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object(Timber\Post)#3711 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_715MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "562141" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(87863) "ppic statewide survey JULY 2015 &Californians the environment Mark Baldassare Dean Bonner David Kordus Lunna Lopes CONTENTS About the Survey Press Release Climate Change and Energy Policy Government Ratings, Water, Air Pollution Regional Map Methodology Questionnaire and Results 2 3 6 15 22 23 25 supported with funding from The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the Pisces Foundation ABOUT THE SURVEY The PPIC Statewide Survey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. This is the 151st PPIC Statewide Survey in a series that was inaugurated in April 1998 and has generated a database of responses from more than 315,000 Californians. The current survey, Californians and the Environment, was conducted with funding from The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the Pisces Foundation. Its goal is to inform state policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about Californians’ opinions on global warming, energy policy, the current drought, and air pollution. It is the 15th annual PPIC Statewide Survey on environmental issues since 2000. Following his inaugural address and executive order earlier this year, which called for ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets, Governor Brown recently attended a Vatican conference to discuss climate change. As California continues to pursue goals laid out in Assembly Bill (AB) 32 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, Senate Bill (SB) 32—which would require the state to reduce emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050—is making its way through the legislature. In addition, SB 350—which aims to reduce petroleum use by 50 percent, require 50 percent of energy to come from renewable sources and double the energy efficiency of existing buildings, all by 2030—is progressing through the state legislature. As the drought continues, the State Water Resources Control Board has adopted mandatory water restrictions for local water districts throughout California. In this context, this year’s survey presents the responses of 1,702 adult residents throughout California, interviewed in English and Spanish by landline or cell phone. It includes findings on:  Climate change and energy policy, including perceptions of the onset of global warming, concerns about its possible impacts, and views of its role in the state’s current drought; opinions about California acting independently to address global warming and the effect of state action on job numbers; support for AB 32 and SB 32; support for targets set in SB 350; views on state support for electric vehicles and rooftop solar, opinions on stricter emission limits on power plants; and support for various energy policies, including oil drilling, fracking, and the Keystone XL pipeline.  Government ratings, water, and air pollution, including approval of the governor, legislature, president, and Congress and of their handling of environmental issues; concerns about water supply and whether people are doing enough to repond to the drought; knowledge of and opinions on the mandatory restrictions issued by State Water Resources Control Board; public concerns about and perceptions of air pollution and its impact on lower income areas.  Time trends, national comparisons, and the extent to which Californians may differ in their perceptions, attitudes, and preferences based on political party affiliation, likelihood of voting, region of residence (Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, Inland Empire, and Orange/San Diego Counties), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic black, Latino, and non-Hispanic white), and other demographic characteristics. This report may be downloaded free of charge from our website (www.ppic.org). If you have questions about the survey, please contact survey@ppic.org. Try our PPIC Statewide Survey interactive tools online at www.ppic.org/main/survAdvancedSearch.asp. July 2015 Californians and the Environment 2 PPIC Statewide Survey CONTACT Linda Strean 415-291-4412 Serina Correa 415-291-4417 NEWS RELEASE EMBARGOED: Do not publish or broadcast until 9:00 p.m. PDT on Wednesday, July 29, 2015. Para ver este comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Majority Say Global Warming Contributing to Drought MOST SUPPORT STATE EFFORTS TO LIMIT EMISSIONS, BUT PARTISAN DIVIDE PERSISTS SAN FRANCISCO, July 29, 2015—A solid majority of Californians believe that global warming is already having an impact, and nearly two-thirds of residents say it has contributed to the state’s current drought, according to a statewide survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC). As Governor Brown and state policymakers seek to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 62 percent of Californians say the effects of global warming have begun, while 24 percent say they will happen in the future. Just 10 percent say the effects will never happen. Democrats (73%) and independents (65%) are far more likely than Republicans (37%) to say global warming’s effects have begun. Notably, 31 percent of Republicans say they will never happen. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (69%) are the most likely to say the effects have already begun, followed by blacks (63%), Asians (60%), and whites (58%). Most residents say that global warming is a very serious (52%) or somewhat serious (27%) threat to California’s future and quality of life. Democrats (66%) are more likely than independents (51%) and far more likely than Republicans (26%) to call the threat very serious. “The threat of global warming to the state’s future is a shared belief among inland and coastal residents and Californians across racial and ethnic groups,” said Mark Baldassare, PPIC president and CEO. “But there are persistent partisan divisions on climate change.” As California copes with a fourth year of drought, 64 percent of residents say global warming has contributed to it, while 28 percent say it has not. The partisan split is sharp: 78 percent of Democrats say global warming has contributed to drought and 62 percent of Republicans say it has not. Asked how concerned they are about the possible impact of global warming on droughts, 84 percent of residents say they are concerned (50% very concerned, 34% somewhat concerned) about droughts that are more severe. Asked to name the most important environmental issue facing the state today, 58 percent of Californians say it is water supply or drought—up 23 points from July 2014 and up 50 points from July 2011. Air pollution ranks a distant second, with 9 percent saying it is the most important issue. Last year was the first year that air pollution was not the top issue and water or drought was number one. Another indication of the importance of the drought: most residents say they are following news about it either very closely (38%) or fairly closely (40%). A strong majority of Californians (68%) say the water supply in their part of California is a big problem, similar to the shares in March (66%) and May (69%). Residents of the Central Valley (76%) are the most likely and those in Los Angeles (62%) the least likely to say their water supply is a big problem. Residents take a more positive view of their neighbors’ response to the drought than they did earlier this year. About half (52%) say that people in their region are not doing enough, compared to 66 percent in March and 60 percent in May. July 2015 Californians and the Environment 3 PPIC Statewide Survey MOST DON’T KNOW HOW MUCH WATER THEY SHOULD BE SAVING Asked about the State Water Resources Board’s implementation of a 25 percent statewide water cutback, Californians are most likely (46%) to say this action does the right amount to respond to the drought, while 36 percent say it is not enough of a response and 11 percent say it is too much. To reduce water use 25 percent statewide, the water board has set mandatory reduction amounts for each local water agency. However, 64 percent of adults say they don’t know their district’s target amount. San Francisco Bay Area residents (38%) are the most likely to know their district’s target and those in Los Angeles (24%) are the least likely. Less than half of homeowners (44%) know their district’s target, but they are far more likely than renters (18%) to know. Among those who say they do know, 52 percent say the target amount is right, 23 percent say it is not enough, and 20 percent say it is too much. MAJORITIES FAVOR AB 32 GOALS—AND MORE AMBITIOUS ONES Solid majorities of Californians (69% adults, 63% likely voters) favor AB 32, the 2006 state law that requires reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Most Californians have favored this law since PPIC began asking about it in July 2006. But while majorities across partisan lines expressed support in 2006 (68% independents, 67% Democrats, 65% Republicans), a strong partisan divide has opened up since then. Support among Democrats rose in 2007, with more than three-fourths favoring the law, and Republican support declined in 2009, with fewer than half in favor each time PPIC has asked the question since then. Today, 79 percent of Democrats and 74 percent of independents favor the law, compared to 46 percent of Republicans. With the state on track to meet AB 32 goals, a new bill—SB 32—would set more ambitious ones. The bill would require the state to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. Most adults (69%) and likely voters (62%) favor this proposal—a close mirroring of support for AB 32. As with AB 32, blacks (76%), Latinos (75%), and Asians (71%) are slightly more likely than whites (65%) to favor SB 32’s goals. Baldassare summed up: “At a time when many Californians are making a connection between the current drought and climate change, there is strong support for expanding the state’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.” The legislature is also considering SB 350, a bill to reduce petroleum use in cars by 50 percent, require half of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, and require existing buildings to double their energy efficiency by 2030. When asked about the targets in the bill, strong majorities favor each one. The electricity goal has the highest support (82%), with majorities across party lines in favor. Most adults (73%) favor reducing petroleum use in vehicles, but there are partisan differences: 83 percent of Democrats and 75 percent of independents are in favor, while a majority of Republicans (53%) are opposed. Asked about increasing energy efficiency in buildings, 70 percent of adults are in favor. Democrats (82%) and independents (75%) are more likely to be in favor than are Republicans (52%). Most Californians say it is very important (61%) or somewhat important (25%) for the state government to pass regulations and spend money now to prepare for the future effects of global warming. Just 13 percent say it is not too important. A quarter of adults (24%) say California’s actions to reduce global warming in the future will result in fewer jobs around the state, while 38 percent say the result will be more jobs, and 26 percent say there will be no effect on the number of jobs. Across regions, age, education, and racial/ethnic groups, pluralities say state action would result in more jobs. SUPPORT FOR INCREASED INCENTIVES FOR ELECTRIC CARS, SOLAR POWER When asked about proposals that could help the state achieve some of the goals in SB 350, 67 percent of adults and 64 percent of likely voters favor increasing tax credits and incentives for electric vehicle purchases. Independents (74%) and Democrats (71%) are more likely than Republicans (51%) to favor this idea. An overwhelming majority (80%) of adults who have considered buying an electric vehicle support increasing incentives, as do more than half (52%) of those who have not considered buying one. There is even stronger July 2015 Californians and the Environment 4 PPIC Statewide Survey support for building more charging stations and infrastructure to support electric vehicles (81% adults, 75% likely voters). Strong majorities across parties favor this proposal. Californians also express strong support for solar power. Large majorities favor building more solar power stations in California (88% adults, 83% likely voters) and increasing tax credits and financial incentives for rooftop solar panels (78% adults, 78% likely voters). There are high levels of support across parties. Another way for the state to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions is to set stricter emission limits on power plants. Asked their views of this idea, 73 percent of adults and 66 percent of likely voters favor it. DIVIDED ON KEYSTONE PIPELINE AND OPPOSED TO OFFSHORE DRILLING, FRACKING About half of Californians (49%) favor building the Keystone XL pipeline, and 38 percent are opposed. Support has hovered around 50 percent since PPIC first asked in 2013 about building the pipeline to transport oil from Canadian oil sands to Texas. Californians are less likely to favor two other methods to make more oil available: offshore drilling and fracking. In the wake of the oil spill off the Santa Barbara coast in May, support for increased coastal drilling has fallen from 46 percent last July to 38 percent—the lowest point since July 2010 (36%), following the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Most adults (56%) also oppose increased use of fracking to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations. This is the highest level of opposition since PPIC began asking the question in 2013. Just 33 percent favor more fracking. Majorities of Democrats (71%) and independents (63%) oppose increased fracking, while 53 percent of Republicans support it. “Californians are clearly enthusiastic about alternatives to fossil fuels, such as solar power and electric vehicles,” Baldassare said. “And this year’s survey also shows more opposition to offshore oil drilling and fracking.” MOST SAY AIR POLLUTION IS A PROBLEM The share of Californians who say air pollution is a problem is at its lowest point since PPIC began asking the question in 2000. Nevertheless, a majority of adults say it is either a big problem (24%) or somewhat of a problem (34%) in their part of California. Across regions, Los Angeles residents (39%) are the most likely to say air pollution is a big problem. Latinos (67%) and blacks (67%) are more likely than Asians (53%) or whites (51%) to say it is a problem. Nearly half of adults (49%) say air pollution is a serious threat to themselves and their immediate families. MAJORITIES APPROVE OF BROWN, OBAMA The survey asks how Californians rate their elected leaders—both on overall job performance and on their handling of environmental issues. Majorities (53% adults, 55% likely voters) approve of Governor Brown’s job performance. Slightly fewer approve of the way he handles environmental issues (47% adults, 48% likely voters). The legislature’s job approval rating is lower than the governor’s (39% adults, 32% likely voters). Its rating on environmental issues is 42 percent among adults and 32 percent among likely voters. Most adults (57%) and about half of likely voters (51%) approve of President Obama’s job performance, while his rating is slightly lower on environmental issues (53% adults, 47% likely voters). Congress’ job approval rating is low (29% adults, 17% likely voters). Its rating on environmental issues is slightly higher (33% adults, 20% likely voters). July 2015 Californians and the Environment 5 CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY POLICY KEY FINDINGS  Sixty-two percent of Californians believe the effects of global warming are happening now. Half of adults say it is a very serious threat to the economy and quality of life in California. (page 7)  Half of Californians are very concerned about more-severe droughts as an impact of global warming. More than six in 10 say global warming has contributed to the current drought. (page 8)  A solid majority of adults favor California making its own policies—separate from the federal government—to address global warming. Pluralities say state action to reduce global warming will lead to more jobs. (page 9)  Most Californians (69%) remain in favor of AB 32, the 2006 state law that requires a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. There is a similar level of support (69%) for SB 32, proposed legislation that aims to reduce emissions 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. (page 10)  Californians are also supportive of the goals set out in SB 350: at least seven in 10 adults favor reducing petroleum use by 50 percent, requiring 50 percent of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy, and requiring that existing buildings double their energy efficiency, all by 2030. (page 11)  Strong majorities favor building more solar power stations and increasing infrastructure for electric vehicles in California. (page 12)  Majorities of adults oppose increased use of fracking and more oil drilling off the California coast, while half favor building the Keystone XL pipeline. (pages 13, 14) July 2015 Californians and the Environment Percent all adults Percent all adults Percent registered voters 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Threat of Global Warming to California's Future % saying very serious 100 Dem Rep Ind 80 66 60 51 40 26 20 0 Support for California Making its Own Policies to Address Global Warming 100 80 64 60 54 57 40 20 0 July 2005 July 2010 July 2015 Support for California Energy Goals for 2030 100 82 80 73 70 60 40 20 0 Requiring 50% Reducing Requiring of electricity petroleum use existing come from by 50% buildings renewable double energy sources efficiency 6 PPIC Statewide Survey OVERALL PERCEPTIONS OF GLOBAL WARMING Governor Brown and state policymakers are seeking to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to mitigate global warming. How do Californians perceive global warming? Six in 10 Californians (62%) say that the effects of global warming have already begun, while one in four say they will happen in the future (24%). Just 10 percent say the effects will never occur. Since we began asking this question in July 2005, majorities have said that the effects have already begun. Adults nationwide in a March Gallup poll were slightly less likely than Californians in our survey to say that the effects have already begun (55% to 62%). Democrats (73%) and independents (65%) are far more likely than Republicans (37%) to say that the effects of global warming have begun. Notably, 31 percent of Republicans say the effects will never happen, while few Democrats (3%) or independents (7%) hold this view. Latinos (69%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to say the effects have already begun, followed by blacks (63%), Asians (60%), and whites (58%). Majorities across regions say the effects of global warming have already begun, with residents in Los Angeles (65%), the Inland Empire (64%), and the San Francisco Bay Area (64%) slightly more likely to say this than those in Orange/San Diego (58%) and the Central Valley (57%). Majorities of men and women and across age, education, and income groups say the effects have already begun. “Which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen…? All adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Already begun 62% 60% 63% 69% 58% Within a few years 6 10 15 8 2 Within your lifetime Not within lifetime, but will affect future Will never happen 5 13 10 11 9 4 9 11 12 9 24 5 14 16 Don't know 4 114 4 Likely voters 59% 4 4 11 17 4 Eight in 10 Californians say that global warming is a very serious (52%) or somewhat serious (27%) threat to California’s future economy and quality of life. Since we began asking this question in July 2005, more than seven in 10 Californians have said the threat is very or somewhat serious. Today, Democrats (66%) are much more likely than independents (51%) and far more likely than Republicans (26%) to call the threat very serious. San Francisco Bay Area (57%) residents are the most likely to hold this view, followed by those in Los Angeles (55%), the Inland Empire (53%), the Central Valley (48%), and Orange/San Diego (48%). Latinos (63%), blacks (57%), and Asians (54%) are more likely than whites (43%) to say global warming poses a very serious threat. Women (56%) are more likely than men (48%) and Californians age 18 to 34 (59%) are more likely than older Californians (50%) to call the threat very serious. “How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future—do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat?” All adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely voters Very serious 52% 54% 57% 63% 43% 47% Somewhat serious 27 34 31 27 27 22 Not too serious 88 96 10 11 Not at all serious 92 13 17 16 Don't know 32 31 44 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 7 PPIC Statewide Survey GLOBAL WARMING AND DROUGHT SEVERITY Given that a majority of Californians think that the effects of global warming have already begun, how concerned are they about the impact of global warming and droughts that are more severe? Eighty-four percent of Californians are very (50%) or somewhat (34%) concerned about droughts that are more severe, while 14 percent are not too (7%) or not at all (7%) concerned. In periodic surveys dating back to July 2005, at least three in four Californians have expressed concern about droughts that are more severe. Partisan differences on global warming extend to its impact on drought severity, with Democrats (65%) and independents (55%) far more likely than Republicans (33%) to be very concerned about droughts that are more severe. Despite being the least likely to say that the effects of global warming have already begun, Central Valley residents (56%) are the most likely to be very concerned, followed by those in Los Angeles (52%), the San Francisco Bay Area (52%), the Inland Empire (49%), and Orange/San Diego (45%). Asians (57%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to be very concerned, followed by blacks (51%), Latinos (49%), and whites (49%). Women (56%) are more likely than men (45%) to be very concerned about droughts that are more severe. “Thinking about the possible impact of global warming in California, how concerned are you about droughts that are more severe?” Very concerned All adults 50% Central Valley 56% Region San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles 52% 52% Orange/ San Diego 45% Inland Empire 49% Somewhat concerned 34 26 37 33 34 37 Not too concerned 7 10 3 7 10 6 Not at all concerned 7 8 4 8 95 Don't know 1 – 3 – 22 Likely voters 52% 27 8 11 2 With California deep in the pangs of the fourth year of a drought, do Californians think global warming contributed to the current drought? Nearly two-thirds of Californians (64%) say global warming has contributed, while nearly three in 10 (28%) say it has not contributed. Residents in Los Angeles (69%), the San Francisco Bay Area (67%), and the Inland Empire (66%) are more likely than those in the Central Valley (58%) and Orange/San Diego (54%) to say global warming contributed to the current drought. Partisan differences are also apparent, with an overwhelming majority of Democrats (78%) saying global warming has contributed to the current drought and a solid majority of Republicans (62%) saying it has not contributed. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (80%) are the most likely to say it has contributed, followed by blacks (71%), Asians (68%), and whites (49%). Women (69%) are more likely than men (58%) to say global warming has contributed to the current drought. While majorities across age, education, and income groups say it has contributed, this perception is higher among those age 18 to 34, those with only a high school diploma, and those with household incomes of less than $40,000. “Do you think global warming has contributed to California's current drought or not?” Yes, has contributed All adults 64% Central Valley 58% Region San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles 67% 69% Orange/ San Diego 54% Inland Empire 66% No, has not contributed 28 35 25 21 38 28 Don't know 87 8 10 8 6 Likely voters 55% 40 5 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 8 PPIC Statewide Survey CALIFORNIA’S CLIMATE CHANGE POLICIES Most Californians say it is very (61%) or somewhat (25%) important for the state government to pass regulations and spend money now to prepare for the future effects of global warming; just 13 percent call it not too important. In July 2013, fewer Californians called this very important (53% very, 29% somewhat, 16% not too important). Partisans disagree on the importance of taking action: 77 percent of Democrats, compared to 40 percent of Republicans, say it is very important. Majorities across regions and demographic groups say acting now to prepare for the future effects of global warming is very important. California has been a national leader on the issue of global warming and most Californians support the role California plays. Sixty-four percent of Californians favor state government making its own policies separate from the federal government to address global warming. Support for the state making its own policies is similar to last July (65%) and majorities have supported the state making its own policies since we first asked this question in July 2005. Today, Democrats (75%) and independents (65%) are far more likely than Republicans (43%) to be in favor. While majorities across regions are in favor, San Francisco Bay Area (75%) residents are the most supportive, followed by those in Los Angeles (65%), Orange/San Diego (59%), the Inland Empire (58%), and the Central Valley (54%). About seven in 10 blacks, Latinos, and Asians are in favor, compared to fewer whites (57%). Support for the state making its own policies decreases as age increases. Favor Oppose Don't know “Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming?” All adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 64% 70% 71% 70% 57% 28 20 25 21 35 8 11 3 8 8 Likely voters 61% 33 6 A plurality of Californians (38%) say that state actions to reduce global warming would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, and 26 percent say it would not affect the number of jobs; 24 percent think actions would result in fewer jobs. A plurality of Californians have said that state action would result in more jobs since we began asking this question in July 2010, with a high point of 47 percent in July 2011 and a low point of 38 percent this year. Today, a plurality of Democrats (49%) and independents (41%) say state action would result in more jobs; Republican views are more mixed (21% more jobs, 31% fewer jobs, 35% no effect on jobs). Pluralities across regions, age, education, income, and racial/ethnic groups (41% Asians, 40% Latinos, 39% blacks, 36% whites) say that state action would result in more jobs. “Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state?” More jobs All adults 38% Central Valley 36% Region San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles 42% 36% Orange/ San Diego 37% Inland Empire 37% Likely voters 34% Fewer jobs 24 27 26 21 29 16 24 Wouldn't affect the number of jobs 26 25 22 28 23 30 29 Don't know 13 12 11 14 11 17 13 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 9 PPIC Statewide Survey STATEWIDE EMISSION REDUCTION GOALS FOR 2020 AND 2050 The California Air Resources Board recently announced that California is on track to meet the goal set by Assembly Bill (AB) 32 of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Today, a solid majority of Californians (69%) and likely voters (63%) continue to favor AB 32. More than six in 10 Californians have favored this law since we first asked about it in July 2006. Today, there is a notable partisan divide on this policy, with 79 percent of Democrats and 74 percent of independents favoring the law, compared to only 46 percent of Republicans. When we first asked about AB 32 in July 2006, partisan differences were muted: Democrats (67%), Republicans (65%) and independents (68%) all expressed similar levels of support. However, 2007 saw an increase in support among Democrats, and more than three in four have favored the law since then. Conversely, support among Republicans decreased in 2009; fewer than half have expressed support for the law each time we have asked this question since then. Across racial/ethnic groups, whites (61%) are less likely to favor AB 32 than blacks (74%), Latinos (76%), and Asians (78%). Regionally, adults in the San Francisco Bay Area (77%) are the most likely to favor the current law, followed by those in Los Angeles (73%), the Central Valley (65%), the Inland Empire (64%), and Orange/San Diego (62%). Renters (74%) are more likely than homeowners (63%) to favor the reduction targets established in AB 32. Across age groups, support for AB 32 declines as age increases. “Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020?” All adults Dem Party Rep Likely voters Ind Favor 69% 79% 46% 74% 63% Oppose 20 12 45 18 29 Don't know 11 10 9 8 9 With the state making steady progress toward meeting the AB 32 reduction targets, Senate Bill (SB) 32 would require the state to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. As the legislature considers SB 32, how do Californians feel about this new target? A solid majority of Californians (69%) and likely voters (62%) favor the reductions set in SB 32. Levels of support for SB 32 closely mirror support for AB 32. Indeed, there is a similar partisan difference: Democrats (79%) and independents (68%) are more likely than Republicans (45%) to support the proposed reduction requirements. As with AB 32, whites (65%) are somewhat less likely than Asians (71%), Latinos (75%) and blacks (76%) to favor the reductions set out in SB 32. Support for requiring the state to reduce its emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050 decreases as age increases. “To address global warming, the state legislature is currently considering legislation that would require California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Overall, do you favor or oppose this proposal?” All adults Dem Party Rep Likely voters Ind Favor 69% 79% 45% 68% 62% Oppose 23 16 47 27 33 Don't know 75856 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 10 PPIC Statewide Survey STATEWIDE ENERGY OBJECTIVES FOR 2030 The governor’s proposal earlier this year, which is reflected in SB 350 and under consideration by the legislature, requires the state to reduce petroleum use in cars by 50 percent by 2030, requires that 50 percent of the state’s electricity come from renewable energy sources by 2030, and requires that existing buildings double their energy efficiency by the same year. When asked about these three energy targets, strong majorities of Californians favor each of the proposals. Support is highest for requiring that 50 percent of the state’s electricity come from renewable sources (82%). An overwhelming majority of Democrats (90%) and independents (81%) and 63 percent of Republicans favor this. Notably, more than seven in 10 Californians across regions and demographic groups favor requiring 50 percent of the state’s electricity to come from renewable sources by 2030. When asked about requiring a 50 percent reduction in petroleum use in cars and trucks by 2030, seven in 10 Californians and six in 10 likely voters express support. However, this policy generates sharper partisan differences: 83 percent of Democrats and 75 percent of independents are in favor, while a majority of Republicans (53%) are opposed. Across racial/ethnic groups, Asians (85%) and Latinos (80%) are more likely than blacks (73%) and much more likely than whites (64%) to favor reducing petroleum use by 50 percent. Regionally, those in Los Angeles (77%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (76%) are the most likely to favor this policy, while residents in the Central Valley and Orange/San Diego are the least likely to say the same (66% each). Renters (79%) and those age 18 to 34 (83%) are more likely than homeowners (65%) and Californians age 35 and older (68%) to favor this proposal. When asked about the energy efficiency requirement, 70 percent of adults and 68 percent of likely voters favor requiring existing buildings to double their efficiency by 2030. As with the other SB 350 provisions, Democrats (82%) and independents (75%) are far more likely to favor this requirement than Republicans (52%). Asians (86%) and blacks (83%) are more likely than whites (68%) and Latinos (67%) to favor requiring existing buildings to double their energy efficiency. “Governor Brown has called for a new set of objectives in clean energy, clean air, and pollution reduction for year 2030. The state legislature is currently considering these new objectives. Please tell me if you favor or oppose each of the following proposals.” Percent in favor Requiring 50 percent of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2030 Reducing petroleum use in cars and trucks by 50 percent by the year 2030 Requiring that existing buildings double their energy efficiency by the year 2030 All adults 82% 73% 70% All likely voters 74 63 68 Party Democrat Republican Independent 90 83 82 63 42 52 81 75 75 Race/Ethnicity Asians Blacks Latinos Whites 89 85 86 88 73 83 90 80 67 75 64 68 Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area 84 83 66 68 76 77 Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire 83 75 82 77 72 66 63 74 68 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 11 PPIC Statewide Survey SOLAR POWER AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES We asked about actions that could help the state achieve some of the targets proposed in SB 350 and SB 32. More than six in 10 adults (67%) and likely voters (64%) favor increasing tax credits and incentives for electric vehicle purchases. Across political parties, independents (74%) and Democrats (71%) are much more likely than Republicans (51%) to favor this proposal. Regionally, support is highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (72%) and lowest in the Central Valley and Orange/San Diego (64% each). Eighty percent of adults who have considered buying an electric vehicle support increasing incentives, and more than half (52%) of those who have not considered purchasing an electric vehicle say the same. There is widespread support for building more charging stations and infrastructure to support electric vehicles—81 percent of adults and 75 percent of likely voters favor this proposal. Strong majorities across political parties express support. Indeed, more than seven in 10 adults across all regions and demographic groups favor building more infrastructure to support electric vehicles. “Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals? How about…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind Increasing tax credits and financial incentives for electric vehicle purchases in California Favor Oppose Don't know 67% 71% 51% 74% 29 25 45 24 3342 Building more charging stations and infrastructure to support electric vehicles in California Favor Oppose Don't know 81 84 65 82 16 13 33 15 3323 Likely voters 64% 33 3 75 22 2 Californians express high levels of support for solar power, with more than eight in 10 adults (88%) and likely voters (83%) in favor of building more solar power stations in California. Support for building more solar power stations is widespread, with more than eight in 10 adults across regions and all demographic groups saying they favor this proposal. Strong majorities of adults (78%) and likely voters (78%) favor increasing tax credits and financial incentives for rooftop solar panels in California. Support is strong across parties, though Democrats (84%) and independents (80%) are more likely than Republicans (70%) to favor this proposal. Across racial/ethnic groups, more than three in four favor increasing incentives for rooftop solar (81% Latinos, 78% blacks, 77% Asians, and 77% whites). Renters (78%) and homeowners (76%) express similar levels of support for this proposal. “Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals? How about…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind Building more solar power stations in California Favor Oppose Don't know 88% 92% 76% 89% 9 6 23 10 3211 Increasing tax credits and financial incentives for rooftop solar panels in California Favor Oppose Don't know 78 84 70 80 19 13 29 18 3322 Likely voters 83% 15 2 78 20 2 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 12 PPIC Statewide Survey POWER PLANT EMISSIONS AND KEYSTONE XL PIPELINE Last June, the Obama administration and the Environmental Protection Agency proposed new rules requiring power plants to reduce their emissions. Strong majorities of Californians (73%) and likely voters (66%) favor setting stricter emission limits on power plants in order to address climate change. Californians were equally supportive in response to a similar question last July (75%) and July 2013 (76%). This proposal receives overwhelming support from Democrats (81%) and independents (76%), while half of Republicans (50%) are in favor. Majorities across regions are in favor, with support ranging from a high of 76 percent in the San Francisco Bay Area and Los Angeles to a low of 64 percent in Orange/San Diego. Latinos (80%), blacks (78%), and Asians (77%) are more likely than whites (68%) to be in favor of stricter limits on power plants. Among those who support each of the elements of SB 350 and SB 32, more than eight in 10 support stricter emission limits on power plants. Favor Oppose Don't know “Do you favor or oppose setting stricter emission limits on power plants in order to address climate change?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind 73% 81% 50% 76% 21 15 46 20 6 4 54 Likely voters 66% 30 4 In the wake of President Obama’s veto of the Keystone XL pipeline bill in February 2015, about half of Californians (49%) favor building the pipeline, while four in 10 are opposed (38%). Support for building the pipeline has hovered around 50 percent (53% May 2013, 51% July 2013, 46% May 2014, 53% July 2014, 54% March 2015, 49% today). Support for building the Keystone XL pipeline is far higher among Republicans (74%) than among independents (45%) and Democrats (38%). Across regions, residents in the Inland Empire (59%), the Central Valley (54%), and Orange/San Diego (52%) are more likely than those in the San Francisco Bay Area (46%) and Los Angeles (42%) to favor building the pipeline. Support across demographic groups eclipses 50 percent among whites (52%), men (51%), those age 35 to 54 (51%) and 55 and older (52%), those with no college education (51%), and those living in households making more than $80,000 (54%). Notably, among those who disapprove of President Obama, 63 percent are in favor of building the Keystone XL pipeline. Favor Oppose Don't know “Do you favor or oppose building the Keystone XL pipeline that would transport oil from Canada’s oil sands region through the Midwest to refineries in Texas?” Party All adults Likely voters Dem Rep Ind 49% 38% 74% 45% 53% 38 49 19 47 39 13 13 7 8 8 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 13 PPIC Statewide Survey OFFSHORE DRILLING AND FRACKING Following the oil spill off the Santa Barbara coast in May, what do Californians think about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast? Today, 38 percent of Californians favor increased offshore drilling, which is down from 46 percent last July. Support for offshore drilling is at its lowest point since July 2010 (36%), following the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Across parties, only Republicans express majority support for increased offshore drilling (62%), compared with 37 percent of independents and 27 percent of Democrats. Majorities across educational levels and racial/ethnic and age groups are opposed, as are majorities of men and women. While residents of inland counties are split over increased offshore drilling (46% favor, 46% oppose), a solid majority of coastal residents oppose it (61%). Opposition is highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (69%), followed by Orange/San Diego (58%), Los Angeles (57%), Central Valley (46%), and the Inland Empire (43%). Favor Oppose Don't know “Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals… how about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind 38% 27% 62% 37% 56 69 33 61 64 5 3 Likely voters 43% 53 3 Majorities of adults and likely voters (56% each) oppose increased use of fracking to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations. That is the highest level of opposition among adults and likely voters since we began asking this question in 2013. Just one in three adults (33%) favor increased use of fracking. Across parties, only Republicans show majority support (53%) for increased use of fracking, compared with 28 percent of independents and 22 percent of Democrats. Across racial/ethnic groups, opposition is highest among blacks (71%), followed by Latinos (58%), Asians (55%), and whites (53%). Half or more of residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (64%), Los Angeles (63%), Orange/San Diego (51%), and the Central Valley (50%) oppose increased fracking. Only in the Inland Empire does a plurality favor increased use of fracking (49% favor, 42% oppose). “Do you favor or oppose increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, a drilling method that uses highpressure water and chemicals to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations?” All adults Dem Party Rep Likely voters Ind Favor 33% 22% 53% 28% 34% Oppose 56 71 35 63 56 Don't know 10 7 12 8 10 Opposition to both increased offshore drilling and increased use of fracking is highest among those who say global warming is a very serious or somewhat serious threat to California’s economy and quality of life. Among those who say global warming is a very serious or somewhat serious threat, 64 percent oppose increased offshore drilling and 63 percent oppose increased use of fracking. In contrast, among those who say the threat of global warming is not too serious or not at all serious, solid majorities support increased offshore drilling (73%) and increased use of fracking (63%). July 2015 Californians and the Environment 14 GOVERNMENT RATINGS, WATER, AIR POLLUTION KEY FINDINGS  Fifty-three percent of Californians approve of Governor Brown’s job performance, while slightly fewer approve of his handling of environmental issues. About four in 10 approve of the legislature overall and of its handling of environmental issues. (page 16)  Fifty-seven percent of Californians approve of President Obama’s job performance, while slightly fewer approve of his handling of environmental issues. About three in 10 approve of Congress, both overall and on environmental issues. (page 17)  Nearly 6 in 10 Californians name water supply and the drought as the most important environmental issue. Seventy-eight percent of adults are very closely or fairly closely following news about the current drought and 68 percent see their local water supply as a big problem. (page 18)  Half of Californians say that people in their part of the state are not doing enough to respond to the current drought—a decrease from earlier PPIC surveys. A plurality continues to say that the mandatory water reductions initiated by Governor Brown are the right amount. (page 19)  Three in 10 Californians know the amount of water usage reduction required for their water district. Among those who know the amount of reduction required, half say it is the right amount. (page 20)  Six in 10 Californians say that air pollution in their part of California is a big problem or somewhat of a problem. Half say that air pollution is at least a somewhat serious health threat to them and their immediate family and that the threat is more serious in lower-income areas than elsewhere. (page 21) July 2015 Californians and the Environment Percent all adults Approval Ratings of State Elected Officials 80 Job overall Environmental issues 60 53 47 40 39 42 Percent all adults 20 0 Governor Brown California Legislature Approval Ratings of Federal Elected Officials 80 Job overall Environmental issues 60 57 53 Percent all adults 40 33 29 20 0 President Obama U.S. Congress Most Important Environmental Issue Facing California 80 Air pollution Water supply, drought 60 58 40 27 20 8 0 2011 9 2015 15 PPIC Statewide Survey APPROVAL RATINGS OF STATE ELECTED OFFICIALS Majorities of California adults (53%) and likely voters (55%) approve of the way Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California. Brown’s approval ratings were similar in May (52% adults, 54% likely voters) and last July (53% adults, 56% likely voters). Democrats (70%) are more likely than independents (60%) and far more likely than Republicans (29%) to approve of the governor today. Across the state’s regions, San Francisco Bay Area residents (67%) are more likely than others (58% Los Angeles, 50% Inland Empire, 45% Central Valley, 42% Orange/San Diego) to approve of Governor Brown. Has approval of Governor Brown’s handling of environmental issues changed since he announced new goals and policies for addressing climate change? Forty-seven percent of adults and 48 percent of likely voters express approval, similar to last July (47% adults, 46% likely voters). Democrats (63%) are much more likely than independents (46%) and far more likely than Republicans (24%) to approve. Across regions, approval is higher in the San Francisco Bay Area (56%) than elsewhere (50% Los Angeles, 48% Central Valley, 42% Inland Empire, 39% Orange/San Diego). “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind His job as governor of California Approve Disapprove Don’t know 53% 70% 29% 60% 27 16 59 26 20 14 12 14 Environmental issues in California Approve Disapprove Don’t know 47 63 24 46 34 23 61 34 19 14 15 20 Likely voters 55% 37 9 48 42 10 Thirty-nine percent of adults and 32 percent of likely voters approve of the legislature. Approval was similar in May (37% adults, 30% likely voters) and last July (38% adults, 31% likely voters). Democrats (45%) are more likely than independents (35%) and far more likely than Republicans (15%) to express approval. Across regions, San Francisco Bay Area (47%) and Los Angeles (45%) residents are more likely than others to approve (37% Inland Empire, 33% Central Valley, 30% Orange/San Diego). Has approval of the legislature’s handling of environmental issues changed since it took up climate change and energy policy in the current session? Approval ratings for the legislature’s handling of environmental issues today (42% adults, 32% likely voters) are similar to last July (38% adults, 33% likely voters). Democrats (41%) and independents (36%) are more likely than Republicans (23%) to express approval. “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Likely Ind voters Approve 39% 45% 15% 35% 32% Its job Disapprove 45 35 73 54 54 Don’t know 16 20 11 11 13 Environmental issues in California Approve Disapprove Don’t know 42 41 23 36 32 45 42 66 52 55 13 17 11 11 13 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 16 PPIC Statewide Survey APPROVAL RATINGS OF FEDERAL ELECTED OFFICIALS Majorities of California adults (57%) and likely voters (51%) approve of the way Barack Obama is handling his job as president. Approval was similar in May (58% adults, 49% likely voters) and last July (50% adults, 47% likely voters). Today, 79 percent of Democrats approve, compared to 55 percent of independents and 18 percent of Republicans. Residents in Los Angeles (66%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (65%) are more likely than others to approve (51% Central Valley, 49% Inland Empire, 48% Orange/San Diego). In a July Pew Research Center national poll, approval was at 45 percent. About half of adults (53%) and likely voters (47%) approve of President Obama’s handling of environmental issues. The findings were similar a year ago (47% adults, 45% likely voters). Today, 71 percent of Democrats approve of President Obama’s handling of environmental issues, compared to 54 percent of independents and 17 percent of Republicans. Across regions, Los Angeles (61%) and San Francisco Bay Area (60%) residents are more likely than others to approve of the president on environmental issues (47% Central Valley, 47% Orange/San Diego, 43% Inland Empire). Barack Obama is handling his job as president of the United States President Obama is handling environmental issues in the United States “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Approve 57% 79% 18% Disapprove 38 17 82 Don’t know 441 Approve 53 71 17 Disapprove 37 19 73 Don’t know 11 11 10 Likely Ind voters 55% 51% 40 47 52 54 47 37 43 9 10 The U.S. Congress has low approval ratings among Californians (29% adults, 17% likely voters). Last July, approval ratings were at 22 percent for adults and 15 percent for likely voters. Today, fewer than one in four across parties approve of Congress. Approval of Congress falls short of a majority across all regions and demographic groups. Approval was at 15 percent in a May CBS/New York Times national poll. The U.S. Congress’ handling of environmental issues also receives low approval ratings (33% adults, 20% likely voters). Approval stood at 22 percent among adults and 16 percent among likely voters last July. Today, approval is similar across parties. Approval declines with age, income, education, and homeownership and varies by race/ethnicity (51% Latinos, 41% Asians, 22% blacks, 18% whites). Approval of the way the U.S. Congress is handling the environment is lower in the San Francisco Bay Area (26%) than in other regions (32% Orange/San Diego, 35% Central Valley, 35% Inland Empire, 38% Los Angeles). “Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind Approve 29% 24% 23% 17% Its job Disapprove 63 68 70 79 Don’t know 9874 Environmental issues in the United States Approve Disapprove Don’t know 33 24 23 23 55 65 64 66 12 10 13 12 Likely voters 17% 78 6 20 70 10 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 17 PPIC Statewide Survey MOST IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE, WATER AND DROUGHT What is the most important environmental issue facing California today? In response to an open-ended question, 58 percent say the water supply or drought—a 50 point increase since July 2011. Nine percent mention air pollution—an 18 point decrease over the same time period. Last July was the first time that air pollution was not the top issue and water or the drought was mentioned most (35% water or the drought, 14% air pollution). This is the first time that a majority has mentioned water supply or the drought as the top issue and all other issues are in single digits. Water supply or drought is rated as the most important environmental issue in every region. Los Angeles residents are the most likely to mention air pollution (17%). Fifty-nine percent of likely voters say that water supply or the drought is the top environmental issue. As another indication of the importance of this issue, three in four Californians (78%) are following news about the drought either very closely (38%) or fairly closely (40%). This is similar to October 2014 (82% very or fairly closely) and an increase since May 2014 (66% very or fairly closely). At least six in 10 in all regions say they are following this news very or fairly closely; Inland Empire residents (28%) are the least likely to say they are very closely following this news. Among the most likely to follow this news very closely are adults 55 and older (53%), homeowners (47%), households with incomes of $80,000 or more (47%), college graduates (45%), and those who have been at their residence 5 years or more (45%). Fiftyfour percent of likely voters say they are very closely following this news. Very closely “How closely are you following news about the current drought in California— very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire 38% 45% 41% 39% 38% 28% Fairly closely 40 39 43 37 43 35 Not too closely 17 15 11 19 15 33 Not at all closely 4 1 5 44 3 Don't know 1– – 1– 1 Likely voters 54% 36 8 2 – As the drought continues and mandatory local water restrictions have been put in place this summer, 68 percent of Californians say water supply is a big problem in their part of California. This share is similar to the record-high share in May (69%); it was 14 points lower in July 2014 (54%). Central Valley residents (76%) are the most likely and Los Angeles residents (62%) are the least likely to say the water supply is a big problem in their region. The perception that the water supply is a big problem is higher among older, more educated, and more affluent adults. Views are similar among Democrats, Republicans, and independents. Seventy-six percent of likely voters say the water supply is a big problem. “Would you say that the supply of water is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Big problem 68% 76% 73% 62% 68% 64% Somewhat of a problem 20 15 20 21 22 15 Not much of a problem 12 8 6 16 10 19 Don't know 1– 1 1– 2 Likely voters 76% 16 8 1 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 18 PPIC Statewide Survey WATER POLICY About half of California adults (52%) think people in their part of the state are not doing enough to respond to the current drought. This marks a decrease from March (66%) and May (60%). Today, about half of likely voters (49%) say people are not doing enough. Republicans (44%) are less likely than Democrats (55%) or independents (52%) to say people are not doing enough, but similar shares of partisans say that people are doing the right amount (38% independents, 35% Democrats, 35% Republicans). Across racial/ethnic groups, blacks (67%) are most likely to say that people are not doing enough to respond to the drought, followed by Latinos (53%), whites (50%), and Asians (50%). Regionally, residents of the Inland Empire (62%) are most likely to say that people are not doing enough, followed by those in Orange/San Diego (56%), Los Angeles (53%), the Central Valley (48%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (44%). Those who say the supply of water is a big problem in their part of California are much more likely to say people are not doing enough than are those who say the supply of water is not much of a problem (55% to 40%). “Overall, do you think that the people in your part of California are doing too much, the right amount, or not enough to respond to the current drought in California?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Likely voters Too much 7% 12% 11% 6% 3% 8% 8% The right amount 35 36 38 36 36 24 37 Not enough 52 48 44 53 56 62 49 Don't know 65 7 65 75 To address the drought, the State Water Resources Control Board has set targets to reduce water use in cities and towns by 25 percent statewide. When asked about this action, 46 percent of adults and 45 percent of likely voters say that it does the right amount to respond to the current drought. The share of adults and likely voters expressing that opinion was similar in May (46% adults, 43% likely voters). Democrats (53%) are most likely to say this action does the right amount, followed by independents (47%) and Republicans (39%). Republicans are most likely to say it does too much (22% Republicans, 10% independents, 6% Democrats). Across regions, San Francisco Bay Area residents (55%) are most likely to say that this action does the right amount to respond to the drought, followed by residents of Los Angeles (49%), the Inland Empire (46%), the Central Valley (46%), and Orange/San Diego (38%). Those who say the supply of water is a big problem are much more likely to say the 25 percent reduction is not enough than are those who say the supply of water is not much of a problem (41% to 22%). “Governor Brown recently directed the State Water Resources Control Board to implement mandatory water reductions in cities and towns across California to reduce statewide water usage by 25 percent. Do you think this action does too much, the right amount, or not enough to respond to the current drought in California?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Likely voters Too much 11% 9% 11% 13% 9% 12% 14% The right amount 46 46 55 49 38 46 45 Not enough 36 40 26 33 47 30 35 Don't know 76 855 12 5 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 19 PPIC Statewide Survey WATER POLICY (CONTINUED) To achieve its target of 25 percent water use reduction in cities and towns statewide, the State Water Resources Control Board has set mandatory reduction amounts for each local water agency. When asked if they know the amount of water reduction required for their local district, three in 10 adults (30%) say that they do. Across the state, residents of the San Francisco Bay Area (38%) and the Central Valley (35%) are most likely to know the amount, while residents of the Los Angeles area (24%) are least likely to know. Fewer than half of homeowners (44%) know their district’s water reduction amount, but they are far more likely than renters (18%) to know. Knowledge also varies by demographics and party. Across racial/ethnic groups, whites (39%) are most likely to say they know the amount, followed by Asians (33%), Latinos (20%), and blacks (11%). Those with some college or a college degree (37% each) are much more likely to know the amount than those with only a high school education (19%), and those with incomes above $40,000 (41% $40,000 to $80,000, 43% $80,000 or more) are far more likely to know than those with incomes below $40,000 (19%). Knowledge also increases with age (18% age 18 to 34, 33% age 35 to 54, 40% age 55 and older). Republicans (45%) are more likely to say they know the amount than independents (39%) or Democrats (33%). Those who are following news about the current drought very closely are divided between knowing (46%) and not knowing (48%), but knowledge levels are far lower among those following news only fairly closely (26%) or not too closely (10%). “The State Water Resources Control Board is requiring each local water agency to reduce water use in its area. Do you know the amount of water usage reduction required for your water district?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Homeowners Renters Yes 30% 35% 38% 24% 27% 31% 44% 18% No 64 61 54 71 68 65 50 77 Don't know 5 4 8 54 4 5 5 Among those who say they know the reduction amount for their district, slightly more than half (52%) say it is the right amount and about one in four say it is not enough. Homeowners (26%) are much more likely than renters (10%) to say the amount is too much, and homeowners (15%) are much less likely than renters (36%) to say it is not enough. Among those who say they know the amount of water usage reduction required for their local district, one in three (35%) say that the statewide reduction of 25 percent is not enough, while fewer (23%) say the reduction amount for their local water district is not enough. “Do you think that the amount of water usage reduction required for your water district is too much, the right amount, or not enough?” Among those who say they know the reduction required for their water district All adults Central Valley Region San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Other Southern California* Homeowners Too much 20% 20% 24% 21% 17% 26% Renters 10% The right amount 52 47 49 49 60 53 53 Not enough 23 28 22 25 19 15 36 Don't know 56 54 3 62 *Other Southern California includes the Inland Empire and Orange/San Diego. July 2015 Californians and the Environment 20 PPIC Statewide Survey AIR POLLUTION About six in 10 adults (58%) say air pollution is either a big problem (24%) or somewhat of a problem (34%) in their part of California. The share saying air pollution is a problem is at its lowest point since we began asking this question in 2000. Democrats (69%) are more likely to say air pollution is a problem than independents (57%) or Republicans (50%). Among racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (67%) and blacks (67%) are more likely than Asians (53%) or whites (51%) to view air pollution as a problem, and Latinos are most likely to call it a big problem (34%). Across California regions, residents of Los Angeles (39%) are most likely to say that air pollution is a big problem. Nearly half of adults (49%) say that air pollution is a very serious (19%) or somewhat serious (30%) threat to themselves and their immediate family. The share of Californians with this belief has been similar each time we’ve asked this question since 2009. Democrats (53%) are more likely to say air pollution is a threat than are Republicans (42%) or independents (41%). Across the state’s regions, residents of the Los Angeles area (65%) are most likely to say air pollution is a threat. Latinos (64%) are more likely than blacks (48%), Asians (45%), or whites (39%) to say air pollution is a threat. About four in 10 Californians (41%) say that they suffer or someone in their immediate family suffers from asthma or other respiratory problems. These Californians are more likely to see air pollution as a problem (67%) than those who don’t have asthma or respiratory problems in their immediate family (52%). They are also much more likely to think that air pollution is a very or somewhat serious threat to themselves or their immediate family (63%) than others do (39%). “How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your part of California to you and your immediate family do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asthma or respiratory problems in family Yes No Very serious 19% 19% 11% 31% 10% 19% 28% 12% Somewhat serious 30 33 28 34 30 32 35 27 Not too serious 48 45 57 33 57 43 34 57 Not at all serious 2 2 4 13 2 1 3 Don't know 11 1 11 4 1 1 Californians are divided on whether air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower-income areas than elsewhere in their part of California (48% yes, 47% no). There are stark partisan differences, with Democrats (55%) and independents (51%) much more likely than Republicans (20%) to say it is a more serious threat in lower-income areas. This belief is most common in the Los Angeles area (58%) and least common in the Central Valley (32%). Blacks (65%) and Latinos (62%) are more likely than Asians (50%) and much more likely than whites (34%) to hold this view. This view is also more common among those who are younger, have lower household incomes, and have no college education. Yes No Don't know “Do you think that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower-income areas than other areas in your part of California, or not?” All adults 48% Asians 50% Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos 65% 62% Whites 34% Household income Under $40,000 to $40,000 under $80,000 $80,000 or more 56% 40% 39% 47 46 31 36 58 40 55 56 54 5 3 74 6 6 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 21 REGIONAL MAP July 2015 Californians and the Environment 22 METHODOLOGY The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance from Lunna Lopes, project manager for this survey, Dean Bonner, associate survey director, and David Kordus, survey research associate. This survey, Californians and the Environment, is supported with funding from The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the Pisces Foundation. The PPIC Statewide Survey invites input, comments, and suggestions from policy and public opinion experts and from its own advisory committee, but survey methods, questions, and content are determined solely by PPIC’s survey team. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1,702 California adult residents, including 1,021 interviewed on landline telephones and 681 interviewed on cell phones. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from July 12–21, 2015. Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as eight times to increase the likelihood of reaching an eligible respondent. Once a cell phone user was reached, it was verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey (e.g., not driving). Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Live landline and cell phone interviews were conducted by Abt SRBI, Inc., in English and Spanish, according to respondents’ preferences. Accent on Languages, Inc., translated new survey questions into Spanish, with assistance from Renatta DeFever. Abt SRBI uses the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2011–2013 American Community Survey’s (ACS) Public Use Microdata Series for California (with regional coding information from the University of Minnesota’s Integrated Public Use Microdata Series for California) to compare certain demographic characteristics of the survey sample—region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education—with the characteristics of California’s adult population. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt SRBI used 2013 state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the ACS—and 2014 estimates for the West Census Region in the latest NHIS report. The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The landline and cell phone samples were then integrated using a frame integration weight, while sample July 2015 Californians and the Environment 23 PPIC Statewide Survey balancing adjusted for differences across regional, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, telephone service, and party registration groups. The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3.7 percent at the 95 percent confidence level for the total unweighted sample of 1,702 adults. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 3.7 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1,356 registered voters, the sampling error is ±4 percent; for the 1,064 likely voters, it is ±4.5 percent. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “San Francisco Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” refers to Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, likely voters, and primary likely voters, but sample sizes for these less populous areas are not large enough to report separately. In several places, we refer to coastal and inland counties. The “coastal” region refers to the counties along the California coast from Del Norte County to San Diego County and includes all the San Francisco Bay Area counties. All other counties are included in the “inland” region. We present specific results for non-Hispanic whites, who account for 43 percent of the state’s adult population, and also for Latinos, who account for about a third of the state’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest-growing voter groups. We also present results for non-Hispanic Asians, who make up about 15 percent of the state’s adult population, and non-Hispanic blacks, who comprise about 6 percent. Results for other racial/ethnic groups—such as Native Americans—are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes are not large enough for separate analysis. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and decline-to-state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters—so designated per their responses to voter registration survey questions, previous election participation, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to 100 due to rounding. We compare current PPIC Statewide Survey results to those in our earlier surveys and to those in national surveys by Gallup, Pew Research Center, and CBS/New York Times. Additional details about our methodology can be found at www.ppic.org/content/other/SurveyMethodology.pdf and are available upon request through surveys@ppic.org. July 2015 Californians and the Environment 24 QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESULTS CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT July 12–21, 2015 1,702 California Adult Residents: English, Spanish MARGIN OF ERROR ±3.7% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE PERCENTAGES MAY NOT ADD TO 100 DUE TO ROUNDING 1. First, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California? 53% approve 27 disapprove 20 don’t know 2. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Governor Brown is handling environmental issues in California? 47% approve 34 disapprove 19 don’t know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? 39% approve 45 disapprove 16 don’t know 4. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling environmental issues in California? 42% approve 45 disapprove 13 don’t know 5. Next, what do you think is the most important environmental issue facing California today? [code, don’t read] 58% water supply, drought 9 air pollution, vehicle emissions, smog 7 water pollution of ocean, rivers, lakes, streams, beach pollution 4 global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases 2 energy, fossil fuels, solar, nuclear, wind, alternative energy 2 jobs, economy, budget, taxes 2 too much government regulation, politicians, environmentalists 11 other 5 don’t know 6. Next, would you say that the supply of water is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California? 68% big problem 20 somewhat of a problem 12 not much of a problem 1 don’t know July 2015 Californians and the Environment 25 PPIC Statewide Survey 6a. How closely are you following news about the current drought in California—very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely? 38% very closely 40 somewhat closely 17 not too closely 4 not at all closely 1 don’t know 7. Overall, do you think that the people in your part of California are doing too much, the right amount, or not enough to respond to the current drought in California? 7% too much 35 the right amount 52 not enough 6 don’t know 8. Governor Brown recently directed the State Water Resources Control Board to implement mandatory water reductions in cities and towns across California to reduce statewide water usage by 25 percent. Do you think this action does too much, the right amount, or not enough to respond to the current drought in California? 11% too much 46 the right amount 36 not enough 7 don’t know 9. The State Water Resources Control Board is requiring each local water agency to reduce water use in its area. Do you know the amount of water usage reduction required for your water district? 30% yes 64 no 5 don’t know 9a. [asked of those who know their local water reduction amount] And do you think that the amount of water usage reduction required for your water district is too much, the right amount, or not enough? 20% too much 52 the right amount 23 not enough 5 don’t know Next, we are interested in the part of California that you live in. 10.Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your part of California? 24% big problem 34 somewhat of a problem 41 not a problem 1 don’t know 11.How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your part of California to you and your immediate family—do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat? 19% very serious 30 somewhat serious 48 not too serious 2 not at all serious 1 don’t know 12.Do you think that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower-income areas than other areas in your part of California, or not? 48% yes 47 no 5 don’t know July 2015 Californians and the Environment 26 PPIC Statewide Survey 12a. Do you or does anyone in your immediate family suffer from asthma or other respiratory problems? (If yes: Would that be you or someone in your immediate family?) 11% yes, respondent 23 yes, someone in immediate family 7 yes, both (me and someone in my immediate family) 58 no 0 don’t know Next, 13.On another topic, which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen—[rotate] (1) they have already begun to happen; (2) they will start happening within a few years; (3) they will start happening within your lifetime; (4) they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; [or] (5) they will never happen? 62% already begun 6 within a few years 5 within your lifetime 13 not within lifetime, but will affect future generations 10 will never happen 4 don’t know 14.How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California's future—do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat? 52% very serious 27 somewhat serious 8 not too serious 9 not at all serious 3 don’t know 15.Thinking about the possible impact of global warming in California, how concerned are you about droughts that are more severe? Are you very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about that as an impact? 50% very concerned 34 somewhat concerned 7 not too concerned 7 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 16.Do you think global warming has contributed to California’s current drought or not? 64% yes, has contributed 28 no, has not contributed 8 don’t know Next, 16a. How important is it for the state government to pass regulations and spend money now on efforts to prepare for the future effects of global warming, such as flooding, storms, and wildfires—is it very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 61% very important 25 somewhat important 13 not too important 1 don’t know 17.Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming? 64% favor 28 oppose 8 don’t know July 2015 Californians and the Environment 27 PPIC Statewide Survey 18.Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state? 38% more jobs 24 fewer jobs 26 wouldn’t affect the number of jobs 13 don’t know 19.Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020? 69% favor 20 oppose 11 don’t know [rotate questions 20 to 22] Next, Governor Brown has called for a new set of objectives in clean energy, clean air, and pollution reduction for year 2030. The state legislature is currently considering these new objectives. Please tell me if you favor or oppose each of the following proposals. 20.How about reducing petroleum use in cars and trucks by 50 percent by the year 2030? 73% favor 23 oppose 4 don’t know 21.How about requiring 50 percent of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power by the year 2030? 82% favor 15 oppose 3 don’t know 22.How about requiring that existing buildings double their energy efficiency by the year 2030? 70% favor 24 oppose 6 don’t know 23.To address global warming, the state legislature is currently considering legislation that would require California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Overall, do you favor or oppose this proposal? 69% favor 23 oppose 7 don’t know [rotate order of questions 24 to 28] Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals? 24.How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast? 38% favor 56 oppose 6 don’t know 25.How about increasing tax credits and financial incentives for electric vehicle purchases in California? 67% favor 29 oppose 3 don’t know 26.How about building more charging stations and infrastructure to support electric vehicles in California? 81% favor 16 oppose 3 don’t know July 2015 Californians and the Environment 28 PPIC Statewide Survey 27. How about building more solar power stations in California? 88% favor 9 oppose 3 don’t know 28.How about increasing tax credits and financial incentives for rooftop solar panels in California? 78% favor 19 oppose 3 don’t know 29.Changing topics, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling his job as president of the United States? 57% approve 38 disapprove 4 don’t know 30. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that President Obama is handling environmental issues in the United States? 53% approve 37 disapprove 11 don’t know 31.Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling its job? 29% approve 63 disapprove 9 don’t know 32.Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling environmental issues in the United States? 33% approve 55 disapprove 12 don’t know [rotate questions 33, 34, and 34a] 33.Do you favor or oppose increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, a drilling method that uses high-pressure water and chemicals to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations? 33% favor 56 oppose 10 don’t know 34.Do you favor or oppose building the Keystone XL pipeline that would transport oil from Canada’s oil sands region through the Midwest to refineries in Texas? 49% favor 38 oppose 13 don’t know 34a. Do you favor or oppose setting stricter emission limits on power plants in order to address climate change? 73% favor 21 oppose 6 don’t know 35.Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? 66% yes [ask q35a] 34 no [skip to q36b] 35a. Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline-to-state or independent voter? 44% Democrat [ask q36] 28 Republican [ask q36a] 4 another party (specify) [skip to q37] 24 independent [ask q36b] 36.Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 56% strong 40 not very strong 3 don’t know [skip to q37] July 2015 Californians and the Environment 29 PPIC Statewide Survey 36a. Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 53% strong 43 not very strong 5 don’t know [skip to q37] 36b. Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? 23% Republican Party 46 Democratic Party 23 neither (volunteered) 8 don’t know 37.Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom] 10% very liberal 21 somewhat liberal 29 middle-of-the-road 22 somewhat conservative 14 very conservative 4 don’t know 38.Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics—a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none? 20% great deal 37 fair amount 35 only a little 9 none --- don’t know [d1–d5a: demographic questions] D5b.[asked of those employed full- or part-time] How do you usually commute to work— drive alone, carpool, take public bus or transit, walk, or bicycle? 60% drive alone 15 carpool 10 take public bus or transit 5 walk 3 bicycle 5 work at home (volunteered) 1 other (specify) D5c. Would you say that you have or have not seriously considered getting an electric vehicle the next time you buy or lease a vehicle, or do you already have one? 48% have considered 41 have not considered 5 already have one 5 don’t drive/don’t have a car/won’t be buying another vehicle (volunteered) 1 don’t know [d6 to d16: demographic questions] July 2015 Californians and the Environment 30 PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY ADVISORY COMMITTEE Ruben Barrales President and CEO GROW Elect Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Mollyann Brodie Senior Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Director Bill Lane Center for the American West Stanford University Jon Cohen Vice President of Survey Research SurveyMonkey Joshua J. Dyck Co-Director Center for Public Opinion University of Massachusetts, Lowell Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Robert Lapsley President California Business Roundtable Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Chairman US Hispanic Media, Inc. Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Lisa Pitney Vice President, Government Relations The Walt Disney Company Robert K. Ross, M.D. President and CEO The California Endowment Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS Donna Lucas, Chair Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Mark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and CEO GROW Elect María Blanco Executive Director Undocumented Student Legal Services Center University of California Office of the President Brigitte Bren Attorney Louise Henry Bryson Chair Emerita, Board of Trustees J. Paul Getty Trust Walter B. Hewlett Member, Board of Directors The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Phil Isenberg Vice Chair, Delta Stewardship Council Mas Masumoto Author and Farmer Steven A. Merksamer Senior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni, LLP Kim Polese Chairman ClearStreet, Inc. Thomas C. Sutton Retired Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decision makers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a public charity. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and CEO of PPIC. Donna Lucas is Chair of the Board of Directors. Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the copyright notice below is included. Copyright © 2015 Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 www.ppic.org survey@ppic.org PPIC SACRAMENTO CENTER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121" } ["___content":protected]=> string(102) "

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" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(107) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/ppic-statewide-survey-californians-and-the-environment-july-2015/s_715mbs/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8972) ["ID"]=> int(8972) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:42:35" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(4476) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(8) "S 715MBS" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(8) "s_715mbs" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_715MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "562141" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(87863) "ppic statewide survey JULY 2015 &Californians the environment Mark Baldassare Dean Bonner David Kordus Lunna Lopes CONTENTS About the Survey Press Release Climate Change and Energy Policy Government Ratings, Water, Air Pollution Regional Map Methodology Questionnaire and Results 2 3 6 15 22 23 25 supported with funding from The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the Pisces Foundation ABOUT THE SURVEY The PPIC Statewide Survey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. This is the 151st PPIC Statewide Survey in a series that was inaugurated in April 1998 and has generated a database of responses from more than 315,000 Californians. The current survey, Californians and the Environment, was conducted with funding from The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the Pisces Foundation. Its goal is to inform state policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about Californians’ opinions on global warming, energy policy, the current drought, and air pollution. It is the 15th annual PPIC Statewide Survey on environmental issues since 2000. Following his inaugural address and executive order earlier this year, which called for ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets, Governor Brown recently attended a Vatican conference to discuss climate change. As California continues to pursue goals laid out in Assembly Bill (AB) 32 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, Senate Bill (SB) 32—which would require the state to reduce emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050—is making its way through the legislature. In addition, SB 350—which aims to reduce petroleum use by 50 percent, require 50 percent of energy to come from renewable sources and double the energy efficiency of existing buildings, all by 2030—is progressing through the state legislature. As the drought continues, the State Water Resources Control Board has adopted mandatory water restrictions for local water districts throughout California. In this context, this year’s survey presents the responses of 1,702 adult residents throughout California, interviewed in English and Spanish by landline or cell phone. It includes findings on:  Climate change and energy policy, including perceptions of the onset of global warming, concerns about its possible impacts, and views of its role in the state’s current drought; opinions about California acting independently to address global warming and the effect of state action on job numbers; support for AB 32 and SB 32; support for targets set in SB 350; views on state support for electric vehicles and rooftop solar, opinions on stricter emission limits on power plants; and support for various energy policies, including oil drilling, fracking, and the Keystone XL pipeline.  Government ratings, water, and air pollution, including approval of the governor, legislature, president, and Congress and of their handling of environmental issues; concerns about water supply and whether people are doing enough to repond to the drought; knowledge of and opinions on the mandatory restrictions issued by State Water Resources Control Board; public concerns about and perceptions of air pollution and its impact on lower income areas.  Time trends, national comparisons, and the extent to which Californians may differ in their perceptions, attitudes, and preferences based on political party affiliation, likelihood of voting, region of residence (Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, Inland Empire, and Orange/San Diego Counties), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic black, Latino, and non-Hispanic white), and other demographic characteristics. This report may be downloaded free of charge from our website (www.ppic.org). If you have questions about the survey, please contact survey@ppic.org. Try our PPIC Statewide Survey interactive tools online at www.ppic.org/main/survAdvancedSearch.asp. July 2015 Californians and the Environment 2 PPIC Statewide Survey CONTACT Linda Strean 415-291-4412 Serina Correa 415-291-4417 NEWS RELEASE EMBARGOED: Do not publish or broadcast until 9:00 p.m. PDT on Wednesday, July 29, 2015. Para ver este comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Majority Say Global Warming Contributing to Drought MOST SUPPORT STATE EFFORTS TO LIMIT EMISSIONS, BUT PARTISAN DIVIDE PERSISTS SAN FRANCISCO, July 29, 2015—A solid majority of Californians believe that global warming is already having an impact, and nearly two-thirds of residents say it has contributed to the state’s current drought, according to a statewide survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC). As Governor Brown and state policymakers seek to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 62 percent of Californians say the effects of global warming have begun, while 24 percent say they will happen in the future. Just 10 percent say the effects will never happen. Democrats (73%) and independents (65%) are far more likely than Republicans (37%) to say global warming’s effects have begun. Notably, 31 percent of Republicans say they will never happen. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (69%) are the most likely to say the effects have already begun, followed by blacks (63%), Asians (60%), and whites (58%). Most residents say that global warming is a very serious (52%) or somewhat serious (27%) threat to California’s future and quality of life. Democrats (66%) are more likely than independents (51%) and far more likely than Republicans (26%) to call the threat very serious. “The threat of global warming to the state’s future is a shared belief among inland and coastal residents and Californians across racial and ethnic groups,” said Mark Baldassare, PPIC president and CEO. “But there are persistent partisan divisions on climate change.” As California copes with a fourth year of drought, 64 percent of residents say global warming has contributed to it, while 28 percent say it has not. The partisan split is sharp: 78 percent of Democrats say global warming has contributed to drought and 62 percent of Republicans say it has not. Asked how concerned they are about the possible impact of global warming on droughts, 84 percent of residents say they are concerned (50% very concerned, 34% somewhat concerned) about droughts that are more severe. Asked to name the most important environmental issue facing the state today, 58 percent of Californians say it is water supply or drought—up 23 points from July 2014 and up 50 points from July 2011. Air pollution ranks a distant second, with 9 percent saying it is the most important issue. Last year was the first year that air pollution was not the top issue and water or drought was number one. Another indication of the importance of the drought: most residents say they are following news about it either very closely (38%) or fairly closely (40%). A strong majority of Californians (68%) say the water supply in their part of California is a big problem, similar to the shares in March (66%) and May (69%). Residents of the Central Valley (76%) are the most likely and those in Los Angeles (62%) the least likely to say their water supply is a big problem. Residents take a more positive view of their neighbors’ response to the drought than they did earlier this year. About half (52%) say that people in their region are not doing enough, compared to 66 percent in March and 60 percent in May. July 2015 Californians and the Environment 3 PPIC Statewide Survey MOST DON’T KNOW HOW MUCH WATER THEY SHOULD BE SAVING Asked about the State Water Resources Board’s implementation of a 25 percent statewide water cutback, Californians are most likely (46%) to say this action does the right amount to respond to the drought, while 36 percent say it is not enough of a response and 11 percent say it is too much. To reduce water use 25 percent statewide, the water board has set mandatory reduction amounts for each local water agency. However, 64 percent of adults say they don’t know their district’s target amount. San Francisco Bay Area residents (38%) are the most likely to know their district’s target and those in Los Angeles (24%) are the least likely. Less than half of homeowners (44%) know their district’s target, but they are far more likely than renters (18%) to know. Among those who say they do know, 52 percent say the target amount is right, 23 percent say it is not enough, and 20 percent say it is too much. MAJORITIES FAVOR AB 32 GOALS—AND MORE AMBITIOUS ONES Solid majorities of Californians (69% adults, 63% likely voters) favor AB 32, the 2006 state law that requires reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Most Californians have favored this law since PPIC began asking about it in July 2006. But while majorities across partisan lines expressed support in 2006 (68% independents, 67% Democrats, 65% Republicans), a strong partisan divide has opened up since then. Support among Democrats rose in 2007, with more than three-fourths favoring the law, and Republican support declined in 2009, with fewer than half in favor each time PPIC has asked the question since then. Today, 79 percent of Democrats and 74 percent of independents favor the law, compared to 46 percent of Republicans. With the state on track to meet AB 32 goals, a new bill—SB 32—would set more ambitious ones. The bill would require the state to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. Most adults (69%) and likely voters (62%) favor this proposal—a close mirroring of support for AB 32. As with AB 32, blacks (76%), Latinos (75%), and Asians (71%) are slightly more likely than whites (65%) to favor SB 32’s goals. Baldassare summed up: “At a time when many Californians are making a connection between the current drought and climate change, there is strong support for expanding the state’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.” The legislature is also considering SB 350, a bill to reduce petroleum use in cars by 50 percent, require half of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, and require existing buildings to double their energy efficiency by 2030. When asked about the targets in the bill, strong majorities favor each one. The electricity goal has the highest support (82%), with majorities across party lines in favor. Most adults (73%) favor reducing petroleum use in vehicles, but there are partisan differences: 83 percent of Democrats and 75 percent of independents are in favor, while a majority of Republicans (53%) are opposed. Asked about increasing energy efficiency in buildings, 70 percent of adults are in favor. Democrats (82%) and independents (75%) are more likely to be in favor than are Republicans (52%). Most Californians say it is very important (61%) or somewhat important (25%) for the state government to pass regulations and spend money now to prepare for the future effects of global warming. Just 13 percent say it is not too important. A quarter of adults (24%) say California’s actions to reduce global warming in the future will result in fewer jobs around the state, while 38 percent say the result will be more jobs, and 26 percent say there will be no effect on the number of jobs. Across regions, age, education, and racial/ethnic groups, pluralities say state action would result in more jobs. SUPPORT FOR INCREASED INCENTIVES FOR ELECTRIC CARS, SOLAR POWER When asked about proposals that could help the state achieve some of the goals in SB 350, 67 percent of adults and 64 percent of likely voters favor increasing tax credits and incentives for electric vehicle purchases. Independents (74%) and Democrats (71%) are more likely than Republicans (51%) to favor this idea. An overwhelming majority (80%) of adults who have considered buying an electric vehicle support increasing incentives, as do more than half (52%) of those who have not considered buying one. There is even stronger July 2015 Californians and the Environment 4 PPIC Statewide Survey support for building more charging stations and infrastructure to support electric vehicles (81% adults, 75% likely voters). Strong majorities across parties favor this proposal. Californians also express strong support for solar power. Large majorities favor building more solar power stations in California (88% adults, 83% likely voters) and increasing tax credits and financial incentives for rooftop solar panels (78% adults, 78% likely voters). There are high levels of support across parties. Another way for the state to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions is to set stricter emission limits on power plants. Asked their views of this idea, 73 percent of adults and 66 percent of likely voters favor it. DIVIDED ON KEYSTONE PIPELINE AND OPPOSED TO OFFSHORE DRILLING, FRACKING About half of Californians (49%) favor building the Keystone XL pipeline, and 38 percent are opposed. Support has hovered around 50 percent since PPIC first asked in 2013 about building the pipeline to transport oil from Canadian oil sands to Texas. Californians are less likely to favor two other methods to make more oil available: offshore drilling and fracking. In the wake of the oil spill off the Santa Barbara coast in May, support for increased coastal drilling has fallen from 46 percent last July to 38 percent—the lowest point since July 2010 (36%), following the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Most adults (56%) also oppose increased use of fracking to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations. This is the highest level of opposition since PPIC began asking the question in 2013. Just 33 percent favor more fracking. Majorities of Democrats (71%) and independents (63%) oppose increased fracking, while 53 percent of Republicans support it. “Californians are clearly enthusiastic about alternatives to fossil fuels, such as solar power and electric vehicles,” Baldassare said. “And this year’s survey also shows more opposition to offshore oil drilling and fracking.” MOST SAY AIR POLLUTION IS A PROBLEM The share of Californians who say air pollution is a problem is at its lowest point since PPIC began asking the question in 2000. Nevertheless, a majority of adults say it is either a big problem (24%) or somewhat of a problem (34%) in their part of California. Across regions, Los Angeles residents (39%) are the most likely to say air pollution is a big problem. Latinos (67%) and blacks (67%) are more likely than Asians (53%) or whites (51%) to say it is a problem. Nearly half of adults (49%) say air pollution is a serious threat to themselves and their immediate families. MAJORITIES APPROVE OF BROWN, OBAMA The survey asks how Californians rate their elected leaders—both on overall job performance and on their handling of environmental issues. Majorities (53% adults, 55% likely voters) approve of Governor Brown’s job performance. Slightly fewer approve of the way he handles environmental issues (47% adults, 48% likely voters). The legislature’s job approval rating is lower than the governor’s (39% adults, 32% likely voters). Its rating on environmental issues is 42 percent among adults and 32 percent among likely voters. Most adults (57%) and about half of likely voters (51%) approve of President Obama’s job performance, while his rating is slightly lower on environmental issues (53% adults, 47% likely voters). Congress’ job approval rating is low (29% adults, 17% likely voters). Its rating on environmental issues is slightly higher (33% adults, 20% likely voters). July 2015 Californians and the Environment 5 CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY POLICY KEY FINDINGS  Sixty-two percent of Californians believe the effects of global warming are happening now. Half of adults say it is a very serious threat to the economy and quality of life in California. (page 7)  Half of Californians are very concerned about more-severe droughts as an impact of global warming. More than six in 10 say global warming has contributed to the current drought. (page 8)  A solid majority of adults favor California making its own policies—separate from the federal government—to address global warming. Pluralities say state action to reduce global warming will lead to more jobs. (page 9)  Most Californians (69%) remain in favor of AB 32, the 2006 state law that requires a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. There is a similar level of support (69%) for SB 32, proposed legislation that aims to reduce emissions 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. (page 10)  Californians are also supportive of the goals set out in SB 350: at least seven in 10 adults favor reducing petroleum use by 50 percent, requiring 50 percent of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy, and requiring that existing buildings double their energy efficiency, all by 2030. (page 11)  Strong majorities favor building more solar power stations and increasing infrastructure for electric vehicles in California. (page 12)  Majorities of adults oppose increased use of fracking and more oil drilling off the California coast, while half favor building the Keystone XL pipeline. (pages 13, 14) July 2015 Californians and the Environment Percent all adults Percent all adults Percent registered voters 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Threat of Global Warming to California's Future % saying very serious 100 Dem Rep Ind 80 66 60 51 40 26 20 0 Support for California Making its Own Policies to Address Global Warming 100 80 64 60 54 57 40 20 0 July 2005 July 2010 July 2015 Support for California Energy Goals for 2030 100 82 80 73 70 60 40 20 0 Requiring 50% Reducing Requiring of electricity petroleum use existing come from by 50% buildings renewable double energy sources efficiency 6 PPIC Statewide Survey OVERALL PERCEPTIONS OF GLOBAL WARMING Governor Brown and state policymakers are seeking to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to mitigate global warming. How do Californians perceive global warming? Six in 10 Californians (62%) say that the effects of global warming have already begun, while one in four say they will happen in the future (24%). Just 10 percent say the effects will never occur. Since we began asking this question in July 2005, majorities have said that the effects have already begun. Adults nationwide in a March Gallup poll were slightly less likely than Californians in our survey to say that the effects have already begun (55% to 62%). Democrats (73%) and independents (65%) are far more likely than Republicans (37%) to say that the effects of global warming have begun. Notably, 31 percent of Republicans say the effects will never happen, while few Democrats (3%) or independents (7%) hold this view. Latinos (69%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to say the effects have already begun, followed by blacks (63%), Asians (60%), and whites (58%). Majorities across regions say the effects of global warming have already begun, with residents in Los Angeles (65%), the Inland Empire (64%), and the San Francisco Bay Area (64%) slightly more likely to say this than those in Orange/San Diego (58%) and the Central Valley (57%). Majorities of men and women and across age, education, and income groups say the effects have already begun. “Which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen…? All adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Already begun 62% 60% 63% 69% 58% Within a few years 6 10 15 8 2 Within your lifetime Not within lifetime, but will affect future Will never happen 5 13 10 11 9 4 9 11 12 9 24 5 14 16 Don't know 4 114 4 Likely voters 59% 4 4 11 17 4 Eight in 10 Californians say that global warming is a very serious (52%) or somewhat serious (27%) threat to California’s future economy and quality of life. Since we began asking this question in July 2005, more than seven in 10 Californians have said the threat is very or somewhat serious. Today, Democrats (66%) are much more likely than independents (51%) and far more likely than Republicans (26%) to call the threat very serious. San Francisco Bay Area (57%) residents are the most likely to hold this view, followed by those in Los Angeles (55%), the Inland Empire (53%), the Central Valley (48%), and Orange/San Diego (48%). Latinos (63%), blacks (57%), and Asians (54%) are more likely than whites (43%) to say global warming poses a very serious threat. Women (56%) are more likely than men (48%) and Californians age 18 to 34 (59%) are more likely than older Californians (50%) to call the threat very serious. “How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California’s future—do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat?” All adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely voters Very serious 52% 54% 57% 63% 43% 47% Somewhat serious 27 34 31 27 27 22 Not too serious 88 96 10 11 Not at all serious 92 13 17 16 Don't know 32 31 44 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 7 PPIC Statewide Survey GLOBAL WARMING AND DROUGHT SEVERITY Given that a majority of Californians think that the effects of global warming have already begun, how concerned are they about the impact of global warming and droughts that are more severe? Eighty-four percent of Californians are very (50%) or somewhat (34%) concerned about droughts that are more severe, while 14 percent are not too (7%) or not at all (7%) concerned. In periodic surveys dating back to July 2005, at least three in four Californians have expressed concern about droughts that are more severe. Partisan differences on global warming extend to its impact on drought severity, with Democrats (65%) and independents (55%) far more likely than Republicans (33%) to be very concerned about droughts that are more severe. Despite being the least likely to say that the effects of global warming have already begun, Central Valley residents (56%) are the most likely to be very concerned, followed by those in Los Angeles (52%), the San Francisco Bay Area (52%), the Inland Empire (49%), and Orange/San Diego (45%). Asians (57%) are the most likely racial/ethnic group to be very concerned, followed by blacks (51%), Latinos (49%), and whites (49%). Women (56%) are more likely than men (45%) to be very concerned about droughts that are more severe. “Thinking about the possible impact of global warming in California, how concerned are you about droughts that are more severe?” Very concerned All adults 50% Central Valley 56% Region San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles 52% 52% Orange/ San Diego 45% Inland Empire 49% Somewhat concerned 34 26 37 33 34 37 Not too concerned 7 10 3 7 10 6 Not at all concerned 7 8 4 8 95 Don't know 1 – 3 – 22 Likely voters 52% 27 8 11 2 With California deep in the pangs of the fourth year of a drought, do Californians think global warming contributed to the current drought? Nearly two-thirds of Californians (64%) say global warming has contributed, while nearly three in 10 (28%) say it has not contributed. Residents in Los Angeles (69%), the San Francisco Bay Area (67%), and the Inland Empire (66%) are more likely than those in the Central Valley (58%) and Orange/San Diego (54%) to say global warming contributed to the current drought. Partisan differences are also apparent, with an overwhelming majority of Democrats (78%) saying global warming has contributed to the current drought and a solid majority of Republicans (62%) saying it has not contributed. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (80%) are the most likely to say it has contributed, followed by blacks (71%), Asians (68%), and whites (49%). Women (69%) are more likely than men (58%) to say global warming has contributed to the current drought. While majorities across age, education, and income groups say it has contributed, this perception is higher among those age 18 to 34, those with only a high school diploma, and those with household incomes of less than $40,000. “Do you think global warming has contributed to California's current drought or not?” Yes, has contributed All adults 64% Central Valley 58% Region San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles 67% 69% Orange/ San Diego 54% Inland Empire 66% No, has not contributed 28 35 25 21 38 28 Don't know 87 8 10 8 6 Likely voters 55% 40 5 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 8 PPIC Statewide Survey CALIFORNIA’S CLIMATE CHANGE POLICIES Most Californians say it is very (61%) or somewhat (25%) important for the state government to pass regulations and spend money now to prepare for the future effects of global warming; just 13 percent call it not too important. In July 2013, fewer Californians called this very important (53% very, 29% somewhat, 16% not too important). Partisans disagree on the importance of taking action: 77 percent of Democrats, compared to 40 percent of Republicans, say it is very important. Majorities across regions and demographic groups say acting now to prepare for the future effects of global warming is very important. California has been a national leader on the issue of global warming and most Californians support the role California plays. Sixty-four percent of Californians favor state government making its own policies separate from the federal government to address global warming. Support for the state making its own policies is similar to last July (65%) and majorities have supported the state making its own policies since we first asked this question in July 2005. Today, Democrats (75%) and independents (65%) are far more likely than Republicans (43%) to be in favor. While majorities across regions are in favor, San Francisco Bay Area (75%) residents are the most supportive, followed by those in Los Angeles (65%), Orange/San Diego (59%), the Inland Empire (58%), and the Central Valley (54%). About seven in 10 blacks, Latinos, and Asians are in favor, compared to fewer whites (57%). Support for the state making its own policies decreases as age increases. Favor Oppose Don't know “Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming?” All adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 64% 70% 71% 70% 57% 28 20 25 21 35 8 11 3 8 8 Likely voters 61% 33 6 A plurality of Californians (38%) say that state actions to reduce global warming would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, and 26 percent say it would not affect the number of jobs; 24 percent think actions would result in fewer jobs. A plurality of Californians have said that state action would result in more jobs since we began asking this question in July 2010, with a high point of 47 percent in July 2011 and a low point of 38 percent this year. Today, a plurality of Democrats (49%) and independents (41%) say state action would result in more jobs; Republican views are more mixed (21% more jobs, 31% fewer jobs, 35% no effect on jobs). Pluralities across regions, age, education, income, and racial/ethnic groups (41% Asians, 40% Latinos, 39% blacks, 36% whites) say that state action would result in more jobs. “Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state?” More jobs All adults 38% Central Valley 36% Region San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles 42% 36% Orange/ San Diego 37% Inland Empire 37% Likely voters 34% Fewer jobs 24 27 26 21 29 16 24 Wouldn't affect the number of jobs 26 25 22 28 23 30 29 Don't know 13 12 11 14 11 17 13 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 9 PPIC Statewide Survey STATEWIDE EMISSION REDUCTION GOALS FOR 2020 AND 2050 The California Air Resources Board recently announced that California is on track to meet the goal set by Assembly Bill (AB) 32 of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Today, a solid majority of Californians (69%) and likely voters (63%) continue to favor AB 32. More than six in 10 Californians have favored this law since we first asked about it in July 2006. Today, there is a notable partisan divide on this policy, with 79 percent of Democrats and 74 percent of independents favoring the law, compared to only 46 percent of Republicans. When we first asked about AB 32 in July 2006, partisan differences were muted: Democrats (67%), Republicans (65%) and independents (68%) all expressed similar levels of support. However, 2007 saw an increase in support among Democrats, and more than three in four have favored the law since then. Conversely, support among Republicans decreased in 2009; fewer than half have expressed support for the law each time we have asked this question since then. Across racial/ethnic groups, whites (61%) are less likely to favor AB 32 than blacks (74%), Latinos (76%), and Asians (78%). Regionally, adults in the San Francisco Bay Area (77%) are the most likely to favor the current law, followed by those in Los Angeles (73%), the Central Valley (65%), the Inland Empire (64%), and Orange/San Diego (62%). Renters (74%) are more likely than homeowners (63%) to favor the reduction targets established in AB 32. Across age groups, support for AB 32 declines as age increases. “Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020?” All adults Dem Party Rep Likely voters Ind Favor 69% 79% 46% 74% 63% Oppose 20 12 45 18 29 Don't know 11 10 9 8 9 With the state making steady progress toward meeting the AB 32 reduction targets, Senate Bill (SB) 32 would require the state to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. As the legislature considers SB 32, how do Californians feel about this new target? A solid majority of Californians (69%) and likely voters (62%) favor the reductions set in SB 32. Levels of support for SB 32 closely mirror support for AB 32. Indeed, there is a similar partisan difference: Democrats (79%) and independents (68%) are more likely than Republicans (45%) to support the proposed reduction requirements. As with AB 32, whites (65%) are somewhat less likely than Asians (71%), Latinos (75%) and blacks (76%) to favor the reductions set out in SB 32. Support for requiring the state to reduce its emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050 decreases as age increases. “To address global warming, the state legislature is currently considering legislation that would require California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Overall, do you favor or oppose this proposal?” All adults Dem Party Rep Likely voters Ind Favor 69% 79% 45% 68% 62% Oppose 23 16 47 27 33 Don't know 75856 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 10 PPIC Statewide Survey STATEWIDE ENERGY OBJECTIVES FOR 2030 The governor’s proposal earlier this year, which is reflected in SB 350 and under consideration by the legislature, requires the state to reduce petroleum use in cars by 50 percent by 2030, requires that 50 percent of the state’s electricity come from renewable energy sources by 2030, and requires that existing buildings double their energy efficiency by the same year. When asked about these three energy targets, strong majorities of Californians favor each of the proposals. Support is highest for requiring that 50 percent of the state’s electricity come from renewable sources (82%). An overwhelming majority of Democrats (90%) and independents (81%) and 63 percent of Republicans favor this. Notably, more than seven in 10 Californians across regions and demographic groups favor requiring 50 percent of the state’s electricity to come from renewable sources by 2030. When asked about requiring a 50 percent reduction in petroleum use in cars and trucks by 2030, seven in 10 Californians and six in 10 likely voters express support. However, this policy generates sharper partisan differences: 83 percent of Democrats and 75 percent of independents are in favor, while a majority of Republicans (53%) are opposed. Across racial/ethnic groups, Asians (85%) and Latinos (80%) are more likely than blacks (73%) and much more likely than whites (64%) to favor reducing petroleum use by 50 percent. Regionally, those in Los Angeles (77%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (76%) are the most likely to favor this policy, while residents in the Central Valley and Orange/San Diego are the least likely to say the same (66% each). Renters (79%) and those age 18 to 34 (83%) are more likely than homeowners (65%) and Californians age 35 and older (68%) to favor this proposal. When asked about the energy efficiency requirement, 70 percent of adults and 68 percent of likely voters favor requiring existing buildings to double their efficiency by 2030. As with the other SB 350 provisions, Democrats (82%) and independents (75%) are far more likely to favor this requirement than Republicans (52%). Asians (86%) and blacks (83%) are more likely than whites (68%) and Latinos (67%) to favor requiring existing buildings to double their energy efficiency. “Governor Brown has called for a new set of objectives in clean energy, clean air, and pollution reduction for year 2030. The state legislature is currently considering these new objectives. Please tell me if you favor or oppose each of the following proposals.” Percent in favor Requiring 50 percent of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, by the year 2030 Reducing petroleum use in cars and trucks by 50 percent by the year 2030 Requiring that existing buildings double their energy efficiency by the year 2030 All adults 82% 73% 70% All likely voters 74 63 68 Party Democrat Republican Independent 90 83 82 63 42 52 81 75 75 Race/Ethnicity Asians Blacks Latinos Whites 89 85 86 88 73 83 90 80 67 75 64 68 Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area 84 83 66 68 76 77 Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire 83 75 82 77 72 66 63 74 68 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 11 PPIC Statewide Survey SOLAR POWER AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES We asked about actions that could help the state achieve some of the targets proposed in SB 350 and SB 32. More than six in 10 adults (67%) and likely voters (64%) favor increasing tax credits and incentives for electric vehicle purchases. Across political parties, independents (74%) and Democrats (71%) are much more likely than Republicans (51%) to favor this proposal. Regionally, support is highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (72%) and lowest in the Central Valley and Orange/San Diego (64% each). Eighty percent of adults who have considered buying an electric vehicle support increasing incentives, and more than half (52%) of those who have not considered purchasing an electric vehicle say the same. There is widespread support for building more charging stations and infrastructure to support electric vehicles—81 percent of adults and 75 percent of likely voters favor this proposal. Strong majorities across political parties express support. Indeed, more than seven in 10 adults across all regions and demographic groups favor building more infrastructure to support electric vehicles. “Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals? How about…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind Increasing tax credits and financial incentives for electric vehicle purchases in California Favor Oppose Don't know 67% 71% 51% 74% 29 25 45 24 3342 Building more charging stations and infrastructure to support electric vehicles in California Favor Oppose Don't know 81 84 65 82 16 13 33 15 3323 Likely voters 64% 33 3 75 22 2 Californians express high levels of support for solar power, with more than eight in 10 adults (88%) and likely voters (83%) in favor of building more solar power stations in California. Support for building more solar power stations is widespread, with more than eight in 10 adults across regions and all demographic groups saying they favor this proposal. Strong majorities of adults (78%) and likely voters (78%) favor increasing tax credits and financial incentives for rooftop solar panels in California. Support is strong across parties, though Democrats (84%) and independents (80%) are more likely than Republicans (70%) to favor this proposal. Across racial/ethnic groups, more than three in four favor increasing incentives for rooftop solar (81% Latinos, 78% blacks, 77% Asians, and 77% whites). Renters (78%) and homeowners (76%) express similar levels of support for this proposal. “Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals? How about…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind Building more solar power stations in California Favor Oppose Don't know 88% 92% 76% 89% 9 6 23 10 3211 Increasing tax credits and financial incentives for rooftop solar panels in California Favor Oppose Don't know 78 84 70 80 19 13 29 18 3322 Likely voters 83% 15 2 78 20 2 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 12 PPIC Statewide Survey POWER PLANT EMISSIONS AND KEYSTONE XL PIPELINE Last June, the Obama administration and the Environmental Protection Agency proposed new rules requiring power plants to reduce their emissions. Strong majorities of Californians (73%) and likely voters (66%) favor setting stricter emission limits on power plants in order to address climate change. Californians were equally supportive in response to a similar question last July (75%) and July 2013 (76%). This proposal receives overwhelming support from Democrats (81%) and independents (76%), while half of Republicans (50%) are in favor. Majorities across regions are in favor, with support ranging from a high of 76 percent in the San Francisco Bay Area and Los Angeles to a low of 64 percent in Orange/San Diego. Latinos (80%), blacks (78%), and Asians (77%) are more likely than whites (68%) to be in favor of stricter limits on power plants. Among those who support each of the elements of SB 350 and SB 32, more than eight in 10 support stricter emission limits on power plants. Favor Oppose Don't know “Do you favor or oppose setting stricter emission limits on power plants in order to address climate change?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind 73% 81% 50% 76% 21 15 46 20 6 4 54 Likely voters 66% 30 4 In the wake of President Obama’s veto of the Keystone XL pipeline bill in February 2015, about half of Californians (49%) favor building the pipeline, while four in 10 are opposed (38%). Support for building the pipeline has hovered around 50 percent (53% May 2013, 51% July 2013, 46% May 2014, 53% July 2014, 54% March 2015, 49% today). Support for building the Keystone XL pipeline is far higher among Republicans (74%) than among independents (45%) and Democrats (38%). Across regions, residents in the Inland Empire (59%), the Central Valley (54%), and Orange/San Diego (52%) are more likely than those in the San Francisco Bay Area (46%) and Los Angeles (42%) to favor building the pipeline. Support across demographic groups eclipses 50 percent among whites (52%), men (51%), those age 35 to 54 (51%) and 55 and older (52%), those with no college education (51%), and those living in households making more than $80,000 (54%). Notably, among those who disapprove of President Obama, 63 percent are in favor of building the Keystone XL pipeline. Favor Oppose Don't know “Do you favor or oppose building the Keystone XL pipeline that would transport oil from Canada’s oil sands region through the Midwest to refineries in Texas?” Party All adults Likely voters Dem Rep Ind 49% 38% 74% 45% 53% 38 49 19 47 39 13 13 7 8 8 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 13 PPIC Statewide Survey OFFSHORE DRILLING AND FRACKING Following the oil spill off the Santa Barbara coast in May, what do Californians think about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast? Today, 38 percent of Californians favor increased offshore drilling, which is down from 46 percent last July. Support for offshore drilling is at its lowest point since July 2010 (36%), following the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Across parties, only Republicans express majority support for increased offshore drilling (62%), compared with 37 percent of independents and 27 percent of Democrats. Majorities across educational levels and racial/ethnic and age groups are opposed, as are majorities of men and women. While residents of inland counties are split over increased offshore drilling (46% favor, 46% oppose), a solid majority of coastal residents oppose it (61%). Opposition is highest in the San Francisco Bay Area (69%), followed by Orange/San Diego (58%), Los Angeles (57%), Central Valley (46%), and the Inland Empire (43%). Favor Oppose Don't know “Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals… how about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind 38% 27% 62% 37% 56 69 33 61 64 5 3 Likely voters 43% 53 3 Majorities of adults and likely voters (56% each) oppose increased use of fracking to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations. That is the highest level of opposition among adults and likely voters since we began asking this question in 2013. Just one in three adults (33%) favor increased use of fracking. Across parties, only Republicans show majority support (53%) for increased use of fracking, compared with 28 percent of independents and 22 percent of Democrats. Across racial/ethnic groups, opposition is highest among blacks (71%), followed by Latinos (58%), Asians (55%), and whites (53%). Half or more of residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (64%), Los Angeles (63%), Orange/San Diego (51%), and the Central Valley (50%) oppose increased fracking. Only in the Inland Empire does a plurality favor increased use of fracking (49% favor, 42% oppose). “Do you favor or oppose increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, a drilling method that uses highpressure water and chemicals to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations?” All adults Dem Party Rep Likely voters Ind Favor 33% 22% 53% 28% 34% Oppose 56 71 35 63 56 Don't know 10 7 12 8 10 Opposition to both increased offshore drilling and increased use of fracking is highest among those who say global warming is a very serious or somewhat serious threat to California’s economy and quality of life. Among those who say global warming is a very serious or somewhat serious threat, 64 percent oppose increased offshore drilling and 63 percent oppose increased use of fracking. In contrast, among those who say the threat of global warming is not too serious or not at all serious, solid majorities support increased offshore drilling (73%) and increased use of fracking (63%). July 2015 Californians and the Environment 14 GOVERNMENT RATINGS, WATER, AIR POLLUTION KEY FINDINGS  Fifty-three percent of Californians approve of Governor Brown’s job performance, while slightly fewer approve of his handling of environmental issues. About four in 10 approve of the legislature overall and of its handling of environmental issues. (page 16)  Fifty-seven percent of Californians approve of President Obama’s job performance, while slightly fewer approve of his handling of environmental issues. About three in 10 approve of Congress, both overall and on environmental issues. (page 17)  Nearly 6 in 10 Californians name water supply and the drought as the most important environmental issue. Seventy-eight percent of adults are very closely or fairly closely following news about the current drought and 68 percent see their local water supply as a big problem. (page 18)  Half of Californians say that people in their part of the state are not doing enough to respond to the current drought—a decrease from earlier PPIC surveys. A plurality continues to say that the mandatory water reductions initiated by Governor Brown are the right amount. (page 19)  Three in 10 Californians know the amount of water usage reduction required for their water district. Among those who know the amount of reduction required, half say it is the right amount. (page 20)  Six in 10 Californians say that air pollution in their part of California is a big problem or somewhat of a problem. Half say that air pollution is at least a somewhat serious health threat to them and their immediate family and that the threat is more serious in lower-income areas than elsewhere. (page 21) July 2015 Californians and the Environment Percent all adults Approval Ratings of State Elected Officials 80 Job overall Environmental issues 60 53 47 40 39 42 Percent all adults 20 0 Governor Brown California Legislature Approval Ratings of Federal Elected Officials 80 Job overall Environmental issues 60 57 53 Percent all adults 40 33 29 20 0 President Obama U.S. Congress Most Important Environmental Issue Facing California 80 Air pollution Water supply, drought 60 58 40 27 20 8 0 2011 9 2015 15 PPIC Statewide Survey APPROVAL RATINGS OF STATE ELECTED OFFICIALS Majorities of California adults (53%) and likely voters (55%) approve of the way Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California. Brown’s approval ratings were similar in May (52% adults, 54% likely voters) and last July (53% adults, 56% likely voters). Democrats (70%) are more likely than independents (60%) and far more likely than Republicans (29%) to approve of the governor today. Across the state’s regions, San Francisco Bay Area residents (67%) are more likely than others (58% Los Angeles, 50% Inland Empire, 45% Central Valley, 42% Orange/San Diego) to approve of Governor Brown. Has approval of Governor Brown’s handling of environmental issues changed since he announced new goals and policies for addressing climate change? Forty-seven percent of adults and 48 percent of likely voters express approval, similar to last July (47% adults, 46% likely voters). Democrats (63%) are much more likely than independents (46%) and far more likely than Republicans (24%) to approve. Across regions, approval is higher in the San Francisco Bay Area (56%) than elsewhere (50% Los Angeles, 48% Central Valley, 42% Inland Empire, 39% Orange/San Diego). “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind His job as governor of California Approve Disapprove Don’t know 53% 70% 29% 60% 27 16 59 26 20 14 12 14 Environmental issues in California Approve Disapprove Don’t know 47 63 24 46 34 23 61 34 19 14 15 20 Likely voters 55% 37 9 48 42 10 Thirty-nine percent of adults and 32 percent of likely voters approve of the legislature. Approval was similar in May (37% adults, 30% likely voters) and last July (38% adults, 31% likely voters). Democrats (45%) are more likely than independents (35%) and far more likely than Republicans (15%) to express approval. Across regions, San Francisco Bay Area (47%) and Los Angeles (45%) residents are more likely than others to approve (37% Inland Empire, 33% Central Valley, 30% Orange/San Diego). Has approval of the legislature’s handling of environmental issues changed since it took up climate change and energy policy in the current session? Approval ratings for the legislature’s handling of environmental issues today (42% adults, 32% likely voters) are similar to last July (38% adults, 33% likely voters). Democrats (41%) and independents (36%) are more likely than Republicans (23%) to express approval. “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Likely Ind voters Approve 39% 45% 15% 35% 32% Its job Disapprove 45 35 73 54 54 Don’t know 16 20 11 11 13 Environmental issues in California Approve Disapprove Don’t know 42 41 23 36 32 45 42 66 52 55 13 17 11 11 13 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 16 PPIC Statewide Survey APPROVAL RATINGS OF FEDERAL ELECTED OFFICIALS Majorities of California adults (57%) and likely voters (51%) approve of the way Barack Obama is handling his job as president. Approval was similar in May (58% adults, 49% likely voters) and last July (50% adults, 47% likely voters). Today, 79 percent of Democrats approve, compared to 55 percent of independents and 18 percent of Republicans. Residents in Los Angeles (66%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (65%) are more likely than others to approve (51% Central Valley, 49% Inland Empire, 48% Orange/San Diego). In a July Pew Research Center national poll, approval was at 45 percent. About half of adults (53%) and likely voters (47%) approve of President Obama’s handling of environmental issues. The findings were similar a year ago (47% adults, 45% likely voters). Today, 71 percent of Democrats approve of President Obama’s handling of environmental issues, compared to 54 percent of independents and 17 percent of Republicans. Across regions, Los Angeles (61%) and San Francisco Bay Area (60%) residents are more likely than others to approve of the president on environmental issues (47% Central Valley, 47% Orange/San Diego, 43% Inland Empire). Barack Obama is handling his job as president of the United States President Obama is handling environmental issues in the United States “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Approve 57% 79% 18% Disapprove 38 17 82 Don’t know 441 Approve 53 71 17 Disapprove 37 19 73 Don’t know 11 11 10 Likely Ind voters 55% 51% 40 47 52 54 47 37 43 9 10 The U.S. Congress has low approval ratings among Californians (29% adults, 17% likely voters). Last July, approval ratings were at 22 percent for adults and 15 percent for likely voters. Today, fewer than one in four across parties approve of Congress. Approval of Congress falls short of a majority across all regions and demographic groups. Approval was at 15 percent in a May CBS/New York Times national poll. The U.S. Congress’ handling of environmental issues also receives low approval ratings (33% adults, 20% likely voters). Approval stood at 22 percent among adults and 16 percent among likely voters last July. Today, approval is similar across parties. Approval declines with age, income, education, and homeownership and varies by race/ethnicity (51% Latinos, 41% Asians, 22% blacks, 18% whites). Approval of the way the U.S. Congress is handling the environment is lower in the San Francisco Bay Area (26%) than in other regions (32% Orange/San Diego, 35% Central Valley, 35% Inland Empire, 38% Los Angeles). “Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling…?” All adults Dem Party Rep Ind Approve 29% 24% 23% 17% Its job Disapprove 63 68 70 79 Don’t know 9874 Environmental issues in the United States Approve Disapprove Don’t know 33 24 23 23 55 65 64 66 12 10 13 12 Likely voters 17% 78 6 20 70 10 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 17 PPIC Statewide Survey MOST IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE, WATER AND DROUGHT What is the most important environmental issue facing California today? In response to an open-ended question, 58 percent say the water supply or drought—a 50 point increase since July 2011. Nine percent mention air pollution—an 18 point decrease over the same time period. Last July was the first time that air pollution was not the top issue and water or the drought was mentioned most (35% water or the drought, 14% air pollution). This is the first time that a majority has mentioned water supply or the drought as the top issue and all other issues are in single digits. Water supply or drought is rated as the most important environmental issue in every region. Los Angeles residents are the most likely to mention air pollution (17%). Fifty-nine percent of likely voters say that water supply or the drought is the top environmental issue. As another indication of the importance of this issue, three in four Californians (78%) are following news about the drought either very closely (38%) or fairly closely (40%). This is similar to October 2014 (82% very or fairly closely) and an increase since May 2014 (66% very or fairly closely). At least six in 10 in all regions say they are following this news very or fairly closely; Inland Empire residents (28%) are the least likely to say they are very closely following this news. Among the most likely to follow this news very closely are adults 55 and older (53%), homeowners (47%), households with incomes of $80,000 or more (47%), college graduates (45%), and those who have been at their residence 5 years or more (45%). Fiftyfour percent of likely voters say they are very closely following this news. Very closely “How closely are you following news about the current drought in California— very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire 38% 45% 41% 39% 38% 28% Fairly closely 40 39 43 37 43 35 Not too closely 17 15 11 19 15 33 Not at all closely 4 1 5 44 3 Don't know 1– – 1– 1 Likely voters 54% 36 8 2 – As the drought continues and mandatory local water restrictions have been put in place this summer, 68 percent of Californians say water supply is a big problem in their part of California. This share is similar to the record-high share in May (69%); it was 14 points lower in July 2014 (54%). Central Valley residents (76%) are the most likely and Los Angeles residents (62%) are the least likely to say the water supply is a big problem in their region. The perception that the water supply is a big problem is higher among older, more educated, and more affluent adults. Views are similar among Democrats, Republicans, and independents. Seventy-six percent of likely voters say the water supply is a big problem. “Would you say that the supply of water is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Big problem 68% 76% 73% 62% 68% 64% Somewhat of a problem 20 15 20 21 22 15 Not much of a problem 12 8 6 16 10 19 Don't know 1– 1 1– 2 Likely voters 76% 16 8 1 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 18 PPIC Statewide Survey WATER POLICY About half of California adults (52%) think people in their part of the state are not doing enough to respond to the current drought. This marks a decrease from March (66%) and May (60%). Today, about half of likely voters (49%) say people are not doing enough. Republicans (44%) are less likely than Democrats (55%) or independents (52%) to say people are not doing enough, but similar shares of partisans say that people are doing the right amount (38% independents, 35% Democrats, 35% Republicans). Across racial/ethnic groups, blacks (67%) are most likely to say that people are not doing enough to respond to the drought, followed by Latinos (53%), whites (50%), and Asians (50%). Regionally, residents of the Inland Empire (62%) are most likely to say that people are not doing enough, followed by those in Orange/San Diego (56%), Los Angeles (53%), the Central Valley (48%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (44%). Those who say the supply of water is a big problem in their part of California are much more likely to say people are not doing enough than are those who say the supply of water is not much of a problem (55% to 40%). “Overall, do you think that the people in your part of California are doing too much, the right amount, or not enough to respond to the current drought in California?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Likely voters Too much 7% 12% 11% 6% 3% 8% 8% The right amount 35 36 38 36 36 24 37 Not enough 52 48 44 53 56 62 49 Don't know 65 7 65 75 To address the drought, the State Water Resources Control Board has set targets to reduce water use in cities and towns by 25 percent statewide. When asked about this action, 46 percent of adults and 45 percent of likely voters say that it does the right amount to respond to the current drought. The share of adults and likely voters expressing that opinion was similar in May (46% adults, 43% likely voters). Democrats (53%) are most likely to say this action does the right amount, followed by independents (47%) and Republicans (39%). Republicans are most likely to say it does too much (22% Republicans, 10% independents, 6% Democrats). Across regions, San Francisco Bay Area residents (55%) are most likely to say that this action does the right amount to respond to the drought, followed by residents of Los Angeles (49%), the Inland Empire (46%), the Central Valley (46%), and Orange/San Diego (38%). Those who say the supply of water is a big problem are much more likely to say the 25 percent reduction is not enough than are those who say the supply of water is not much of a problem (41% to 22%). “Governor Brown recently directed the State Water Resources Control Board to implement mandatory water reductions in cities and towns across California to reduce statewide water usage by 25 percent. Do you think this action does too much, the right amount, or not enough to respond to the current drought in California?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Likely voters Too much 11% 9% 11% 13% 9% 12% 14% The right amount 46 46 55 49 38 46 45 Not enough 36 40 26 33 47 30 35 Don't know 76 855 12 5 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 19 PPIC Statewide Survey WATER POLICY (CONTINUED) To achieve its target of 25 percent water use reduction in cities and towns statewide, the State Water Resources Control Board has set mandatory reduction amounts for each local water agency. When asked if they know the amount of water reduction required for their local district, three in 10 adults (30%) say that they do. Across the state, residents of the San Francisco Bay Area (38%) and the Central Valley (35%) are most likely to know the amount, while residents of the Los Angeles area (24%) are least likely to know. Fewer than half of homeowners (44%) know their district’s water reduction amount, but they are far more likely than renters (18%) to know. Knowledge also varies by demographics and party. Across racial/ethnic groups, whites (39%) are most likely to say they know the amount, followed by Asians (33%), Latinos (20%), and blacks (11%). Those with some college or a college degree (37% each) are much more likely to know the amount than those with only a high school education (19%), and those with incomes above $40,000 (41% $40,000 to $80,000, 43% $80,000 or more) are far more likely to know than those with incomes below $40,000 (19%). Knowledge also increases with age (18% age 18 to 34, 33% age 35 to 54, 40% age 55 and older). Republicans (45%) are more likely to say they know the amount than independents (39%) or Democrats (33%). Those who are following news about the current drought very closely are divided between knowing (46%) and not knowing (48%), but knowledge levels are far lower among those following news only fairly closely (26%) or not too closely (10%). “The State Water Resources Control Board is requiring each local water agency to reduce water use in its area. Do you know the amount of water usage reduction required for your water district?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Homeowners Renters Yes 30% 35% 38% 24% 27% 31% 44% 18% No 64 61 54 71 68 65 50 77 Don't know 5 4 8 54 4 5 5 Among those who say they know the reduction amount for their district, slightly more than half (52%) say it is the right amount and about one in four say it is not enough. Homeowners (26%) are much more likely than renters (10%) to say the amount is too much, and homeowners (15%) are much less likely than renters (36%) to say it is not enough. Among those who say they know the amount of water usage reduction required for their local district, one in three (35%) say that the statewide reduction of 25 percent is not enough, while fewer (23%) say the reduction amount for their local water district is not enough. “Do you think that the amount of water usage reduction required for your water district is too much, the right amount, or not enough?” Among those who say they know the reduction required for their water district All adults Central Valley Region San Francisco Bay Area Los Angeles Other Southern California* Homeowners Too much 20% 20% 24% 21% 17% 26% Renters 10% The right amount 52 47 49 49 60 53 53 Not enough 23 28 22 25 19 15 36 Don't know 56 54 3 62 *Other Southern California includes the Inland Empire and Orange/San Diego. July 2015 Californians and the Environment 20 PPIC Statewide Survey AIR POLLUTION About six in 10 adults (58%) say air pollution is either a big problem (24%) or somewhat of a problem (34%) in their part of California. The share saying air pollution is a problem is at its lowest point since we began asking this question in 2000. Democrats (69%) are more likely to say air pollution is a problem than independents (57%) or Republicans (50%). Among racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (67%) and blacks (67%) are more likely than Asians (53%) or whites (51%) to view air pollution as a problem, and Latinos are most likely to call it a big problem (34%). Across California regions, residents of Los Angeles (39%) are most likely to say that air pollution is a big problem. Nearly half of adults (49%) say that air pollution is a very serious (19%) or somewhat serious (30%) threat to themselves and their immediate family. The share of Californians with this belief has been similar each time we’ve asked this question since 2009. Democrats (53%) are more likely to say air pollution is a threat than are Republicans (42%) or independents (41%). Across the state’s regions, residents of the Los Angeles area (65%) are most likely to say air pollution is a threat. Latinos (64%) are more likely than blacks (48%), Asians (45%), or whites (39%) to say air pollution is a threat. About four in 10 Californians (41%) say that they suffer or someone in their immediate family suffers from asthma or other respiratory problems. These Californians are more likely to see air pollution as a problem (67%) than those who don’t have asthma or respiratory problems in their immediate family (52%). They are also much more likely to think that air pollution is a very or somewhat serious threat to themselves or their immediate family (63%) than others do (39%). “How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your part of California to you and your immediate family do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat?” All adults Central Valley San Francisco Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asthma or respiratory problems in family Yes No Very serious 19% 19% 11% 31% 10% 19% 28% 12% Somewhat serious 30 33 28 34 30 32 35 27 Not too serious 48 45 57 33 57 43 34 57 Not at all serious 2 2 4 13 2 1 3 Don't know 11 1 11 4 1 1 Californians are divided on whether air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower-income areas than elsewhere in their part of California (48% yes, 47% no). There are stark partisan differences, with Democrats (55%) and independents (51%) much more likely than Republicans (20%) to say it is a more serious threat in lower-income areas. This belief is most common in the Los Angeles area (58%) and least common in the Central Valley (32%). Blacks (65%) and Latinos (62%) are more likely than Asians (50%) and much more likely than whites (34%) to hold this view. This view is also more common among those who are younger, have lower household incomes, and have no college education. Yes No Don't know “Do you think that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower-income areas than other areas in your part of California, or not?” All adults 48% Asians 50% Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos 65% 62% Whites 34% Household income Under $40,000 to $40,000 under $80,000 $80,000 or more 56% 40% 39% 47 46 31 36 58 40 55 56 54 5 3 74 6 6 July 2015 Californians and the Environment 21 REGIONAL MAP July 2015 Californians and the Environment 22 METHODOLOGY The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance from Lunna Lopes, project manager for this survey, Dean Bonner, associate survey director, and David Kordus, survey research associate. This survey, Californians and the Environment, is supported with funding from The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the Pisces Foundation. The PPIC Statewide Survey invites input, comments, and suggestions from policy and public opinion experts and from its own advisory committee, but survey methods, questions, and content are determined solely by PPIC’s survey team. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1,702 California adult residents, including 1,021 interviewed on landline telephones and 681 interviewed on cell phones. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from July 12–21, 2015. Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection, and the sample telephone numbers were called as many as eight times to increase the likelihood of reaching an eligible respondent. Once a cell phone user was reached, it was verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey (e.g., not driving). Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Live landline and cell phone interviews were conducted by Abt SRBI, Inc., in English and Spanish, according to respondents’ preferences. Accent on Languages, Inc., translated new survey questions into Spanish, with assistance from Renatta DeFever. Abt SRBI uses the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2011–2013 American Community Survey’s (ACS) Public Use Microdata Series for California (with regional coding information from the University of Minnesota’s Integrated Public Use Microdata Series for California) to compare certain demographic characteristics of the survey sample—region, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education—with the characteristics of California’s adult population. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt SRBI used 2013 state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the ACS—and 2014 estimates for the West Census Region in the latest NHIS report. The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The landline and cell phone samples were then integrated using a frame integration weight, while sample July 2015 Californians and the Environment 23 PPIC Statewide Survey balancing adjusted for differences across regional, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, telephone service, and party registration groups. The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3.7 percent at the 95 percent confidence level for the total unweighted sample of 1,702 adults. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 3.7 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1,356 registered voters, the sampling error is ±4 percent; for the 1,064 likely voters, it is ±4.5 percent. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “San Francisco Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” refers to Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, likely voters, and primary likely voters, but sample sizes for these less populous areas are not large enough to report separately. In several places, we refer to coastal and inland counties. The “coastal” region refers to the counties along the California coast from Del Norte County to San Diego County and includes all the San Francisco Bay Area counties. All other counties are included in the “inland” region. We present specific results for non-Hispanic whites, who account for 43 percent of the state’s adult population, and also for Latinos, who account for about a third of the state’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest-growing voter groups. We also present results for non-Hispanic Asians, who make up about 15 percent of the state’s adult population, and non-Hispanic blacks, who comprise about 6 percent. Results for other racial/ethnic groups—such as Native Americans—are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes are not large enough for separate analysis. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and decline-to-state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters—so designated per their responses to voter registration survey questions, previous election participation, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to 100 due to rounding. We compare current PPIC Statewide Survey results to those in our earlier surveys and to those in national surveys by Gallup, Pew Research Center, and CBS/New York Times. Additional details about our methodology can be found at www.ppic.org/content/other/SurveyMethodology.pdf and are available upon request through surveys@ppic.org. July 2015 Californians and the Environment 24 QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESULTS CALIFORNIANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT July 12–21, 2015 1,702 California Adult Residents: English, Spanish MARGIN OF ERROR ±3.7% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE PERCENTAGES MAY NOT ADD TO 100 DUE TO ROUNDING 1. First, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Jerry Brown is handling his job as governor of California? 53% approve 27 disapprove 20 don’t know 2. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that Governor Brown is handling environmental issues in California? 47% approve 34 disapprove 19 don’t know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? 39% approve 45 disapprove 16 don’t know 4. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling environmental issues in California? 42% approve 45 disapprove 13 don’t know 5. Next, what do you think is the most important environmental issue facing California today? [code, don’t read] 58% water supply, drought 9 air pollution, vehicle emissions, smog 7 water pollution of ocean, rivers, lakes, streams, beach pollution 4 global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases 2 energy, fossil fuels, solar, nuclear, wind, alternative energy 2 jobs, economy, budget, taxes 2 too much government regulation, politicians, environmentalists 11 other 5 don’t know 6. Next, would you say that the supply of water is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not much of a problem in your part of California? 68% big problem 20 somewhat of a problem 12 not much of a problem 1 don’t know July 2015 Californians and the Environment 25 PPIC Statewide Survey 6a. How closely are you following news about the current drought in California—very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely? 38% very closely 40 somewhat closely 17 not too closely 4 not at all closely 1 don’t know 7. Overall, do you think that the people in your part of California are doing too much, the right amount, or not enough to respond to the current drought in California? 7% too much 35 the right amount 52 not enough 6 don’t know 8. Governor Brown recently directed the State Water Resources Control Board to implement mandatory water reductions in cities and towns across California to reduce statewide water usage by 25 percent. Do you think this action does too much, the right amount, or not enough to respond to the current drought in California? 11% too much 46 the right amount 36 not enough 7 don’t know 9. The State Water Resources Control Board is requiring each local water agency to reduce water use in its area. Do you know the amount of water usage reduction required for your water district? 30% yes 64 no 5 don’t know 9a. [asked of those who know their local water reduction amount] And do you think that the amount of water usage reduction required for your water district is too much, the right amount, or not enough? 20% too much 52 the right amount 23 not enough 5 don’t know Next, we are interested in the part of California that you live in. 10.Would you say that air pollution is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your part of California? 24% big problem 34 somewhat of a problem 41 not a problem 1 don’t know 11.How serious of a health threat is air pollution in your part of California to you and your immediate family—do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious of a health threat? 19% very serious 30 somewhat serious 48 not too serious 2 not at all serious 1 don’t know 12.Do you think that air pollution is a more serious health threat in lower-income areas than other areas in your part of California, or not? 48% yes 47 no 5 don’t know July 2015 Californians and the Environment 26 PPIC Statewide Survey 12a. Do you or does anyone in your immediate family suffer from asthma or other respiratory problems? (If yes: Would that be you or someone in your immediate family?) 11% yes, respondent 23 yes, someone in immediate family 7 yes, both (me and someone in my immediate family) 58 no 0 don’t know Next, 13.On another topic, which of the following statements reflects your view of when the effects of global warming will begin to happen—[rotate] (1) they have already begun to happen; (2) they will start happening within a few years; (3) they will start happening within your lifetime; (4) they will not happen within your lifetime, but they will affect future generations; [or] (5) they will never happen? 62% already begun 6 within a few years 5 within your lifetime 13 not within lifetime, but will affect future generations 10 will never happen 4 don’t know 14.How serious of a threat is global warming to the economy and quality of life for California's future—do you think that it is a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not at all serious of a threat? 52% very serious 27 somewhat serious 8 not too serious 9 not at all serious 3 don’t know 15.Thinking about the possible impact of global warming in California, how concerned are you about droughts that are more severe? Are you very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not at all concerned about that as an impact? 50% very concerned 34 somewhat concerned 7 not too concerned 7 not at all concerned 1 don’t know 16.Do you think global warming has contributed to California’s current drought or not? 64% yes, has contributed 28 no, has not contributed 8 don’t know Next, 16a. How important is it for the state government to pass regulations and spend money now on efforts to prepare for the future effects of global warming, such as flooding, storms, and wildfires—is it very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 61% very important 25 somewhat important 13 not too important 1 don’t know 17.Do you favor or oppose the California state government making its own policies, separate from the federal government, to address the issue of global warming? 64% favor 28 oppose 8 don’t know July 2015 Californians and the Environment 27 PPIC Statewide Survey 18.Do you think that California doing things to reduce global warming in the future would cause there to be more jobs for people around the state, would cause there to be fewer jobs, or wouldn’t affect the number of jobs for people around the state? 38% more jobs 24 fewer jobs 26 wouldn’t affect the number of jobs 13 don’t know 19.Next, to address global warming, do you favor or oppose the state law that requires California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2020? 69% favor 20 oppose 11 don’t know [rotate questions 20 to 22] Next, Governor Brown has called for a new set of objectives in clean energy, clean air, and pollution reduction for year 2030. The state legislature is currently considering these new objectives. Please tell me if you favor or oppose each of the following proposals. 20.How about reducing petroleum use in cars and trucks by 50 percent by the year 2030? 73% favor 23 oppose 4 don’t know 21.How about requiring 50 percent of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power by the year 2030? 82% favor 15 oppose 3 don’t know 22.How about requiring that existing buildings double their energy efficiency by the year 2030? 70% favor 24 oppose 6 don’t know 23.To address global warming, the state legislature is currently considering legislation that would require California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Overall, do you favor or oppose this proposal? 69% favor 23 oppose 7 don’t know [rotate order of questions 24 to 28] Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals? 24.How about allowing more oil drilling off the California coast? 38% favor 56 oppose 6 don’t know 25.How about increasing tax credits and financial incentives for electric vehicle purchases in California? 67% favor 29 oppose 3 don’t know 26.How about building more charging stations and infrastructure to support electric vehicles in California? 81% favor 16 oppose 3 don’t know July 2015 Californians and the Environment 28 PPIC Statewide Survey 27. How about building more solar power stations in California? 88% favor 9 oppose 3 don’t know 28.How about increasing tax credits and financial incentives for rooftop solar panels in California? 78% favor 19 oppose 3 don’t know 29.Changing topics, overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Barack Obama is handling his job as president of the United States? 57% approve 38 disapprove 4 don’t know 30. Do you approve or disapprove of the way that President Obama is handling environmental issues in the United States? 53% approve 37 disapprove 11 don’t know 31.Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling its job? 29% approve 63 disapprove 9 don’t know 32.Do you approve or disapprove of the way the U.S. Congress is handling environmental issues in the United States? 33% approve 55 disapprove 12 don’t know [rotate questions 33, 34, and 34a] 33.Do you favor or oppose increased use of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, a drilling method that uses high-pressure water and chemicals to extract oil and natural gas from underground rock formations? 33% favor 56 oppose 10 don’t know 34.Do you favor or oppose building the Keystone XL pipeline that would transport oil from Canada’s oil sands region through the Midwest to refineries in Texas? 49% favor 38 oppose 13 don’t know 34a. Do you favor or oppose setting stricter emission limits on power plants in order to address climate change? 73% favor 21 oppose 6 don’t know 35.Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? 66% yes [ask q35a] 34 no [skip to q36b] 35a. Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline-to-state or independent voter? 44% Democrat [ask q36] 28 Republican [ask q36a] 4 another party (specify) [skip to q37] 24 independent [ask q36b] 36.Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 56% strong 40 not very strong 3 don’t know [skip to q37] July 2015 Californians and the Environment 29 PPIC Statewide Survey 36a. Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 53% strong 43 not very strong 5 don’t know [skip to q37] 36b. Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? 23% Republican Party 46 Democratic Party 23 neither (volunteered) 8 don’t know 37.Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom] 10% very liberal 21 somewhat liberal 29 middle-of-the-road 22 somewhat conservative 14 very conservative 4 don’t know 38.Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics—a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none? 20% great deal 37 fair amount 35 only a little 9 none --- don’t know [d1–d5a: demographic questions] D5b.[asked of those employed full- or part-time] How do you usually commute to work— drive alone, carpool, take public bus or transit, walk, or bicycle? 60% drive alone 15 carpool 10 take public bus or transit 5 walk 3 bicycle 5 work at home (volunteered) 1 other (specify) D5c. Would you say that you have or have not seriously considered getting an electric vehicle the next time you buy or lease a vehicle, or do you already have one? 48% have considered 41 have not considered 5 already have one 5 don’t drive/don’t have a car/won’t be buying another vehicle (volunteered) 1 don’t know [d6 to d16: demographic questions] July 2015 Californians and the Environment 30 PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY ADVISORY COMMITTEE Ruben Barrales President and CEO GROW Elect Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Mollyann Brodie Senior Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Director Bill Lane Center for the American West Stanford University Jon Cohen Vice President of Survey Research SurveyMonkey Joshua J. Dyck Co-Director Center for Public Opinion University of Massachusetts, Lowell Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Robert Lapsley President California Business Roundtable Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Chairman US Hispanic Media, Inc. Donna Lucas Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Lisa Pitney Vice President, Government Relations The Walt Disney Company Robert K. Ross, M.D. President and CEO The California Endowment Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento Carol Whiteside President Emeritus Great Valley Center The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. PPIC BOARD OF DIRECTORS Donna Lucas, Chair Chief Executive Officer Lucas Public Affairs Mark Baldassare President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Ruben Barrales President and CEO GROW Elect María Blanco Executive Director Undocumented Student Legal Services Center University of California Office of the President Brigitte Bren Attorney Louise Henry Bryson Chair Emerita, Board of Trustees J. Paul Getty Trust Walter B. Hewlett Member, Board of Directors The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Phil Isenberg Vice Chair, Delta Stewardship Council Mas Masumoto Author and Farmer Steven A. Merksamer Senior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni, LLP Kim Polese Chairman ClearStreet, Inc. Thomas C. Sutton Retired Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research on major economic, social, and political issues. The institute’s goal is to raise public awareness and to give elected representatives and other decision makers a more informed basis for developing policies and programs. The institute’s research focuses on the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including economic development, education, environment and resources, governance, population, public finance, and social and health policy. PPIC is a public charity. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. Mark Baldassare is President and CEO of PPIC. Donna Lucas is Chair of the Board of Directors. Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the copyright notice below is included. Copyright © 2015 Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 phone: 415.291.4400 fax: 415.291.4401 www.ppic.org survey@ppic.org PPIC SACRAMENTO CENTER Senator Office Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 phone: 916.440.1120 fax: 916.440.1121" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:42:35" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(8) "s_715mbs" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:42:35" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:42:35" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(50) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/S_715MBS.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }