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object(Timber\Post)#3711 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_714MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "631428" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(96579) "CONTENTS About the Survey 2 Press Release 3 Policy Preferences 6 Overall Perceptions and Political Context 15 Regional Map 24 Methodology 25 Questionnaire and Results 27 the environment J U LY 2 0 1 4 & P P I C S TAT E W I D E S U R V E Y Californians Mark Baldassare Dean Bonner Sonja Petek Jui Shrestha i T a ABOUT THE SURVEY The PPIC Statewide Sur vey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. This is the 143rd PPIC Statewide Sur vey in a series that was inaugurated in April 1998 and has generated a database of responses from more than 300,000 Californians. The current s u r v e y, Californians and the Environment, was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation. Its goal is to inform state policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about Californi ans’ opinions on global warm ing and energy policy . It is the 14th annual PPIC Statewide Sur vey on environment al issues since 2000. As par t of the policy framework laid out in Assembly Bill (AB) 32 (the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006), California continues to pursue measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 and to 80 percent of 1990 levels by 2050. A cornerstone of these effor ts is the cap- and- trade program, which began in 2012. Beginning in 2015, fuel providers will be subject to the cap. Detractors argue this could cause increases in gas prices at the pump while proponents say any increases would be small. T he recently enacted state budget included a spending plan for revenues generated from the cap- and-trade program that earmarks 25 percent for the controversial high -speed rail project . Amid historic drought conditions, the State Water Resources Control Board adopted new rules criminalizing cer tain types of water waste and s tate legislators are debating changes to the water bond s et for the November ballot. In Washington, President Obama and the Environmental Protection Agency proposed new rules for regulating carbon emissions from power plants and the president has delayed a decision about construction of the Keystone XL Pipeline. In this context, this year’s sur vey presents the responses of 1,705 adult residents throughout California, inter viewed in English and Spanish by landline or cell phone. It includes findings on:  Policy preferences, including opinions on whether the state needs to act right away to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; suppor t for AB 32; opinions about California act ing independently to address global warming and the effect of state action on job numbers; opinions on ways government can regulate emissions, incl uding stricter emissions limits on power plants and fuel providers, a carbon tax, and the state’s cap- and-trade program; and suppor t for various energy policies, including oil drilling, renewable energy, fracking , and the Keystone XL pipeline.  Overall perceptions and political context, including perceptions of the onset of global warming, concerns about its possible impacts , and views of its role in the state’s wildfires and current drought; approval of the governor, legislature, president, and Congress overall and of their handling of environmental issues; concerns about water supply and suppor t for an $11.1 billion water bond; and likely voters’ preferences in the gubernatorial election and the perceived impor tance of candidates’ positions on t he environment.  Time trends, national comparisons, and the extent to which Californians may differ in their perceptions, attitudes, and preferences based on political par ty affiliation, likelihood of voting, region of residence (Central Valley, San Francis co Bay Area, Los Angeles County, Inland Empire, and Orange/San Diego Counties), race/ethnicity (Asian, black, Latino, and non- Hispanic white), and other demographic characteristics. This repor t may be downloaded free of charge from our website ( www.ppic.org). If you have questions about the sur vey, please contact sur vey@ppic.org . Tr y our PPIC Statewide Sur vey interactive tools online at www.ppic.org/main/sur vAdvancedSearch.asp. July 2014 Californians and the Environment 2 PPIC Statewide Survey CONTACT Linda Strean 415-291-4412 Andrew Hattori 415-291-4417 NEWS RELEASE EMBARGOED: Do not publish or broadcast until 9:00 p.m. PDT on Wednesday , July 23, 2014. Para ver este comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Strong Support for Global Warming Law Tempered by Concerns About Gas, Electricity Prices MAJORITIES OPPOSE INCREASED FRACKING, FAVOR KEYS TONE XL PIPELIN E SAN FRANCISCO , July 23 , 2014— Most Californians support the state’s landmark law mandating the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, according to a statewide survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC). More specifically, str ong majorities support two aspects of the state’s efforts to address global warming: a requirement that oil companies produce cleaner transportation fuels and the goal that a third of California’s electricity come from renewable energy sources. But residents’ support declines significantly if these two efforts lead to higher gas prices or electricity bills. About t wo-thirds of C alifornians (68%) support th e state law, AB 32, w hich r equires California t o reduce its em issions t o 1990 levels by 2020. Strong majorities hav e favored this law since the survey first asked about it in July 20 06, but a partisan divide has emerged o n the question. While most Democrats, Republicans, a nd independents favored t he law i n 2006, support since then has i ncreased 14 points among De mocrats (from 67 % to 81% today) and dropped 26 points among R epublicans (from 65% to 39 % today). Support has dipped slightly among independents (from 68% to 62% today). A strong majority of Californians (65%) favor the state making its own policies to address global warming. On e explanation for Californians’ consistent support for state action on global warming is that relatively few (26%) think that these efforts will lead to job losses. Most say the state’s efforts will result in more jobs (39%) or won’t affect the number of jobs (2 7%). Beginning next year, oil companies in California must comply with the state’s cap- and-trade rules by either producing transportation fuels with lower emissions or buying emissions allowances or offsets . Some argue that this will increase gas prices, while others say any increase would be small. A large majority of Californians (76%) favor this requirement, but support declines to 3 9 percent if the result is higher prices at the pump. A strong majority of adults (76%) favor a state law passed in 2011 that calls for a third of California’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. But support declines to 46 percent if meeting this goal means paying more for electricity. Summing up, Mark Baldassare, PPIC president and CEO, said: “Californians want to see government action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but their strong support for clean energy policies diminishes if they have to pay higher electricity bills or gas prices.” Most Califo rnians say global warming is a very serious (49%) or somewhat serious (31%) threat to the economy and quality of life for California’s future. Democrats (59%) are much more likely than July 2014 Californians and the Environment 3 PPIC Statewide Survey independents (43%) or Republicans (26%) to consider the threat very ser ious. Across racial/ethnic groups, whites (43%) are the least likely to say the threat is very serious (50% Asians, 54% blacks, 57% Latinos). Also more likely to see the threat as very serious: Californians under age 55, those with only a high school educa tion or less, and those with household incomes less than $40,000. Reflecting the view that global warming is a threat, 61 percent of Californians say the state government should act right away on its plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, rather than w ait for the economy and job situation to improve. Support for taking immediate action is lower among likely voters (52%) . DIVIDED ON CAP-AND -TRADE, MAJORITY FAVOR CARBON TAX Although the state’s cap- and-trade system took effect in 2012, awareness of this program is not high among Californians . Just 13 percent say they have heard a lot about it, while 32 percent have heard a little and 55 percent have heard nothing at all about this system , which sets limits on carbon dioxide emissions. Awareness is higher a mong likely voters (24% heard a lot, 39% a little, 37% nothing at all). After being read a brief description, Californians are more likely to favor (51%) than oppose (40%) the program . Likely voters are slightly more likely to oppose it (43% favor, 50% oppose). Opposition is highest (66%) among those who have heard a lot about cap-and -trade . There is majority support among those who have heard a little (56%) or nothing at all (53%) about the program. Under a recent agreement between the governor and legisl ature, 25 percent of the revenues generated by the cap -and -trade program will be spent on high- speed rail, 35 percent on other mass transit projects and affordable housing near transit , and the rest for other purposes. When asked about this plan, 59 percent of adults and 51 percent of likely voters say they favor it. State government is relying on the cap -and- trade program to meet the emissions reductions goals set by AB 32, but some argue that another effective method would be to tax companies for the ca rbon pollution they emit. About half of Californians (52%) say they have heard a lot (16%) or a little (36%) about this type of carbon tax. Awareness is higher among likely voters (64% heard a lot or a little). Asked if they would favor a carbon tax, 58 percent of all adults and 54 percent of likely voters say yes. On other energy policies, overwhelming majorities of adults favor requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in the U.S. (85%) and increasing federal funding t o develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology (78%). Most residents (64%) oppose building more nuclear power plants —as they have since the 2011 nuclear power plant disaster in Japan. A slim majority of adults (51%) oppose allowing more oil drilling off the California coast, while 46 percent are in favor . Opposition to offshore drilling was slightly higher in 2010 (59%) , after the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. 54 PERCENT OPPOSE MORE FRACKING, 53 PERCENT FAVOR KEYSTONE PIPELINE As debates continue over hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, at least half of adults (54% oppose, 36% favor ) and likely voters (50% oppose, 40% favor ) oppose this method of oil and natural gas extraction. Majorities oppose fracking in the San Francisco Bay Area (61%), Central Valley (56%), Los Angeles (55%), and Orange/San Diego (55%). Residents of the Inland Empire are divided (43% favor, 42% oppose). Asked about another contentious issue— building the Keystone XL pipeline to transport oil from Canada to refineries in Texas —majorities of California adults (53%) and likely voters (58%) express support . Most Republicans (73 %) and independents (56%) favor building the pipeline, while half of Democrats (50%) oppose it (39% favor). DROUGHTS, WILDFIRES TOP WORRIES ABOUT EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING Is global warming already having an impact? Yes, say 62 percent of Californians. About a quarter (23%) say global warming’s effects will be felt in the future, and 12 percent say they will never happen. A strong July 2014 Californians and the Environment 4 PPIC Statewide Survey majority say they are very concerned (40%) or somewhat concerned (34%) about global warming. Only about a quarter are not too concerned (11%) or not at all co ncerned (15%). Asked about some of the possible effects of global warming in California, majorities say they are very concerned about droughts (64%) or wildfires (61%) that are more severe. Fewer express this level of concern about heat waves that are more severe (44%) or rising sea levels (32%). Across regions, residents of the Central Valley are the most likely to be very concerned about droughts (72%) and residents of the Inland Empire are the least likely (57%). MOST SAY WATER DISTRICTS SHOULD REQUIRE RESIDENTS TO USE LESS In response to an open-ended question , 35 percent name water supply or drought as the most important environmental issue facing California today . This represents an increase of 27 points since July 2011 , and the first time in environmental surveys dating back to 2000 that air pollution has not been the top issue. Today, 14 percent mention air pollution, down 13 points since 2011. Amid reports of worsening drought conditions, 54 percent of Californians say water supply is a big problem i n their part of the state, 25 percent say it is somewhat of a problem, and only 21 percent say it is not much of a problem. Regionally, Californians living on the coast (52%) are about as likely as those living inland (58%) to say that water supply is a bi g problem in their areas. In yet another measure of their concern about drought, strong majorities of residents (75%) and likely voter (70%) say they favor their local water districts requiring residents to reduce water use. Residents across the state are in favor, with those in Los Angeles (80%) the most supportive. What do Californians think is the primary cause of the drought? Half (51%) say it is natural weather patterns, 38 percent say it is global warming. Baldassare noted: “Many Californians are very concerned that global warning will lead to more severe droughts, yet most believe that the current water crisis is a result of natural weather patterns.” Asked about the cause of the state’s current wildfires, 55 percent of residents say they are mostly the result of natural weather patterns and 31 percent say the primary cause is global warming. The legislature continues to discuss downsizing an $11.1 billion state bond for water projects that is currently on the November ballot. How would residents vo te on the measure with a price tag of $11.1 billion? A majority (61%) would vote yes (22% no), as would about half of likely voters (51% yes, 26% no). When those who would vote no are asked how they would vote if the bond were a smaller amount, support increases by 8 points for both adults (69% yes, 14% no) and likely voters (59% yes, 18% no). Asked how important it is that voters pass the state water bond, 46 percent say it is very important and 30 percent say it is somewhat important (likely voters: 44% v ery important, 24% somewhat important). MORE KEY FINDINGS  Brown leads Kashkari, 52 percent to 33 percent, among likely voters —page 23 In the governor’s race, Jerry Brown has the support of 80 percent of Democrats and 52 percent of independents, while challenger Neel Kashkari has the support of 70 percent of Republicans.  Brown’s job approval holds steady —page 20 Majorities of Californians (53%) and likely voters (56%) approve of the governor’s job performance. The legislature’s job approval rat ing is 38 percent among adults and 31 percent among likely voters .  Obama’s approval rating stays near its record low in California— page 19 President Obama’s approval rating is 50 percent among adults and 47 percent among likely voters. Congress continues t o have low approval ratings among Californians (22% adults, 15% likely voters). July 2014 Californians and the Environment 5 POLICY PREFERENCES KEY FINDINGS  Solid m ajorities of Californians continue to say the state should take action right away to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and that it should act independently of the federal government to address global warming . (page s 7, 8 )  Most Californians say that fuel providers should be required to produce cleaner transportation fuels, but support drops if this would increase prices at the pump. A cross parties, Republicans are the least supportive . (page 9 )  A strong majority (75%) favor setting stricter emissions limits on power plants. ( page 9)  Fifty -eight percent of Californians favor the idea of a carbon tax on companies for greenhouse gas emissions . Slightly fewer (51%) favor the state’s cap -and -trade program , while 59 percent favor the recently enacted plan for how to spend cap- and- trade revenues, which earmarks 25 percent for high -speed rail . (pages 10, 11)  Strong majorities continue to favor requiring automakers to improve the fuel efficiency of cars ; there is also strong support for federal funding for renewable energy projects . Two in three oppose building more nuclear power plant s and 51 percent oppose increased oil drilling off the California coast . A majority favor the state’s renewable energy goals, but support declines if it means higher electricity bills. ( pages 12, 13 )  A slim majority continue to oppose increased use of fracking, while a slim majority favor building the Keystone XL pipeline. (page 14 ) 52 25 43 33 34 34 0 20 40 60 80 100 DemRepInd Percent registered voters Favor, but not if it increases gas prices Favor, even if it increases gas prices Require Oil Companies to Produce Fuels with Lower Emissions Favor59% Oppose35% Don't know6% State Spending Plan for Cap-and-Trade Revenues All adults 57 48535856 6561 36 46423840 3035 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent all adults Right away When economy improves When the State Should Take Action to Reduce Emissions July 2014 Californians and the Environment 6 PPIC Statewide S urvey GLOBAL WARMING AND C ALIFORNIA’S FUTURE Consistent with attitudes expressed in previous years, eight in 10 Californians say that global warming is a very serious (49%) or somewhat serious (31%) threat to California’s future economy and quality of life. Since we first asked this question in July 2005, more than seven in 10 have said global warming poses a very or somewhat serious threat to the state’s future. Still, there are some differences in the perceived degree of threat that global warming poses. For example, Democrats (59%) are much more likely than independents (43%) and far more likely than Republicans (26%) to say the threat is very serious. Across racial/ethnic groups, whites (43%) are the least likely to say the threat is very serious (50% As ians, 54% blacks, 57% Latinos). The percentage of Californians who consider global warming to be a very serious threat to the state’s future is higher among those younger than age 55, those with only a high school education or less, and those with househol d incomes less than $40,000. “How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future?” All adults Race/Ethnicity Likely voters Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Very serious 49% 50 % 54 % 57 % 43 % 46 % Somewhat serious 31 39 33 34 28 25 Not too serious 9 9 8 5 11 10 Not at all serious 10 2 3 3 17 17 Don’t know 1 1 3 1 2 2 Reflecting their view that global warming poses a threat to the state, a solid majority of Californians (61%) say the state government should act right away to reduce greenhouse gas emissions rather than wait for the economy and job situation to improve. Support for immediate state action is lower among likely voters (52% take action now, 42% wait for economy to improve). Support among all adults for taking action right away fluctuated as the state weathered the worst of the recent recession (57% July 2008, 48% July 2009, 53% July 2010, 58% July 2011, 56% July 2012, 65% July 2013, 61% today) . T oday voters remain deeply divided along party lines (73% of Democrats say take action right away, 64% of Republicans say wait for the economy to improve) . Across regions, about six in 10 residents in Orange/San Diego (63%), the San Francisco Bay Area (63%), the Central Valley (61%) , and Los Angeles (60%) say the state should act now; a somewhat lower share (52%) in the Inland Empire agree. Majorities across demographic groups say the state should take immediate action on its plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Latinos (69%) ar e the most likely across racial/ethnic groups to express this view (63% Asians , 58% blacks, 54% whites). Among those who say that global warming is a very serious threat, 77 percent favor the state acting now to reduce greenhouse gas emissions rather than waiting for the economy to improve. Among those who consider global warming a somewhat serious threat, 62 percent also favor the state taking steps right away to address it. “When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it take action right away, or should it wait until the state economy and job situation improve to take action?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Take action right away 61% 73 % 30 % 59 % 52 % Wait for state economy and job situation to improve 35 23 64 37 42 Don’t know 4 4 7 4 6 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 7 PPIC Statewide S urvey CALIFORNIA POLICIES ON GLOBAL WARMING A strong majority of Californians (68%) remain in favor of the state law (AB 32 ) that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Six in 10 likely voters (59%) favor this law. S upport among all adults peaked at 78 percent in July 2007, but strong majorities have favored this law since we first ask ed about it in July 2006, even during the recession (65% July 2006, 78% July 2007, 73% July 2008, 66% July 2009, 67% July 2010, 67% July 2011, 71% July 2012, 67% July 2013, 68% today). What has shifted over time are the levels of support among partisans . In July 2006 , two in three Democrats, Republicans, and independents all expressed support. Since then, support is up 14 points among Democrats (from 67% to 81% today), down 26 points among Republicans (from 65% to 39% today), and down a slight 6 points among independents (from 68% to 62% today). “To address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 68% 81 % 39 % 62 % 59 % Oppose 23 11 48 30 33 Don’t know 9 8 13 8 8 Most Californians not only favor current state efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but on a more philosophical level, a strong majority (65%) also support the state government making its own policies to address global warming , separate from the federal government. Since we first ask ed this question in July 2005, majorities have supported the state government acting independently of the federal government on this issue . Support was lowest in July 2005 (54%) and highest in July 2007 (67%). Among likely voters, 59 percent favor the state making its own global warming policies. Across parties, Democrats (74%) and independents (62%) are much more likely than Republicans (43%) to favor this idea. One explanation for Californians’ unflagging support for state efforts to address global warming is that relatively few think that such efforts will lead to job losses. Most say these efforts will result in more jobs (39%) or will not affect the number of jobs (27%); 26 percent say there will be fewer jobs as the state takes steps to reduce global warming. Last July, 45 percent said more jobs would result, 21 percent said there would be no effect on job numbers, and 24 percent said there would be fewer jobs. Since we first asked this question in July 2010, at least two in three Californians have said either that there would be more jobs or that there would be no change in the number of jobs. Democrats (47%) are more likely than independents (35%) or Republicans (22%) to believe efforts to reduce global warming will result in more jobs for people around the st ate. Republicans (40%) are the most likely to say these efforts would lead to job losses (13% Democrats, 25% independents). “Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming will cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, will cause there to be fewer jobs, or won’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind More jobs 39% 47 % 22 % 35 % 34 % Fewer jobs 26 13 40 25 29 Wouldn’t affect number of jobs 27 30 32 31 29 Don’t know 8 9 6 10 8 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 8 PPIC Statewide S urvey REGULATING GREENHOUS E GAS EMISSIONS At both the state and federal levels, policies have been enacted or proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A strong majority of Californians favor requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances (73% ). More than seven in 10 have expressed support for this policy since we first asked this question in July 2008. Today, 68 percent of likely voters and majorities across parties (83% Democrats, 75% independents, 58% Republicans) and regional and demographi c groups favor this idea. Another popular policy is requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions: 77 percent of all adults and 72 percent of likely voters express support. More than three in four adults h ave favored this idea since July 2008, and it garners bipartisan majority support (89% Democrats, 59% Republicans); 76 percent of independents agree. More than seven in 10 across regions and demographic groups express support. In June, the Obama administration and the Environmental Protection Agency proposed new rules requiring power plants to reduce their emissions to 30 percent below 2005 levels. A vast majority of Californians (75%) favor setting stricter emissions limits on power plants, a level of support nearly identical to last year (76%). In a similar question asked by ABC News/Washington Post in early June, 70 percent of adults nationwide express ed support. Among likely voters in our survey, 67 percent favor this idea. Strong majoriti es of Democrats (87%) and independents (74%) express support , while Republicans are divided (49% favor, 47% oppose). More than two in three across regions and demographic groups favor this idea. “How about setting stricter emissions limits on power plants?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 75% 87 % 49 % 74 % 67 % Oppose 21 11 47 23 30 Don ’t know 3 2 4 3 2 Beginning in 2015, oil companies in California will be required to comply with the state’s cap -and -trade rules, either producing transportation fuels with lower emissions or buying emissions allowances or offsets . Some argue this will increase gas prices , while others say any increase would be small . Most Californians (76%) favor requiring oil companies to produce transportation fuels with lower emissions , but support declines to 39 percent if it means an incr ease in gas prices at the pump. Seventy percent of likel y voters favor this requirement (41 % favor it even with higher gas prices ). M ajorities across parties f avor the idea in general, but Democrats are the most likely to favor it even if it increases gas prices (52% Democrats, 43% independents, 25% Republicans). Three in four across income groups favor the idea, but it is only among more affluent residents that a majority remain in f avor if it means higher gas prices. “How about requiring oil companies to produce transportation fuels with lower emissions?” ( if favor: “ Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in gasoline prices at the pump?” ) All adults Household income Likely voters Under $40,000 $40,000 to under $80,000 $80,000 or more Favor (total) 76% 77 % 77 % 75 % 70 % Favor, even if it means an increase in gas prices 39 32 39 54 41 Favor, but not if it means an increase in gas prices 37 45 38 21 29 Oppose 20 20 20 21 28 Don ’t know 3 3 3 4 2 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 9 PPIC Statewide S urvey CAP-AND -TRADE The state’s efforts to lower greenhouse gas emissions include a cap- and-trade system that has taken effect in the past few years ; it involves the state enforcing emissions “caps” by issuing permits that can be “traded” among companies at quarterly auctions . Public awareness of this state program has not changed much even as policy discussions about its implementation are taking place. Forty- five percent of Califor nia adults have heard a lot (13%) or a little (32%) about cap -and- trade, and 63 percent of likely voters have heard a lot (24%) or a little (39%) about it. Awareness of this program was similar in July 2012 (42% adults, 60 % likely voters) and July 2013 (45% adults, 61% likely voters). Today, Republicans (60%) are more likely than others to say they have heard about cap- and-trade, but fewer than one in four across partisan, regional, and racial/ethnic groups have heard a lot about it. “How much, if anything, have you heard about the state government policy called ‘cap- and-trade’ that sets limits on carbon dioxide emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind A lot 13% 12% 21% 19% 24% A little 32 36 39 31 39 Nothing at all 55 51 40 50 37 Don’t know – – – – – After being read a brief description, about half of California adults (51%) favor the cap -and- trade system and four in 10 (40%) are opposed. Likely voters are somewhat more likely to oppose than favor it (43% favor, 50% oppose) . About half of California adults have also expressed support for cap-and -trade when we asked similar questions in the past (49% 2009, 50% 2010, 54% 2011, 53% 2012). Today, majorities of Democrats (57%) and independents (56%) are in favor while majorities of Republicans (57%) are opposed to the cap- and-trade system. Those who have heard a lot about cap -and -trade are the most likely to oppose it (66%); by contrast, there is majority support for the cap- and trade system among those who have heard a little (56%) or nothing at all (53%) about it . “In the system called ‘cap-and -trade,’ the California state gover nment issues permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that do not use all their permits can sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies will find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that will be cheaper than buying permits. Do you favor or oppose the cap-and -trade system?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 51% 57% 32% 56% 43% Oppose 40 33 57 38 50 Don ’t know 9 10 11 6 8 The revenues being generated by the cap -and -trade program are intended to further the goals of AB 32 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and on projects to improve environmental conditions in lower - income and disadvantaged communities. When asked about the governor and legislature’s recent agreement to spend 25 percent on high- speed rail, 35 percent on affordable housing and other mass transit, and the rest for other purposes, a majority of California adults (59% favor, 35 % oppose) and likely voters (51% fav or, 44% oppose) are supportive. Majorities of Democrats (68%) and independents (60%) are in favor, while majorities of Republicans (64%) are opposed to this spending plan. Half or more are in favor of the cap -and -trade spending plan across regional , racial/ethnic, and demographic groups. July 2014 Californians and the Environment 10 PPIC Statewide S urvey CARBON TAX Although the state government is banking on its cap-and -trade program to help meet the emissions reduction goals set by AB 32, some argue that another effective method is to tax companies for the carbon polluti on they emit. About half of Californians (52%) say they have heard a lot (16%) or a little (36%) about the idea of a carbon tax on companies for greenhouse ga s emissions. The other half (48%) have heard nothing at all about this idea. Awareness is higher a mong likely voters (64% heard a lot or a little). Across parties, majorities have heard of the carbon tax idea (55% Democrats, 60% Republicans, 60% independents). Awareness is much higher among whites (61%) and Asians (55%) than among Latinos (40%) or blacks (29%). Men are far more likely than women to say they have heard a lot or a little about a carb on tax (62% to 40%) and awareness increases sharply as education and income levels rise. “How much, if anything, have you heard about the idea of a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind A lot 16% 18 % 22 % 22 % 28 % A little 36 37 38 38 36 Nothing at all 48 45 38 39 36 Don’t know 1 – 1 1 – Fifty -eight percent of Californians favor the idea of imposing a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions . Support was similar in earlier surveys (56% July 2009, 60% July 2010, 60% July 2011 , 58% today). Among likely voters, 54 percent favor this idea. A carbon tax is a far more popular idea among Democrats (71%) and independents (59%) than among Republicans (34%). At least half of residents across regions favor this idea, with support highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (63%), followed by Orange/San Diego (61%), Los Angeles (57%), the Central Valley (52%), and the Inland Empire (51%). Across racial/ethnic groups, Asians (77%) are much more likely than others (61% Latinos, 56% blacks, 51% whites) to favor a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions. Six in 10 men (58%) and women (59%) express support. Support is much higher among college graduates than among those with less education. Among those who have heard a lot about the idea of a carbon tax , 4 5 percent favor it; 70 percent of those who have heard a little are in favor , as are 54 percent of those who have heard nothing at al l. Among those who favor the cap- and-trade system, 74 percent also favor a carbon tax. Among those who oppose cap -and trade, 41 percent favor ( and 52% oppose) a carbon tax. “Would you favor or oppose a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 58% 71 % 34 % 59 % 54 % Oppose 33 20 58 33 39 Don ’t know 9 9 8 8 7 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 11 PPIC Statewide S urvey ENERGY POLICY We repeated past survey questions to track trends in public support for five energy policies over time. Overwhelming majorities of Californians (85%) and likely voters (79%) favor requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in the United States. Support for this proposal was similar last July (83% adults, 82% likely voters) and overwhelming majoriti es have favored this proposal since we started asking this question in 2003 . There is strong support across parties, regions, racial/ethnic , and demographic groups. “How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 85% 92% 70% 82% 79% Oppose 13 7 28 18 20 Don’t know 1 1 3 – 1 When asked about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast, a slim majority of Californians (51%) say they are opposed , while a slim majority of likely voters (51%) are in favor . Opposition to oil drilling off the California coast today is similar to last July (54% adults). California adults were divided on this iss ue in 2011 and 2012, while opposition was slightly higher in 2010 (59%) , after the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Slim majorities of California adults were in favor of more oil drilling in July 2008 (51%) and July 2009 (51%), while slim majorities wer e opposed to oil drilling off the California coast between July 2003 and July 2007. There is sharp division across party lines today: 68 percent of Democrats are opposed and 70 percent of Republicans are in favor; independents are divided (47% favor, 51% oppose). While a solid majority of Inland Empire residents (61%) favor allowing more oil drilling, m ajorities in other region s are opposed . “How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Favor 46% 44% 41% 42% 46% 61% 51% Oppose 51 51 56 55 52 36 46 Don ’t know 3 5 2 4 2 3 3 Majorities of California adults (64%) and likely voters (56%) oppose building more nuclear power plants at this time. Majorities also expressed opposition last July (63% adults, 58% likely voters) , and this has been the trend since 2011 after the nuclear power plant disaster in Japan. Californians were c losely divided from July 2008 to July 2010, and opposed to building more nuclear pl ants from July 2005 to July 2007. Today, majorities of Democrats and indep endents are opposed and Republicans are divided. Majorities across regional , racial/ethnic, and nearly all demographic groups oppose building more nuclear power plants. “How about building more nuclear power plants at this time?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 31% 24% 48% 34% 38% Oppose 64 70 45 63 56 Don’t know 5 5 7 3 6 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 12 PPIC Statewide S urvey ENERGY POLICY (CONTINUED) More than seven in 10 California adults (78%) and likely voters (73%) favor an increase in federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Overwhelming majorities have expressed support for this proposal since we first asked this question in July 2008. Today, majority support is evident across party lines, though Democrats (86%) and independents (79%) are more likely than Republicans (57%) to favor increased federal spending for this purpose . There is also s trong majority support for this proposal across regional , racial/ethnic, and demographic groups. “How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 78% 86% 57% 79% 73% Oppose 20 11 40 20 25 Don’t know 3 3 3 1 2 A state law passed in 2011 calls for a third of California’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Strong majorities of California adults (76%) and likely voters (69%) favor this law. Forty- six percent of adults are in favor of it even if it means an increase in their electricity bills , while 30 percent favor it but not if it costs more. Levels of support were similar in July 2013 (44% favor even with increased electrici ty bills, 35% do not favor if it increases electricity bills), July 2012 (44% favor even with increased electricity bills, 33% do not favor if it increases electricity bills, and July 2011 (46% favor even with increased electricity bills, 31% do not favor if it increases electricity bills). Overwhelming majorities of Democrats (86%) and independents (77%) and a slim majority of Rep ublicans (52%) are in favor of this state law. A solid majority of Democrats (61%) are in favor even if it means an increase in their electricity bills , compared to a slim majority of independents (52%) and only about one in four Republicans (27%). Strong majorities favor this policy a cross regional , racial/ethnic, and demographic groups, but the re are differing levels of support if it means an increase in electricity bills. Majorities of San Francisco Bay Area (58%) and Orange/San Diego (51%) residents support the law even if it means an increase in their electricity bills, compared to fewer than half in Los Angeles (44%), the Inl and Empire (39%), and the Central Valley (35%). Across age groups, the proportion in favor even if it means higher electricity bills is much higher among the youngest adults (57% younger than age 35, 42% age 35 to 54, 40% age 55 and older). Across income g roups, the percentage who are in favor even if it means higher electricity bills increases somewhat as annual household income rises (42% under $40,000, 49% $40,000 to $80,000, 54% $80,000 or more). “How about requiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2020? Do you favor or oppose this state law?” (if favor: “Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in your own electricity bill?”) All adults Party Likely v oters Dem Rep Ind Favor (total) 76% 86 % 52 % 77 % 69 % Favor, even if it means an increase in electricity bill 46 61 27 52 46 Favor, but not if it means an increase in electricity bill 30 25 25 25 23 Oppose 20 9 45 20 28 Don’t know 3 5 4 2 2 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 13 PPIC Statewide S urvey FRACKING AND KEYSTONE PIPELINE Fracking to extract oil and natural gas remains controversial in the state ; some legislators are calling for a moratorium while others tout the economic and employment benefits of this drilling method. At least half of C alifornia adults (54%) and likely voters (50%) are opposed to the increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, for oil and natural gas extraction. The level of opposition to fracking among adults was similar in May (54%) , and about half were opposed in our polling last summer (47% May 2013, 51% July 2013, 53% September 2013). Today, 63 percent of Democrats and 50 percent of independents are opposed to the increased use of fracking, while 53 percent of Republicans are in favor of it . Majorities of San Francisco Bay Area (61%), Central Valley (56%) , Los Angeles (55%), and Orange/San Diego (55%) residents oppose this idea, while those living in the Inland Empire are divided (43% favor, 42% oppose) . In a September 2013 Pew Research Center survey among adults nationwide, 44 percent were in favor of fracking, 49 percent were opposed, and 7 percent were undecided. “Do you favor or oppose increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, a drilling method that uses high- pressure water and chemicals to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Favor 36% 33% 29% 35% 37% 43% 40% Oppose 54 56 61 55 55 42 50 Don ’t know 10 10 11 9 8 14 9 There is also controversy around building the Keystone XL pipeline to transport oil from Canada’s oil sands to refineries in Texas. Majorities of California adults (53%) and likely voters (58%) are in favor of building the Keystone XL pipeline. Support among Californians for this proposal has increased somewhat since May (46%) ; however, it was in a similar range last year (53% May 2013, 51% July 2013). Today, an overwhelming majority of Republicans (73%) and a majority of in dependents (56%) are in favor of building the Keystone XL pipeline, while half of Democrats (50%) oppose it (39% favor) . Majorities in the Inland Empire (63%), Central Valley (56% ), and Orange/San Diego (54%) are in favor, while support falls short of a ma jority in the San Francisco Bay A rea (49%) and Los Angeles (47%). Men (57%) are more likely than women (48%) to favor building the Keystone XL pipeline. S upport is higher among those ages 35 and older (55% 35 to 54, 57% 55 and older) than those younger tha n age 35 (46%) and among those with annual household incomes of $40,000 or more (58% $40,000 to $80,000, 56% $80,000 or more) than those earning less than $40,000 (47%). Support is higher among whites (56%), Asians (53%), and Latinos (49%) than among black s (38%). In a Pew Research Center national survey in March, 61 percent of adults supported the building of the Keystone XL pipeline. “Do you favor or oppose building the Keystone XL pipeline that would transport oil from Canada’s oil sands region through the Midwest to refineries in Texas?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 53% 39% 73% 56% 58% Oppose 37 50 20 36 34 Don’t know 10 11 7 8 9 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 14 OVERALL PERCEPTIONS AND POLITICAL CONTEXT KEY FINDINGS  The vast majority of Californians believe global warming is either happening now or will happen in the future. Although most express concern about global warming, just 40 percent are very concerned. (page 16)  A record -high share of Californians say they are very concerned about more-severe droughts as an impact of global warming. Still, Californians are more likely to attribute the current drought t o natural weather patterns than to global warming . ( page s 17, 18 )  Approval ratings of President Obama and the U.S. Congress are at or near their record lows . Approval of their handling of environmental issues tracks their overall approval. (page 19 )  Heading into a reelection campaign, a slim majority approve of Governor Brown’s job performance, while slightly fewer approve of his handling of environmental issues. About four in 10 approve of the legislature, both overall and for its handling of environ mental issues. ( page 20)  A plurality of Californians (35%) say water supply is the most important environmental issue ; 54 percent say it is a big problem in their part of the state. Three in four would favor their local water district requiring residents to reduce water use. (page 21 )  Fifty -one percent of likely voters would support the $11.1 billion water bond currently on the ballot. Another 8 percent would vote yes if the amount was lower . ( p age 22 )  Most l ikely voters say environmental positions are important i n the governor’s race, in which Jerry Brown leads challenger Neel Kashkari by 1 9 points . (page 23 ) Yes51% No, but yes if lower amount8% No, even if lower amount18% Don't know23% Vote on $11.1 Billion Water Bond 53 38 47 38 0 20 40 60 80 Governor BrownCalifornia Legislature Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of State Elected Officials 50 22 47 24 0 20 40 60 80 President ObamaU.S. Congress Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of Federal Elected Officials Likely voters July 2014 Californians and Education 15 PPIC Statewide S urvey ONSET OF GLOBAL WARM ING A solid majority of Californians (62% ) say that the effects of global warming have already begun, 23 percent say they will happen at some point in the future (12% say they will affect future generations), and 12 percent say the effects will never occur. Since July 2005, majorities of Californians have said in annual surveys that the effects of global warming have already begun. Today, Californians in our survey (62%) are slightly more likely than adults nationwide in a March Gallup poll (54%) to say global warming’s effects have already begun (27% sometime in the future, 18% will never happen). Solid majorities of Democrats (75%) and independents (63%) say the effects of global warming have already begun, while among Republicans only 35 percent hold this view and 26 percent say they will never happen. Majorities across regional and demographic groups believe that the effects have already begun. The share holding this view is higher in Orange/San Diego (68%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (67%) than in the Central Valley , Los Angeles (59% each) , or the Inland Empire (57%). Asians (71%) and Latinos (67%) are more likely than blacks (58%) and whites (57%) to say global warming’s effects have begun. Women (66%) are somewhat more likely than men (58%) to hold this view. “Which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen— they have already begun to happen; they will start happening within a few years; they will start happening within your lifetime; they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; or they will never happen?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Have already begun to happen 62% 75% 35% 63% 57% Within a few years 4 4 3 3 3 Within lifetime 7 5 9 7 5 Will affect future generations 12 9 24 8 12 Will never happen 12 4 26 16 19 Don’t know 3 4 3 3 3 Three in four Californians are either very (40%) or somewhat concerned (34%) about global warming; only one in four are not concerned (11% not too, 15% not at all concerned). Democrats (58%) are far more likely than independents (32%) and Republicans (17%) to be very concerned; 58 percent of Republicans are not too or not at all concerned. Asians (51 %) are somewhat more likely than Latinos (44%), blacks (41%), and whites (35%) to be very concerned. Across regions, about four in 10 say they are very concerned about global warming. Compared with Californians in our survey (40% very concerned), adults nationwide are somewhat less likely to be very concerned (32%) about global warming , according to a May CBS News poll (34% somewhat, 16% not too, 17% not at all c oncerned). “How concerned are you about global warming?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Very concerned 40% 39% 43% 39% 37% 42% 40% Somewhat concerned 34 30 34 35 42 28 27 Not too concerned 11 14 9 9 11 10 12 Not at all concerned 15 15 13 17 11 20 21 Don’t know – 1 – – – – – July 2014 Californians and the Environment 16 PPIC Statewide S urvey IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WA RMING Majorities of Californians are at least somewhat concerned about four possible impacts of global warming in the state. More than six in 10 adults are very concerned about droughts (64%) and wildfir es (61%) that are more severe. Fewer Californians express this level of concern for heat waves that are more severe (44%) or rising sea levels (32%). The sh are saying they are very concerned about droughts that are more severe is up 15 points since last July (49%) and is at a new high (previously 60% in July 2007). Concern about more -severe wildfires was similar in the past. (This is the first time that we have asked about heat waves that are more severe and rising sea levels.) “I am going to name a few of the possible impacts of global warming in California, and I would like you to tell me whether you are very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about each one. How about…?” Droughts that are more severe Wildfires that are more severe Heat waves that are more severe Rising sea levels Very concerned 64% 61% 44% 32% Somewhat concerned 23 25 29 32 Not too concerned 5 6 15 19 Not at all concerned 8 8 12 16 Don’t know 1 1 1 2 In each of these areas , Democrats are more likely than independents and Republicans to be very concerned. Across regions, Central Valley residents (72%) are the most likely , and Inland Empire residents (57%) the least likely, to be very concerned about droughts . Concern declines as income levels rise. Blacks, La tinos, Los Angeles and Central Valley residents, and lower -income residents are more likely than others to be very concerned about wildfires. Blacks, Latinos, and Central Valley and lower - income residents are most likely to be very concerned about heat waves . Blacks are more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to be very concerned about rising sea levels. Percent s aying very concerned Droughts that are more severe Wildfires that are more severe Heat waves that are more severe Rising sea levels All adults 64% 61% 44% 32% Party Democrats 77 71 54 46 Republicans 42 41 21 9 Independents 66 55 39 28 Race/Ethnicity Asians 65 56 40 38 Blacks 68 74 61 46 Latinos 69 69 60 37 Whites 61 55 32 25 Region Central Valley 72 65 51 33 San Francisco Bay Area 63 55 41 31 Los Angeles 60 66 43 34 Orange/San Diego 68 59 41 26 Inland Empire 57 54 44 30 Household income Under $40,000 69 70 53 36 $40,000 to under $80,000 62 56 43 28 $80,000 or more 58 51 30 32 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 17 PPIC Statewide S urvey IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WA RMING (CONTINUED) What do Californians think is the primary cause of the state’s current severe drought ? Half of Californians (51%) believe that it is mostly due to natural weather patterns, nearly four in 10 (38%) say it is due to global warming, and about one in 10 volunteer that it is because of both (7%) or neither (1%) of these things . Californians hel d similar views during the state’s last drought (July 2008: 46% weather patterns, 37% global warming). Eight in 10 Republicans (80%) attribute the current drought to natural weather patterns, as do half of independents (51%, 40% global warming). Democrats are about as likely to blame weather patterns (41%) as they are to blame global warming (45%). Across regions, residents are more likely to say that the current drought is due to weather patterns than to global warming. A solid majority of w hites (62%) say weather patterns are to blame, while a majority of Asians (56%) point to global warming. A mong blacks (46% weather, 46% global warming) and Latinos (43% weather, 46% global warming) , similar shares point to each cause . “From what you’ve read and heard, p lease tell me which of these statements is closer to your view. The state’s current drought is mostly a result of global warming, or mostly a result of natural weather patterns.” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Global warming 38% 45% 15% 40% 32% Natural weather patterns 51 41 80 51 59 Both (volunteered) 7 9 4 4 5 Neither (volunteered) 1 1 1 4 2 Don’t know 2 5 1 2 2 As for the state’s current wildfires, 55 percent of Californians say they are mostly due to natural weather patterns, three in 10 (31%) say global warming, and 11 percent volunteer both (6%) or neither (5%). Findings were similar in July 2008 (56% weather patterns, 27% global warming). Today, a slightly higher share of likely voters (64%) than all adults (55%) blame weather patterns. Most Republicans blame weather patterns (77%) as do half of independents (53%) and Democrats (50%). Across regions, Inland Empire (59%) residents are the most likely, and Central Valley residents (52%) the least likely, to say weather patterns are the cause of current wildfires. Solid majorities of blacks (67%) and whites (64%) say current wildfires are mostly due to weather patterns, while Asians and Latinos are as likely to say they are due to weath er patterns as they are to say they are due to global warming. “From what you’ve read and heard, please tell me which of these statements is closer to your view. The state’s current wildfires are mostly a result of global warming, or mostly a result of na tural weather patterns.” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Global warming 31% 32% 12% 32% 22% Natural weather patterns 55 50 77 53 64 Both (volunteered) 6 8 4 5 6 Neither (volunteered) 5 4 5 6 4 Don’t know 4 6 1 3 4 Twenty -three percent of Californians say that both wildfires and the current drought are mostly due to global warming and 41 percent say they are both mostly due to natural weather patterns. July 2014 Californians and the Environment 18 PPIC Statewide S urvey APPROVAL RATINGS OF FEDERAL ELECTED OFFICIALS President Obama’s approval rating (50%) is at its record low and near the previous lows reached in May, last December, and September 2011 (51% each time). Approval was at 61 percent last July and has declined since then (55% September, 51% December, 53% January, 52% March, 51% May, 50% today). Among likely voters, approval is at 47 percent. Nationally, in a July Pew Research Center poll, 44 percent approved of the president (49% disapproved). In our survey, partisan differences hold, with 74 percent of Democrats approving an d 79 percent of Republicans disapproving of President Obama; independents are divided (43% approve, 49% disapprove) . Blacks (83%) and Asians (78%) are far more likely than Latinos (51%) and whites (37%) to approve of President Obama. Since July 201 0, about half of Californians have approved of President Obama’s handling of environmental issues (49% 2010, 47% July 2011, 51% July 2012, 53% July 2013, 47% today). In a recent CNN/ORC poll, adults nationwide gave similar approval ratings to President Oba ma on his handling of environmental policy (49% approve, 45% disapprove). In California, 67 percent of Democrats approve of President Obama on this issue , 73 percent of Republicans disapprove, and independents are divided. Blacks (72%) and Asians (60%) are more likely than Latinos (52%) and whites (36%) to approve. “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling…?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind His job as president of the United States Approve 50% 74% 18% 43% 47% Disapprove 46 23 79 49 50 Don ’t know 4 3 3 8 3 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 47 67 19 41 45 Disapprove 42 23 73 47 46 Don ’t know 11 10 8 13 8 The U.S. Congress continues to have low approval ratings among Californians (22%). Last July, approval was at 30 percent (28% September 2013 , 18% December 2013 , 26% January, 19% March, 24% May, 22% today). Approval ratings of the U.S. Congress are lower among likely voters (15%). Nationally, 14 percent of adults nationwide approved of the U.S. Congress in a June CBS News/New York Times poll (78% disapprove). When it comes to the U.S. Congress’ handling of environmental issues, fewer than three in 1 0 Californians have approved since July 2011 (25% July 2011, 27% July 2012, 29% July 2013, 24% today). Fewer than one in four across parties approve of its handling of environmental issues today . Approval is lowest among whites (13%), those earning $40,000 to $79,000 (18%), those with at least some c ollege education (18%), those age 55 and older (15%), and Central Valley residents (17%) . “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling…?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 22% 22% 15% 11% 15% Disapprove 72 75 82 85 83 Don ’t know 6 4 3 5 2 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 24 24 15 13 16 Disapprove 65 70 76 74 78 Don ’t know 11 6 9 13 5 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 19 PPIC Statewide S urvey APPROVAL RATINGS OF STATE ELECTED OFFICIALS Governor Brown has the approval of majorities of Californians (53%) and likely voters (56%). Approval among adults today is similar to May (50%) and last July (48%) . With t he exception of January 2014 (58 %), his approval has been about 50 percent since December 2012. Democr ats (76%) are far more likely than independents (51%) to approve of the governor, and Republicans are more likely to disapprove (54%) than approve (31%). Central Valley (43%) and Inland Empire (44%) residents are the least likely — and San Francisco Bay Area residents (66%) the most likely —to approve of Governor Brown. When it comes to the governor’s handling of environmental issues, 47 percent of adults and 46 percent of likely voters express approval. Approval among adults has increased 8 points since last July (39%). Once again, Democrats (65%) are far more likely than independents (42%) and Republicans (26%) to approve. Across regions, approval is highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (53%) , followed by Los Angeles (48%), the Central Valley (45%), Orange/S an Diego (45%), and the Inland Empire (44%). “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling…?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind His job as governor of California Approve 53% 76% 31% 51% 56% Disapprove 28 12 54 31 34 Don ’t know 19 13 16 18 9 Environmental issues in California Approve 47 65 26 42 46 Disapprove 29 18 48 36 36 Don ’t know 23 17 26 22 18 About four in 10 Californians (38%) continue to approve of the way the California Legislature is handling its job , as they have throughout 2014. Approval was similar last July (36%). Three in 10 likely voters (31%) express approval, similar to May (36%) and last July (33%). About half of Democrats (48%) approve of the legislature ; far f ewer independents (26%) and Republicans (18%) do . About four in 10 residents in Orange/San Diego (44%), Los Angeles (42%), and the San Francisco Bay Area (42%) approve of the legislature; fewer Inland Empire (35%) and Central Valley (29%) residents do . Approval of the legislature’s handling of environmental issues in California is identical to its overall approval (38% each). Similarly, Democrats (47%) are far more likely than independents (29%) and Republicans (22%) to approve. Across regions, San Francisco Bay Area residents (47%) are most likely— and Central Valley residents (34%) are least likely—to approve of the legislature on environmental issues . “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling…?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 38% 48% 18% 26% 31% Disapprove 46 36 72 59 56 Don ’t know 16 16 10 15 13 Environmental issues in California Approve 38 47 22 29 33 Disapprove 44 37 62 52 52 Don ’t know 17 17 16 19 16 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 20 PPIC Statewide S urvey WATER POLICY In an open -ended question about the most important environmental issue facing California today, 35 percent name water supply or drought —an increase of 27 points since July 2011 . Fourteen percent mention air pollution —a decrease of 13 points in the same time period . Today’s finding marks the first time in 12 surveys , dating back to 2000 , in which air pollution is not the top issue. Still, in a separate question, six in 10 Californians say air pollution in their part of California is a big (27%) or somewhat of a problem (33%). A mid reports of worsening drought conditions t his summer, 54 percent of Californians say water supply is a big problem in their part of California ; another 25 percent say it is somewhat of a problem. Only 21 percent say it is not much of a problem. The share saying water supply is a big problem was similar in May (59%) and March (55%) of this year, while just 31 percent held this view in December 2012. Central Valley residents (63%) are the most likely to say water s upply is a big problem, followed by those in the San Francisco Bay Area (55%), Orange/San Diego (54%), Inland Empire (51%), and Los Angeles (44%). Th os e living on California’s coast (52%) are about as likely as inland residents (58%) to say water supply is a big problem. Whites (62%) are far more likely than Asians, blacks, and Latinos (46% each) to hold this view . The perception that water supply is a big problem rises sharply as age increases. “Would you say that the supply of water is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Big problem 54% 63% 55% 44% 54% 51% 61% Somewhat of a problem 25 24 26 29 26 16 24 Not much of a problem 21 12 18 26 18 32 15 Don’t know 1 – – 1 3 1 1 As localities discuss how to deal with the current drought and the State Water Resources Control Board takes the unprecedented step of declaring certain types of water waste a criminal infraction, how do Californians view the idea of their local water district making it mandatory for residents to reduce their water use? Overwhelming majorities of Californians (75%) a nd likely voters (70%) favor this idea . Residents across the state are in favor , with support highest in Los Angeles (80%) followed by the Inland Empire (75%), the San Francisco Bay Area (75%), Orange/San Diego (73%), and the Central Valley (69%). Both inl and (72%) and coastal (76%) residents are in favor of mandatory water reductions . M ore than two in three across racial/ethnic groups favor mandatory reductions of water use by residents. But Latinos (82%) and Asians (79%) are more likely than whites (70%) and black s (69%) to be in favor. There is support across age, education, and income groups and among men and women. Among those who name water supply as the most important environmental issue, 77 percent are in favor. “As you may know, the state is currently in a drought. Would you favor or oppose your local water district making it mandatory for residents to reduce their water use?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Favor 75% 69% 75% 80% 73% 75% 70% Oppose 23 27 22 18 26 24 28 Don’t know 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 21 PPIC Statewide S urvey WATER POLICY (CONTINUED) With California mired in a severe drought, state lawmakers are considering alternative proposals to the $11.1 billion state bond measure for water projects that is currently on the November ballot. The general sentiment in the state capitol is that th is bond amount is too large to pass . The governor has stated that he would prefer a bond of about $6 billion . However, the legisl ature has not yet agreed upon a smaller amount . Although the statutory deadline (June 26) has passed, the legislature still has options to replace the current measure. When asked about the $11.1 billion bond measure, 61 percent of adults and 51 percent of likely voters would vote yes, while about one in four adults (22%) and likely voters (26%) would vote no. In March , support was similar among adults (60%) and likely voters (50%) ; it was lower in March 2013 (44% adults, 42% likely voters). In March 2012 , 54 percent of adults and 51 percent of likely voters favored it. When asked about an approximately $6.5 billion bond measure, at least half of adults (55% yes, 33% no) and likely voters (50% yes , 38% no ) favored it in September 2013 . Today, Democrats (65%) are more likely than independents (55%) and far more likely than Republicans (44%) to express support for the $11.1 billion bond . Support is highest in the Inland Empire (65%) and the Central Valley (64%) followed by Orange/San Diego (61%), Los Angeles (59 %), and the San Francisco Bay Area (57%). When those who would vote no are asked how they would vote if the amount were lower , support increases by 8 points both for adults (69% yes, 14% no) and likely voters (59% yes, 18% no). “The legislature is considering an approximately $11.1 billion bond measure for the November 2014 ballot to pay for state water projects. If the election were being held today, would you vote yes or no on this state water bond?” ( if no: “ What if the state water bond was a low er amount, would you vote yes or no?”) All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Yes 61% 65% 44% 55% 51% No (total) 22 19 32 25 26 No, but would vote yes if it was a lower amount 8 8 11 7 8 No, even if it was a lower amount 14 11 21 18 18 Don’t know 17 16 24 21 23 Three in four Californians say it is very (46%) or somewhat important (30%) that voters pass the state water bond measure. Three in four also held this view in March 2014 (52% very, 25% somewhat important), March 2013 (39% very, 36% somewhat important), and March 2012 (42% very, 32% somewhat important). Findings among likely voters are similar. Central Valley residents (55%) are the most likely —and San Francisco Bay Area residents (42%) are the least likely—to say it is very important that voters pass the measure. Democrats (49%) are much more likely than independents (36%) and Republicans (35%) to view the measure’s passage as very important. “How important is it that voters pass the state water bond measure — is it very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Very important 46% 55% 42% 48% 44% 44% 44% Somewhat important 30 22 32 33 32 28 24 Not too important 5 5 4 5 4 9 5 Not at all important 7 7 10 6 8 8 12 Don’t know 10 11 11 8 12 11 16 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 22 PPIC Statewide S urvey GUBERNATORIAL ELECTI ON With the gubernatorial election quickly approaching, about half of likely voters are very (11%) or fairly closely (42%) following news about the candidates. Attention to the news today is lower than it was in July 2010 (22 % very, 48% fairly) —or in July 2006 (19 % very, 49% fairly), the last election with an incumbent. On the heels of record -low turnout in the primary election, in which Governor Brown received 54 percent of the vote , the governor now leads Neel Kashkari by a 19 point ma rgin (52% to 33%) among likely voters . In his quest for an unprecedented fourth term as governor of California , Jerry Brown enjoys the support of eight in 10 Democrats (80%) and half of independents (52%) . Neel Kashkari has the support of seven in 10 Repub licans (70%). Latino likely voters (74%) overwhelmingly support Governor Brown while wh ite likely voters are divided (41% Brown, 44% Kashkari). Governor Brown has majority support of likely voters in Los Angeles (63%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (55%). A plurality of likely voters in Orange/San Diego support Brown (48% Brown, 40% Kashkari), while a plurality of Inland Empire likely voters support Kashkari (40% Brown, 48% Kashkari). Likely voters in the Central Valley are divided (45% Brown, 43% Kashkari) . Two in three likely voters with household incomes under $40,000 (67%) support Bro wn. Pluralities of those with incomes $40,000 or more (48%) and likely voters across age and education groups as well as men and women support Brown. “If the November 4th election for governor were being held today, would you vote for Jerry Brown, a Democrat, or Neel Kashkari, a Republican?” Likely voters only All likely voters Party Race/Ethnicity * Dem Rep Ind Latinos Whites Jerry Brown, a Democrat 52% 80% 18% 52% 74% 41% Neel Kashkari, a Republican 33 11 70 28 19 44 Would not vote for governor (volunteered) 4 1 2 9 2 2 Don’t know 11 8 10 11 5 12 * Sample sizes for Asian and black likely voters are too small for separate analysis. When asked how important the candidates’ positions on the environment are in determining their vote, nearly all likely voters say they are very (40%) or somewhat important (45%). Findings were similar in July 2010 (41% very, 38% somewhat) and in July 2006 (44% very, 41% somewhat). Half of Democrats (52%) say these positions are very important, compared to about one in three Republicans (31%) and independents (35%). Of those supporting Brown for governor, 43 percent say the candidates’ positions on the environment are very important; 35 percent of Kashkari supporters hold this view. Likely voters in the Central Valley (50%) are the most likely to hold this view , followed by those in Los Angeles (46%), the Inland Empire (35%), the San Francisco Bay Area (32%), and Orange/San Diego (31%). Notably, the share saying candidate positions on the environment are very important (40%) is much lower than the share that said positions on K –12 education were very important (58%) in April. “In thinking about the California governor’s ele ction in November, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on the environment in determining your vote?” Likely voters only All likely voters Party Gubernatorial vote choice Dem Rep Ind Jerry Brown Neel Kashkari Very important 40% 52% 31% 35% 43% 35% Somewhat important 45 38 53 44 47 49 Not too important 14 9 15 18 8 15 Don’t know 1 1 1 3 1 1 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 23 REGIONAL MAP July 2014 Californians and the Environment 24 METHODOLOGY The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance from Sonja Petek, project manager for this survey, Dean Bonner, associate survey director, and Jui Shrestha, survey research associate. This survey, Californians and the Environment, is supported with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation. The PPIC Statewide Survey invites input, comments, and suggestions from policy and public opinion experts and from its own advisory committee, but survey methods, questions, and content are determined solely by PPIC’s survey team. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1,705 California adult resi dents, including 1,109 interviewed on landline telephones and 596 interviewed on cell phones. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from July 8 –15, 2014. Landline interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. C ell phone interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of cell phone numbers. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as eight times to increase the likelihood of reaching an eligible respondent. Once a cell phone user was reached, it was verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey (e.g., not driving). Cell phone respondent s were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Live landline and cell phone interviews were conducted by Abt SRBI, Inc., in English and Spanish, according to respondents’ preferences. Accent on Languages, Inc., translated new survey questions into Spanish, with assistance from Renatta DeFever. Abt SRBI uses the U.S. Cens us Bureau’s 2010–2012 American Community Survey’s (ACS) Public Use Microdata Series for California (with regional coding information from the University of Minnesota’s Integrated Public Use Microdata Series for California) to compare certain demographic characteristics of the survey sample— region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education —with the characteristics of California’s adult population. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS fi gures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt SRBI used 2012 state -level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics —which used data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the ACS —and 2013 estimates for the West Census Region in the latest NHIS report. The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare t he party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The landline and cell phone samples were then integrated using a frame integration weight, while sample balancing adjusted for differences across regional, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, telephone service, and party registration groups. July 2014 Californians and the Environment 25 PPIC Statewide Survey The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3. 7 percent at the 95 percent confidence level for the total unweighted sample of 1,705 adults . This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 3. 7 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, 408 registered voters, the sampling error is ± 4 percent; for the 984 likely voters, it is ±4.7 percent . Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sutter, T ehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “San Francisco Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “ Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” refers to Riversid e and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters , but sample sizes for these less po pulous areas are not large enough to report separately. In several places, we refer to coastal and inland counties. The “ coastal” region refers to the counties along the California coast from Del Norte County to San Diego County and includes all the San Fr ancisco Bay Area counties. All other counties are included in the “inland” region. We present specific results for non- Hispanic whites and also for Latinos, who account for about a third of the state’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest -gro wing voter groups. We also present results for non -Hispanic Asians, who make up about 14 percent of the state’s adult population, and non- Hispanic blacks, who comprise about 6 percent. Results for o ther racial/ethnic groups—such as Native Americans —are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes are not large enough for separate analysis. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and decline-to -state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters —so designated by their responses to voter registration survey questions, previous election participation, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to 100 due to rounding. We compare current PPIC Statewide Surv ey results to those in our earlier surveys and to those in national surveys by ABC News/Washington Post, CBS News, CBS News/New York Times, CNN/ORC, Gallup, and the Pew Research Center. A dditional details about our methodology can be found at www.ppic.org/content/other/SurveyMethodology.pdf and are available upon request through surveys@ppic.org . July 2014 Californians and the Environment 26 QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESULTS CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT July 8 –15, 2014 1 ,705 California Adult Residents: English , Spanish MARGIN OF ERROR ±3. 7% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE PERCENTAGES MAY NOT ADD TO 100 D UE TO ROUNDING 1. First, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California? 53% approve 28 disapprove 19 don’t know 2 . Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Governor Brown is handling environmental issues in California? 47% approve 29 disapprove 23 don’t know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? 38% approve 46 disapprove 16 don’t know 4. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling environmental issues in California? 38% approve 44 disapprove 17 don’t know 5. Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? 66% yes [ask 5a] 34 no [skip to 6b ] 5a. Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline -to -state or independent voter? 44% Democrat [ask q6] 29 Republican [skip to q6 a] 6 another party (specify) [skip to q 7 ] 22 independent [skip to q 6b ] 6. Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 56% strong 42 not very strong 2 don’t know [skip to q7 ] 6a. Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 55% strong 42 not very strong 3 don’t know [skip to q7 ] 6b. Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? 23% Republican Party 44 Democratic Party 26 neither (volunteered) 7 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 27 PPIC Statewide Survey [questions 7 to 9 reported for likely voters only] 7.[likely voters only ] If the November 4 th election for governor were being held today, would you vote for [ rotate ] (1) Jerry Brown, a Democrat, [ or ] (2) Neel Kashkari, a Republican? 52 % Jerry Brown, a Democrat 33 Neel Kashkari, a Republican 4 would not vote for governor (volunteered) 11 don’t know 8. [ likely voters only ] How closely are you following news about candidates for the 20 14 governor’s election —very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely? 11 % v ery closely 42 fairly closely 31 not too closely 15 not at all closely 1 don’t know 9. [ likely voters only ] In thinking about the California governor’s election in November, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on the environment in determining your vote— very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 40 % very important 45 somewhat important 14 not too important 1 don’t know 1 0. Next, what do you think is the most important environmental issue facing California today? [ code, don’t read ] 35% water sup ply, drought, reservoirs 14 air pollution, vehicle emissions, smog 5 global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases 5 water pollution of ocean, rivers, lak es, streams, beach pollution 4 energ y, fossil fuels, solar, nuclear, wind, alternative energy, oil drilling 3 immigra tion, immigrants 3 jobs, economy, budget, taxes 3 too much government regulation , politicians, environmentalists 2 fracking, hydraulic f racturing 2 gas pr ices 2 traffic, c ongestion, transportation, transit 9 other 9 don’ t know 11. We are interested in the part of California that you live in. Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California? 27 % big probl em 33 somewhat of a problem 39 not much of a problem – don’t know 12. Would you say that the supply of water is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California? 54 % big problem 25 somewhat of a problem 21 not much of a problem 1 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 28 4 pollution in general PPIC Statewide Survey 13. The legislature is considering an approximately $11 .1 billion bond measure for the November 2 014 ballot to pay for state water projects. If the election were being held today, would you vote yes or no on this stat e water bond? ( If no: “ What if the state water bond was a lower amount, would you vote yes or no? ”) 61% yes 22 total no 8 no, but would vote yes if it was a lower amount 14 no, even if it was a lower amount 17 don’t know 14 . How important is it that voters pass the state water bond measure —is it very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important? 46% very important 30 somewhat important 5 not too important 7 not at all important 10 don’t know 14a. As you may know , the state is currently in a drought. Would you favor or oppose your local water district making it mandatory for residents to reduce their water use? 75% favor 23 oppose 2 don’t know 1 5. On another topic, which of the following statements reflect s your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen — [rotate order] ( 1 ) they have already begun to happen; ( 2) they will start happening within a few years; ( 3) they will start h appening within your lifetime; ( 4) they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; [ or ] (5) they will never happen? 62% already begun 4 within a few years 7 within your lifetime 12 not within lifetime, but will affect future generations 12 will never happen 3 don’t know 16. How concerned are you about global warming —very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned? 40% very concerned 34 somewhat concerned 11 not too concerned 15 not concerned at all – don’t know 1 7. How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future— do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat? 49% very serious 31 somewhat serious 9 not too serious 10 not at all serious 1 don’t know 18 . When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it [ rotate ] (1 ) take action right away [ or should it ] ( 2 ) wait until the state economy and job situation improve to take action? 61% take action right away 35 wait until state economy and job situation improve 4 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 29 PPIC Statewide Survey Now I am going to name a few of the possible impacts of global warming in California, and I would like you to tell me whether you are very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about each one. [rotate questions 19 to 21a] 19. How about droughts that are more severe? 64% very concerned 23 somewhat concerned 5 not too concerned 8 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 2 0. How about wildfires that are more severe? 61% very concerned 25 somewhat concerned 6 not too concerned 8 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 21 . How about heat waves that are more severe? 44% very concerned 29 somewhat concerned 15 not too concerned 12 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 21a. How about rising sea levels? 32% very concerned 32 somewhat concerned 19 not too concerned 16 not at all concerned 2 don’t know Next, from what you’ve read and heard, please t ell me which of these statements is closer to your view. [rotate questions 22 and 23; rotate responses in same order ] 22 . The state’s current drought is [ rotate ] ( 1 ) mostly a result of global warming, [ or ] (2 ) mostly a result of natural weather patterns. 38% global warming 51 natural weather patterns 7 both (volunteered) 1 neither (volunteered) 2 don’t know 23 . The state’s current wildfires are [ rotate ] (1 ) mostly a result of global warming, [ or ] (2 ) mostly a result of natural weather patterns. 31% global warming 55 natural weather patterns 6 both (volunteered) 5 neither (volunteered) 4 don’t know 24 . Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that req uires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 199 0 levels by the year 2 0 20? 68% favor 23 oppose 9 don’t know 2 5. Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming? 65% favor 30 oppose 5 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 30 PPIC Statewide Survey 26. Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming will cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, will cause there to be fewer jobs, or won’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state? 39% more jobs 26 fewer jobs 27 won’t affect the number of jobs 8 don’t know Next, officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help r educe greenhouse gas emiss ions. [rotate questions 27 to 30] 27. How about requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances? 73% favor 24 oppose 3 don’t know 28 . How about setting stricter emissions limits on power plants? 75% favor 21 oppose 3 don’t know 29 . How about requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions? 77% favor 21 oppose 2 don’t know 3 0. How about requiring oil companies to produce transportation fuels with lower emissions? ( if favor: “ Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in gasoline prices at the pump? ”) 76% total favor 39 favor, even if it means an increase in gasoline prices 37 favor, but not if it means an increase in gasoline prices 20 oppose 3 don’t know 31 . How much, if anything, have you heard about the idea of a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all? 16% a lot 36 a little 48 nothing at all 1 don’t know 32 . Would you favor or oppose a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions? 58% favor 33 oppose 9 don’t know 33 . How much, if anything, have you heard about the state government policy called “cap -and -trade” that sets limits on carbon dioxide emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all? 13% a lot 32 a little 55 nothing at all – don’t know 34 . In the system called “cap- and-trade,” the California stat e government issues permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that do not use all their permits can sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies will find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, becaus e that will be cheaper than buying permits. Do you favor or oppose the cap -and- trade system? 51% favor 40 oppose 9 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 31 PPIC Statewide Survey 35. The governor and legislature recently agreed on a plan for how to spend the revenues generated by California’s cap -and- trade program. The plan includes spending 2 5 percent of the revenues on high -speed rail, 3 5 percent on affordable housing and other mass transit projects, and the rest on projects related to natural resources, energy efficiency, and transportation. In genera l, do you favor or oppose this spending plan? 59% favor 35 oppose 6 don’t know 3 6. Changing topics, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling his job as president of the United States? 50% approve 46 disapprove 4 don’t know 3 7. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that President Obama is handling environmental issues in the United States? 47% approve 42 disapprove 11 don’t know 38 . Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling its job? 22% approve 72 disapprove 6 don’t know 39 . Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling environmental issues in the United States? 24% approve 65 disapprove 11 don’t know Next, do you favor or oppose the following proposals? [rotate questions 40 to 43 ] 4 0. How about re quiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country? 85% favor 13 oppose 1 don’t know 41 . How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast? 46% favor 51 oppose 3 don’t know 42 . How about building more nuclear power plants at this time? 31% favor 64 oppose 5 don’t know 43 . How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology? 78% favor 20 oppose 3 don’t know 44 . How about re quiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2 02 0? ( if favor : “Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in your own electricity bill?”) 76% total favor 46 favor, even if it increases electricity bill 30 favor, but not if it increases electricity bill 20 oppose 3 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 32 PPIC Statewide Survey [ rotate questions 45 and 46 ] 4 5. Do you favor or oppose increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or frack ing, a drilling method that uses high- pressure water and chemicals to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations? 36% favor 54 oppose 10 don’t know 4 6. Do you favor or oppose building the Keystone XL pipeline that would transport oil f rom Canada’s oil sands region through the Midwest to refineries in Texas? 53% favor 37 oppose 10 don’t know 4 7. Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list , rotate order top to bottom] 9% very liberal 23 somewhat liberal 29 middle -of -the -road 23 somewhat conservative 13 very conservative 3 don’t know 48 . Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics —a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none? 20% great deal 36 fair amount 33 only a little 11 none – don’t know [d1 to d19 demographic questions] July 2014 Californians and the Environment 33 PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY ADVISORY COMMITTEE Ruben Barrales President and CEO GROW Elect Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Mollyann Brodie Senior Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Director Bill Lane Center for the American West Stanford University Jon Cohen Vice President of Survey Research SurveyMonkey Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Robert Lapsley President California Business Roundtable Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Publisher and CEO La Opinión Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Lisa Pitney Vice President, Government Relations The Walt Disney Company Robert K. Ross, M.D. President and CEO The California Endowment Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS Donna Lucas, Chair Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Mark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and CEO GROW Elect María Blanco Vice President, Civic Engagement California Community Foundation Brigitte Bren Attorney Walter B. Hewlett Member, Board of Directors The William and Flora Hewle tt Foundation Phil Isenberg Vice Chair, Delta Stewardship Council Mas Masumoto Author and Farmer Steven A. Merksamer Senior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni , LLP Kim Polese Chairman ClearStreet, Inc. Thomas C. Sutton Retired Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decision makers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a public charity . It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and CEO of PPIC. Donna Lucas is Chair of the Board of Directors. Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the copyright notice below is included. Copyright © 201 4 Public Policy Institute of California All r ights reserved. San Francisco, CA PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO CENT ER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121 www.ppic.org survey@ppic.org" } ["___content":protected]=> string(102) "

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" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(107) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/ppic-statewide-survey-californians-and-the-environment-july-2014/s_714mbs/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8924) ["ID"]=> int(8924) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:42:09" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(4383) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(8) "S 714MBS" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(8) "s_714mbs" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_714MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "631428" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(96579) "CONTENTS About the Survey 2 Press Release 3 Policy Preferences 6 Overall Perceptions and Political Context 15 Regional Map 24 Methodology 25 Questionnaire and Results 27 the environment J U LY 2 0 1 4 & P P I C S TAT E W I D E S U R V E Y Californians Mark Baldassare Dean Bonner Sonja Petek Jui Shrestha i T a ABOUT THE SURVEY The PPIC Statewide Sur vey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. This is the 143rd PPIC Statewide Sur vey in a series that was inaugurated in April 1998 and has generated a database of responses from more than 300,000 Californians. The current s u r v e y, Californians and the Environment, was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation. Its goal is to inform state policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about Californi ans’ opinions on global warm ing and energy policy . It is the 14th annual PPIC Statewide Sur vey on environment al issues since 2000. As par t of the policy framework laid out in Assembly Bill (AB) 32 (the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006), California continues to pursue measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 and to 80 percent of 1990 levels by 2050. A cornerstone of these effor ts is the cap- and- trade program, which began in 2012. Beginning in 2015, fuel providers will be subject to the cap. Detractors argue this could cause increases in gas prices at the pump while proponents say any increases would be small. T he recently enacted state budget included a spending plan for revenues generated from the cap- and-trade program that earmarks 25 percent for the controversial high -speed rail project . Amid historic drought conditions, the State Water Resources Control Board adopted new rules criminalizing cer tain types of water waste and s tate legislators are debating changes to the water bond s et for the November ballot. In Washington, President Obama and the Environmental Protection Agency proposed new rules for regulating carbon emissions from power plants and the president has delayed a decision about construction of the Keystone XL Pipeline. In this context, this year’s sur vey presents the responses of 1,705 adult residents throughout California, inter viewed in English and Spanish by landline or cell phone. It includes findings on:  Policy preferences, including opinions on whether the state needs to act right away to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; suppor t for AB 32; opinions about California act ing independently to address global warming and the effect of state action on job numbers; opinions on ways government can regulate emissions, incl uding stricter emissions limits on power plants and fuel providers, a carbon tax, and the state’s cap- and-trade program; and suppor t for various energy policies, including oil drilling, renewable energy, fracking , and the Keystone XL pipeline.  Overall perceptions and political context, including perceptions of the onset of global warming, concerns about its possible impacts , and views of its role in the state’s wildfires and current drought; approval of the governor, legislature, president, and Congress overall and of their handling of environmental issues; concerns about water supply and suppor t for an $11.1 billion water bond; and likely voters’ preferences in the gubernatorial election and the perceived impor tance of candidates’ positions on t he environment.  Time trends, national comparisons, and the extent to which Californians may differ in their perceptions, attitudes, and preferences based on political par ty affiliation, likelihood of voting, region of residence (Central Valley, San Francis co Bay Area, Los Angeles County, Inland Empire, and Orange/San Diego Counties), race/ethnicity (Asian, black, Latino, and non- Hispanic white), and other demographic characteristics. This repor t may be downloaded free of charge from our website ( www.ppic.org). If you have questions about the sur vey, please contact sur vey@ppic.org . Tr y our PPIC Statewide Sur vey interactive tools online at www.ppic.org/main/sur vAdvancedSearch.asp. July 2014 Californians and the Environment 2 PPIC Statewide Survey CONTACT Linda Strean 415-291-4412 Andrew Hattori 415-291-4417 NEWS RELEASE EMBARGOED: Do not publish or broadcast until 9:00 p.m. PDT on Wednesday , July 23, 2014. Para ver este comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Strong Support for Global Warming Law Tempered by Concerns About Gas, Electricity Prices MAJORITIES OPPOSE INCREASED FRACKING, FAVOR KEYS TONE XL PIPELIN E SAN FRANCISCO , July 23 , 2014— Most Californians support the state’s landmark law mandating the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, according to a statewide survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC). More specifically, str ong majorities support two aspects of the state’s efforts to address global warming: a requirement that oil companies produce cleaner transportation fuels and the goal that a third of California’s electricity come from renewable energy sources. But residents’ support declines significantly if these two efforts lead to higher gas prices or electricity bills. About t wo-thirds of C alifornians (68%) support th e state law, AB 32, w hich r equires California t o reduce its em issions t o 1990 levels by 2020. Strong majorities hav e favored this law since the survey first asked about it in July 20 06, but a partisan divide has emerged o n the question. While most Democrats, Republicans, a nd independents favored t he law i n 2006, support since then has i ncreased 14 points among De mocrats (from 67 % to 81% today) and dropped 26 points among R epublicans (from 65% to 39 % today). Support has dipped slightly among independents (from 68% to 62% today). A strong majority of Californians (65%) favor the state making its own policies to address global warming. On e explanation for Californians’ consistent support for state action on global warming is that relatively few (26%) think that these efforts will lead to job losses. Most say the state’s efforts will result in more jobs (39%) or won’t affect the number of jobs (2 7%). Beginning next year, oil companies in California must comply with the state’s cap- and-trade rules by either producing transportation fuels with lower emissions or buying emissions allowances or offsets . Some argue that this will increase gas prices, while others say any increase would be small. A large majority of Californians (76%) favor this requirement, but support declines to 3 9 percent if the result is higher prices at the pump. A strong majority of adults (76%) favor a state law passed in 2011 that calls for a third of California’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. But support declines to 46 percent if meeting this goal means paying more for electricity. Summing up, Mark Baldassare, PPIC president and CEO, said: “Californians want to see government action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but their strong support for clean energy policies diminishes if they have to pay higher electricity bills or gas prices.” Most Califo rnians say global warming is a very serious (49%) or somewhat serious (31%) threat to the economy and quality of life for California’s future. Democrats (59%) are much more likely than July 2014 Californians and the Environment 3 PPIC Statewide Survey independents (43%) or Republicans (26%) to consider the threat very ser ious. Across racial/ethnic groups, whites (43%) are the least likely to say the threat is very serious (50% Asians, 54% blacks, 57% Latinos). Also more likely to see the threat as very serious: Californians under age 55, those with only a high school educa tion or less, and those with household incomes less than $40,000. Reflecting the view that global warming is a threat, 61 percent of Californians say the state government should act right away on its plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, rather than w ait for the economy and job situation to improve. Support for taking immediate action is lower among likely voters (52%) . DIVIDED ON CAP-AND -TRADE, MAJORITY FAVOR CARBON TAX Although the state’s cap- and-trade system took effect in 2012, awareness of this program is not high among Californians . Just 13 percent say they have heard a lot about it, while 32 percent have heard a little and 55 percent have heard nothing at all about this system , which sets limits on carbon dioxide emissions. Awareness is higher a mong likely voters (24% heard a lot, 39% a little, 37% nothing at all). After being read a brief description, Californians are more likely to favor (51%) than oppose (40%) the program . Likely voters are slightly more likely to oppose it (43% favor, 50% oppose). Opposition is highest (66%) among those who have heard a lot about cap-and -trade . There is majority support among those who have heard a little (56%) or nothing at all (53%) about the program. Under a recent agreement between the governor and legisl ature, 25 percent of the revenues generated by the cap -and -trade program will be spent on high- speed rail, 35 percent on other mass transit projects and affordable housing near transit , and the rest for other purposes. When asked about this plan, 59 percent of adults and 51 percent of likely voters say they favor it. State government is relying on the cap -and- trade program to meet the emissions reductions goals set by AB 32, but some argue that another effective method would be to tax companies for the ca rbon pollution they emit. About half of Californians (52%) say they have heard a lot (16%) or a little (36%) about this type of carbon tax. Awareness is higher among likely voters (64% heard a lot or a little). Asked if they would favor a carbon tax, 58 percent of all adults and 54 percent of likely voters say yes. On other energy policies, overwhelming majorities of adults favor requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in the U.S. (85%) and increasing federal funding t o develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology (78%). Most residents (64%) oppose building more nuclear power plants —as they have since the 2011 nuclear power plant disaster in Japan. A slim majority of adults (51%) oppose allowing more oil drilling off the California coast, while 46 percent are in favor . Opposition to offshore drilling was slightly higher in 2010 (59%) , after the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. 54 PERCENT OPPOSE MORE FRACKING, 53 PERCENT FAVOR KEYSTONE PIPELINE As debates continue over hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, at least half of adults (54% oppose, 36% favor ) and likely voters (50% oppose, 40% favor ) oppose this method of oil and natural gas extraction. Majorities oppose fracking in the San Francisco Bay Area (61%), Central Valley (56%), Los Angeles (55%), and Orange/San Diego (55%). Residents of the Inland Empire are divided (43% favor, 42% oppose). Asked about another contentious issue— building the Keystone XL pipeline to transport oil from Canada to refineries in Texas —majorities of California adults (53%) and likely voters (58%) express support . Most Republicans (73 %) and independents (56%) favor building the pipeline, while half of Democrats (50%) oppose it (39% favor). DROUGHTS, WILDFIRES TOP WORRIES ABOUT EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING Is global warming already having an impact? Yes, say 62 percent of Californians. About a quarter (23%) say global warming’s effects will be felt in the future, and 12 percent say they will never happen. A strong July 2014 Californians and the Environment 4 PPIC Statewide Survey majority say they are very concerned (40%) or somewhat concerned (34%) about global warming. Only about a quarter are not too concerned (11%) or not at all co ncerned (15%). Asked about some of the possible effects of global warming in California, majorities say they are very concerned about droughts (64%) or wildfires (61%) that are more severe. Fewer express this level of concern about heat waves that are more severe (44%) or rising sea levels (32%). Across regions, residents of the Central Valley are the most likely to be very concerned about droughts (72%) and residents of the Inland Empire are the least likely (57%). MOST SAY WATER DISTRICTS SHOULD REQUIRE RESIDENTS TO USE LESS In response to an open-ended question , 35 percent name water supply or drought as the most important environmental issue facing California today . This represents an increase of 27 points since July 2011 , and the first time in environmental surveys dating back to 2000 that air pollution has not been the top issue. Today, 14 percent mention air pollution, down 13 points since 2011. Amid reports of worsening drought conditions, 54 percent of Californians say water supply is a big problem i n their part of the state, 25 percent say it is somewhat of a problem, and only 21 percent say it is not much of a problem. Regionally, Californians living on the coast (52%) are about as likely as those living inland (58%) to say that water supply is a bi g problem in their areas. In yet another measure of their concern about drought, strong majorities of residents (75%) and likely voter (70%) say they favor their local water districts requiring residents to reduce water use. Residents across the state are in favor, with those in Los Angeles (80%) the most supportive. What do Californians think is the primary cause of the drought? Half (51%) say it is natural weather patterns, 38 percent say it is global warming. Baldassare noted: “Many Californians are very concerned that global warning will lead to more severe droughts, yet most believe that the current water crisis is a result of natural weather patterns.” Asked about the cause of the state’s current wildfires, 55 percent of residents say they are mostly the result of natural weather patterns and 31 percent say the primary cause is global warming. The legislature continues to discuss downsizing an $11.1 billion state bond for water projects that is currently on the November ballot. How would residents vo te on the measure with a price tag of $11.1 billion? A majority (61%) would vote yes (22% no), as would about half of likely voters (51% yes, 26% no). When those who would vote no are asked how they would vote if the bond were a smaller amount, support increases by 8 points for both adults (69% yes, 14% no) and likely voters (59% yes, 18% no). Asked how important it is that voters pass the state water bond, 46 percent say it is very important and 30 percent say it is somewhat important (likely voters: 44% v ery important, 24% somewhat important). MORE KEY FINDINGS  Brown leads Kashkari, 52 percent to 33 percent, among likely voters —page 23 In the governor’s race, Jerry Brown has the support of 80 percent of Democrats and 52 percent of independents, while challenger Neel Kashkari has the support of 70 percent of Republicans.  Brown’s job approval holds steady —page 20 Majorities of Californians (53%) and likely voters (56%) approve of the governor’s job performance. The legislature’s job approval rat ing is 38 percent among adults and 31 percent among likely voters .  Obama’s approval rating stays near its record low in California— page 19 President Obama’s approval rating is 50 percent among adults and 47 percent among likely voters. Congress continues t o have low approval ratings among Californians (22% adults, 15% likely voters). July 2014 Californians and the Environment 5 POLICY PREFERENCES KEY FINDINGS  Solid m ajorities of Californians continue to say the state should take action right away to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and that it should act independently of the federal government to address global warming . (page s 7, 8 )  Most Californians say that fuel providers should be required to produce cleaner transportation fuels, but support drops if this would increase prices at the pump. A cross parties, Republicans are the least supportive . (page 9 )  A strong majority (75%) favor setting stricter emissions limits on power plants. ( page 9)  Fifty -eight percent of Californians favor the idea of a carbon tax on companies for greenhouse gas emissions . Slightly fewer (51%) favor the state’s cap -and -trade program , while 59 percent favor the recently enacted plan for how to spend cap- and- trade revenues, which earmarks 25 percent for high -speed rail . (pages 10, 11)  Strong majorities continue to favor requiring automakers to improve the fuel efficiency of cars ; there is also strong support for federal funding for renewable energy projects . Two in three oppose building more nuclear power plant s and 51 percent oppose increased oil drilling off the California coast . A majority favor the state’s renewable energy goals, but support declines if it means higher electricity bills. ( pages 12, 13 )  A slim majority continue to oppose increased use of fracking, while a slim majority favor building the Keystone XL pipeline. (page 14 ) 52 25 43 33 34 34 0 20 40 60 80 100 DemRepInd Percent registered voters Favor, but not if it increases gas prices Favor, even if it increases gas prices Require Oil Companies to Produce Fuels with Lower Emissions Favor59% Oppose35% Don't know6% State Spending Plan for Cap-and-Trade Revenues All adults 57 48535856 6561 36 46423840 3035 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent all adults Right away When economy improves When the State Should Take Action to Reduce Emissions July 2014 Californians and the Environment 6 PPIC Statewide S urvey GLOBAL WARMING AND C ALIFORNIA’S FUTURE Consistent with attitudes expressed in previous years, eight in 10 Californians say that global warming is a very serious (49%) or somewhat serious (31%) threat to California’s future economy and quality of life. Since we first asked this question in July 2005, more than seven in 10 have said global warming poses a very or somewhat serious threat to the state’s future. Still, there are some differences in the perceived degree of threat that global warming poses. For example, Democrats (59%) are much more likely than independents (43%) and far more likely than Republicans (26%) to say the threat is very serious. Across racial/ethnic groups, whites (43%) are the least likely to say the threat is very serious (50% As ians, 54% blacks, 57% Latinos). The percentage of Californians who consider global warming to be a very serious threat to the state’s future is higher among those younger than age 55, those with only a high school education or less, and those with househol d incomes less than $40,000. “How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future?” All adults Race/Ethnicity Likely voters Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Very serious 49% 50 % 54 % 57 % 43 % 46 % Somewhat serious 31 39 33 34 28 25 Not too serious 9 9 8 5 11 10 Not at all serious 10 2 3 3 17 17 Don’t know 1 1 3 1 2 2 Reflecting their view that global warming poses a threat to the state, a solid majority of Californians (61%) say the state government should act right away to reduce greenhouse gas emissions rather than wait for the economy and job situation to improve. Support for immediate state action is lower among likely voters (52% take action now, 42% wait for economy to improve). Support among all adults for taking action right away fluctuated as the state weathered the worst of the recent recession (57% July 2008, 48% July 2009, 53% July 2010, 58% July 2011, 56% July 2012, 65% July 2013, 61% today) . T oday voters remain deeply divided along party lines (73% of Democrats say take action right away, 64% of Republicans say wait for the economy to improve) . Across regions, about six in 10 residents in Orange/San Diego (63%), the San Francisco Bay Area (63%), the Central Valley (61%) , and Los Angeles (60%) say the state should act now; a somewhat lower share (52%) in the Inland Empire agree. Majorities across demographic groups say the state should take immediate action on its plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Latinos (69%) ar e the most likely across racial/ethnic groups to express this view (63% Asians , 58% blacks, 54% whites). Among those who say that global warming is a very serious threat, 77 percent favor the state acting now to reduce greenhouse gas emissions rather than waiting for the economy to improve. Among those who consider global warming a somewhat serious threat, 62 percent also favor the state taking steps right away to address it. “When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it take action right away, or should it wait until the state economy and job situation improve to take action?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Take action right away 61% 73 % 30 % 59 % 52 % Wait for state economy and job situation to improve 35 23 64 37 42 Don’t know 4 4 7 4 6 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 7 PPIC Statewide S urvey CALIFORNIA POLICIES ON GLOBAL WARMING A strong majority of Californians (68%) remain in favor of the state law (AB 32 ) that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Six in 10 likely voters (59%) favor this law. S upport among all adults peaked at 78 percent in July 2007, but strong majorities have favored this law since we first ask ed about it in July 2006, even during the recession (65% July 2006, 78% July 2007, 73% July 2008, 66% July 2009, 67% July 2010, 67% July 2011, 71% July 2012, 67% July 2013, 68% today). What has shifted over time are the levels of support among partisans . In July 2006 , two in three Democrats, Republicans, and independents all expressed support. Since then, support is up 14 points among Democrats (from 67% to 81% today), down 26 points among Republicans (from 65% to 39% today), and down a slight 6 points among independents (from 68% to 62% today). “To address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 68% 81 % 39 % 62 % 59 % Oppose 23 11 48 30 33 Don’t know 9 8 13 8 8 Most Californians not only favor current state efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but on a more philosophical level, a strong majority (65%) also support the state government making its own policies to address global warming , separate from the federal government. Since we first ask ed this question in July 2005, majorities have supported the state government acting independently of the federal government on this issue . Support was lowest in July 2005 (54%) and highest in July 2007 (67%). Among likely voters, 59 percent favor the state making its own global warming policies. Across parties, Democrats (74%) and independents (62%) are much more likely than Republicans (43%) to favor this idea. One explanation for Californians’ unflagging support for state efforts to address global warming is that relatively few think that such efforts will lead to job losses. Most say these efforts will result in more jobs (39%) or will not affect the number of jobs (27%); 26 percent say there will be fewer jobs as the state takes steps to reduce global warming. Last July, 45 percent said more jobs would result, 21 percent said there would be no effect on job numbers, and 24 percent said there would be fewer jobs. Since we first asked this question in July 2010, at least two in three Californians have said either that there would be more jobs or that there would be no change in the number of jobs. Democrats (47%) are more likely than independents (35%) or Republicans (22%) to believe efforts to reduce global warming will result in more jobs for people around the st ate. Republicans (40%) are the most likely to say these efforts would lead to job losses (13% Democrats, 25% independents). “Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming will cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, will cause there to be fewer jobs, or won’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind More jobs 39% 47 % 22 % 35 % 34 % Fewer jobs 26 13 40 25 29 Wouldn’t affect number of jobs 27 30 32 31 29 Don’t know 8 9 6 10 8 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 8 PPIC Statewide S urvey REGULATING GREENHOUS E GAS EMISSIONS At both the state and federal levels, policies have been enacted or proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A strong majority of Californians favor requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances (73% ). More than seven in 10 have expressed support for this policy since we first asked this question in July 2008. Today, 68 percent of likely voters and majorities across parties (83% Democrats, 75% independents, 58% Republicans) and regional and demographi c groups favor this idea. Another popular policy is requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions: 77 percent of all adults and 72 percent of likely voters express support. More than three in four adults h ave favored this idea since July 2008, and it garners bipartisan majority support (89% Democrats, 59% Republicans); 76 percent of independents agree. More than seven in 10 across regions and demographic groups express support. In June, the Obama administration and the Environmental Protection Agency proposed new rules requiring power plants to reduce their emissions to 30 percent below 2005 levels. A vast majority of Californians (75%) favor setting stricter emissions limits on power plants, a level of support nearly identical to last year (76%). In a similar question asked by ABC News/Washington Post in early June, 70 percent of adults nationwide express ed support. Among likely voters in our survey, 67 percent favor this idea. Strong majoriti es of Democrats (87%) and independents (74%) express support , while Republicans are divided (49% favor, 47% oppose). More than two in three across regions and demographic groups favor this idea. “How about setting stricter emissions limits on power plants?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 75% 87 % 49 % 74 % 67 % Oppose 21 11 47 23 30 Don ’t know 3 2 4 3 2 Beginning in 2015, oil companies in California will be required to comply with the state’s cap -and -trade rules, either producing transportation fuels with lower emissions or buying emissions allowances or offsets . Some argue this will increase gas prices , while others say any increase would be small . Most Californians (76%) favor requiring oil companies to produce transportation fuels with lower emissions , but support declines to 39 percent if it means an incr ease in gas prices at the pump. Seventy percent of likel y voters favor this requirement (41 % favor it even with higher gas prices ). M ajorities across parties f avor the idea in general, but Democrats are the most likely to favor it even if it increases gas prices (52% Democrats, 43% independents, 25% Republicans). Three in four across income groups favor the idea, but it is only among more affluent residents that a majority remain in f avor if it means higher gas prices. “How about requiring oil companies to produce transportation fuels with lower emissions?” ( if favor: “ Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in gasoline prices at the pump?” ) All adults Household income Likely voters Under $40,000 $40,000 to under $80,000 $80,000 or more Favor (total) 76% 77 % 77 % 75 % 70 % Favor, even if it means an increase in gas prices 39 32 39 54 41 Favor, but not if it means an increase in gas prices 37 45 38 21 29 Oppose 20 20 20 21 28 Don ’t know 3 3 3 4 2 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 9 PPIC Statewide S urvey CAP-AND -TRADE The state’s efforts to lower greenhouse gas emissions include a cap- and-trade system that has taken effect in the past few years ; it involves the state enforcing emissions “caps” by issuing permits that can be “traded” among companies at quarterly auctions . Public awareness of this state program has not changed much even as policy discussions about its implementation are taking place. Forty- five percent of Califor nia adults have heard a lot (13%) or a little (32%) about cap -and- trade, and 63 percent of likely voters have heard a lot (24%) or a little (39%) about it. Awareness of this program was similar in July 2012 (42% adults, 60 % likely voters) and July 2013 (45% adults, 61% likely voters). Today, Republicans (60%) are more likely than others to say they have heard about cap- and-trade, but fewer than one in four across partisan, regional, and racial/ethnic groups have heard a lot about it. “How much, if anything, have you heard about the state government policy called ‘cap- and-trade’ that sets limits on carbon dioxide emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind A lot 13% 12% 21% 19% 24% A little 32 36 39 31 39 Nothing at all 55 51 40 50 37 Don’t know – – – – – After being read a brief description, about half of California adults (51%) favor the cap -and- trade system and four in 10 (40%) are opposed. Likely voters are somewhat more likely to oppose than favor it (43% favor, 50% oppose) . About half of California adults have also expressed support for cap-and -trade when we asked similar questions in the past (49% 2009, 50% 2010, 54% 2011, 53% 2012). Today, majorities of Democrats (57%) and independents (56%) are in favor while majorities of Republicans (57%) are opposed to the cap- and-trade system. Those who have heard a lot about cap -and -trade are the most likely to oppose it (66%); by contrast, there is majority support for the cap- and trade system among those who have heard a little (56%) or nothing at all (53%) about it . “In the system called ‘cap-and -trade,’ the California state gover nment issues permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that do not use all their permits can sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies will find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, because that will be cheaper than buying permits. Do you favor or oppose the cap-and -trade system?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 51% 57% 32% 56% 43% Oppose 40 33 57 38 50 Don ’t know 9 10 11 6 8 The revenues being generated by the cap -and -trade program are intended to further the goals of AB 32 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and on projects to improve environmental conditions in lower - income and disadvantaged communities. When asked about the governor and legislature’s recent agreement to spend 25 percent on high- speed rail, 35 percent on affordable housing and other mass transit, and the rest for other purposes, a majority of California adults (59% favor, 35 % oppose) and likely voters (51% fav or, 44% oppose) are supportive. Majorities of Democrats (68%) and independents (60%) are in favor, while majorities of Republicans (64%) are opposed to this spending plan. Half or more are in favor of the cap -and -trade spending plan across regional , racial/ethnic, and demographic groups. July 2014 Californians and the Environment 10 PPIC Statewide S urvey CARBON TAX Although the state government is banking on its cap-and -trade program to help meet the emissions reduction goals set by AB 32, some argue that another effective method is to tax companies for the carbon polluti on they emit. About half of Californians (52%) say they have heard a lot (16%) or a little (36%) about the idea of a carbon tax on companies for greenhouse ga s emissions. The other half (48%) have heard nothing at all about this idea. Awareness is higher a mong likely voters (64% heard a lot or a little). Across parties, majorities have heard of the carbon tax idea (55% Democrats, 60% Republicans, 60% independents). Awareness is much higher among whites (61%) and Asians (55%) than among Latinos (40%) or blacks (29%). Men are far more likely than women to say they have heard a lot or a little about a carb on tax (62% to 40%) and awareness increases sharply as education and income levels rise. “How much, if anything, have you heard about the idea of a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind A lot 16% 18 % 22 % 22 % 28 % A little 36 37 38 38 36 Nothing at all 48 45 38 39 36 Don’t know 1 – 1 1 – Fifty -eight percent of Californians favor the idea of imposing a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions . Support was similar in earlier surveys (56% July 2009, 60% July 2010, 60% July 2011 , 58% today). Among likely voters, 54 percent favor this idea. A carbon tax is a far more popular idea among Democrats (71%) and independents (59%) than among Republicans (34%). At least half of residents across regions favor this idea, with support highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (63%), followed by Orange/San Diego (61%), Los Angeles (57%), the Central Valley (52%), and the Inland Empire (51%). Across racial/ethnic groups, Asians (77%) are much more likely than others (61% Latinos, 56% blacks, 51% whites) to favor a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions. Six in 10 men (58%) and women (59%) express support. Support is much higher among college graduates than among those with less education. Among those who have heard a lot about the idea of a carbon tax , 4 5 percent favor it; 70 percent of those who have heard a little are in favor , as are 54 percent of those who have heard nothing at al l. Among those who favor the cap- and-trade system, 74 percent also favor a carbon tax. Among those who oppose cap -and trade, 41 percent favor ( and 52% oppose) a carbon tax. “Would you favor or oppose a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 58% 71 % 34 % 59 % 54 % Oppose 33 20 58 33 39 Don ’t know 9 9 8 8 7 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 11 PPIC Statewide S urvey ENERGY POLICY We repeated past survey questions to track trends in public support for five energy policies over time. Overwhelming majorities of Californians (85%) and likely voters (79%) favor requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in the United States. Support for this proposal was similar last July (83% adults, 82% likely voters) and overwhelming majoriti es have favored this proposal since we started asking this question in 2003 . There is strong support across parties, regions, racial/ethnic , and demographic groups. “How about requiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 85% 92% 70% 82% 79% Oppose 13 7 28 18 20 Don’t know 1 1 3 – 1 When asked about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast, a slim majority of Californians (51%) say they are opposed , while a slim majority of likely voters (51%) are in favor . Opposition to oil drilling off the California coast today is similar to last July (54% adults). California adults were divided on this iss ue in 2011 and 2012, while opposition was slightly higher in 2010 (59%) , after the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Slim majorities of California adults were in favor of more oil drilling in July 2008 (51%) and July 2009 (51%), while slim majorities wer e opposed to oil drilling off the California coast between July 2003 and July 2007. There is sharp division across party lines today: 68 percent of Democrats are opposed and 70 percent of Republicans are in favor; independents are divided (47% favor, 51% oppose). While a solid majority of Inland Empire residents (61%) favor allowing more oil drilling, m ajorities in other region s are opposed . “How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Favor 46% 44% 41% 42% 46% 61% 51% Oppose 51 51 56 55 52 36 46 Don ’t know 3 5 2 4 2 3 3 Majorities of California adults (64%) and likely voters (56%) oppose building more nuclear power plants at this time. Majorities also expressed opposition last July (63% adults, 58% likely voters) , and this has been the trend since 2011 after the nuclear power plant disaster in Japan. Californians were c losely divided from July 2008 to July 2010, and opposed to building more nuclear pl ants from July 2005 to July 2007. Today, majorities of Democrats and indep endents are opposed and Republicans are divided. Majorities across regional , racial/ethnic, and nearly all demographic groups oppose building more nuclear power plants. “How about building more nuclear power plants at this time?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 31% 24% 48% 34% 38% Oppose 64 70 45 63 56 Don’t know 5 5 7 3 6 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 12 PPIC Statewide S urvey ENERGY POLICY (CONTINUED) More than seven in 10 California adults (78%) and likely voters (73%) favor an increase in federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology. Overwhelming majorities have expressed support for this proposal since we first asked this question in July 2008. Today, majority support is evident across party lines, though Democrats (86%) and independents (79%) are more likely than Republicans (57%) to favor increased federal spending for this purpose . There is also s trong majority support for this proposal across regional , racial/ethnic, and demographic groups. “How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 78% 86% 57% 79% 73% Oppose 20 11 40 20 25 Don’t know 3 3 3 1 2 A state law passed in 2011 calls for a third of California’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Strong majorities of California adults (76%) and likely voters (69%) favor this law. Forty- six percent of adults are in favor of it even if it means an increase in their electricity bills , while 30 percent favor it but not if it costs more. Levels of support were similar in July 2013 (44% favor even with increased electrici ty bills, 35% do not favor if it increases electricity bills), July 2012 (44% favor even with increased electricity bills, 33% do not favor if it increases electricity bills, and July 2011 (46% favor even with increased electricity bills, 31% do not favor if it increases electricity bills). Overwhelming majorities of Democrats (86%) and independents (77%) and a slim majority of Rep ublicans (52%) are in favor of this state law. A solid majority of Democrats (61%) are in favor even if it means an increase in their electricity bills , compared to a slim majority of independents (52%) and only about one in four Republicans (27%). Strong majorities favor this policy a cross regional , racial/ethnic, and demographic groups, but the re are differing levels of support if it means an increase in electricity bills. Majorities of San Francisco Bay Area (58%) and Orange/San Diego (51%) residents support the law even if it means an increase in their electricity bills, compared to fewer than half in Los Angeles (44%), the Inl and Empire (39%), and the Central Valley (35%). Across age groups, the proportion in favor even if it means higher electricity bills is much higher among the youngest adults (57% younger than age 35, 42% age 35 to 54, 40% age 55 and older). Across income g roups, the percentage who are in favor even if it means higher electricity bills increases somewhat as annual household income rises (42% under $40,000, 49% $40,000 to $80,000, 54% $80,000 or more). “How about requiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2020? Do you favor or oppose this state law?” (if favor: “Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in your own electricity bill?”) All adults Party Likely v oters Dem Rep Ind Favor (total) 76% 86 % 52 % 77 % 69 % Favor, even if it means an increase in electricity bill 46 61 27 52 46 Favor, but not if it means an increase in electricity bill 30 25 25 25 23 Oppose 20 9 45 20 28 Don’t know 3 5 4 2 2 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 13 PPIC Statewide S urvey FRACKING AND KEYSTONE PIPELINE Fracking to extract oil and natural gas remains controversial in the state ; some legislators are calling for a moratorium while others tout the economic and employment benefits of this drilling method. At least half of C alifornia adults (54%) and likely voters (50%) are opposed to the increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, for oil and natural gas extraction. The level of opposition to fracking among adults was similar in May (54%) , and about half were opposed in our polling last summer (47% May 2013, 51% July 2013, 53% September 2013). Today, 63 percent of Democrats and 50 percent of independents are opposed to the increased use of fracking, while 53 percent of Republicans are in favor of it . Majorities of San Francisco Bay Area (61%), Central Valley (56%) , Los Angeles (55%), and Orange/San Diego (55%) residents oppose this idea, while those living in the Inland Empire are divided (43% favor, 42% oppose) . In a September 2013 Pew Research Center survey among adults nationwide, 44 percent were in favor of fracking, 49 percent were opposed, and 7 percent were undecided. “Do you favor or oppose increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, a drilling method that uses high- pressure water and chemicals to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Favor 36% 33% 29% 35% 37% 43% 40% Oppose 54 56 61 55 55 42 50 Don ’t know 10 10 11 9 8 14 9 There is also controversy around building the Keystone XL pipeline to transport oil from Canada’s oil sands to refineries in Texas. Majorities of California adults (53%) and likely voters (58%) are in favor of building the Keystone XL pipeline. Support among Californians for this proposal has increased somewhat since May (46%) ; however, it was in a similar range last year (53% May 2013, 51% July 2013). Today, an overwhelming majority of Republicans (73%) and a majority of in dependents (56%) are in favor of building the Keystone XL pipeline, while half of Democrats (50%) oppose it (39% favor) . Majorities in the Inland Empire (63%), Central Valley (56% ), and Orange/San Diego (54%) are in favor, while support falls short of a ma jority in the San Francisco Bay A rea (49%) and Los Angeles (47%). Men (57%) are more likely than women (48%) to favor building the Keystone XL pipeline. S upport is higher among those ages 35 and older (55% 35 to 54, 57% 55 and older) than those younger tha n age 35 (46%) and among those with annual household incomes of $40,000 or more (58% $40,000 to $80,000, 56% $80,000 or more) than those earning less than $40,000 (47%). Support is higher among whites (56%), Asians (53%), and Latinos (49%) than among black s (38%). In a Pew Research Center national survey in March, 61 percent of adults supported the building of the Keystone XL pipeline. “Do you favor or oppose building the Keystone XL pipeline that would transport oil from Canada’s oil sands region through the Midwest to refineries in Texas?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Favor 53% 39% 73% 56% 58% Oppose 37 50 20 36 34 Don’t know 10 11 7 8 9 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 14 OVERALL PERCEPTIONS AND POLITICAL CONTEXT KEY FINDINGS  The vast majority of Californians believe global warming is either happening now or will happen in the future. Although most express concern about global warming, just 40 percent are very concerned. (page 16)  A record -high share of Californians say they are very concerned about more-severe droughts as an impact of global warming. Still, Californians are more likely to attribute the current drought t o natural weather patterns than to global warming . ( page s 17, 18 )  Approval ratings of President Obama and the U.S. Congress are at or near their record lows . Approval of their handling of environmental issues tracks their overall approval. (page 19 )  Heading into a reelection campaign, a slim majority approve of Governor Brown’s job performance, while slightly fewer approve of his handling of environmental issues. About four in 10 approve of the legislature, both overall and for its handling of environ mental issues. ( page 20)  A plurality of Californians (35%) say water supply is the most important environmental issue ; 54 percent say it is a big problem in their part of the state. Three in four would favor their local water district requiring residents to reduce water use. (page 21 )  Fifty -one percent of likely voters would support the $11.1 billion water bond currently on the ballot. Another 8 percent would vote yes if the amount was lower . ( p age 22 )  Most l ikely voters say environmental positions are important i n the governor’s race, in which Jerry Brown leads challenger Neel Kashkari by 1 9 points . (page 23 ) Yes51% No, but yes if lower amount8% No, even if lower amount18% Don't know23% Vote on $11.1 Billion Water Bond 53 38 47 38 0 20 40 60 80 Governor BrownCalifornia Legislature Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of State Elected Officials 50 22 47 24 0 20 40 60 80 President ObamaU.S. Congress Percent all adults Job overall Environmental issues Approval Ratings of Federal Elected Officials Likely voters July 2014 Californians and Education 15 PPIC Statewide S urvey ONSET OF GLOBAL WARM ING A solid majority of Californians (62% ) say that the effects of global warming have already begun, 23 percent say they will happen at some point in the future (12% say they will affect future generations), and 12 percent say the effects will never occur. Since July 2005, majorities of Californians have said in annual surveys that the effects of global warming have already begun. Today, Californians in our survey (62%) are slightly more likely than adults nationwide in a March Gallup poll (54%) to say global warming’s effects have already begun (27% sometime in the future, 18% will never happen). Solid majorities of Democrats (75%) and independents (63%) say the effects of global warming have already begun, while among Republicans only 35 percent hold this view and 26 percent say they will never happen. Majorities across regional and demographic groups believe that the effects have already begun. The share holding this view is higher in Orange/San Diego (68%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (67%) than in the Central Valley , Los Angeles (59% each) , or the Inland Empire (57%). Asians (71%) and Latinos (67%) are more likely than blacks (58%) and whites (57%) to say global warming’s effects have begun. Women (66%) are somewhat more likely than men (58%) to hold this view. “Which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen— they have already begun to happen; they will start happening within a few years; they will start happening within your lifetime; they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; or they will never happen?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Have already begun to happen 62% 75% 35% 63% 57% Within a few years 4 4 3 3 3 Within lifetime 7 5 9 7 5 Will affect future generations 12 9 24 8 12 Will never happen 12 4 26 16 19 Don’t know 3 4 3 3 3 Three in four Californians are either very (40%) or somewhat concerned (34%) about global warming; only one in four are not concerned (11% not too, 15% not at all concerned). Democrats (58%) are far more likely than independents (32%) and Republicans (17%) to be very concerned; 58 percent of Republicans are not too or not at all concerned. Asians (51 %) are somewhat more likely than Latinos (44%), blacks (41%), and whites (35%) to be very concerned. Across regions, about four in 10 say they are very concerned about global warming. Compared with Californians in our survey (40% very concerned), adults nationwide are somewhat less likely to be very concerned (32%) about global warming , according to a May CBS News poll (34% somewhat, 16% not too, 17% not at all c oncerned). “How concerned are you about global warming?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Very concerned 40% 39% 43% 39% 37% 42% 40% Somewhat concerned 34 30 34 35 42 28 27 Not too concerned 11 14 9 9 11 10 12 Not at all concerned 15 15 13 17 11 20 21 Don’t know – 1 – – – – – July 2014 Californians and the Environment 16 PPIC Statewide S urvey IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WA RMING Majorities of Californians are at least somewhat concerned about four possible impacts of global warming in the state. More than six in 10 adults are very concerned about droughts (64%) and wildfir es (61%) that are more severe. Fewer Californians express this level of concern for heat waves that are more severe (44%) or rising sea levels (32%). The sh are saying they are very concerned about droughts that are more severe is up 15 points since last July (49%) and is at a new high (previously 60% in July 2007). Concern about more -severe wildfires was similar in the past. (This is the first time that we have asked about heat waves that are more severe and rising sea levels.) “I am going to name a few of the possible impacts of global warming in California, and I would like you to tell me whether you are very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about each one. How about…?” Droughts that are more severe Wildfires that are more severe Heat waves that are more severe Rising sea levels Very concerned 64% 61% 44% 32% Somewhat concerned 23 25 29 32 Not too concerned 5 6 15 19 Not at all concerned 8 8 12 16 Don’t know 1 1 1 2 In each of these areas , Democrats are more likely than independents and Republicans to be very concerned. Across regions, Central Valley residents (72%) are the most likely , and Inland Empire residents (57%) the least likely, to be very concerned about droughts . Concern declines as income levels rise. Blacks, La tinos, Los Angeles and Central Valley residents, and lower -income residents are more likely than others to be very concerned about wildfires. Blacks, Latinos, and Central Valley and lower - income residents are most likely to be very concerned about heat waves . Blacks are more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to be very concerned about rising sea levels. Percent s aying very concerned Droughts that are more severe Wildfires that are more severe Heat waves that are more severe Rising sea levels All adults 64% 61% 44% 32% Party Democrats 77 71 54 46 Republicans 42 41 21 9 Independents 66 55 39 28 Race/Ethnicity Asians 65 56 40 38 Blacks 68 74 61 46 Latinos 69 69 60 37 Whites 61 55 32 25 Region Central Valley 72 65 51 33 San Francisco Bay Area 63 55 41 31 Los Angeles 60 66 43 34 Orange/San Diego 68 59 41 26 Inland Empire 57 54 44 30 Household income Under $40,000 69 70 53 36 $40,000 to under $80,000 62 56 43 28 $80,000 or more 58 51 30 32 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 17 PPIC Statewide S urvey IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WA RMING (CONTINUED) What do Californians think is the primary cause of the state’s current severe drought ? Half of Californians (51%) believe that it is mostly due to natural weather patterns, nearly four in 10 (38%) say it is due to global warming, and about one in 10 volunteer that it is because of both (7%) or neither (1%) of these things . Californians hel d similar views during the state’s last drought (July 2008: 46% weather patterns, 37% global warming). Eight in 10 Republicans (80%) attribute the current drought to natural weather patterns, as do half of independents (51%, 40% global warming). Democrats are about as likely to blame weather patterns (41%) as they are to blame global warming (45%). Across regions, residents are more likely to say that the current drought is due to weather patterns than to global warming. A solid majority of w hites (62%) say weather patterns are to blame, while a majority of Asians (56%) point to global warming. A mong blacks (46% weather, 46% global warming) and Latinos (43% weather, 46% global warming) , similar shares point to each cause . “From what you’ve read and heard, p lease tell me which of these statements is closer to your view. The state’s current drought is mostly a result of global warming, or mostly a result of natural weather patterns.” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Global warming 38% 45% 15% 40% 32% Natural weather patterns 51 41 80 51 59 Both (volunteered) 7 9 4 4 5 Neither (volunteered) 1 1 1 4 2 Don’t know 2 5 1 2 2 As for the state’s current wildfires, 55 percent of Californians say they are mostly due to natural weather patterns, three in 10 (31%) say global warming, and 11 percent volunteer both (6%) or neither (5%). Findings were similar in July 2008 (56% weather patterns, 27% global warming). Today, a slightly higher share of likely voters (64%) than all adults (55%) blame weather patterns. Most Republicans blame weather patterns (77%) as do half of independents (53%) and Democrats (50%). Across regions, Inland Empire (59%) residents are the most likely, and Central Valley residents (52%) the least likely, to say weather patterns are the cause of current wildfires. Solid majorities of blacks (67%) and whites (64%) say current wildfires are mostly due to weather patterns, while Asians and Latinos are as likely to say they are due to weath er patterns as they are to say they are due to global warming. “From what you’ve read and heard, please tell me which of these statements is closer to your view. The state’s current wildfires are mostly a result of global warming, or mostly a result of na tural weather patterns.” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Global warming 31% 32% 12% 32% 22% Natural weather patterns 55 50 77 53 64 Both (volunteered) 6 8 4 5 6 Neither (volunteered) 5 4 5 6 4 Don’t know 4 6 1 3 4 Twenty -three percent of Californians say that both wildfires and the current drought are mostly due to global warming and 41 percent say they are both mostly due to natural weather patterns. July 2014 Californians and the Environment 18 PPIC Statewide S urvey APPROVAL RATINGS OF FEDERAL ELECTED OFFICIALS President Obama’s approval rating (50%) is at its record low and near the previous lows reached in May, last December, and September 2011 (51% each time). Approval was at 61 percent last July and has declined since then (55% September, 51% December, 53% January, 52% March, 51% May, 50% today). Among likely voters, approval is at 47 percent. Nationally, in a July Pew Research Center poll, 44 percent approved of the president (49% disapproved). In our survey, partisan differences hold, with 74 percent of Democrats approving an d 79 percent of Republicans disapproving of President Obama; independents are divided (43% approve, 49% disapprove) . Blacks (83%) and Asians (78%) are far more likely than Latinos (51%) and whites (37%) to approve of President Obama. Since July 201 0, about half of Californians have approved of President Obama’s handling of environmental issues (49% 2010, 47% July 2011, 51% July 2012, 53% July 2013, 47% today). In a recent CNN/ORC poll, adults nationwide gave similar approval ratings to President Oba ma on his handling of environmental policy (49% approve, 45% disapprove). In California, 67 percent of Democrats approve of President Obama on this issue , 73 percent of Republicans disapprove, and independents are divided. Blacks (72%) and Asians (60%) are more likely than Latinos (52%) and whites (36%) to approve. “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling…?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind His job as president of the United States Approve 50% 74% 18% 43% 47% Disapprove 46 23 79 49 50 Don ’t know 4 3 3 8 3 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 47 67 19 41 45 Disapprove 42 23 73 47 46 Don ’t know 11 10 8 13 8 The U.S. Congress continues to have low approval ratings among Californians (22%). Last July, approval was at 30 percent (28% September 2013 , 18% December 2013 , 26% January, 19% March, 24% May, 22% today). Approval ratings of the U.S. Congress are lower among likely voters (15%). Nationally, 14 percent of adults nationwide approved of the U.S. Congress in a June CBS News/New York Times poll (78% disapprove). When it comes to the U.S. Congress’ handling of environmental issues, fewer than three in 1 0 Californians have approved since July 2011 (25% July 2011, 27% July 2012, 29% July 2013, 24% today). Fewer than one in four across parties approve of its handling of environmental issues today . Approval is lowest among whites (13%), those earning $40,000 to $79,000 (18%), those with at least some c ollege education (18%), those age 55 and older (15%), and Central Valley residents (17%) . “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling…?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 22% 22% 15% 11% 15% Disapprove 72 75 82 85 83 Don ’t know 6 4 3 5 2 Environmental issues in the United States Approve 24 24 15 13 16 Disapprove 65 70 76 74 78 Don ’t know 11 6 9 13 5 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 19 PPIC Statewide S urvey APPROVAL RATINGS OF STATE ELECTED OFFICIALS Governor Brown has the approval of majorities of Californians (53%) and likely voters (56%). Approval among adults today is similar to May (50%) and last July (48%) . With t he exception of January 2014 (58 %), his approval has been about 50 percent since December 2012. Democr ats (76%) are far more likely than independents (51%) to approve of the governor, and Republicans are more likely to disapprove (54%) than approve (31%). Central Valley (43%) and Inland Empire (44%) residents are the least likely — and San Francisco Bay Area residents (66%) the most likely —to approve of Governor Brown. When it comes to the governor’s handling of environmental issues, 47 percent of adults and 46 percent of likely voters express approval. Approval among adults has increased 8 points since last July (39%). Once again, Democrats (65%) are far more likely than independents (42%) and Republicans (26%) to approve. Across regions, approval is highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (53%) , followed by Los Angeles (48%), the Central Valley (45%), Orange/S an Diego (45%), and the Inland Empire (44%). “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling…?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind His job as governor of California Approve 53% 76% 31% 51% 56% Disapprove 28 12 54 31 34 Don ’t know 19 13 16 18 9 Environmental issues in California Approve 47 65 26 42 46 Disapprove 29 18 48 36 36 Don ’t know 23 17 26 22 18 About four in 10 Californians (38%) continue to approve of the way the California Legislature is handling its job , as they have throughout 2014. Approval was similar last July (36%). Three in 10 likely voters (31%) express approval, similar to May (36%) and last July (33%). About half of Democrats (48%) approve of the legislature ; far f ewer independents (26%) and Republicans (18%) do . About four in 10 residents in Orange/San Diego (44%), Los Angeles (42%), and the San Francisco Bay Area (42%) approve of the legislature; fewer Inland Empire (35%) and Central Valley (29%) residents do . Approval of the legislature’s handling of environmental issues in California is identical to its overall approval (38% each). Similarly, Democrats (47%) are far more likely than independents (29%) and Republicans (22%) to approve. Across regions, San Francisco Bay Area residents (47%) are most likely— and Central Valley residents (34%) are least likely—to approve of the legislature on environmental issues . “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling…?” All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Its job Approve 38% 48% 18% 26% 31% Disapprove 46 36 72 59 56 Don ’t know 16 16 10 15 13 Environmental issues in California Approve 38 47 22 29 33 Disapprove 44 37 62 52 52 Don ’t know 17 17 16 19 16 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 20 PPIC Statewide S urvey WATER POLICY In an open -ended question about the most important environmental issue facing California today, 35 percent name water supply or drought —an increase of 27 points since July 2011 . Fourteen percent mention air pollution —a decrease of 13 points in the same time period . Today’s finding marks the first time in 12 surveys , dating back to 2000 , in which air pollution is not the top issue. Still, in a separate question, six in 10 Californians say air pollution in their part of California is a big (27%) or somewhat of a problem (33%). A mid reports of worsening drought conditions t his summer, 54 percent of Californians say water supply is a big problem in their part of California ; another 25 percent say it is somewhat of a problem. Only 21 percent say it is not much of a problem. The share saying water supply is a big problem was similar in May (59%) and March (55%) of this year, while just 31 percent held this view in December 2012. Central Valley residents (63%) are the most likely to say water s upply is a big problem, followed by those in the San Francisco Bay Area (55%), Orange/San Diego (54%), Inland Empire (51%), and Los Angeles (44%). Th os e living on California’s coast (52%) are about as likely as inland residents (58%) to say water supply is a big problem. Whites (62%) are far more likely than Asians, blacks, and Latinos (46% each) to hold this view . The perception that water supply is a big problem rises sharply as age increases. “Would you say that the supply of water is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Big problem 54% 63% 55% 44% 54% 51% 61% Somewhat of a problem 25 24 26 29 26 16 24 Not much of a problem 21 12 18 26 18 32 15 Don’t know 1 – – 1 3 1 1 As localities discuss how to deal with the current drought and the State Water Resources Control Board takes the unprecedented step of declaring certain types of water waste a criminal infraction, how do Californians view the idea of their local water district making it mandatory for residents to reduce their water use? Overwhelming majorities of Californians (75%) a nd likely voters (70%) favor this idea . Residents across the state are in favor , with support highest in Los Angeles (80%) followed by the Inland Empire (75%), the San Francisco Bay Area (75%), Orange/San Diego (73%), and the Central Valley (69%). Both inl and (72%) and coastal (76%) residents are in favor of mandatory water reductions . M ore than two in three across racial/ethnic groups favor mandatory reductions of water use by residents. But Latinos (82%) and Asians (79%) are more likely than whites (70%) and black s (69%) to be in favor. There is support across age, education, and income groups and among men and women. Among those who name water supply as the most important environmental issue, 77 percent are in favor. “As you may know, the state is currently in a drought. Would you favor or oppose your local water district making it mandatory for residents to reduce their water use?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Favor 75% 69% 75% 80% 73% 75% 70% Oppose 23 27 22 18 26 24 28 Don’t know 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 21 PPIC Statewide S urvey WATER POLICY (CONTINUED) With California mired in a severe drought, state lawmakers are considering alternative proposals to the $11.1 billion state bond measure for water projects that is currently on the November ballot. The general sentiment in the state capitol is that th is bond amount is too large to pass . The governor has stated that he would prefer a bond of about $6 billion . However, the legisl ature has not yet agreed upon a smaller amount . Although the statutory deadline (June 26) has passed, the legislature still has options to replace the current measure. When asked about the $11.1 billion bond measure, 61 percent of adults and 51 percent of likely voters would vote yes, while about one in four adults (22%) and likely voters (26%) would vote no. In March , support was similar among adults (60%) and likely voters (50%) ; it was lower in March 2013 (44% adults, 42% likely voters). In March 2012 , 54 percent of adults and 51 percent of likely voters favored it. When asked about an approximately $6.5 billion bond measure, at least half of adults (55% yes, 33% no) and likely voters (50% yes , 38% no ) favored it in September 2013 . Today, Democrats (65%) are more likely than independents (55%) and far more likely than Republicans (44%) to express support for the $11.1 billion bond . Support is highest in the Inland Empire (65%) and the Central Valley (64%) followed by Orange/San Diego (61%), Los Angeles (59 %), and the San Francisco Bay Area (57%). When those who would vote no are asked how they would vote if the amount were lower , support increases by 8 points both for adults (69% yes, 14% no) and likely voters (59% yes, 18% no). “The legislature is considering an approximately $11.1 billion bond measure for the November 2014 ballot to pay for state water projects. If the election were being held today, would you vote yes or no on this state water bond?” ( if no: “ What if the state water bond was a low er amount, would you vote yes or no?”) All adults Party Likely voters Dem Rep Ind Yes 61% 65% 44% 55% 51% No (total) 22 19 32 25 26 No, but would vote yes if it was a lower amount 8 8 11 7 8 No, even if it was a lower amount 14 11 21 18 18 Don’t know 17 16 24 21 23 Three in four Californians say it is very (46%) or somewhat important (30%) that voters pass the state water bond measure. Three in four also held this view in March 2014 (52% very, 25% somewhat important), March 2013 (39% very, 36% somewhat important), and March 2012 (42% very, 32% somewhat important). Findings among likely voters are similar. Central Valley residents (55%) are the most likely —and San Francisco Bay Area residents (42%) are the least likely—to say it is very important that voters pass the measure. Democrats (49%) are much more likely than independents (36%) and Republicans (35%) to view the measure’s passage as very important. “How important is it that voters pass the state water bond measure — is it very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important?” All adults Region Likely voters Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Orange/ San Diego Inland Empire Very important 46% 55% 42% 48% 44% 44% 44% Somewhat important 30 22 32 33 32 28 24 Not too important 5 5 4 5 4 9 5 Not at all important 7 7 10 6 8 8 12 Don’t know 10 11 11 8 12 11 16 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 22 PPIC Statewide S urvey GUBERNATORIAL ELECTI ON With the gubernatorial election quickly approaching, about half of likely voters are very (11%) or fairly closely (42%) following news about the candidates. Attention to the news today is lower than it was in July 2010 (22 % very, 48% fairly) —or in July 2006 (19 % very, 49% fairly), the last election with an incumbent. On the heels of record -low turnout in the primary election, in which Governor Brown received 54 percent of the vote , the governor now leads Neel Kashkari by a 19 point ma rgin (52% to 33%) among likely voters . In his quest for an unprecedented fourth term as governor of California , Jerry Brown enjoys the support of eight in 10 Democrats (80%) and half of independents (52%) . Neel Kashkari has the support of seven in 10 Repub licans (70%). Latino likely voters (74%) overwhelmingly support Governor Brown while wh ite likely voters are divided (41% Brown, 44% Kashkari). Governor Brown has majority support of likely voters in Los Angeles (63%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (55%). A plurality of likely voters in Orange/San Diego support Brown (48% Brown, 40% Kashkari), while a plurality of Inland Empire likely voters support Kashkari (40% Brown, 48% Kashkari). Likely voters in the Central Valley are divided (45% Brown, 43% Kashkari) . Two in three likely voters with household incomes under $40,000 (67%) support Bro wn. Pluralities of those with incomes $40,000 or more (48%) and likely voters across age and education groups as well as men and women support Brown. “If the November 4th election for governor were being held today, would you vote for Jerry Brown, a Democrat, or Neel Kashkari, a Republican?” Likely voters only All likely voters Party Race/Ethnicity * Dem Rep Ind Latinos Whites Jerry Brown, a Democrat 52% 80% 18% 52% 74% 41% Neel Kashkari, a Republican 33 11 70 28 19 44 Would not vote for governor (volunteered) 4 1 2 9 2 2 Don’t know 11 8 10 11 5 12 * Sample sizes for Asian and black likely voters are too small for separate analysis. When asked how important the candidates’ positions on the environment are in determining their vote, nearly all likely voters say they are very (40%) or somewhat important (45%). Findings were similar in July 2010 (41% very, 38% somewhat) and in July 2006 (44% very, 41% somewhat). Half of Democrats (52%) say these positions are very important, compared to about one in three Republicans (31%) and independents (35%). Of those supporting Brown for governor, 43 percent say the candidates’ positions on the environment are very important; 35 percent of Kashkari supporters hold this view. Likely voters in the Central Valley (50%) are the most likely to hold this view , followed by those in Los Angeles (46%), the Inland Empire (35%), the San Francisco Bay Area (32%), and Orange/San Diego (31%). Notably, the share saying candidate positions on the environment are very important (40%) is much lower than the share that said positions on K –12 education were very important (58%) in April. “In thinking about the California governor’s ele ction in November, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on the environment in determining your vote?” Likely voters only All likely voters Party Gubernatorial vote choice Dem Rep Ind Jerry Brown Neel Kashkari Very important 40% 52% 31% 35% 43% 35% Somewhat important 45 38 53 44 47 49 Not too important 14 9 15 18 8 15 Don’t know 1 1 1 3 1 1 July 2014 Californians and the Environment 23 REGIONAL MAP July 2014 Californians and the Environment 24 METHODOLOGY The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance from Sonja Petek, project manager for this survey, Dean Bonner, associate survey director, and Jui Shrestha, survey research associate. This survey, Californians and the Environment, is supported with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation. The PPIC Statewide Survey invites input, comments, and suggestions from policy and public opinion experts and from its own advisory committee, but survey methods, questions, and content are determined solely by PPIC’s survey team. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1,705 California adult resi dents, including 1,109 interviewed on landline telephones and 596 interviewed on cell phones. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from July 8 –15, 2014. Landline interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. C ell phone interviews were conducted using a computer -generated random sample of cell phone numbers. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as eight times to increase the likelihood of reaching an eligible respondent. Once a cell phone user was reached, it was verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey (e.g., not driving). Cell phone respondent s were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Live landline and cell phone interviews were conducted by Abt SRBI, Inc., in English and Spanish, according to respondents’ preferences. Accent on Languages, Inc., translated new survey questions into Spanish, with assistance from Renatta DeFever. Abt SRBI uses the U.S. Cens us Bureau’s 2010–2012 American Community Survey’s (ACS) Public Use Microdata Series for California (with regional coding information from the University of Minnesota’s Integrated Public Use Microdata Series for California) to compare certain demographic characteristics of the survey sample— region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education —with the characteristics of California’s adult population. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS fi gures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt SRBI used 2012 state -level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics —which used data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the ACS —and 2013 estimates for the West Census Region in the latest NHIS report. The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare t he party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The landline and cell phone samples were then integrated using a frame integration weight, while sample balancing adjusted for differences across regional, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, telephone service, and party registration groups. July 2014 Californians and the Environment 25 PPIC Statewide Survey The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3. 7 percent at the 95 percent confidence level for the total unweighted sample of 1,705 adults . This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 3. 7 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, 408 registered voters, the sampling error is ± 4 percent; for the 984 likely voters, it is ±4.7 percent . Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sutter, T ehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “San Francisco Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “ Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” refers to Riversid e and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters , but sample sizes for these less po pulous areas are not large enough to report separately. In several places, we refer to coastal and inland counties. The “ coastal” region refers to the counties along the California coast from Del Norte County to San Diego County and includes all the San Fr ancisco Bay Area counties. All other counties are included in the “inland” region. We present specific results for non- Hispanic whites and also for Latinos, who account for about a third of the state’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest -gro wing voter groups. We also present results for non -Hispanic Asians, who make up about 14 percent of the state’s adult population, and non- Hispanic blacks, who comprise about 6 percent. Results for o ther racial/ethnic groups—such as Native Americans —are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes are not large enough for separate analysis. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and decline-to -state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters —so designated by their responses to voter registration survey questions, previous election participation, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to 100 due to rounding. We compare current PPIC Statewide Surv ey results to those in our earlier surveys and to those in national surveys by ABC News/Washington Post, CBS News, CBS News/New York Times, CNN/ORC, Gallup, and the Pew Research Center. A dditional details about our methodology can be found at www.ppic.org/content/other/SurveyMethodology.pdf and are available upon request through surveys@ppic.org . July 2014 Californians and the Environment 26 QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESULTS CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT July 8 –15, 2014 1 ,705 California Adult Residents: English , Spanish MARGIN OF ERROR ±3. 7% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE PERCENTAGES MAY NOT ADD TO 100 D UE TO ROUNDING 1. First, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California? 53% approve 28 disapprove 19 don’t know 2 . Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Governor Brown is handling environmental issues in California? 47% approve 29 disapprove 23 don’t know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? 38% approve 46 disapprove 16 don’t know 4. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling environmental issues in California? 38% approve 44 disapprove 17 don’t know 5. Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? 66% yes [ask 5a] 34 no [skip to 6b ] 5a. Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline -to -state or independent voter? 44% Democrat [ask q6] 29 Republican [skip to q6 a] 6 another party (specify) [skip to q 7 ] 22 independent [skip to q 6b ] 6. Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 56% strong 42 not very strong 2 don’t know [skip to q7 ] 6a. Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 55% strong 42 not very strong 3 don’t know [skip to q7 ] 6b. Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? 23% Republican Party 44 Democratic Party 26 neither (volunteered) 7 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 27 PPIC Statewide Survey [questions 7 to 9 reported for likely voters only] 7.[likely voters only ] If the November 4 th election for governor were being held today, would you vote for [ rotate ] (1) Jerry Brown, a Democrat, [ or ] (2) Neel Kashkari, a Republican? 52 % Jerry Brown, a Democrat 33 Neel Kashkari, a Republican 4 would not vote for governor (volunteered) 11 don’t know 8. [ likely voters only ] How closely are you following news about candidates for the 20 14 governor’s election —very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely? 11 % v ery closely 42 fairly closely 31 not too closely 15 not at all closely 1 don’t know 9. [ likely voters only ] In thinking about the California governor’s election in November, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on the environment in determining your vote— very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 40 % very important 45 somewhat important 14 not too important 1 don’t know 1 0. Next, what do you think is the most important environmental issue facing California today? [ code, don’t read ] 35% water sup ply, drought, reservoirs 14 air pollution, vehicle emissions, smog 5 global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases 5 water pollution of ocean, rivers, lak es, streams, beach pollution 4 energ y, fossil fuels, solar, nuclear, wind, alternative energy, oil drilling 3 immigra tion, immigrants 3 jobs, economy, budget, taxes 3 too much government regulation , politicians, environmentalists 2 fracking, hydraulic f racturing 2 gas pr ices 2 traffic, c ongestion, transportation, transit 9 other 9 don’ t know 11. We are interested in the part of California that you live in. Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California? 27 % big probl em 33 somewhat of a problem 39 not much of a problem – don’t know 12. Would you say that the supply of water is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California? 54 % big problem 25 somewhat of a problem 21 not much of a problem 1 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 28 4 pollution in general PPIC Statewide Survey 13. The legislature is considering an approximately $11 .1 billion bond measure for the November 2 014 ballot to pay for state water projects. If the election were being held today, would you vote yes or no on this stat e water bond? ( If no: “ What if the state water bond was a lower amount, would you vote yes or no? ”) 61% yes 22 total no 8 no, but would vote yes if it was a lower amount 14 no, even if it was a lower amount 17 don’t know 14 . How important is it that voters pass the state water bond measure —is it very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important? 46% very important 30 somewhat important 5 not too important 7 not at all important 10 don’t know 14a. As you may know , the state is currently in a drought. Would you favor or oppose your local water district making it mandatory for residents to reduce their water use? 75% favor 23 oppose 2 don’t know 1 5. On another topic, which of the following statements reflect s your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen — [rotate order] ( 1 ) they have already begun to happen; ( 2) they will start happening within a few years; ( 3) they will start h appening within your lifetime; ( 4) they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; [ or ] (5) they will never happen? 62% already begun 4 within a few years 7 within your lifetime 12 not within lifetime, but will affect future generations 12 will never happen 3 don’t know 16. How concerned are you about global warming —very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned? 40% very concerned 34 somewhat concerned 11 not too concerned 15 not concerned at all – don’t know 1 7. How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future— do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat? 49% very serious 31 somewhat serious 9 not too serious 10 not at all serious 1 don’t know 18 . When it comes to the state government’s plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, should it [ rotate ] (1 ) take action right away [ or should it ] ( 2 ) wait until the state economy and job situation improve to take action? 61% take action right away 35 wait until state economy and job situation improve 4 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 29 PPIC Statewide Survey Now I am going to name a few of the possible impacts of global warming in California, and I would like you to tell me whether you are very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about each one. [rotate questions 19 to 21a] 19. How about droughts that are more severe? 64% very concerned 23 somewhat concerned 5 not too concerned 8 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 2 0. How about wildfires that are more severe? 61% very concerned 25 somewhat concerned 6 not too concerned 8 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 21 . How about heat waves that are more severe? 44% very concerned 29 somewhat concerned 15 not too concerned 12 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 21a. How about rising sea levels? 32% very concerned 32 somewhat concerned 19 not too concerned 16 not at all concerned 2 don’t know Next, from what you’ve read and heard, please t ell me which of these statements is closer to your view. [rotate questions 22 and 23; rotate responses in same order ] 22 . The state’s current drought is [ rotate ] ( 1 ) mostly a result of global warming, [ or ] (2 ) mostly a result of natural weather patterns. 38% global warming 51 natural weather patterns 7 both (volunteered) 1 neither (volunteered) 2 don’t know 23 . The state’s current wildfires are [ rotate ] (1 ) mostly a result of global warming, [ or ] (2 ) mostly a result of natural weather patterns. 31% global warming 55 natural weather patterns 6 both (volunteered) 5 neither (volunteered) 4 don’t know 24 . Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that req uires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 199 0 levels by the year 2 0 20? 68% favor 23 oppose 9 don’t know 2 5. Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming? 65% favor 30 oppose 5 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 30 PPIC Statewide Survey 26. Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming will cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, will cause there to be fewer jobs, or won’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state? 39% more jobs 26 fewer jobs 27 won’t affect the number of jobs 8 don’t know Next, officials in the state and federal governments are discussing ways to address global warming. Please tell me if you favor or oppose the following plans to help r educe greenhouse gas emiss ions. [rotate questions 27 to 30] 27. How about requiring an increase in energy efficiency for residential and commercial buildings and appliances? 73% favor 24 oppose 3 don’t know 28 . How about setting stricter emissions limits on power plants? 75% favor 21 oppose 3 don’t know 29 . How about requiring industrial plants, oil refineries, and commercial facilities to reduce their emissions? 77% favor 21 oppose 2 don’t know 3 0. How about requiring oil companies to produce transportation fuels with lower emissions? ( if favor: “ Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in gasoline prices at the pump? ”) 76% total favor 39 favor, even if it means an increase in gasoline prices 37 favor, but not if it means an increase in gasoline prices 20 oppose 3 don’t know 31 . How much, if anything, have you heard about the idea of a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all? 16% a lot 36 a little 48 nothing at all 1 don’t know 32 . Would you favor or oppose a carbon tax on companies for their greenhouse gas emissions? 58% favor 33 oppose 9 don’t know 33 . How much, if anything, have you heard about the state government policy called “cap -and -trade” that sets limits on carbon dioxide emissions? Have you heard a lot, a little, or nothing at all? 13% a lot 32 a little 55 nothing at all – don’t know 34 . In the system called “cap- and-trade,” the California stat e government issues permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that do not use all their permits can sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies will find ways to put out less greenhouse gases, becaus e that will be cheaper than buying permits. Do you favor or oppose the cap -and- trade system? 51% favor 40 oppose 9 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 31 PPIC Statewide Survey 35. The governor and legislature recently agreed on a plan for how to spend the revenues generated by California’s cap -and- trade program. The plan includes spending 2 5 percent of the revenues on high -speed rail, 3 5 percent on affordable housing and other mass transit projects, and the rest on projects related to natural resources, energy efficiency, and transportation. In genera l, do you favor or oppose this spending plan? 59% favor 35 oppose 6 don’t know 3 6. Changing topics, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling his job as president of the United States? 50% approve 46 disapprove 4 don’t know 3 7. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that President Obama is handling environmental issues in the United States? 47% approve 42 disapprove 11 don’t know 38 . Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling its job? 22% approve 72 disapprove 6 don’t know 39 . Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling environmental issues in the United States? 24% approve 65 disapprove 11 don’t know Next, do you favor or oppose the following proposals? [rotate questions 40 to 43 ] 4 0. How about re quiring automakers to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of cars sold in this country? 85% favor 13 oppose 1 don’t know 41 . How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast? 46% favor 51 oppose 3 don’t know 42 . How about building more nuclear power plants at this time? 31% favor 64 oppose 5 don’t know 43 . How about increasing federal funding to develop wind, solar, and hydrogen technology? 78% favor 20 oppose 3 don’t know 44 . How about re quiring one -third of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2 02 0? ( if favor : “Do you still favor this state law if it means an increase in your own electricity bill?”) 76% total favor 46 favor, even if it increases electricity bill 30 favor, but not if it increases electricity bill 20 oppose 3 don’t know July 2014 Californians and the Environment 32 PPIC Statewide Survey [ rotate questions 45 and 46 ] 4 5. Do you favor or oppose increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or frack ing, a drilling method that uses high- pressure water and chemicals to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations? 36% favor 54 oppose 10 don’t know 4 6. Do you favor or oppose building the Keystone XL pipeline that would transport oil f rom Canada’s oil sands region through the Midwest to refineries in Texas? 53% favor 37 oppose 10 don’t know 4 7. Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list , rotate order top to bottom] 9% very liberal 23 somewhat liberal 29 middle -of -the -road 23 somewhat conservative 13 very conservative 3 don’t know 48 . Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics —a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none? 20% great deal 36 fair amount 33 only a little 11 none – don’t know [d1 to d19 demographic questions] July 2014 Californians and the Environment 33 PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY ADVISORY COMMITTEE Ruben Barrales President and CEO GROW Elect Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Mollyann Brodie Senior Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Director Bill Lane Center for the American West Stanford University Jon Cohen Vice President of Survey Research SurveyMonkey Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Robert Lapsley President California Business Roundtable Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Publisher and CEO La Opinión Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Lisa Pitney Vice President, Government Relations The Walt Disney Company Robert K. Ross, M.D. President and CEO The California Endowment Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS Donna Lucas, Chair Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Mark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and CEO GROW Elect María Blanco Vice President, Civic Engagement California Community Foundation Brigitte Bren Attorney Walter B. Hewlett Member, Board of Directors The William and Flora Hewle tt Foundation Phil Isenberg Vice Chair, Delta Stewardship Council Mas Masumoto Author and Farmer Steven A. Merksamer Senior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni , LLP Kim Polese Chairman ClearStreet, Inc. Thomas C. Sutton Retired Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decision makers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a public charity . It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and CEO of PPIC. Donna Lucas is Chair of the Board of Directors. Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the copyright notice below is included. Copyright © 201 4 Public Policy Institute of California All r ights reserved. San Francisco, CA PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 PPIC SACRAMENTO CENT ER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121 www.ppic.org survey@ppic.org" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:42:09" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(8) "s_714mbs" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:42:09" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:42:09" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(50) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/S_714MBS.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }