85%) and Latinos (63%) are much more likely than Asians (46%) and whites (40%) to approve of the president’s handling of environmental issues. “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling… ?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind His job as president of the United States Approve 57% 82% 18% 50% 50% Disapprove 38 14 80 44 47 Don't know 5 4 2 6 2 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 51 73 18 40 46 Disapprove 38 20 73 43 46 Don't know 11 7 9 17 8 The U.S. Congress continues to have low approval ratings among Californians. Just 27 percent approve of the way Congress is handling its job, similar to May (22%) and last July (25%). A July Gallup reported 16 percent of adults nationwide approve of Congre ss. Majorities of Californians in all age, education, gender, and income groups , parties, and regions disapprove of the way Congress is handling its job. Whites are far more disapproving than other racial/ethnic groups . Twenty -seven percent of all adults approve of Congress’ performance on environmental issues, while 61 percent disapprove. Less than one in four across parties approve, while about seven in 10 disapprove. Across age, education, income, and regional groups, residents are more likely to disapprove than approve. Whites (77%) are again the most disapproving (56% blacks, 48% Latinos, 38% Asians). “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 27% 23% 18% 17% 15% Disapprove 66 73 78 74 81 Don't know 7 5 4 8 4 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 27 23 17 15 15 Disapprove 61 68 70 70 74 Don't know 12 9 13 15 11 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 9 APPROVAL RATINGS OF STATE ELECTED OFFICIALS About four in 10 Californians (42%) approve of Jerry Brown’s overall performance as governor, while 35 percent disapprove and 23 percent are unsure. The governor’s overall approval ratings were at 39 percent in May; last July they were a similar 42 percent. Among likely voters today, 46 percent approve of his performance, similar to May (42%) and last July (48%). While 60 percent of Democrats approve of Governor Brown , 63 percent of Republicans disapprove, and independents are divided (40% approve, 37 % disapprove, 23% don’t know). When it comes to the governor’s handling of environmental issues, Californians are more likely to say that they approve (39%) than disapprove (31%), while 30 percent are unsure. Among likely voters, 41 percent approve, 36 percent disapprove, and 23 percent are unsure. Opinion is divided along party lines on this topic: most Democrats approve and most Republicans disapprove. “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind His job as governor of California Approve 42% 60% 24% 40% 46% Disapprove 35 26 63 37 42 Don't know 23 14 13 23 11 Environmental issues in California Approve 39 51 24 32 41 Disapprove 31 22 54 32 36 Don't know 30 27 22 36 23 The state legislature’s current approval ratings (29%) are similar to May (25%), even after it passed an on -time budget in June for the second year in a row. But a pproval today is slightly higher than it was last July (23%) and much higher than in July 2010 amidst contentious budget negotiations (15%). Among likely voters, 21 percent approve of the state legislature’s performance, while 69 percent disapprove. Majorities across parties disapprove (77% Republicans, 62% independents, 53% Democrats), as do majorities of men and women. Disappr oval rises as age and income increase, and is far higher among those with at least some college education than among those with a high school education or less. Californians are somewhat more likely to approve of the legislature’s handling of environmental issues (36%) than its job overall (29%). Still, most Republicans (64%) and independents ( 50%) disapprove of the legislature on this issue; Democrats are more divided (42% approve, 37% disapprove) . Approval ratings on environmental issues were slightly lower last July (31% adults, 24% likely voters). “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the California Legislature is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 29% 33% 14% 22% 21% Disapprove 54 53 77 62 69 Don't know 17 14 9 16 10 Environmental issues in California Approve 36 42 20 24 29 Disapprove 44 37 64 50 54 Don't know 21 20 16 26 18 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 10 REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION Two in three Californians (64 %) say that air pollution is a big (25%) or somewhat of (39%) a problem in the ir region, while 35 percent say it is not a problem. Adults living in Los Angeles (35%), the Central Valley (32%), and the Inland Empire (30%) are much more likel y than those in Orange/San Diego Counties (17%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (16%) to say that air pollution is a big problem in their region. San Francisco Bay Area residents are most likely to say air pollution is not a problem (46%). Across regions, p erceptions of air pollution as a big problem have greatly fluctuated over time and are near record lows this year (except in Orange/San Diego C ounties, where as few as 10% considered air pollution a big problem in July 2010). Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (37%) and blacks (33%) are much more likely than Asians (20%) and whites (18%) to consider air pollution a big problem. Democrats (28%) and independents (24%) are more likely than Republicans (15%) to say this . The perception that air pollution is a big problem declines with age and is higher among those with a high school education or less and those with incomes under $80,00 0. “We are interested in the region of California that you live in. Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewha t of a problem, or not a problem in your region? ” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Big problem 25% 32% 16% 35% 17% 30% Somewhat of a problem 39 32 38 41 50 36 Not a problem 35 35 46 22 32 33 Don’t know 1 1 – 2 1 1 About half of Californians (49%) view air pollution in their region as a very (18%) or somewhat serious (31%) health threat to them and their immediate family . But half say it is not too serious (46%) or volunteer that it is not at all a serious (4%) threat. Between July 2003 and July 2008, about six in 10 said air pollution was a serious threat but this perception has dipped to about 50 percent since July 20 09. Resi dents in Los Angeles (65%) are most likely to view regional air pollution as a very or somewhat serious threat, followed by those in the Inland Empire (56%) and the Central Valley (54%). About four in 10 adults in Orange/San Diego Counties (40%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (37%) view regional air pollution as either a very or somewhat serious threat. Democrats (55%) and independents (51%) are much more likely than Republicans (35%) to consider regional air pollution a serious threat. Latinos (62%) and bl acks (53%) are more likely than Asians (42%) and whites (41%) to share this view. Women (55%) are more likely than men (43%) to believe regional air pollution poses a serious threat. “How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your region to you and your immediate family — do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat?” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Very serious 18% 23% 12% 23% 14% 21% Somewhat serious 31 31 25 42 26 35 Not too serious/ Not at all serious (vol) 50 46 62 35 59 44 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 11 REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION (CONTINUED) Residents are divided (47% yes, 46% no) when asked if they think air pollution is a more serious health threat in the lower -income areas of their region ; 6 percent are unsure. Since 2006 , Californians have either been divided on this question or have been more likely to say yes than no. However, in 2010 most said air pollution was not a more serious health threat in lower -income areas (41% yes, 52% no) . A strong majority of Latinos (66%) believe that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than in other areas in their region, as do 58 percent of blacks. Asians are divided (43% yes, 49% no), while 58 percent of whites say it is not more serious in lower -income areas . Nearly six in 10 adults in Los Angeles (58%) and half of those in Orange/San Diego Counties (50% yes, 43% no) believe that air pollution is a more serious threat in lower -income areas. A majority of Central Valley residents (58%) and h alf of those in the Inland Empire (45% yes, 50% no) and the San Francisco Bay Area (44% yes, 50% no) do not believe that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower- income areas. Belief in this threat to lower -income areas declines as age and income increase. It is higher among renters (56%) than homeowners (41%) and higher among parents of children age 18 or under (54%) than others (43%) . Likely voters are much more likely to say that air pollution is not a more serious health threat in lower- income areas (54%) , than to say that it is (40%). About half of Democrats (52% yes, 42% no) say air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower- income areas, while the reverse is true among independents (42% yes, 52% no). A strong majority of Republicans (67%) say that air pollution is not a more serious health threat in lower -income areas. “Do you think that air pollution is a more serious heal th threat in lower-income areas than other areas in your region, or not?” All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asian Black Latino White Yes 47% 43% 58% 66% 35% No 46 49 38 31 58 Don’t know 6 8 4 3 8 Four in 10 adults (41%) report that they or someone in their immediate family suffers from asthma or other respiratory problems. This finding is similar to past years. Among racial/ethnic groups, blacks are the most likely to report respiratory problems in their immediate family (54%), followed by Latinos (43%), whites (39%), and Asians (32%). Across regions, Central Valley resi dents (48%) are the most likely—and San Francisco Bay Area residents (34%) the least likely— to report respiratory problems. Californians age 35 or older, college graduates, and those earning $80,000 or more are less likely than others to report asthma or other respiratory problems in their immediate family. “Do you or does anyone in your immediate family suffer from asthma or other respiratory problems?” ( if yes: “W ould that be you or someone in your immediate family?”) All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asian Black Latino White Yes, total 41% 32% 54% 43% 39% Yes, respondent 9 9 12 7 9 Yes, someone in immediate family 24 17 30 29 22 Yes, both 8 6 12 7 8 No 59 68 46 57 61 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 12 POLICIES TO REDUCE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION Sixty-five percent of adults are willing to see tougher air pollution standards on new passenger vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and SUVs. This represents the lowest share of support since we began asking the question (77% 2005, 77% 2006, 75% 2008, 71% 2009, 70% 2010, 65% today). Eight in 10 Democrats (81%) are supportive , as are 65 percent of independents ; Republicans are much more likely to oppose (55%) than support (43%) this idea . Majorities across regions are in favor , with two in three saying yes in Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area , and Orange/San Diego Counties, and nearly six in 10 in the Inland Empire and the Central Valley. Seven in 10 adults (71%) support tougher standards on diesel engine vehicles. Still, support is at a record low and has dipped 9 points since the record high in July 2008 (80 %). Democrats (84%) are more likely than independents (73%) and much more likely than Republicans (57%) to be supportive . Across regions, support is lowest among Centr al Valley residents (63%). Nearly all blacks (91%) favor this idea, and about seven in 10 Latinos (68%), whites (70%), and Asians (71%) agree. “We are interested in knowing what people are willing to do in order to reduce air pollution in their region. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on … or not?” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire New passenger vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and SUVs Yes 65% 58% 68% 68% 67% 59% No 32 37 31 30 31 39 Don't know 3 5 1 2 2 2 Diesel engine vehicles, such as trucks and buses Yes 71 63 72 75 72 69 No 26 31 27 23 24 28 Don't know 3 6 1 2 4 3 Fifty-four percent would support tougher air pollution standards on agriculture and farm activities, while 40 percent would not. Support is at a record low and has declined 9 points from the record high in July 2006 (63%). Seventy percent of Democrats express support, while 65 percent of Republicans are opposed . Independents are somewhat more likely to support (52%) than oppose (43%) this idea. Majorities across all regions, except in the Inland Empire (48%) , support tougher standards on agriculture. Se ven in 10 adults (70%) are willing to see tougher standards on commercial and industrial activities, a record low and down 9 points from the record high in July 2008 (79%) . Overwhelming majorities of Democrats (85%) and independents (74%) support the idea, while Republicans are divided (49% yes, 46% no). Across regions, Central Valley residents (66%) are the least likely to favor this idea. Strong majorities express support across racial/ethnic groups (68% whites, 69% Latinos, 74% Asians, 86% blacks) . All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Agriculture and farm activities Yes 54% 52% 55% 57% 55% 48% No 40 44 37 39 40 42 Don't know 6 4 8 4 6 10 Commercial and industrial activities Yes 70 66 75 71 71 70 No 26 28 23 25 26 29 Don't know 3 6 2 4 2 2 July 2012 Californians and the Environment 13 CLIMATE CHANGE, ENERGY POLICY KEY FINDINGS  Nearly eight in 10 Californians believe the world’s temperature has been going up over the past 100 years . Forty- five percent consider global warmi ng a very serious threat to California’s future. (page 14)  Seven in 10 favor the state law to roll back greenhouse gas emissions, but a partisan divide has grown since 2006 , when the law was passed . Most think state efforts to reduce global warming will result in more jobs or won’t affect job numbers . (page 15 )  Strong majorities support government policies to reduce emissions, including requiring automakers to reduce emissions from new cars and requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensit y of transportation fuels. ( pages 16, 17)  Fifty -seven percent of Californians have not heard about the cap-and-trade system set to begin in California. Just over half support the system, but 65 percent have very little or no confidence in the state to spend money generated from the program wisely . A bout half think that companies buying permits to exceed their emissions limits will create a more serious health thre at in lower -income areas. (page s 18, 19 )  Sixty -three percent remain opposed to building more nuclear power plants , while a strong majority continue to favor renewable energy projects. The strong s upport for the law requiring a third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable sources declines if it means higher electricity bills. Californians remain divided about increasing oil drilling off the state’s coast. (pages 21, 22 )  A majority of Californians (54%) have heard a bout fracking and, of those, four in 10 favor this practice in California. Voters are divided along party lines . (page 23 ) 39 49545247444745 0 20 40 60 80 July05July06July07July08July09July10July11July12 Percent all adults Threatof Global Warming to California's Future Economy and Quality of Life % saying very serious 0 20 40 60 80 100 July06July07July08July09July10July11July12 Percent registered voters Support for State Law Rolling Back Emissions to 1990 Levels by 2020, by Party Dem Ind Rep 49505453 40403636 0 20 40 60 80 July09July10July11July12 Percent all adults Favor Oppose Cap-and-Trade System PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 14 PERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Sixty percent of Californians say that the effects of global warming have already begun, while one in four say the effects will be felt either in a few years (5%), in their lifetime s (6%), or in future generations (14%). One in 10 (12%) say the effects will never happen. Findings were similar last year. Solid majorities o f Democrats (76%) and independents (61%) say the effects have already begun, while Republicans are as likely to say they have already begun (33%) as they are to say the effects will never happen (33%). Adults nationwide in a March Gallup poll were less lik ely than Californians to say the effects have already begun (52% to 60%), while the share saying the effects will never happen was similar (15% to 12%). Nearly eight in 10 Californians (78%) think that the world’s temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, while 17 percent say it probably has not. Most Democrats (86%) and independents (80%) say the temperature has increased , compared with 54 percent of Republicans. Residents in Los Angeles (84%) are the most likely— and Orange/San Diego County and Central Valley residents (74% each ) are the least likely— to say the temperature has been going up. Americans in a recent Washington Post /Stanford University poll held similar views (73% has, 25% has not) as Californians . “What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world's temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Probably has 78% 86% 54% 80% 72% Probably has not 17 10 39 13 22 Don’t know 5 4 7 7 6 Most Californians (73%) think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, while one in four say it is not necessary yet (22%) or volunteer that it will never be necessary (2%). Findings were similar last year; since we first asked this question in July 2003, more than seven in 10 have said action should be taken right away. Strong majorities of Democrats (88%) and independents (76%) say action should be taken now , while six in 10 Republicans (59 %) say it is not necess ary yet or ever . Orange/San Diego County residents (64%) are least likely to say action should be taken right away, while more than seven in 10 in other regions hold this view. The belief that action should be taken now is held by more than six in 10 across demographic groups, and declines with age, education, and income. “Do you think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, or do you think it is not necessary to take steps yet?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Right away 73% 88% 38% 76% 64% Not necessary yet 22 11 53 19 31 Never necessary (volunteered) 2 – 6 3 4 Don’t know 2 1 2 2 2 Three in four Californians think that global warming is a serious threat (45% very serious, 30% somewhat) to the economy and quality of life in California’s future, while one in four say it is not too (11%) or not at all serious (12%). Findings were simila r last year, and majorities have said global warming is a threat since we first asked this question in 2005. More than three in four Democrats (88%) and independents (76%) say the threat is serious, while Republicans are more likely to say it is not a seri ous threat (57%). PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 15 CALIFORNIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY Should California make its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address global warming? About six in 10 Californians (63%) and likely voters (57%) favor the state making its own pol icies. More than half of Californians have held this view since 2005, and support today is 6 points higher than July 2011 and July 2010 (57% each). Three in four Democrats (76%) and more than half of independents (56%) favor the state making its own policies; most Republicans are opposed (43% favor, 53% oppose). Solid majorities of Californians (71%) and likely voters (62%) support the principle behind the Global Warming Solution Act (also known as Assembly Bill 32 or AB 32). Democrats (84%) and independent s (65%) are in favor, while Republicans are divided (44% favor, 48% oppose). AB 32 was less politically divisive when it was s igned into law by Republican Governor Schwarzenegger in 2006, but has since become a more partisan issue. In July 2006 , 65 percent of adults were in favor, including two in three across parties. Since 2006, more than two in three adults have been in favor but the gap in support between Democrats and Republicans has widened and is currently at 40 points (2 points 2006, 22 points 2007, 26 points 2008, 35 points 2009, 41 points 2010, 34 points 2011, 40 points today). “To address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 71% 84% 44% 65% 62% Oppose 22 11 48 27 31 Don’t know 7 6 8 8 6 When asked what impact California’s efforts to reduce global warming in the future would have on jobs, four in 10 say there would be more jobs (42%), 25 percent say fewer jobs, and 25 percent say there would be no effect on the number of jobs. The perception that there would be more jobs was similar last July (47%) and in July 2010 (45%) . Today, half of Democrats (53%) say there would be more jobs, while half of Republicans (48%) say there would be fewer jobs. A plurality of independents (38%) say there would be more jobs. Residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (47%) and Los Angeles (45% ) are more likely than those in the Inland Empire (39%), Orange/San Diego Counties (38%) , and the Central Valley (35%) to say more jobs would result . “Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind More jobs 42% 53% 21% 38% 38% Fewer jobs 25 15 48 27 31 Wouldn’t affect number of jobs 25 23 24 28 24 Don’t know 8 8 7 6 7 Fifty-six percent of Californians think the state government should act right away on its plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while 40 percent say it should wait until the state economy and job situation improve. Findings today are similar to July 2010 and 2011; Californians were divided in 2009. A s olid majorit y of Democrats (62%) support action now and a solid majority of Republicans (68%) prefer to wait. PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 16 REGULATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Strong majorities of Californians , including majorities of voters across party lines, favor various ways to address global warming that are being discussed by officials in state and federal governments. More than t hree in four favor requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances (77%); requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions (82%); and encouraging local gover nments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less (77%). Since we began asking these questions in July 2008, about three in four or more Californians have been in favor of each proposal. “Officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. How about…?” Requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances Requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions Encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less Favor 77% 82% 77% Oppose 20 16 20 Don’t know 3 2 3 While partisans favor requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances, Democrats (88%) and independents (77%) are far more likely than Republicans (56%) to hold this view. Asians (88%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to be in favor, followed by Latinos (78%), blacks (77%), and whites (73%). Across regions, San Francisco Bay Area residents (84%) are the most likely —and Central Valley residents (72 %) the least likely—to be in favor. Partisan differences are also present on requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions (92% Democrats, 79% independents, 57% Republicans). About eight in 10 across regions favor requiring thes e industries to reduce emissions. Asians (90%) , blacks (88%), and Latinos (87%) are much more likely than whites (74%) to be in favor. When it comes to encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less, Republicans (59%) are again much less likely than independents (77%) and Democrats (87%) to be in favor. Asians (85%) and Latinos (84%) are more likely than blacks (74%) and whites (71%) to hold this view and more than two in three across the state’ s regions are in favor. Among those who favor AB 32 , more than 85 percent favor each of these proposals. Percent saying “favor” Requir ing an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances Requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions Encouraging local governments to change land use and transportatio n planning so that people could drive less All Adults 77% 82% 77% Likely Voters 71 72 72 Party Democrats 88 92 87 Republicans 56 57 59 Independents 77 79 77 Race/Ethnicity Asians 88 90 85 Blacks 77 88 74 Latinos 78 87 84 Whites 73 74 71 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 17 REGULATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (CONTINUED) Californians also favor requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars (78%) and requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020 (79%) to address global warming. More than three in four Californians have favored requiring automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars since we first asked this question in June 2002. California won a long-fought battle with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2009 and subsequent court cases with business interests to enact tougher emissions standards than those in the U.S. overall. This is the first time we have asked about the carbon intensity of transportation fuels, which has generated controversy because some say that it would lead to higher costs for businesses. “Officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. How about…?” Requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars Requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020 Favor 78% 79% Oppose 20 18 Don’t know 2 4 Strong majorities of Democrats (89%) and independents (79%), compared with half of Republicans (52%), favor requiring automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars. Asians and Latinos (88% each) are more likely than blacks (76%) and whites (69%) to be in favor. Residents in the San Francisco Bay Ar ea (82%) and Los Angeles (81%) are the most likely to be in favor , followed by residents in the Inland Empire (77%), Orange/San Diego Counties (76%), and the Central Valley (73%). When it comes to requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020, strong majorities of Democrats (91%) and independent s (74%) are in favor, compared with nearly half of Republicans (48%). About nine in 10 blacks and Latinos (92% each) are in favor, while few er— but still strong majorities —Asians (82%) and whites (67%) hold this view. Consistent with their support for other ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, eight in 10 residents in Los Angeles (83%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (82%) are in favor , as are about three in four residents in other areas of the state (75% Inland Empire, 75% Orange/San Diego Counties, 73% Central Valley). Among those who favor AB 32, nine in 10 favor both of these proposals to reduce emissions. Percent saying “favor” Requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars Requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020 All Adults 78% 79% Likely Voters 70 69 Party Democrats 89 91 Republicans 52 48 Independents 79 74 Race/Ethnicity Asians 88 82 Blacks 76 92 Latinos 88 92 Whites 69 67 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 18 CAP AND TRADE A cornerstone of the state’s efforts to implement AB 32 is the cap -and -trade program, which will set limits on companies’ greenhouse gas emissions and allow those who emit less to sell their emissions permits to those who exceed their limits. The first state auction of emissions permits will occur in November and companies must begin complying with emissions caps in January 2013. Four in 10 Californians say they have heard a lot (12%) or a little (30%) about the state policy called cap and trade, while a m ajority (57%) have heard nothing at all. Findings were similar in 2010 (18% a lot, 27% a little, 54% nothing at all). Today, a much higher share of likely voters (60%) than all adults (42%) have heard about cap and trade . Republicans (61%) are the most likely to have heard about cap and trade, followed by independents (54%) and Democrats (42%). A majority of whites (56%) have heard at least a little about cap and trade, compared with fewer Asians (38%), blacks (27%), and Latinos (26%). The proportion that has heard about cap and trade increases sharply with rising education, income, and age, and is much higher among men (50%) than women (35%). “How much, if anything, have you heard about the state government policy called ‘cap and trade’ that will set limits on carbon dioxide emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind A lot 12% 10% 25% 19% 21% A little 30 32 36 35 39 Nothing at all 57 58 39 46 40 Don’t know – – 1 – – After being read a brief description of the cap- and-trade system, a slim majority of Californians (53%) say they favor it, while 36 percent are opposed. Similar shares have expressed support for cap and trade since we first asked about it in 2009 (49% 2009 , 50% 2010, 54% 2011, 53% today). “In the system called ‘cap and trade,’ the California state government will issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that do not use all their permits can sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies will find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that will be cheaper than buying permits. Do you favor or oppose the cap -and-trade system?” Favor Oppose Don’t know All Adults 53% 36% 11% Likely Voters 40 49 11 Party Democrats 55 36 10 Republicans 32 58 10 Independents 44 38 17 Race/Ethnicity Asians 69 20 11 Blacks 51 44 5 Latinos 61 28 11 Whites 44 46 10 Heard about cap and trade A lot 35 62 3 A little 53 37 10 Nothing at all 57 30 12 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 19 CAP AND TRADE (CONTINUED) Those who say they have heard a lot about cap and trade oppose it (35% favor, 62% oppose), while more than half of those who have heard a little (53%) or nothing (57%) favor the system. Support among likely voters (40%) is much lower than among all adults (53%). Most Democrats (55%) favor the system and most Republicans (58%) oppose it. Among independents, 44 percent are in favor and 38 percent are opposed. Support is higher among Asians (69%) and Latinos (61%) than among blacks (51%) or whites (44%) and hi gher among those age 18 –34, those with a high school education or less, and those with lower incomes than others . Among those who favor AB 32, 64 percent favor cap and trade. The state will generate new revenues from the auction of emissions permits under the cap -and -trade program —it is expected to raise $1 billion in the first year and more in later years. But two in three Californians have very little (34%) or no (31%) confidence in the state government to use this money wisely. Just 5 percent have a gre at deal of confidence and 27 percent have only some. A plurality of likely voters (41%) have no confidence. Majorities across parties have very little or no confidence in the state to spend these revenues wisely, but Republicans (85%) are the most likely to express this view (69% independents, 55% Democrats). Among those who favor the cap- and-trade program, 55 percent lack confidence in the state to use revenues wisely, while 44 percent have at least some confidence. “The market for permits created by California’s cap-and-trade system is expected to generate about $1 billion in new revenues for the state government in the first year and more in later years. How much confidence do you have in the state government to use this money wisely?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind A great deal 5% 6% 4% 3% 5% Only some 27 38 9 26 26 Very little 34 34 29 30 26 None 31 21 56 39 41 Don’t know 2 1 2 2 1 Not only is there debate about how the new revenues from cap and trade should be spent, but there is controversy about the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions under cap and trade. Complaints have been filed by environmental justice groups against the state saying that emissions will be worse and pose a greater health threat in lower -income areas and communities of color because the companies based there will be able to buy permits to exceed their emissions caps. About half of Californians (48%) think there will be a more serious health threat in lower -income areas, while 40 percent do not. Most Latinos (66%) and blacks (60%) think the health risks will be disproportionate, as do 50 percent of Asians. Most whites disagree (34% yes, 52% no). There is a partisan divide in these perceptions (Democrats: 52% yes; Republicans: 58% no; independents: 40% yes, 43% no). Half of those who favor cap and trade think there will be a greater health risk in lower -income areas (52% yes, 40% no). “Do you think that companies buying permits to release emissions under California’s cap- and-trade system will create a more serious health threat in lower- income areas than other areas in your region, or not?” All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asian Black Latino White Yes 48% 50% 60% 66% 34% No 40 38 34 26 52 Don’t know 12 12 6 8 14 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 20 FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL ACTION ON GLOBAL WARMING Just over half of Californians (55%) and likely voters (53%) say the federal government is not doing enough to address global warming. About one in four say it is doing just enough (27% adults, 23% likely voters), while fewer say the federal government is doing more than enough (13% adults, 21% likely voters). The perception among all adults that the federal government is not doing enough is lower today than it was before President Obama took office (66% 2008, 48% 2009, 52% 2010, 56% 2011, 55% today). There are partisan differences in perceptions of the federal government’s actions on global warming. Democrats (71%) are more likely than independ ents (61%) to say the government is not doing enough, while Republicans are more likely to say that the federal government is doing more than enough (39%) than to say that it is not doing enough (31%). Women are somewhat more likely than men (59% to 51%) t o say the federal government is not doing enough. Blacks (71%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to hold this view (59% Latinos, 52% Asians, 51% whites). In contrast, 48 percent of Californians and 42 percent of likely voters say that the state gover nment is not doing enough to address global warming. About three in 10 adults (32%) and likely voters (30%) say the state government is doing just enough, while fewer say it is doing more than enough (15% adults, 25% likely voters). Since 2008, about half of Californians have said that the state is not doing enough to address global warming . While pluralities of Democrats (57%) and independents (49%) say that the state government is not doing enough, Republicans are more likely to say that the state government is doing more than enough (40%) than not enough (26%) to address global warming. Women are much more likely than men (54% to 42%) to say that the state government is not doing enough. Blacks (73%) are again the most likely racial/ethnic group to hold t his negative view (56% Latinos, 43% Asians, 40% whites). Views of local government actions on global warming are comparable to views on state government. Half of Californians (49%) say their local government is not doing enough on global warming, while 33 percent say just enough and 12 percent say more than enough. Since 2008, about half or nearly half have said local government efforts are inadequate (52% 2008, 46% 2009, 46% 2011, 49% today). Among likely voters, 42 percent say not enough, 33 percent just enough, and 18 percent more than enough. Partisan, gender, and racial/ethnic trends are similar to views of federal and state government. “Overall, do you think that the … is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Federal government More than enough 13% 3% 39% 13% 21% Just enough 27 24 25 21 23 Not enough 55 71 31 61 53 Don't know 5 2 5 4 3 State government More than enough 15 8 40 16 25 Just enough 32 32 29 29 30 Not enough 48 57 26 49 42 Don't know 5 3 5 6 3 Local government More than enough 12 7 29 13 18 Just enough 33 31 34 32 33 Not enough 49 57 28 48 42 Don't know 7 5 9 6 7 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 21 ENERGY POLICY Just 31 percent of Californians favor building more nuclear power plants at this time, near the record low last July (30%) in the wake of the nuclear crisis in Japan. Nearly two in three (63%) remain opposed. Most likely voters are also opposed (58%) . Majorities of Democrats (69%) and independ ents (62%) oppose more nuclear plants, while half of Republicans favor the idea (50% favor, 45% oppose). Majorities across regions are opposed. In March, the Pew Research Center asked adults nationwide about promoting the increased use of nuclear power ; 44 percent were in favor and 49 percent were opposed. “Do you favor or oppose the following proposals? …How about building more nuclear power plants at this time?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 31% 23% 50% 31% 36% Oppose 63 69 45 62 58 Don’t know 6 7 5 7 5 When it comes to other forms of alternative energy, 78 percent of Californians and 73 percent of likely voters favor increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Since 2008, about eight in 10 have expressed support. Majorities across parties favor more funding for ren ewable energy, with Democrats (90%) the most likely to hold this view (72% independents, 57% Republicans). In the March survey by Pew, 69 percent of adults nationwide also expressed support for this idea. “…How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 78% 90% 57% 72% 73% Oppose 19 8 41 23 25 Don’t know 3 2 2 5 2 A policy initiated by Governor Schwarzenegger in 2008 and signed into law by Governor Brown in 2011 requires one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. A strong majority of Californians (77%) favor this idea, but support drops to 44 percent if it means higher electricity bills. One in five are opposed outright. Findings were similar last year. A majority of Democrats (59%) favor the law even if it increases their own electricity bills, compared with 44 percent of inde pendents and 26 percent of Republicans. Across income levels , at least four in 10 favor the idea even if it adds to their bill s. “…How about requiring one-third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power , by the year 2020? Do you favor or oppose this state law? (if favor: Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in your own electricity bill?)” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor, even if increase in electricity bill 44% 59% 26% 44% 44% Favor, but not if increase in electricity bill 33 26 27 32 25 Oppose 20 11 43 22 27 Don’t know 4 4 4 3 4 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 22 ENERGY POLICY (CONTINUED) An overwhelming majority of Californians (84%) and likely voters (81%) favor requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country. More than eight in 10 Californians have expressed support for this proposal since we first asked the question in 2004. Last July President Obama reached an agreement with 13 major automakers, the United Auto Workers Union, and the state of California to increase fuel efficiency to 54.5 miles per gallon for passenger cars and light trucks by model year 2025. There is majority support across parties for requiring automakers to improve the fuel efficiency of new cars, with Democrats (93%) most in favor (83% independents, 68% Republicans) . More than three -quarters of Californians across regions and demographic groups favor this idea. In a similar question in the March Pew Research Center survey, 78 percent of adults nationwide said they favored the government requiring better fuel efficiency for cars, trucks, and SUVs. “...How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 84% 93% 68% 83% 81% Oppose 15 6 31 16 18 Don’t know 1 1 2 1 1 Californians remain divided about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast (48% favor, 48% oppose); likely voters are slightly more likely to favor (51%) than oppose (46%) the idea. Between July 2003 and July 2007, Californians were more likely to oppose than favor increased oil drilling off the state’s coast. In 2008, for the first time, support surpas sed the 50 percent mark (51% favor, 45% oppose) and results were nearly identical the following year (51% favor, 43% oppose). Support for allowing more oil drilling off the coast of California dropped sharply in 2010 (36% favor, 59% oppose) after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, but increased to 46 percent the next year (July 2011: 46% favor, 49% oppose). When asked a similar question in Pew’s March survey about allowing more oil and natural gas drilling in U.S. waters , 65 percent o f adults nationwide were in favor. The idea of allowing more oil drilling off California’s coast divides voters sharply along partisan lines: 64 percent of Democrats are opposed and an even greater share of Republicans (77%) are in favor. Independents are more likely to oppose (52%) than favor (42%) this idea. Across regions, majorities of San Francisco Bay Area (55%) and Los Angeles (54%) residents are opposed, while majorities of Central Valley (60%), Inland Empire (56%), and Orange/San Diego County (52%) residents are in favor. Looked at another way, 56 percent of residents living along California’s northern coast are opposed to increased oil drilling, while south coast residents are divided (47% favor, 50% oppose) and inland residents are in favor (58%). Support increases with rising age and declines somewhat with higher education levels. “…How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 48% 33% 77% 42% 51% Oppose 48 64 21 52 46 Don’t know 4 4 2 6 3 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 23 FRACKING When asked how much they have heard about a drilling method called hydraulic fracturing or “fracking ” that is used to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations, 23 percent of Californians say a lot, 31 percent a little, and 46 percent nothing at all. When asked a similar question in Pew’s March survey , 26 percent of adults nationwide s aid a lot, 37 percent a little, and 37 percent nothing at all. California’s l ikely voters (36%) are much more likely to say that they have heard a lot compared with adults (23%). Across parties, Republicans are more aware , with only 29 percent saying they have heard nothing, compared with 39 percent of independents and 41 percent of Democrats. Across regions, those in Orange/San Diego Counties (60%) are the most aware, and residents in the Central Valley (47%) and the Inland Empire (43%) the least aware. Seven in 10 whites ( 72%) have heard of fracking, compared with far fewer Asians (45%), blacks (42%), and Latinos (31%). “How much, if anything, have you heard about a drilling method called hydraulic fracturing or ‘fracking’ that is used to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind A lot 23% 24% 31% 33% 36% A little 31 35 39 27 34 Nothing at all 46 41 29 39 29 Don’t know – 1 1 1 1 Among those who have heard a lot or a little about fracking, 42 percent favor, 46 percent oppose, and 12 percent are unsure about fracking in California. Fracking is already occurring in the state for oil extraction and there is debate about expand ing and regulat ing it. Among those who are aware of fracking, there is a partisan divide: Republicans favor fracking (64%) , while Democrats oppose it (65%). Independents are more likely to oppose (49%) than favor (35%) fracking . While most Central Valley and Other Southern California residents who are aware of fracking favor it (51% each), most of those in Los Angeles (56%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (51%) oppose it. A majority of those who have heard a lot about fracking oppose it ( 44% favor, 52% oppose), while those who have heard a little are divided (40% favor, 42% oppose). In response to a similar question in the Pew survey, 52 percent of adults nationwide who had heard of fracking said they favored it, while 35 percent were opposed. “Do you favor or oppose fracking in California?” Among those who have heard a lot or a little about fracking Favor Oppose Don’t know All Adults 42% 46% 12% Likely Voters 43 45 13 Party Democrats 22 65 13 Republicans 64 22 13 Independents 35 49 16 Region Central Valley 51 36 13 San Francisco Bay Area 39 51 10 Los Angeles 32 56 12 Other Southern California 51 38 12 Heard about fracking A lot 44 52 5 A little 40 42 18 July 2012 Californians and the Environment 24 REGIONAL MAP July 2012 Californians and the Environment 25 METHODOLOGY The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance from Sonja Petek, project manager for this survey, and survey research associates Dean Bonner and Jui Shrestha. This survey , Californians and the Environment , is supported with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. We benefit ted from discussions with PPIC staff, foundation staff, and other policy experts, but the methods, questions, and content of this report were determined solely by Mark Baldassare and the survey staff. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 2,500 California adult residents, including 2,000 interview ed on landline telephones and 50 0 interviewed on cell phones. Interviews took an average of 1 9 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekday nights and weekend days from July 10– 24, 2012. Landline interviews were cond ucted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Cell phones were included in this survey to account for the growing number of Californians who use them. These interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of cell phone numbers. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as eight times to increase the likelihood of reaching an eligible respondent. Once a cell phone user was reached, it was verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of C alifornia, and in a safe place to continue the survey (e.g., not driving). Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Live landline and cell phone interviews were conducted by Abt SRBI, Inc. , in English, Spanish, Chinese (Mandarin or Cantonese), Vietnamese, and Korean according to respondents’ pr eferences. We chose these languages because Spanish is the dominant language among non -English -speaking adults in California, followed in prevalence by the three Asian languages. Accent on Languages, Inc. , translated new survey questions into Spanish, with assistance from Renatta DeFever, and Abt SRBI translated the survey into Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean. With assistance from Abt SRBI, we used recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2007 –2009 American Community Survey (ACS) through the University of Minnesota’s Integrated Public Use Microdata Series for California to compare certain demographic characteristics of the survey sample— region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education —with the characteristics of California’s adult population. The survey s ample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. Abt SRBI used data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey and data from the 2007– 2009 ACS for California both to estimate landline and cell phone service in California and to compare the data against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The landline and cel l phone samples were then integrated using a frame integration weight, while sample balancing adjusted PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 26 for any differences across regional, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, telephone service, and party registration groups. The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±2.9 percent at the 95 percent confidence level for the total sample of 2, 500 adults. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 2.9 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for subgroups is larger: For the 1,668 registered voters, it is ± 3.2 percent and for the 1,131 likely voters, it is ± 3.6 percent . Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. Throughout the report, we refer to five geographic regions that account for approximately 90 percent of the state population. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “San Francisco Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” refers to Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. Residents from other geograph ic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less - populated areas are not large enough to report separately. In several places, we refer to coastal and inland counties. Withi n coastal counties, the “north/central coast” region refers to the counties along the California coast northward from San Luis Obispo County to Del Norte County and includes all the San Francisco Bay Area counties. The “south coast” region includes Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties. All other counties are included in the “inland” region. We present specific results for non- Hispanic whites and for Latinos, who account for about a third of the state’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest -growing voter groups. We also present results for non- Hispanic Asians, who make up about 14 percent of the state’s adult population, and non- Hispanic blacks, who comprise about 6 percent. Results for other racial/ethnic groups —such as Native Americans —are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes are not large enough for separate analysis. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, Republicans, and decline -to -state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in anothe r party are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters —so designated by their responses to voter registration survey questions, previous election participation, intentions to vote in the November election, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to 100 due to rounding. We compare current PPIC Statewide Survey results to those in our earlier surveys and to those in national surveys by Gallup, the Pew Research Center, and Washington Post /Stanford University. Additional details about our methodology can be found at http://www.ppic.org/content/other/SurveyMethodology.pdf and are available upon request through surveys@ppic.org. July 2012 Californians and the Environment 27 QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESULTS CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT July 10– 24, 2012 2,500 California Adult Residents: English, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese MARGIN OF ERROR ±2.9% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMP LE PERCENTA GES MAY NOT ADD TO 100 DUE TO ROUNDING 1. First, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California? 42% approve 35 disapprove 23 don’t know 2. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Governor Brown is handling environmental issues in California? 39% approve 31 disapprove 30 don’t know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? 29% approve 54 disapprove 17 don’t know 4. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling environmental issues in California? 36% approve 44 disapprove 21 don’t know 5. We are interested in the region of California that you live in. Would you say that air po llution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your region? 25% big problem 39 somewhat of a problem 35 not a problem 1 don’t know 6. How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your region to you and your immediate famil y—do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat? 18% very serious 31 somewhat serious 46 not too serious 4 not at all serious (volunteered) – don’t know 7. Do you think that air pollution is a more ser ious health threat in lower -income areas than other areas in your region, or not? 47% yes 46 no 6 don’t know 8. Do you or does anyone in your immediate family suffer from asthma or other respiratory problems? ( If yes: W ould that be you or someone in your immediate family?) 9% yes, respondent 24 yes, someone in immediate family 8 yes, both 59 no We are interested in knowing what people are willing to do in order to reduce air pollution in their region. PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 28 [ randomize order of questions 9 to 10] 9. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on new passenger vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and SUVs , or not? 65% yes 32 no 3 don’t know 9a. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on agriculture and farm activities, or not? 54% yes 40 no 6 don’t know 9b. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on commercial and industrial activities, or not? 70% yes 26 no 3 don’t know 10. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on diesel engine vehicles, such as trucks and buses, or not? 71% yes 26 no 3 don’t know 11. On another topic, which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen — [rotate order top to bottom ] (1) they have already begun to happen; (2) they will start happening within a few years; (3) they will start happening within your lifetime; (4) they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will aff ect future generations; [or] (5) they will never happen? 60% already begun 5 within a few years 6 within your lifetime 14 not within lifetime, but will affect future generations 12 will never happen 3 don’t know 12. Do you think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, or do you think it is not necessary to take steps yet? 73% right away 22 not necessary yet 2 never necessary (volunteered) 2 don’t know 13. What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world's temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening? 78% probably has been happening 17 probably has not been happening 5 don’t know 14. How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future— do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat? 45% very serious 30 somewhat serious 11 not to o serious 12 not at all serious 1 don’t know 15. Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020? 71% favor 22 oppose 7 don’t know 16. Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming? 63% favor 31 op pose 7 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 29 17. When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it [rotate] (1) take action right away [or should it] (2) wait until the state economy and job situation improve to take action? 56% take action right away 40 wait until state economy and job situation improve 5 don’t know Next, officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce greenhouse gas emissi ons. [randomize order of questions 18 to 22] 18. How about requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commer cial buildings and appliances? 77% favor 20 oppose 3 don’t know 19. How about requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facili ties to reduce their emissions? 82% favor 16 oppose 2 don’t know 20. How about encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning s o that people could drive less? 77% favor 20 oppose 3 don’t know 21. How about requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars? 78% favor 20 oppose 2 don’t know 22. How about requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020? 79% f avor 18 oppose 4 don’t know 23. Next, how much, if anything, have you heard about the state government policy called “cap and trade” that will set limits on carbon dioxide emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all? 12% a lot 30 a little 57 nothing at all – don’t know 24. In the system called “cap and trade,” the California state government will issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that do not use all their permits can sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies will find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that will be cheaper than buying permits. Do you favor or oppose the cap -and- trade system? 53% favor 36 oppose 11 don’t know 25. The market for permits created by California’s cap -and -trade system is expected to generate about $1 billion in new revenues for the state government in the first year and more in later years. How much confidence do you have in the state government to use this money wisely —a great deal, only some, very little, or none? 5% a great deal 27 only some 34 very little 31 none 2 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 30 26.Do you think that companies buying permits to release e missions under California’s cap- and- trade system will create a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than other areas in your region, or not? 48% yes 40 no 12 don’t know 27. Changing topics, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling his job as president of th e United States? 57% approve 38 disapprove 5 don’t know 28. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that President Obama is handling environmental issues in the United States? 51% approve 38 disapprove 11 don’t know 29. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling its job? 27% approve 66 disapprove 7 don’t know 30. Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling environmental issues in the United States? 27% approve 61 disapprove 12 don’ t know [rotate order top to bottom of questions 31 to 33] 31. Overall, do you think that the federal government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 13% more than enough 27 just enough 55 not enough 5 don’t know 32. Overall, do you think that the state government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 15% more than enough 32 just enough 48 not enough 5 don’t know 33. Overall, do you think that your local governme nt is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 12% more than enough 33 just enough 49 not enough 7 don’t know 34. Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state? 42% more jobs 25 fewer jobs 25 wouldn’t affect the number of jobs 8 don’t know Next, do you favor or oppose the following proposals? [randomize order of questions 35 to 38] 35. How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country? 84% favor 15 oppose 1 don’t know 36. How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast? 48% favor 48 oppose 4 don’ t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 31 37. How about building more nuclear power plants at this time? 31% favor 63 oppose 6 don’t know 38. How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, s olar, and hydrogen technology? 78% favor 19 oppose 3 don’t know 39. How about requiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2020? Do you favor or oppose this state law? [ I f favor: Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in your own electricity bill?] 44% favor, even if it increases electricity bill 33 favor, but not if it increases electricity bill 20 oppose 4 don’t know 40. How much, if anything, have you heard about a drilling method called hydraulic fracturing or “fracking” that is used to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all? 23% a lot 31 a little 46 nothing at all – don’t know 40a. [among those who have heard a lot or a little about fracking] Do you favor or oppose fracking in California? 42% favor 46 oppose 12 don’t know 41. Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? 67% yes [ask q41a] 33 no [skip to q42 b] 41a.Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline -to-state or independent voter? 44% Democrat [ask q42] 31 Republican [skip to q42a] 4 another party (specify) [skip to q43] 21 independent [skip to q42b] 42. Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 55% strong 43 not very strong 1 don’t know [skip to q43] 42a.Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 51% strong 47 not very strong 2 don’t know [skip to q43] 42b.Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republ ican Party or Democratic Party? 21% Republican Party 47 Democratic Party 24 n either (volunteered) 8 don’t know 43. [likely voters only] If the November 6th presidential election were being held today, would you vote for: [rotate names] (1) Barack Obama, the Democrat [or] (2) Mitt Romney, the Republican? 51% Barack Obama, the De mocrat 40 Mitt Romney, the Republican 2 someone els e (specify) 7 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 32 43a.[likely voters only] Regardless of who you may support, who do you trust more to handle global warming and energy policy — [rotate names] (1) Barack Obama [or] (2) Mitt R omney? 54% Barack Obama 33 Mitt Romney 8 neither (volunteered) 5 don’t know 44. [likely voters only] In thinking about the presidential election in November, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy in determining your vote? 30% very important 42 somewhat important 28 not too important 1 don’t know 45. [likely voters only] How closely are you following news about candidates for the 2012 presidential election? 40% very closely 44 fairly closely 12 not too closely 3 not at all closely – don’t know 46. Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom] 11% very liberal 21 somewhat liberal 29 middle -of -the -road 23 somewhat conservative 12 very conservative 3 don’t know 47. Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics ? 23% great deal 33 fair amount 34 only a little 10 none – don’t know D6b. [full - or part -time workers] How do you usually commute to work —drive alon e, carpool, take public bus or transit, walk, or bicycle? 66% drive alone 14 carpool 7 take public bus or transit 4 walk 2 bicycle 6 work at home (volunteered) 1 other (specify) [d1–d6 a and d7 –d19: demographic questions] PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY ADVISORY COMMITTEE Ruben Barrales President and CEO San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Paul Brest President The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Mollyann Brodie Senior Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Executive Director University of California Washington Center James E. Canales President The James Irvine Foundation Jon Cohen Director of Polling The Washington Post Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Robert Lapsley President California Business Roundtable Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Publisher and CEO La Opinión Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Lisa Pitney Vice President, Government Relations The Walt Disney Company Dan Rosenheim News Director KPIX -TV Robert K. Ross, M.D. President and CEO The California Endowment Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento Cathy Taylor Vice President and Editorial Commentary Director Orange County Register Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS Gary K. Hart, Chair Former State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California Mark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and CEO San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Marí a Blanco Vice President, Civic Engagement California Community Foundation Brigitte Bren Chief Executive Officer International Strategic Planning, Inc. Robert M. Hertzberg Partner Mayer Brown, LLP Walter B. Hewlett Chair, Board of Directors William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs David Mas Masumoto Author and Farmer Steven A. Merksamer Senior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni , LLP Kim Polese Chairman ClearStreet, Inc. Thomas C. Sutton Retired Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decisionmakers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a private operating foundation. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and CEO of PPIC. Gary K. Hart is Chair of the Board of Directors. Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the copyright notice below is included. Copyright © 201 2 Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO CENT ER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121 www.ppic.org survey@ppic.org" } ["___content":protected]=> string(102) "

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" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(107) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/ppic-statewide-survey-californians-and-the-environment-july-2012/s_712mbs/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8842) ["ID"]=> int(8842) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:41:21" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(4228) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(8) "S 712MBS" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(8) "s_712mbs" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_712MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "513271" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(94615) "CONTENTS About the Survey 2 Pre ss Release 3 Go vernment Ratings, Air Pollution 6 Cl imate Change, Energy Policy 13 R egional Map 24 M ethodology 2 5 Questionnaire and Results 27 the environment j u ly 2 0 1 2 & P P I C S TAT E W I D E S U R V E Y Californians Mark Baldassare D ean Bonner Sonja Petek jui Shrestha in collaboration with The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation July 2012 Californians and the Environment 2 ABOUT THE SURVEY The PPIC Statewide Sur vey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy- free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. This is the 127th PPIC Statewide Sur vey in a series that was inaugurated in April 1998 and has generated a database of responses from more than 268,000 Californians. Th e current s u r v e y, Californians and the Environment, was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Its goal is to inform state policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about Californians’ opinions on air pollution, global warming, and energy policy. It is the 12 th annual PPIC Statewide Sur vey on environmental issues since 2000. H istoric drought conditions, unseasonably high temperatures, and wildfires this summer , a presidential campaign during an ongoing economic crisis, and controversy over an oil and gas drilling method called hydraulic fracturing or “fracking” set the national context for this year’s sur vey. At the state level, efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the use of renewable energy continue. A major component of the state’s landmark Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) is the cap- and-trade program. Cap and trade will set enforceable limits on the major sources of greenhouse gases, such as refineries, power plants, industrial facilities, and transpor tation fuels , and create a market allowing companies with emission s below their caps to sell excess permits to companies that exceed their limits . The first auction of emissions perm its will occur in November and companies must comply with caps beginning in Januar y 2013. T here are debates about how this new environmental policy will affect employment and the economic recover y , how new state revenues generated from the cap and trade market should be spent , and whether companies that buy permits will create a disparate amount of unhealthful emissions in lower-income areas. T his year’s sur vey focuses on timely and relevant environment al a nd energy issues, including cap and trade and fracking. It presents the responses of 2,500 adult residents throughout California, inter viewed in multiple languages by landline or cell phone, and includes findings on:  The 2012 presidential election, including the role of global warming and energy policy in determining voting preferences, and a pproval ratings of federal and state elected officials ’ handling of environmental issues; perceptions of regional air pollution, associated health risks, and whether the risks are more serious in lower -income areas, and willingness to toughen air pollution standards .  Global warming, including perceptions of its existence and onset; preferences for AB 32 and views of how state action on global warming will affect employment; preferences about ways government can regulate emissions, including a low carbon fuel standard; attitudes toward cap and trade; opinions about local, state, and federal action on global warming ; preferences for energy policy, including rewnewable energy, nuclear power, fuel efficiency, and oil drilling; and, for the first time, knowledge and suppor t of fracking.  Time trends, national comparisons, and the extent to which Californians may differ in their perceptions , attitudes, and preferences based on political par ty affiliation, likelihood of voting, region of residence (Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, Inland Empire, and Orange/San Diego Counties), race/ethnicity ( Asians, blacks, Latinos, and non-Hispanic whites ), and other demographic characteristics . This repor t may be downloaded free of charge from our website ( www.ppic.org). If you have questions about the sur vey, please contact sur vey@ppic.org . Tr y our PPIC Statewide Sur vey interactive tools online at http://www.ppic.org/main/sur vAdvancedSearch.asp. July 2012 Californians and the Environment 3 PPIC Statewide Survey CONTACT Linda Strean 415-291-4412 Andrew Hattori 415- 291-4417 NEWS RELEASE EMBARGOED: Do not publish or broadcast until 9:00 p.m. PDT on Wednesday , August 1, 2012. Para ver este comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Majority See Global Warming , Ener gy as Important Issues—and Prefer Obama STRONG SUPPORT FOR STATE LAW TO CURB EM ISSIONS, BUT PARTISAN SPLIT WIDENS SAN FRANCISCO , August 1, 2012 —Most California likely voters say that the presidential candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy are important in determining their vote, and a majority trust President Obama over Mitt Romney on these issues. These are among the key findings of a statewide survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC), conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. While global warming and energy policy have not been the focus of debate in the campaigns so far, 30 percent of California likely voters say these issues are very important in determining their choice for president and 42 percent say they are somewhat important. A majority— 54 percent—say they trust Obama to handle the se issue s, while 33 percent trust Romney. Likely voters’ concerns about the impact of global warming are echoed in their responses to a number of questions in PPIC’s 12th annual survey on the environment: Most say it is a serious threat (40% very serious, 26% somewhat serious) to the economy and quality of life in California’s future. Most (62%) continue to favor the state law requiring California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and most (64%) say steps need to be taken right away to counter the effects of global warming. Mark Baldassare, PPIC’s president and CEO, points out: “California’s likely voters trust Obama over Romney on global warming policy by a wide margin— even though a majority also say that the federal government is not doing enough to address this issue .” Obama’s 21 -point advantage on global warming and energy issues is much larger than his lead in the overall matchup with Romney. Asked how they would vote if the election were held t oday, 51 percent of likely voters choose Obama and 40 percent choose Romney. Obama’s 11 -point advantage on this question is the same as in May (50% to 39%). Today, both candidates have strong support from likely voters in their respective parties (85% of Democrats favor Obama, 81% of Republicans favor Romney). Among independents, 53 percent choose Obama and 37 percent choose Romney. Obama leads Romney among women (51% to 38%), Latinos (68% to 19%), and voters under 35 (63% to 29%). Other groups are more di vided: men (50% Obama, 43% Romney), whites (44% Obama, 49% Romney), and voters 35 and older (ages 35 –54: 47% Obama, 42% Romney; 55 and older: 49% Obama, 43% Romney). Likely voters’ preference for Obama on global warming and energy policy does not translat e to majority support for his handling of environmental issues. They are evenly divided on this question (46% approve, 46% disapprove). The president’s overall job approval rating is similar, at 50 percent among likely voters (47% disapprove). The U.S. Con gress has low ratings on job performance (15% approve, 81% disapprove) and on handling environmental issues (15% approve, 74% disapprove). PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 4 Asked to assess what government is doing to address global warming, 53 percent of likely voters say the federal government is not doing enough, while 23 percent say it is doing just enough and 21 percent say it is doing more than enough. Fewer say state and local government s are falling short (42% each) . BROWN’S JOB APPROVAL HOLDS AT 46 PERCENT In their evaluations of the state’s elected leaders, 46 percent of likely voters approve of Governor Jerry Brown’s job performance (42% disapprove, 11% don’t know), similar to May (42%) and last July (48%). On environmental issues, 41 percent approve and 36 percent disapprove of the job the governor is doing , while 23 percent are unsure. The state legislature’s job approval rating (21%) is similar to May (17%) despite passing a budget on time for the second straight year . But approval today is slightly higher than last July (15%) a nd much higher than July 2010 (10%). Likely voters give the legislature a higher rating (29%) for its handling of environmental issues than for overall job performance. PARTISAN DIVIDE GROWS SHARPLY ON AB 32 A strong majority of Californians (78%) think th at the world’s temperature has probably gone up in the past 100 years (17% probably not). Most (60%) say the effects of global warming have already begun. But while a solid majority (71%) support the state law requiring emissions reductions —AB 32 —the parti san divide has increased significantly . Just before Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the law in 2006, 65 percent of adults were in favor, including two in three across parties. Today, Democrats (84%) and independents (65%) favor the law, but Republica ns are divided (44% favor, 48% oppose). Asked how state action to curb global warming would affect jobs in the state, 42 percent of adults say the result would be more jobs, 25 percent say fewer jobs, and 25 percent say there would be no effect. M ajoriti es of adults —across party lines —favor various ways the state and federal governments can address global warming:  Requiring increased energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances (77%)  Requiring industrial plants, oil refineries , and commercial facilities to reduce emissions (82%)  Encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less (77%)  Requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new c ars (78%)  Requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020 (79%) WITH CAP-AND -TRADE AUCTIONS SET TO BEGIN, MOST ARE UNAWARE OF PROGRAM Most Californians (57%) have heard nothing about the state’s cap-and -trade program, which will be rolled out in November with the first state auction of emissions permits (12% have heard a lot, 30% a little). A cornerstone of efforts to implement AB 32, this program will set limits on companies’ greenhouse gas emissions and allow those who emit less to sell permits to those who exceed their limits. After hearing a brief description of the program, a slim majority of adults (53%) say they favor it (36% oppose) . Those who say they have heard a lot about cap and trade oppose it (62% vs. 35% in favor). More than half of those who have heard little (53%) or nothing about it (57%) are in favor. The state will generate new revenues from the permit auction s and is expected to raise $1 billion in the first year. B ut most Californians are pessimistic about how the money will be spent. “When they are told about new state revenues that will be generated from the cap- and-trade program, two in three Californians say they have very little or no confidence that the state government will use the money wisely,” Baldassare says . PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 5 Just 5 percent say they have a great deal of confidence that the state will use this money wisely, and 27 percent have only some confidence. The cap-and- trade program has generated controversy because of concerns that companies in low -income areas will buy permits to exceed their emissions caps, worsening health risks for residents. Asked about this issue, about half of Californians (48%) say that companies buying permits under the program will create a disproportionate health threat in low -income communities and 40 percent disagree. AIR POLLUTION A REGIONAL PROBLEM FOR MANY Two-thirds of Californians (64%) say air pollution is a big problem (25%) or somewhat of one (39%) in the region where they live, while 35 percent say it is not a problem. Adults in Los Angeles (35%), the Central Valley (32%), and the Inland Empire (30%) are much more likely than those in Orange/San Diego Counties (17%) and the San Francisco Bay Area ( 16%) to say that regional air pollution is a big problem. Across racial and ethnic groups, Latinos (37%) and blacks (33%) are much more likely than Asians (20%) and whites (18%) to say air pollution is a big problem. About half of Californians (49%) say air pollution in their region is a serious health threat to them and their immediate family (18% very serious, 31% somewhat serious ). Forty -one percent of adults say that they or someone in their immediate family suffers from asthma or other respiratory problems. Blacks are most likely to say this (54%), followed by Latinos (43%), whites (39%), and Asians (32%). Is air pollution a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than others in their region? Californians are divided in their responses to this question (47% yes, 46% no). Asked what policies they would support to reduce regional air pollution, majorities are willing to see tougher air pollution standards on the following:  New passenger vehicles (65%)  Diesel engine vehicles (71%)  Commercial and industrial activities (70%)  Agriculture and farm activities (54%) DIVIDED ON “FRACKING” Most Californians (54%) have heard at least a little about hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” which is used to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations (23% have heard a lot, 31% a little, 46% nothing at all ). Fracking for oil extraction is occurring in the state, and there is debate about expanding and regulating it. Resident s who have heard about fracking are divided about using it in Califor nia (42% favor, 46% oppose, 12% don’t know). On other energy policy issues, just 31 percent of Californians favor building more nuclear power plants at this time —near the record low (30%) of last July. Majorities across regions are opposed. Residents are divided on the question of allowing more oil drilling off California’s coast: 48 percent are in favor, 48 percent are opposed. Across regions, 56 percent of residents living along the state’s northern coast are opposed to more drilling, while south coast residents are divided (47% favor, 50% opposed) and inland residents are in favor (58%). A large majority of residents (78%) favor increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Californians show similar support (77%) for the state policy requiring one -third of electricity to come from renewable energy sources by the year 2020. But support drops to 44 percent on this question if the policy means higher electricity bills. July 2012 Californians and the Environment 6 GOVERNMENT RATINGS, AIR POLLUTION KEY FINDINGS  Seven in 10 likely voters say presidential candidate positions on global warming and energy policy are very ( 30%) or somewhat ( 42 %) important in determining their vote this November. Barack Obama is trusted more than Mitt Romney to handle these issues, with opinion split along party lines. ( page 7 )  Californians are slightly less likely to approve of President Obama’s handling of environmental issues than of his job performance overall . About four in 10 approve of Governor Brown in both areas. Both Congress and the state legislature receive low marks overall , but approval of the legislature’s handling of environmental issues is somewhat higher than of its overall performance. (page s 8, 9 )  Los Angeles, Central Valley , and Inland Empire residents are more likely than those in Orange/San Diego Counties or the San Francisco Bay Area to say air pollution is a big regional problem . Los Angeles residents are the most likely to consider it a serious health threat . Majorities of Latinos and blacks say health risks from air pollution are greater in the lower -income areas of their region , and are also more likely than whites and Asians to say they or an immediate family member have respiratory problems. ( pages 10, 11 )  To reduce regional air pollution, solid majorities of Californians support tougher standards on new passenger and diesel - engine vehicles and on commercial and industrial activities ; a smaller majority back tougher standards on ag ricultural activities. But support for each has hit a record low. ( page 12 ) 42 29 3936 0 20 40 60 80 Governor BrownCalifornia Legislature Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of State Elected Officials 57 27 51 27 0 20 40 60 80 President ObamaU.S. Congress Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of Federal Elected Officials 5154 40 33 0 20 40 60 80 Presidential raceTrust to handle globalwarming, energy policy Percent likely voters Barack Obama Mitt Romney 2012 Presidential Election PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 7 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION With the presidential campaign in full swing, most California likely voters say the candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy a re important in determining their vote. Seven in 10 say the issue is very (30%) or somewhat (42%) important . Twenty-eight percent say it is not too important. Majorities across party lines say that global warming and energy policy are at least somewhat important ; Democrats (40%) are much more likely than independents (28%) and Republicans (17%) to say they are very important. Among those who plan to vote for Barack Obama, 40 percent say that the candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy are very important, compared to just 18 percent among those w ho plan to vote for Mitt Romney. Among Romney supporters, 44 percent say this issue is not too important. “In thinking about the presidential election in November, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy in determining your vote?” Likely voters only All Likely Voters Party Presidential Vote Preference Dem Rep Ind Barack Obama Mitt Romney Very important 30% 40% 17% 28% 40% 18% Somewhat important 42 48 36 44 47 37 Not too important 28 12 47 28 13 44 Don’t know 1 – 1 – – 1 Majorities of likely voters say they trust Barack Obama more than Mitt Romney to handle global warming and energy policy (54% to 33%). There are strong political differences, with Democrats and liberals favoring Obama and Republicans and conservatives favoring Romney on global warming and energy policy. On this issue, li kely voters trust Obama more than Romney across all age, education, gender, income, and racial /ethnic groups. In Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area voters trust Obama on this issue, while Central Valley voters favor Romney and Other Southern California voters are divided . In the presidential matchup, California likely voters prefer Barack Obama over Mitt Romney by 11 points (51% to 40%). Obama’s lead over Romney today is the same as it was in May (50% to 39%). Obama has strong support among Democrats (85%) and liberals (90%), and Romney has strong support among Republicans (81%) and conservatives (72%). Obama leads Romney among women and enjoys a wide margin of support among Latinos and voters under 35. W hites, men, and voters age 35 and older are more divided. (Sample sizes for Asian and black likely voters are too small for separate analysis.) “If the November 6th presidential election were being held today, would you vote for Barack Obama, the Democrat , or Mitt Romney, the Republican?” Likely voters only Barack Obama Mitt Romney Someone else (volunteered) Don’t know All Likely Voters 51% 40% 2% 7% Party Democrats 85 9 – 6 Republicans 10 81 2 7 Independents 53 37 1 9 Gender Men 50 43 2 4 Women 51 38 2 10 Race/Ethnicity Latinos 68 19 1 12 Whites 44 49 2 5 Age 18–34 63 29 1 7 35–54 47 42 3 7 55 and older 49 43 1 7 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 8 APPROVAL RATINGS OF FEDERAL ELECTED OFFICIALS A majority of Californians (57%) approve of the way Barack Obama is handling his job as president, similar to May (56%) and last July (52%), but down 8 points from July 2009 (65%). Nationally, the Gallup daily tracking poll s from our interviewing period find the pres ident’s approval ratings between 44 and 47 percent. In California, likely voters are divided, with 50 percent approving and 47 percent disapproving. There are strong partisan differences, with 82 percent of Democrats approving and 80 percent of Republicans disapproving of the way Obama is handling his job; independents are divided. Majorities across age, education, gender, and income categories are approving. Blacks (91%) and Latinos (68%) are much more likely than Asians (54%) and whites (46%) to approve of Obama. When it comes to handling environmental issues, 51 percent approve of Barack Obama, similar to last July (47%) but down 7 points from July 2009 (58%). Likely voters are divided (46% approve, 46% disapprove). Seventy -three percent of Democrats approve, while 73 percent of Republicans disapprove, and independents are divided. Blacks (85%) and Latinos (63%) are much more likely than Asians (46%) and whites (40%) to approve of the president’s handling of environmental issues. “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling… ?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind His job as president of the United States Approve 57% 82% 18% 50% 50% Disapprove 38 14 80 44 47 Don't know 5 4 2 6 2 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 51 73 18 40 46 Disapprove 38 20 73 43 46 Don't know 11 7 9 17 8 The U.S. Congress continues to have low approval ratings among Californians. Just 27 percent approve of the way Congress is handling its job, similar to May (22%) and last July (25%). A July Gallup reported 16 percent of adults nationwide approve of Congre ss. Majorities of Californians in all age, education, gender, and income groups , parties, and regions disapprove of the way Congress is handling its job. Whites are far more disapproving than other racial/ethnic groups . Twenty -seven percent of all adults approve of Congress’ performance on environmental issues, while 61 percent disapprove. Less than one in four across parties approve, while about seven in 10 disapprove. Across age, education, income, and regional groups, residents are more likely to disapprove than approve. Whites (77%) are again the most disapproving (56% blacks, 48% Latinos, 38% Asians). “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 27% 23% 18% 17% 15% Disapprove 66 73 78 74 81 Don't know 7 5 4 8 4 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 27 23 17 15 15 Disapprove 61 68 70 70 74 Don't know 12 9 13 15 11 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 9 APPROVAL RATINGS OF STATE ELECTED OFFICIALS About four in 10 Californians (42%) approve of Jerry Brown’s overall performance as governor, while 35 percent disapprove and 23 percent are unsure. The governor’s overall approval ratings were at 39 percent in May; last July they were a similar 42 percent. Among likely voters today, 46 percent approve of his performance, similar to May (42%) and last July (48%). While 60 percent of Democrats approve of Governor Brown , 63 percent of Republicans disapprove, and independents are divided (40% approve, 37 % disapprove, 23% don’t know). When it comes to the governor’s handling of environmental issues, Californians are more likely to say that they approve (39%) than disapprove (31%), while 30 percent are unsure. Among likely voters, 41 percent approve, 36 percent disapprove, and 23 percent are unsure. Opinion is divided along party lines on this topic: most Democrats approve and most Republicans disapprove. “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind His job as governor of California Approve 42% 60% 24% 40% 46% Disapprove 35 26 63 37 42 Don't know 23 14 13 23 11 Environmental issues in California Approve 39 51 24 32 41 Disapprove 31 22 54 32 36 Don't know 30 27 22 36 23 The state legislature’s current approval ratings (29%) are similar to May (25%), even after it passed an on -time budget in June for the second year in a row. But a pproval today is slightly higher than it was last July (23%) and much higher than in July 2010 amidst contentious budget negotiations (15%). Among likely voters, 21 percent approve of the state legislature’s performance, while 69 percent disapprove. Majorities across parties disapprove (77% Republicans, 62% independents, 53% Democrats), as do majorities of men and women. Disappr oval rises as age and income increase, and is far higher among those with at least some college education than among those with a high school education or less. Californians are somewhat more likely to approve of the legislature’s handling of environmental issues (36%) than its job overall (29%). Still, most Republicans (64%) and independents ( 50%) disapprove of the legislature on this issue; Democrats are more divided (42% approve, 37% disapprove) . Approval ratings on environmental issues were slightly lower last July (31% adults, 24% likely voters). “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the California Legislature is handling…?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 29% 33% 14% 22% 21% Disapprove 54 53 77 62 69 Don't know 17 14 9 16 10 Environmental issues in California Approve 36 42 20 24 29 Disapprove 44 37 64 50 54 Don't know 21 20 16 26 18 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 10 REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION Two in three Californians (64 %) say that air pollution is a big (25%) or somewhat of (39%) a problem in the ir region, while 35 percent say it is not a problem. Adults living in Los Angeles (35%), the Central Valley (32%), and the Inland Empire (30%) are much more likel y than those in Orange/San Diego Counties (17%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (16%) to say that air pollution is a big problem in their region. San Francisco Bay Area residents are most likely to say air pollution is not a problem (46%). Across regions, p erceptions of air pollution as a big problem have greatly fluctuated over time and are near record lows this year (except in Orange/San Diego C ounties, where as few as 10% considered air pollution a big problem in July 2010). Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (37%) and blacks (33%) are much more likely than Asians (20%) and whites (18%) to consider air pollution a big problem. Democrats (28%) and independents (24%) are more likely than Republicans (15%) to say this . The perception that air pollution is a big problem declines with age and is higher among those with a high school education or less and those with incomes under $80,00 0. “We are interested in the region of California that you live in. Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewha t of a problem, or not a problem in your region? ” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Big problem 25% 32% 16% 35% 17% 30% Somewhat of a problem 39 32 38 41 50 36 Not a problem 35 35 46 22 32 33 Don’t know 1 1 – 2 1 1 About half of Californians (49%) view air pollution in their region as a very (18%) or somewhat serious (31%) health threat to them and their immediate family . But half say it is not too serious (46%) or volunteer that it is not at all a serious (4%) threat. Between July 2003 and July 2008, about six in 10 said air pollution was a serious threat but this perception has dipped to about 50 percent since July 20 09. Resi dents in Los Angeles (65%) are most likely to view regional air pollution as a very or somewhat serious threat, followed by those in the Inland Empire (56%) and the Central Valley (54%). About four in 10 adults in Orange/San Diego Counties (40%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (37%) view regional air pollution as either a very or somewhat serious threat. Democrats (55%) and independents (51%) are much more likely than Republicans (35%) to consider regional air pollution a serious threat. Latinos (62%) and bl acks (53%) are more likely than Asians (42%) and whites (41%) to share this view. Women (55%) are more likely than men (43%) to believe regional air pollution poses a serious threat. “How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your region to you and your immediate family — do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat?” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Very serious 18% 23% 12% 23% 14% 21% Somewhat serious 31 31 25 42 26 35 Not too serious/ Not at all serious (vol) 50 46 62 35 59 44 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 11 REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION (CONTINUED) Residents are divided (47% yes, 46% no) when asked if they think air pollution is a more serious health threat in the lower -income areas of their region ; 6 percent are unsure. Since 2006 , Californians have either been divided on this question or have been more likely to say yes than no. However, in 2010 most said air pollution was not a more serious health threat in lower -income areas (41% yes, 52% no) . A strong majority of Latinos (66%) believe that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than in other areas in their region, as do 58 percent of blacks. Asians are divided (43% yes, 49% no), while 58 percent of whites say it is not more serious in lower -income areas . Nearly six in 10 adults in Los Angeles (58%) and half of those in Orange/San Diego Counties (50% yes, 43% no) believe that air pollution is a more serious threat in lower -income areas. A majority of Central Valley residents (58%) and h alf of those in the Inland Empire (45% yes, 50% no) and the San Francisco Bay Area (44% yes, 50% no) do not believe that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower- income areas. Belief in this threat to lower -income areas declines as age and income increase. It is higher among renters (56%) than homeowners (41%) and higher among parents of children age 18 or under (54%) than others (43%) . Likely voters are much more likely to say that air pollution is not a more serious health threat in lower- income areas (54%) , than to say that it is (40%). About half of Democrats (52% yes, 42% no) say air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower- income areas, while the reverse is true among independents (42% yes, 52% no). A strong majority of Republicans (67%) say that air pollution is not a more serious health threat in lower -income areas. “Do you think that air pollution is a more serious heal th threat in lower-income areas than other areas in your region, or not?” All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asian Black Latino White Yes 47% 43% 58% 66% 35% No 46 49 38 31 58 Don’t know 6 8 4 3 8 Four in 10 adults (41%) report that they or someone in their immediate family suffers from asthma or other respiratory problems. This finding is similar to past years. Among racial/ethnic groups, blacks are the most likely to report respiratory problems in their immediate family (54%), followed by Latinos (43%), whites (39%), and Asians (32%). Across regions, Central Valley resi dents (48%) are the most likely—and San Francisco Bay Area residents (34%) the least likely— to report respiratory problems. Californians age 35 or older, college graduates, and those earning $80,000 or more are less likely than others to report asthma or other respiratory problems in their immediate family. “Do you or does anyone in your immediate family suffer from asthma or other respiratory problems?” ( if yes: “W ould that be you or someone in your immediate family?”) All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asian Black Latino White Yes, total 41% 32% 54% 43% 39% Yes, respondent 9 9 12 7 9 Yes, someone in immediate family 24 17 30 29 22 Yes, both 8 6 12 7 8 No 59 68 46 57 61 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 12 POLICIES TO REDUCE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION Sixty-five percent of adults are willing to see tougher air pollution standards on new passenger vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and SUVs. This represents the lowest share of support since we began asking the question (77% 2005, 77% 2006, 75% 2008, 71% 2009, 70% 2010, 65% today). Eight in 10 Democrats (81%) are supportive , as are 65 percent of independents ; Republicans are much more likely to oppose (55%) than support (43%) this idea . Majorities across regions are in favor , with two in three saying yes in Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area , and Orange/San Diego Counties, and nearly six in 10 in the Inland Empire and the Central Valley. Seven in 10 adults (71%) support tougher standards on diesel engine vehicles. Still, support is at a record low and has dipped 9 points since the record high in July 2008 (80 %). Democrats (84%) are more likely than independents (73%) and much more likely than Republicans (57%) to be supportive . Across regions, support is lowest among Centr al Valley residents (63%). Nearly all blacks (91%) favor this idea, and about seven in 10 Latinos (68%), whites (70%), and Asians (71%) agree. “We are interested in knowing what people are willing to do in order to reduce air pollution in their region. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on … or not?” All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire New passenger vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and SUVs Yes 65% 58% 68% 68% 67% 59% No 32 37 31 30 31 39 Don't know 3 5 1 2 2 2 Diesel engine vehicles, such as trucks and buses Yes 71 63 72 75 72 69 No 26 31 27 23 24 28 Don't know 3 6 1 2 4 3 Fifty-four percent would support tougher air pollution standards on agriculture and farm activities, while 40 percent would not. Support is at a record low and has declined 9 points from the record high in July 2006 (63%). Seventy percent of Democrats express support, while 65 percent of Republicans are opposed . Independents are somewhat more likely to support (52%) than oppose (43%) this idea. Majorities across all regions, except in the Inland Empire (48%) , support tougher standards on agriculture. Se ven in 10 adults (70%) are willing to see tougher standards on commercial and industrial activities, a record low and down 9 points from the record high in July 2008 (79%) . Overwhelming majorities of Democrats (85%) and independents (74%) support the idea, while Republicans are divided (49% yes, 46% no). Across regions, Central Valley residents (66%) are the least likely to favor this idea. Strong majorities express support across racial/ethnic groups (68% whites, 69% Latinos, 74% Asians, 86% blacks) . All Adults Region Central Valley San Francisco Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Agriculture and farm activities Yes 54% 52% 55% 57% 55% 48% No 40 44 37 39 40 42 Don't know 6 4 8 4 6 10 Commercial and industrial activities Yes 70 66 75 71 71 70 No 26 28 23 25 26 29 Don't know 3 6 2 4 2 2 July 2012 Californians and the Environment 13 CLIMATE CHANGE, ENERGY POLICY KEY FINDINGS  Nearly eight in 10 Californians believe the world’s temperature has been going up over the past 100 years . Forty- five percent consider global warmi ng a very serious threat to California’s future. (page 14)  Seven in 10 favor the state law to roll back greenhouse gas emissions, but a partisan divide has grown since 2006 , when the law was passed . Most think state efforts to reduce global warming will result in more jobs or won’t affect job numbers . (page 15 )  Strong majorities support government policies to reduce emissions, including requiring automakers to reduce emissions from new cars and requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensit y of transportation fuels. ( pages 16, 17)  Fifty -seven percent of Californians have not heard about the cap-and-trade system set to begin in California. Just over half support the system, but 65 percent have very little or no confidence in the state to spend money generated from the program wisely . A bout half think that companies buying permits to exceed their emissions limits will create a more serious health thre at in lower -income areas. (page s 18, 19 )  Sixty -three percent remain opposed to building more nuclear power plants , while a strong majority continue to favor renewable energy projects. The strong s upport for the law requiring a third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable sources declines if it means higher electricity bills. Californians remain divided about increasing oil drilling off the state’s coast. (pages 21, 22 )  A majority of Californians (54%) have heard a bout fracking and, of those, four in 10 favor this practice in California. Voters are divided along party lines . (page 23 ) 39 49545247444745 0 20 40 60 80 July05July06July07July08July09July10July11July12 Percent all adults Threatof Global Warming to California's Future Economy and Quality of Life % saying very serious 0 20 40 60 80 100 July06July07July08July09July10July11July12 Percent registered voters Support for State Law Rolling Back Emissions to 1990 Levels by 2020, by Party Dem Ind Rep 49505453 40403636 0 20 40 60 80 July09July10July11July12 Percent all adults Favor Oppose Cap-and-Trade System PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 14 PERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Sixty percent of Californians say that the effects of global warming have already begun, while one in four say the effects will be felt either in a few years (5%), in their lifetime s (6%), or in future generations (14%). One in 10 (12%) say the effects will never happen. Findings were similar last year. Solid majorities o f Democrats (76%) and independents (61%) say the effects have already begun, while Republicans are as likely to say they have already begun (33%) as they are to say the effects will never happen (33%). Adults nationwide in a March Gallup poll were less lik ely than Californians to say the effects have already begun (52% to 60%), while the share saying the effects will never happen was similar (15% to 12%). Nearly eight in 10 Californians (78%) think that the world’s temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, while 17 percent say it probably has not. Most Democrats (86%) and independents (80%) say the temperature has increased , compared with 54 percent of Republicans. Residents in Los Angeles (84%) are the most likely— and Orange/San Diego County and Central Valley residents (74% each ) are the least likely— to say the temperature has been going up. Americans in a recent Washington Post /Stanford University poll held similar views (73% has, 25% has not) as Californians . “What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world's temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Probably has 78% 86% 54% 80% 72% Probably has not 17 10 39 13 22 Don’t know 5 4 7 7 6 Most Californians (73%) think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, while one in four say it is not necessary yet (22%) or volunteer that it will never be necessary (2%). Findings were similar last year; since we first asked this question in July 2003, more than seven in 10 have said action should be taken right away. Strong majorities of Democrats (88%) and independents (76%) say action should be taken now , while six in 10 Republicans (59 %) say it is not necess ary yet or ever . Orange/San Diego County residents (64%) are least likely to say action should be taken right away, while more than seven in 10 in other regions hold this view. The belief that action should be taken now is held by more than six in 10 across demographic groups, and declines with age, education, and income. “Do you think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, or do you think it is not necessary to take steps yet?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Right away 73% 88% 38% 76% 64% Not necessary yet 22 11 53 19 31 Never necessary (volunteered) 2 – 6 3 4 Don’t know 2 1 2 2 2 Three in four Californians think that global warming is a serious threat (45% very serious, 30% somewhat) to the economy and quality of life in California’s future, while one in four say it is not too (11%) or not at all serious (12%). Findings were simila r last year, and majorities have said global warming is a threat since we first asked this question in 2005. More than three in four Democrats (88%) and independents (76%) say the threat is serious, while Republicans are more likely to say it is not a seri ous threat (57%). PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 15 CALIFORNIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY Should California make its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address global warming? About six in 10 Californians (63%) and likely voters (57%) favor the state making its own pol icies. More than half of Californians have held this view since 2005, and support today is 6 points higher than July 2011 and July 2010 (57% each). Three in four Democrats (76%) and more than half of independents (56%) favor the state making its own policies; most Republicans are opposed (43% favor, 53% oppose). Solid majorities of Californians (71%) and likely voters (62%) support the principle behind the Global Warming Solution Act (also known as Assembly Bill 32 or AB 32). Democrats (84%) and independent s (65%) are in favor, while Republicans are divided (44% favor, 48% oppose). AB 32 was less politically divisive when it was s igned into law by Republican Governor Schwarzenegger in 2006, but has since become a more partisan issue. In July 2006 , 65 percent of adults were in favor, including two in three across parties. Since 2006, more than two in three adults have been in favor but the gap in support between Democrats and Republicans has widened and is currently at 40 points (2 points 2006, 22 points 2007, 26 points 2008, 35 points 2009, 41 points 2010, 34 points 2011, 40 points today). “To address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 71% 84% 44% 65% 62% Oppose 22 11 48 27 31 Don’t know 7 6 8 8 6 When asked what impact California’s efforts to reduce global warming in the future would have on jobs, four in 10 say there would be more jobs (42%), 25 percent say fewer jobs, and 25 percent say there would be no effect on the number of jobs. The perception that there would be more jobs was similar last July (47%) and in July 2010 (45%) . Today, half of Democrats (53%) say there would be more jobs, while half of Republicans (48%) say there would be fewer jobs. A plurality of independents (38%) say there would be more jobs. Residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (47%) and Los Angeles (45% ) are more likely than those in the Inland Empire (39%), Orange/San Diego Counties (38%) , and the Central Valley (35%) to say more jobs would result . “Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind More jobs 42% 53% 21% 38% 38% Fewer jobs 25 15 48 27 31 Wouldn’t affect number of jobs 25 23 24 28 24 Don’t know 8 8 7 6 7 Fifty-six percent of Californians think the state government should act right away on its plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while 40 percent say it should wait until the state economy and job situation improve. Findings today are similar to July 2010 and 2011; Californians were divided in 2009. A s olid majorit y of Democrats (62%) support action now and a solid majority of Republicans (68%) prefer to wait. PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 16 REGULATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Strong majorities of Californians , including majorities of voters across party lines, favor various ways to address global warming that are being discussed by officials in state and federal governments. More than t hree in four favor requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances (77%); requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions (82%); and encouraging local gover nments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less (77%). Since we began asking these questions in July 2008, about three in four or more Californians have been in favor of each proposal. “Officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. How about…?” Requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances Requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions Encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less Favor 77% 82% 77% Oppose 20 16 20 Don’t know 3 2 3 While partisans favor requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances, Democrats (88%) and independents (77%) are far more likely than Republicans (56%) to hold this view. Asians (88%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to be in favor, followed by Latinos (78%), blacks (77%), and whites (73%). Across regions, San Francisco Bay Area residents (84%) are the most likely —and Central Valley residents (72 %) the least likely—to be in favor. Partisan differences are also present on requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions (92% Democrats, 79% independents, 57% Republicans). About eight in 10 across regions favor requiring thes e industries to reduce emissions. Asians (90%) , blacks (88%), and Latinos (87%) are much more likely than whites (74%) to be in favor. When it comes to encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning so that people could drive less, Republicans (59%) are again much less likely than independents (77%) and Democrats (87%) to be in favor. Asians (85%) and Latinos (84%) are more likely than blacks (74%) and whites (71%) to hold this view and more than two in three across the state’ s regions are in favor. Among those who favor AB 32 , more than 85 percent favor each of these proposals. Percent saying “favor” Requir ing an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances Requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions Encouraging local governments to change land use and transportatio n planning so that people could drive less All Adults 77% 82% 77% Likely Voters 71 72 72 Party Democrats 88 92 87 Republicans 56 57 59 Independents 77 79 77 Race/Ethnicity Asians 88 90 85 Blacks 77 88 74 Latinos 78 87 84 Whites 73 74 71 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 17 REGULATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (CONTINUED) Californians also favor requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars (78%) and requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020 (79%) to address global warming. More than three in four Californians have favored requiring automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars since we first asked this question in June 2002. California won a long-fought battle with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2009 and subsequent court cases with business interests to enact tougher emissions standards than those in the U.S. overall. This is the first time we have asked about the carbon intensity of transportation fuels, which has generated controversy because some say that it would lead to higher costs for businesses. “Officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. How about…?” Requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars Requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020 Favor 78% 79% Oppose 20 18 Don’t know 2 4 Strong majorities of Democrats (89%) and independents (79%), compared with half of Republicans (52%), favor requiring automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars. Asians and Latinos (88% each) are more likely than blacks (76%) and whites (69%) to be in favor. Residents in the San Francisco Bay Ar ea (82%) and Los Angeles (81%) are the most likely to be in favor , followed by residents in the Inland Empire (77%), Orange/San Diego Counties (76%), and the Central Valley (73%). When it comes to requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020, strong majorities of Democrats (91%) and independent s (74%) are in favor, compared with nearly half of Republicans (48%). About nine in 10 blacks and Latinos (92% each) are in favor, while few er— but still strong majorities —Asians (82%) and whites (67%) hold this view. Consistent with their support for other ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, eight in 10 residents in Los Angeles (83%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (82%) are in favor , as are about three in four residents in other areas of the state (75% Inland Empire, 75% Orange/San Diego Counties, 73% Central Valley). Among those who favor AB 32, nine in 10 favor both of these proposals to reduce emissions. Percent saying “favor” Requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars Requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020 All Adults 78% 79% Likely Voters 70 69 Party Democrats 89 91 Republicans 52 48 Independents 79 74 Race/Ethnicity Asians 88 82 Blacks 76 92 Latinos 88 92 Whites 69 67 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 18 CAP AND TRADE A cornerstone of the state’s efforts to implement AB 32 is the cap -and -trade program, which will set limits on companies’ greenhouse gas emissions and allow those who emit less to sell their emissions permits to those who exceed their limits. The first state auction of emissions permits will occur in November and companies must begin complying with emissions caps in January 2013. Four in 10 Californians say they have heard a lot (12%) or a little (30%) about the state policy called cap and trade, while a m ajority (57%) have heard nothing at all. Findings were similar in 2010 (18% a lot, 27% a little, 54% nothing at all). Today, a much higher share of likely voters (60%) than all adults (42%) have heard about cap and trade . Republicans (61%) are the most likely to have heard about cap and trade, followed by independents (54%) and Democrats (42%). A majority of whites (56%) have heard at least a little about cap and trade, compared with fewer Asians (38%), blacks (27%), and Latinos (26%). The proportion that has heard about cap and trade increases sharply with rising education, income, and age, and is much higher among men (50%) than women (35%). “How much, if anything, have you heard about the state government policy called ‘cap and trade’ that will set limits on carbon dioxide emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind A lot 12% 10% 25% 19% 21% A little 30 32 36 35 39 Nothing at all 57 58 39 46 40 Don’t know – – 1 – – After being read a brief description of the cap- and-trade system, a slim majority of Californians (53%) say they favor it, while 36 percent are opposed. Similar shares have expressed support for cap and trade since we first asked about it in 2009 (49% 2009 , 50% 2010, 54% 2011, 53% today). “In the system called ‘cap and trade,’ the California state government will issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that do not use all their permits can sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies will find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that will be cheaper than buying permits. Do you favor or oppose the cap -and-trade system?” Favor Oppose Don’t know All Adults 53% 36% 11% Likely Voters 40 49 11 Party Democrats 55 36 10 Republicans 32 58 10 Independents 44 38 17 Race/Ethnicity Asians 69 20 11 Blacks 51 44 5 Latinos 61 28 11 Whites 44 46 10 Heard about cap and trade A lot 35 62 3 A little 53 37 10 Nothing at all 57 30 12 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 19 CAP AND TRADE (CONTINUED) Those who say they have heard a lot about cap and trade oppose it (35% favor, 62% oppose), while more than half of those who have heard a little (53%) or nothing (57%) favor the system. Support among likely voters (40%) is much lower than among all adults (53%). Most Democrats (55%) favor the system and most Republicans (58%) oppose it. Among independents, 44 percent are in favor and 38 percent are opposed. Support is higher among Asians (69%) and Latinos (61%) than among blacks (51%) or whites (44%) and hi gher among those age 18 –34, those with a high school education or less, and those with lower incomes than others . Among those who favor AB 32, 64 percent favor cap and trade. The state will generate new revenues from the auction of emissions permits under the cap -and -trade program —it is expected to raise $1 billion in the first year and more in later years. But two in three Californians have very little (34%) or no (31%) confidence in the state government to use this money wisely. Just 5 percent have a gre at deal of confidence and 27 percent have only some. A plurality of likely voters (41%) have no confidence. Majorities across parties have very little or no confidence in the state to spend these revenues wisely, but Republicans (85%) are the most likely to express this view (69% independents, 55% Democrats). Among those who favor the cap- and-trade program, 55 percent lack confidence in the state to use revenues wisely, while 44 percent have at least some confidence. “The market for permits created by California’s cap-and-trade system is expected to generate about $1 billion in new revenues for the state government in the first year and more in later years. How much confidence do you have in the state government to use this money wisely?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind A great deal 5% 6% 4% 3% 5% Only some 27 38 9 26 26 Very little 34 34 29 30 26 None 31 21 56 39 41 Don’t know 2 1 2 2 1 Not only is there debate about how the new revenues from cap and trade should be spent, but there is controversy about the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions under cap and trade. Complaints have been filed by environmental justice groups against the state saying that emissions will be worse and pose a greater health threat in lower -income areas and communities of color because the companies based there will be able to buy permits to exceed their emissions caps. About half of Californians (48%) think there will be a more serious health threat in lower -income areas, while 40 percent do not. Most Latinos (66%) and blacks (60%) think the health risks will be disproportionate, as do 50 percent of Asians. Most whites disagree (34% yes, 52% no). There is a partisan divide in these perceptions (Democrats: 52% yes; Republicans: 58% no; independents: 40% yes, 43% no). Half of those who favor cap and trade think there will be a greater health risk in lower -income areas (52% yes, 40% no). “Do you think that companies buying permits to release emissions under California’s cap- and-trade system will create a more serious health threat in lower- income areas than other areas in your region, or not?” All Adults Race/Ethnicity Asian Black Latino White Yes 48% 50% 60% 66% 34% No 40 38 34 26 52 Don’t know 12 12 6 8 14 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 20 FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL ACTION ON GLOBAL WARMING Just over half of Californians (55%) and likely voters (53%) say the federal government is not doing enough to address global warming. About one in four say it is doing just enough (27% adults, 23% likely voters), while fewer say the federal government is doing more than enough (13% adults, 21% likely voters). The perception among all adults that the federal government is not doing enough is lower today than it was before President Obama took office (66% 2008, 48% 2009, 52% 2010, 56% 2011, 55% today). There are partisan differences in perceptions of the federal government’s actions on global warming. Democrats (71%) are more likely than independ ents (61%) to say the government is not doing enough, while Republicans are more likely to say that the federal government is doing more than enough (39%) than to say that it is not doing enough (31%). Women are somewhat more likely than men (59% to 51%) t o say the federal government is not doing enough. Blacks (71%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to hold this view (59% Latinos, 52% Asians, 51% whites). In contrast, 48 percent of Californians and 42 percent of likely voters say that the state gover nment is not doing enough to address global warming. About three in 10 adults (32%) and likely voters (30%) say the state government is doing just enough, while fewer say it is doing more than enough (15% adults, 25% likely voters). Since 2008, about half of Californians have said that the state is not doing enough to address global warming . While pluralities of Democrats (57%) and independents (49%) say that the state government is not doing enough, Republicans are more likely to say that the state government is doing more than enough (40%) than not enough (26%) to address global warming. Women are much more likely than men (54% to 42%) to say that the state government is not doing enough. Blacks (73%) are again the most likely racial/ethnic group to hold t his negative view (56% Latinos, 43% Asians, 40% whites). Views of local government actions on global warming are comparable to views on state government. Half of Californians (49%) say their local government is not doing enough on global warming, while 33 percent say just enough and 12 percent say more than enough. Since 2008, about half or nearly half have said local government efforts are inadequate (52% 2008, 46% 2009, 46% 2011, 49% today). Among likely voters, 42 percent say not enough, 33 percent just enough, and 18 percent more than enough. Partisan, gender, and racial/ethnic trends are similar to views of federal and state government. “Overall, do you think that the … is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Federal government More than enough 13% 3% 39% 13% 21% Just enough 27 24 25 21 23 Not enough 55 71 31 61 53 Don't know 5 2 5 4 3 State government More than enough 15 8 40 16 25 Just enough 32 32 29 29 30 Not enough 48 57 26 49 42 Don't know 5 3 5 6 3 Local government More than enough 12 7 29 13 18 Just enough 33 31 34 32 33 Not enough 49 57 28 48 42 Don't know 7 5 9 6 7 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 21 ENERGY POLICY Just 31 percent of Californians favor building more nuclear power plants at this time, near the record low last July (30%) in the wake of the nuclear crisis in Japan. Nearly two in three (63%) remain opposed. Most likely voters are also opposed (58%) . Majorities of Democrats (69%) and independ ents (62%) oppose more nuclear plants, while half of Republicans favor the idea (50% favor, 45% oppose). Majorities across regions are opposed. In March, the Pew Research Center asked adults nationwide about promoting the increased use of nuclear power ; 44 percent were in favor and 49 percent were opposed. “Do you favor or oppose the following proposals? …How about building more nuclear power plants at this time?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 31% 23% 50% 31% 36% Oppose 63 69 45 62 58 Don’t know 6 7 5 7 5 When it comes to other forms of alternative energy, 78 percent of Californians and 73 percent of likely voters favor increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Since 2008, about eight in 10 have expressed support. Majorities across parties favor more funding for ren ewable energy, with Democrats (90%) the most likely to hold this view (72% independents, 57% Republicans). In the March survey by Pew, 69 percent of adults nationwide also expressed support for this idea. “…How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 78% 90% 57% 72% 73% Oppose 19 8 41 23 25 Don’t know 3 2 2 5 2 A policy initiated by Governor Schwarzenegger in 2008 and signed into law by Governor Brown in 2011 requires one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. A strong majority of Californians (77%) favor this idea, but support drops to 44 percent if it means higher electricity bills. One in five are opposed outright. Findings were similar last year. A majority of Democrats (59%) favor the law even if it increases their own electricity bills, compared with 44 percent of inde pendents and 26 percent of Republicans. Across income levels , at least four in 10 favor the idea even if it adds to their bill s. “…How about requiring one-third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power , by the year 2020? Do you favor or oppose this state law? (if favor: Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in your own electricity bill?)” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor, even if increase in electricity bill 44% 59% 26% 44% 44% Favor, but not if increase in electricity bill 33 26 27 32 25 Oppose 20 11 43 22 27 Don’t know 4 4 4 3 4 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 22 ENERGY POLICY (CONTINUED) An overwhelming majority of Californians (84%) and likely voters (81%) favor requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country. More than eight in 10 Californians have expressed support for this proposal since we first asked the question in 2004. Last July President Obama reached an agreement with 13 major automakers, the United Auto Workers Union, and the state of California to increase fuel efficiency to 54.5 miles per gallon for passenger cars and light trucks by model year 2025. There is majority support across parties for requiring automakers to improve the fuel efficiency of new cars, with Democrats (93%) most in favor (83% independents, 68% Republicans) . More than three -quarters of Californians across regions and demographic groups favor this idea. In a similar question in the March Pew Research Center survey, 78 percent of adults nationwide said they favored the government requiring better fuel efficiency for cars, trucks, and SUVs. “...How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 84% 93% 68% 83% 81% Oppose 15 6 31 16 18 Don’t know 1 1 2 1 1 Californians remain divided about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast (48% favor, 48% oppose); likely voters are slightly more likely to favor (51%) than oppose (46%) the idea. Between July 2003 and July 2007, Californians were more likely to oppose than favor increased oil drilling off the state’s coast. In 2008, for the first time, support surpas sed the 50 percent mark (51% favor, 45% oppose) and results were nearly identical the following year (51% favor, 43% oppose). Support for allowing more oil drilling off the coast of California dropped sharply in 2010 (36% favor, 59% oppose) after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, but increased to 46 percent the next year (July 2011: 46% favor, 49% oppose). When asked a similar question in Pew’s March survey about allowing more oil and natural gas drilling in U.S. waters , 65 percent o f adults nationwide were in favor. The idea of allowing more oil drilling off California’s coast divides voters sharply along partisan lines: 64 percent of Democrats are opposed and an even greater share of Republicans (77%) are in favor. Independents are more likely to oppose (52%) than favor (42%) this idea. Across regions, majorities of San Francisco Bay Area (55%) and Los Angeles (54%) residents are opposed, while majorities of Central Valley (60%), Inland Empire (56%), and Orange/San Diego County (52%) residents are in favor. Looked at another way, 56 percent of residents living along California’s northern coast are opposed to increased oil drilling, while south coast residents are divided (47% favor, 50% oppose) and inland residents are in favor (58%). Support increases with rising age and declines somewhat with higher education levels. “…How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 48% 33% 77% 42% 51% Oppose 48 64 21 52 46 Don’t know 4 4 2 6 3 PPIC Statewide S urvey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 23 FRACKING When asked how much they have heard about a drilling method called hydraulic fracturing or “fracking ” that is used to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations, 23 percent of Californians say a lot, 31 percent a little, and 46 percent nothing at all. When asked a similar question in Pew’s March survey , 26 percent of adults nationwide s aid a lot, 37 percent a little, and 37 percent nothing at all. California’s l ikely voters (36%) are much more likely to say that they have heard a lot compared with adults (23%). Across parties, Republicans are more aware , with only 29 percent saying they have heard nothing, compared with 39 percent of independents and 41 percent of Democrats. Across regions, those in Orange/San Diego Counties (60%) are the most aware, and residents in the Central Valley (47%) and the Inland Empire (43%) the least aware. Seven in 10 whites ( 72%) have heard of fracking, compared with far fewer Asians (45%), blacks (42%), and Latinos (31%). “How much, if anything, have you heard about a drilling method called hydraulic fracturing or ‘fracking’ that is used to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all?” All Adults Party Likely Voters Dem Rep Ind A lot 23% 24% 31% 33% 36% A little 31 35 39 27 34 Nothing at all 46 41 29 39 29 Don’t know – 1 1 1 1 Among those who have heard a lot or a little about fracking, 42 percent favor, 46 percent oppose, and 12 percent are unsure about fracking in California. Fracking is already occurring in the state for oil extraction and there is debate about expand ing and regulat ing it. Among those who are aware of fracking, there is a partisan divide: Republicans favor fracking (64%) , while Democrats oppose it (65%). Independents are more likely to oppose (49%) than favor (35%) fracking . While most Central Valley and Other Southern California residents who are aware of fracking favor it (51% each), most of those in Los Angeles (56%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (51%) oppose it. A majority of those who have heard a lot about fracking oppose it ( 44% favor, 52% oppose), while those who have heard a little are divided (40% favor, 42% oppose). In response to a similar question in the Pew survey, 52 percent of adults nationwide who had heard of fracking said they favored it, while 35 percent were opposed. “Do you favor or oppose fracking in California?” Among those who have heard a lot or a little about fracking Favor Oppose Don’t know All Adults 42% 46% 12% Likely Voters 43 45 13 Party Democrats 22 65 13 Republicans 64 22 13 Independents 35 49 16 Region Central Valley 51 36 13 San Francisco Bay Area 39 51 10 Los Angeles 32 56 12 Other Southern California 51 38 12 Heard about fracking A lot 44 52 5 A little 40 42 18 July 2012 Californians and the Environment 24 REGIONAL MAP July 2012 Californians and the Environment 25 METHODOLOGY The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance from Sonja Petek, project manager for this survey, and survey research associates Dean Bonner and Jui Shrestha. This survey , Californians and the Environment , is supported with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. We benefit ted from discussions with PPIC staff, foundation staff, and other policy experts, but the methods, questions, and content of this report were determined solely by Mark Baldassare and the survey staff. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 2,500 California adult residents, including 2,000 interview ed on landline telephones and 50 0 interviewed on cell phones. Interviews took an average of 1 9 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekday nights and weekend days from July 10– 24, 2012. Landline interviews were cond ucted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Cell phones were included in this survey to account for the growing number of Californians who use them. These interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of cell phone numbers. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as eight times to increase the likelihood of reaching an eligible respondent. Once a cell phone user was reached, it was verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of C alifornia, and in a safe place to continue the survey (e.g., not driving). Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Live landline and cell phone interviews were conducted by Abt SRBI, Inc. , in English, Spanish, Chinese (Mandarin or Cantonese), Vietnamese, and Korean according to respondents’ pr eferences. We chose these languages because Spanish is the dominant language among non -English -speaking adults in California, followed in prevalence by the three Asian languages. Accent on Languages, Inc. , translated new survey questions into Spanish, with assistance from Renatta DeFever, and Abt SRBI translated the survey into Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean. With assistance from Abt SRBI, we used recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2007 –2009 American Community Survey (ACS) through the University of Minnesota’s Integrated Public Use Microdata Series for California to compare certain demographic characteristics of the survey sample— region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education —with the characteristics of California’s adult population. The survey s ample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. Abt SRBI used data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey and data from the 2007– 2009 ACS for California both to estimate landline and cell phone service in California and to compare the data against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The landline and cel l phone samples were then integrated using a frame integration weight, while sample balancing adjusted PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 26 for any differences across regional, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, telephone service, and party registration groups. The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±2.9 percent at the 95 percent confidence level for the total sample of 2, 500 adults. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 2.9 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for subgroups is larger: For the 1,668 registered voters, it is ± 3.2 percent and for the 1,131 likely voters, it is ± 3.6 percent . Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. Throughout the report, we refer to five geographic regions that account for approximately 90 percent of the state population. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “San Francisco Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” refers to Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. Residents from other geograph ic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less - populated areas are not large enough to report separately. In several places, we refer to coastal and inland counties. Withi n coastal counties, the “north/central coast” region refers to the counties along the California coast northward from San Luis Obispo County to Del Norte County and includes all the San Francisco Bay Area counties. The “south coast” region includes Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties. All other counties are included in the “inland” region. We present specific results for non- Hispanic whites and for Latinos, who account for about a third of the state’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest -growing voter groups. We also present results for non- Hispanic Asians, who make up about 14 percent of the state’s adult population, and non- Hispanic blacks, who comprise about 6 percent. Results for other racial/ethnic groups —such as Native Americans —are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes are not large enough for separate analysis. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, Republicans, and decline -to -state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in anothe r party are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters —so designated by their responses to voter registration survey questions, previous election participation, intentions to vote in the November election, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to 100 due to rounding. We compare current PPIC Statewide Survey results to those in our earlier surveys and to those in national surveys by Gallup, the Pew Research Center, and Washington Post /Stanford University. Additional details about our methodology can be found at http://www.ppic.org/content/other/SurveyMethodology.pdf and are available upon request through surveys@ppic.org. July 2012 Californians and the Environment 27 QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESULTS CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT July 10– 24, 2012 2,500 California Adult Residents: English, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese MARGIN OF ERROR ±2.9% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMP LE PERCENTA GES MAY NOT ADD TO 100 DUE TO ROUNDING 1. First, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California? 42% approve 35 disapprove 23 don’t know 2. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Governor Brown is handling environmental issues in California? 39% approve 31 disapprove 30 don’t know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? 29% approve 54 disapprove 17 don’t know 4. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling environmental issues in California? 36% approve 44 disapprove 21 don’t know 5. We are interested in the region of California that you live in. Would you say that air po llution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your region? 25% big problem 39 somewhat of a problem 35 not a problem 1 don’t know 6. How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your region to you and your immediate famil y—do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat? 18% very serious 31 somewhat serious 46 not too serious 4 not at all serious (volunteered) – don’t know 7. Do you think that air pollution is a more ser ious health threat in lower -income areas than other areas in your region, or not? 47% yes 46 no 6 don’t know 8. Do you or does anyone in your immediate family suffer from asthma or other respiratory problems? ( If yes: W ould that be you or someone in your immediate family?) 9% yes, respondent 24 yes, someone in immediate family 8 yes, both 59 no We are interested in knowing what people are willing to do in order to reduce air pollution in their region. PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 28 [ randomize order of questions 9 to 10] 9. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on new passenger vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and SUVs , or not? 65% yes 32 no 3 don’t know 9a. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on agriculture and farm activities, or not? 54% yes 40 no 6 don’t know 9b. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on commercial and industrial activities, or not? 70% yes 26 no 3 don’t know 10. Would you be willing to see tougher air pollution standards on diesel engine vehicles, such as trucks and buses, or not? 71% yes 26 no 3 don’t know 11. On another topic, which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen — [rotate order top to bottom ] (1) they have already begun to happen; (2) they will start happening within a few years; (3) they will start happening within your lifetime; (4) they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will aff ect future generations; [or] (5) they will never happen? 60% already begun 5 within a few years 6 within your lifetime 14 not within lifetime, but will affect future generations 12 will never happen 3 don’t know 12. Do you think it is necessary to take steps to counter the effects of global warming right away, or do you think it is not necessary to take steps yet? 73% right away 22 not necessary yet 2 never necessary (volunteered) 2 don’t know 13. What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world's temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening? 78% probably has been happening 17 probably has not been happening 5 don’t know 14. How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future— do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat? 45% very serious 30 somewhat serious 11 not to o serious 12 not at all serious 1 don’t know 15. Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020? 71% favor 22 oppose 7 don’t know 16. Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming? 63% favor 31 op pose 7 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 29 17. When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it [rotate] (1) take action right away [or should it] (2) wait until the state economy and job situation improve to take action? 56% take action right away 40 wait until state economy and job situation improve 5 don’t know Next, officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help reduce greenhouse gas emissi ons. [randomize order of questions 18 to 22] 18. How about requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commer cial buildings and appliances? 77% favor 20 oppose 3 don’t know 19. How about requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facili ties to reduce their emissions? 82% favor 16 oppose 2 don’t know 20. How about encouraging local governments to change land use and transportation planning s o that people could drive less? 77% favor 20 oppose 3 don’t know 21. How about requiring all automakers to further reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from new cars? 78% favor 20 oppose 2 don’t know 22. How about requiring fuel providers to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by at least 10 percent by the year 2020? 79% f avor 18 oppose 4 don’t know 23. Next, how much, if anything, have you heard about the state government policy called “cap and trade” that will set limits on carbon dioxide emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all? 12% a lot 30 a little 57 nothing at all – don’t know 24. In the system called “cap and trade,” the California state government will issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that do not use all their permits can sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies will find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that will be cheaper than buying permits. Do you favor or oppose the cap -and- trade system? 53% favor 36 oppose 11 don’t know 25. The market for permits created by California’s cap -and -trade system is expected to generate about $1 billion in new revenues for the state government in the first year and more in later years. How much confidence do you have in the state government to use this money wisely —a great deal, only some, very little, or none? 5% a great deal 27 only some 34 very little 31 none 2 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 30 26.Do you think that companies buying permits to release e missions under California’s cap- and- trade system will create a more serious health threat in lower -income areas than other areas in your region, or not? 48% yes 40 no 12 don’t know 27. Changing topics, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling his job as president of th e United States? 57% approve 38 disapprove 5 don’t know 28. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that President Obama is handling environmental issues in the United States? 51% approve 38 disapprove 11 don’t know 29. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling its job? 27% approve 66 disapprove 7 don’t know 30. Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling environmental issues in the United States? 27% approve 61 disapprove 12 don’ t know [rotate order top to bottom of questions 31 to 33] 31. Overall, do you think that the federal government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 13% more than enough 27 just enough 55 not enough 5 don’t know 32. Overall, do you think that the state government is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 15% more than enough 32 just enough 48 not enough 5 don’t know 33. Overall, do you think that your local governme nt is doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough to address global warming? 12% more than enough 33 just enough 49 not enough 7 don’t know 34. Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state? 42% more jobs 25 fewer jobs 25 wouldn’t affect the number of jobs 8 don’t know Next, do you favor or oppose the following proposals? [randomize order of questions 35 to 38] 35. How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country? 84% favor 15 oppose 1 don’t know 36. How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast? 48% favor 48 oppose 4 don’ t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 31 37. How about building more nuclear power plants at this time? 31% favor 63 oppose 6 don’t know 38. How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, s olar, and hydrogen technology? 78% favor 19 oppose 3 don’t know 39. How about requiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2020? Do you favor or oppose this state law? [ I f favor: Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in your own electricity bill?] 44% favor, even if it increases electricity bill 33 favor, but not if it increases electricity bill 20 oppose 4 don’t know 40. How much, if anything, have you heard about a drilling method called hydraulic fracturing or “fracking” that is used to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all? 23% a lot 31 a little 46 nothing at all – don’t know 40a. [among those who have heard a lot or a little about fracking] Do you favor or oppose fracking in California? 42% favor 46 oppose 12 don’t know 41. Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? 67% yes [ask q41a] 33 no [skip to q42 b] 41a.Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline -to-state or independent voter? 44% Democrat [ask q42] 31 Republican [skip to q42a] 4 another party (specify) [skip to q43] 21 independent [skip to q42b] 42. Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 55% strong 43 not very strong 1 don’t know [skip to q43] 42a.Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 51% strong 47 not very strong 2 don’t know [skip to q43] 42b.Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republ ican Party or Democratic Party? 21% Republican Party 47 Democratic Party 24 n either (volunteered) 8 don’t know 43. [likely voters only] If the November 6th presidential election were being held today, would you vote for: [rotate names] (1) Barack Obama, the Democrat [or] (2) Mitt Romney, the Republican? 51% Barack Obama, the De mocrat 40 Mitt Romney, the Republican 2 someone els e (specify) 7 don’t know PPIC Statewide Survey July 2012 Californians and the Environment 32 43a.[likely voters only] Regardless of who you may support, who do you trust more to handle global warming and energy policy — [rotate names] (1) Barack Obama [or] (2) Mitt R omney? 54% Barack Obama 33 Mitt Romney 8 neither (volunteered) 5 don’t know 44. [likely voters only] In thinking about the presidential election in November, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on global warming and energy policy in determining your vote? 30% very important 42 somewhat important 28 not too important 1 don’t know 45. [likely voters only] How closely are you following news about candidates for the 2012 presidential election? 40% very closely 44 fairly closely 12 not too closely 3 not at all closely – don’t know 46. Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom] 11% very liberal 21 somewhat liberal 29 middle -of -the -road 23 somewhat conservative 12 very conservative 3 don’t know 47. Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics ? 23% great deal 33 fair amount 34 only a little 10 none – don’t know D6b. [full - or part -time workers] How do you usually commute to work —drive alon e, carpool, take public bus or transit, walk, or bicycle? 66% drive alone 14 carpool 7 take public bus or transit 4 walk 2 bicycle 6 work at home (volunteered) 1 other (specify) [d1–d6 a and d7 –d19: demographic questions] PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY ADVISORY COMMITTEE Ruben Barrales President and CEO San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Paul Brest President The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Mollyann Brodie Senior Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Executive Director University of California Washington Center James E. Canales President The James Irvine Foundation Jon Cohen Director of Polling The Washington Post Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Robert Lapsley President California Business Roundtable Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Publisher and CEO La Opinión Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Lisa Pitney Vice President, Government Relations The Walt Disney Company Dan Rosenheim News Director KPIX -TV Robert K. Ross, M.D. President and CEO The California Endowment Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento Cathy Taylor Vice President and Editorial Commentary Director Orange County Register Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS Gary K. Hart, Chair Former State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California Mark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and CEO San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce Marí a Blanco Vice President, Civic Engagement California Community Foundation Brigitte Bren Chief Executive Officer International Strategic Planning, Inc. Robert M. Hertzberg Partner Mayer Brown, LLP Walter B. Hewlett Chair, Board of Directors William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs David Mas Masumoto Author and Farmer Steven A. Merksamer Senior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni , LLP Kim Polese Chairman ClearStreet, Inc. Thomas C. Sutton Retired Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decisionmakers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a private operating foundation. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and CEO of PPIC. Gary K. Hart is Chair of the Board of Directors. Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the copyright notice below is included. Copyright © 201 2 Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO CENT ER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121 www.ppic.org survey@ppic.org" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:41:21" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(8) "s_712mbs" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:41:21" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:41:21" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(50) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/S_712MBS.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }