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object(Timber\Post)#3711 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_402MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "338428" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(81770) "PPIC Statewide Survey: Special Survey of the Central Valley Mark Baldassare Senior Fellow and Survey Director April 2002 Public Policy Institute of California Preface The Central Valley Survey – an ongoing collaborative effort of the Public Policy Institute of California and the Great Valley Center – is a special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey. This is the third PPIC survey of the Central Valley. The first was conducted in October 1999 (published in a survey report in November 1999), and the second was conducted in February 2001 (published in a survey report in March 2001). The purpose of the surveys is to provide comprehensive, advocacy-free information on the opinions and public policy preferences of Central Valley residents. The Central Valley has been of considerable interest to researchers and state and national leaders for some time because of its increasing role in the social, economic, and political life of California. The current survey was co-sponsored by the Great Valley Center, with support from the Fresno Bee, Modesto Bee, and Sacramento Bee, the Bakersfield Californian, and KVIE-TV in Sacramento. The Central Valley – the inland area of California stretching 400 miles from Bakersfield to Redding – is home to 5.5 million residents and is one of the fastest growing areas of the state. Latinos now account for 26 percent of the Central Valley adult population, and growth in the Latino population is expected to accelerate over the next few decades. Because the region is the agricultural center of the state – and because agriculture is the state’s leading industry – the urbanization of farmland in the Central Valley is of great concern to policymakers. The impact of development on the water supply, open space, and natural resources is a major concern today throughout this region. Since neither of the major political parties has a large voter registration advantage in this region, the Central Valley is considered one of the most critical “swing regions” in the state, consisting of many independent-minded voters who can have a tremendous effect on statewide elections. This survey of 2,004 adult residents includes some of the “benchmark” and “tracking” questions from the 1999 and 2001 surveys in order to measure changes in key indicators over time. The survey also includes comparisons with national surveys, other major regions of California, and the state as a whole. The following issues are explored in this edition of the survey: • Public policy issues in the Central Valley, including perceptions of the most important problem facing the region; personal opinions about the economy and quality of life; and perceptions regarding electricity supply, air quality, and the environment. • Local ratings, including satisfaction with the community and local public services; sub-regional perceptions, including the severity of problems such as the adequacy and quality of the water supply in the respondent’s area of the Central Valley. • Governance issues, including ratings of city and county government, trust in government, attitudes towards regional planning efforts, and preferences for state spending on programs in light of the budget deficit. • Social and economic trends, including personal finances, health care, civic and religious life, charitable donations, and use of computers and the Internet. • Trends in attitudes over time and across four different sub-regions of the Central Valley (i.e., North Valley, Sacramento Metro, North San Joaquin, and South San Joaquin); between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites; and across demographic and political groups. Copies of this report may be ordered by e-mail (order@ppic.org) or phone (415-291-4400). This report and the November 1999 and March 2001 reports are posted on the publications page of the PPIC web site (www.ppic.org). -i- The Central Valley Map Goes on This Page Sub-Regional Groupings Used in This Report ----------------------------------------- - ii - Contents Preface Press Release Central Valley Issues Sub-Regional Issues Governance Issues Economic and Social Trends Survey Methodology Survey Questions and Results Survey Advisory Committee i v 1 7 13 17 23 25 30 - iii - Press Release SPECIAL SURVEY OF THE CENTRAL VALLEY CENTRAL VALLEY RESIDENTS FEELING EFFECTS OF REGION’S GROWTH Rising Concern About Traffic, Air Pollution, Resources; But Residents Remain Upbeat About Their Quality of Life SAN FRANCISCO, California, April 25, 2002 — The realities of rapid population growth and development in California’s Central Valley have hit home for many residents, according to a new survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) and the Great Valley Center. And while they continue to be positive about their communities and local amenities, Central Valley residents are less optimistic today about the region’s overall direction and economic conditions. The large-scale public opinion survey of the 18-county Central Valley region found that growth and growth-related issues top the list when residents are asked to name the most important issues facing the region. Indeed, four of the top five issues mentioned were related to growth and development: Population growth (17%), pollution (14%), water supply and quality (11%), jobs and the economy (10%), and the loss of farmlands (8%) are seen as the region’s most pressing issues. Between 1999 and 2002, worry grew considerably about population growth (from 8% to 17%) and pollution (10% to 14%). “The practical consequences of being one of California’s fastest growing regions are capturing the attention of Central Valley residents,” said PPIC Statewide Survey Director Mark Baldassare. “While they see these issues as being region-wide concerns, residents are also feeling the effects of growth and development in their own areas.” Since 1999, there has been a significant increase in the number of residents who rate the loss of farmland (23% to 38%), traffic congestion (23% to 33%), population growth and urban development (21% to 29%), and air pollution (28% to 35%) as big problems in their part of the Valley. Compared to 2001, more residents today also see the availability of affordable housing as a big problem (26% to 30%) in their community. As concerns have escalated about the pace and consequences of change in the Central Valley, residents have become less certain about the direction of their region and its economy. While more than half (55%) of all residents say that things are generally headed in the right direction in the Central Valley, that number has declined from 63 percent in 1999 and 59 percent in 2001. Fewer residents today (45%) than in 1999 (55%) rate the region’s economy as excellent or good. And 42 percent see the lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs as a big problem in their part of the Central Valley today, up from 35 percent in 2001. Fifty-three percent of Central Valley Latinos say the lack of good jobs is a big problem. Quality of Life Still An Attraction, Local Government a Frustration Despite their concerns about the economy, consumer confidence appears to be increasing among residents of the Central Valley. Thirty-four percent report being financially better off today than a year ago, compared to 22 percent in December 2001. And growth-driven changes fail to dim their enthusiasm for their local communities: 76 percent of Central Valley residents rate their communities as excellent or good places to live. Consistent with these high community ratings, most residents -v- continue to give excellent or good ratings to local services and amenities, including police (72%), parks and recreation facilities (68%), public schools (58%), and streets and roads (52%). “People in the Valley still like their communities, but they do sense some of the regional issues we are facing,” said Carol Whiteside, President of the Great Valley Center. “As our common challenges take center stage, we may have a chance to build consensus around real solutions.” However, Central Valley residents appear to have little faith in the ability of county and city government to solve problems facing their communities; only four in ten give their local governments excellent or good ratings. In fact, residents remain more likely to say they trust the state government (33%) than county (28%) or city (16%) government to solve the important issues facing the Central Valley. Although residents are less than impressed with their local governments, they still see a role for government in solving problems associated with growth. Indeed, a solid majority of residents (69%) favor a regional approach to growth and land use development in the Central Valley. Strong Feelings About Environment and Resource Issues Pollution: Central Valley residents are increasingly concerned about the effect of environmental conditions, including air and water pollution, on their health and well-being: 64 percent believe the threat is somewhat or very serious, up from 55 percent in 2001. Eighty-three percent of residents consider air pollution a problem in the Central Valley today, with 39 percent now calling it a big problem, compared to 31 percent in 2001. Water: Consistent with their worries about pollution, half (51%) of all Central Valley residents say water quality is at least somewhat of a problem, while one in five sees it as a big problem. Interestingly, fewer residents see water supply as a concern today, with 37 percent citing it as at least somewhat of a problem. However, the majority of residents (51%) predict that the water supply available in their part of the Central Valley will be inadequate to meet their area’s needs over the next decade. They are divided about a solution to the looming shortage: 46 percent favor encouraging conservation and reallocating the existing water supply, while 41 percent support building new dams and reservoirs. Electricity: Although it doesn’t rank as a top issue for most people in the Central Valley, 79 percent see the cost, supply, and demand for electricity as at least somewhat of a problem. However, residents today are even more unwilling (73%) than they were one year ago (61%) to relax air quality standards that regulate power plants in order to increase energy supply. A slight majority (51%) — and 57 percent of Latinos — also say they would oppose the idea of bringing nuclear power to the Central Valley. There is consensus across the region about one proposed solution: 57 percent of residents think it would be a good idea for local governments to form municipal power authorities to replace private electric companies. Little Unity: Sub-Regions Distinct Although there is a good deal of consensus about common problems and solutions across the Central Valley as a whole, there are significant differences within the region on many key issues. While Sacramento Metro and North San Joaquin residents say population growth is the most important issue facing the region (25% and 23%, respectively), North Valley residents cite water supply and quality (24%) and South San Joaquin residents say pollution (19%) is the most important problem. Sacramento Metro residents (24%) are far less likely than North Valley and North San Joaquin residents (56% each) to see the lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs as a big problem in their part of the Central Valley. But they are more likely than residents from other sub-regions to view traffic congestion as a big problem. - vi - Other Key Findings • State Budget Deficit (page 16) When asked to prioritize state spending given the current budget shortfall, Central Valley residents overwhelmingly choose K-12 education (52%), followed by health and welfare (21%). Their preferred method of balancing the budget? Fifty-five percent say they prefer to reduce spending rather than raise taxes (9%), while 29 percent prefer a combination of spending cuts and tax increases. • Digital Divide (page 17) The Central Valley no longer lags behind the rest of the state in computer and Internet use. Seventy-five percent of Central Valley residents today use computers at home, at work, or at school, compared to 78 percent of Californians. However, a large digital divide still exists in the region between non-Hispanic whites and Latinos in Internet use (71% to 54%) and computer ownership (77% to 55%). • Health Care (page 18) Eighty-five percent of Central Valley residents have health insurance, and 75 percent say they are generally satisfied with the quality of health care they receive. Fewer (61%) are satisfied with their health care costs. Latinos, residents earning less than $40,000 per year, and those with no college education are less likely to say they are insured or are satisfied with the quality and cost of care. • Civic and Religious Life (pages 20-21) Compared to 2001, residents are slightly less likely today (down from 60% to 54%) to be very or somewhat involved in religious groups and are also less likely to be involved in neighborhood groups (64% to 57%) or volunteer groups (58% to 52%). Over half (53%) say their charitable giving has remained the same in recent years, while 32 percent say it has increased. About the Survey The Central Valley Survey – an ongoing collaborative effort of the Public Policy Institute of California and the Great Valley Center – is a special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey. The purpose of this survey is to provide a comprehensive, advocacy-free study of the political, social, and economic attitudes and public policy preferences of Central Valley residents. Previous PPIC surveys of the Central Valley were conducted in 1999 and 2001. Findings of the current survey are based on a telephone survey of 2,004 adult residents in the 18county Central Valley region, interviewed from April 1 to April 8, 2002. Interviews were conducted in English or Spanish. The sampling error for the total sample is +/- 2%. For additional information on survey methodology, see page 23. Dr. Mark Baldassare is a senior fellow at PPIC, where he holds the Arjay and Frances Fearing Miller Chair in Public Policy. He is founder and director of the PPIC Statewide Survey, which he has conducted since 1998. Dr. Baldassare is the author of numerous books, including California in the New Millennium: The Changing Social and Political Landscape (University of California Press, 2000). PPIC is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to objective, nonpartisan research on economic, social, and political issues that affect the lives of Californians. The Institute was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Great Valley Center is a private, nonprofit organization promoting the economic, social, and environmental well-being of California's Central Valley. This report will appear on PPIC’s website (www.ppic.org) on April 25, 2002. ### - vii - Top five issues facing the Central Valley today Percent All Adults 20 17% 15 14% 11% 10% 10 8% 5 0 Growth Pollut ion Water Economy Loss of f armlands The water supply available in your part of the Central Valley through the next 10 years is … Percent All Adults Inadequate Adequate Don't know 10% 51% 39% On-line usage over time Percent All Adults California Central Valley 80 61% 60 54% 72% 67% 40 20 0 1999 2002 Central Valley moving in the right direction? Percent "Yes": All Adults 70 63% 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1999 59% 2001 55% 2002 Regarding ways to help meet the state’s future water needs, do you favor … Percent All Adults Encouraging conservation Building dams and reservoirs Other answer/Don't know 13% 41% 46% Top three state budget priorities Percent All Adults 60 52% 50 40 30 20 10 0 K-12 Educatio n 21% Health & Welfare 12% Infrastructure - viii - Central Valley Issues Most Important Issue When asked to identify the most important issue in the Central Valley today, six in 10 name five issues: population growth and sprawl (17%), pollution and air pollution (14%), water supply and quality (11%), and jobs and the economy (10%), and loss of farmland (8%). Fewer than one in 10 identify loss of farmlands, crime, traffic, education, housing, electricity, or immigration. Homeland security is mentioned by only 1 percent. Since the first PPIC Central Valley survey in 1999, residents of the region have become more conscious of growth-related issues and much less likely to say they "don't know" the most important issue facing the Central Valley. Concern with growth and pollution has increased the most. In the 1999 Central Valley survey, one in six residents identified these two as the most important issues, compared with one in four residents in the 2001 survey and nearly one in three residents in the 2002 survey. Concern with water has remained fairly constant: About as many people mentioned water in the 1999 survey – when it was the number one issue in the Central Valley – as name it today. In contrast, electricity – identified as the most important problem in the 2001 survey – is rarely mentioned now. Evidently, Central Valley residents believe that the state's most pressing issues differ from theirs. When asked (in a variety of ways) to name the most important problem facing California in the PPIC Statewide Surveys in December 2001, January 2002, and February 2002, Central Valley residents consistently put three issues at the top of state concerns: education, electricity, and the economy. Of these three, only the economy is named as one of the most important issues for the Central Valley. "What do you think is the most important issue facing the Central Valley today?" Population growth, sprawl Pollution, air pollution Water supply and quality Jobs and the economy Loss of farmlands, agriculture Crime and gangs Traffic and transportation Education, schools Housing Electricity Legal/illegal immigration Other issues Don't know All Adults 1999 8% 10 13 5 8 8 6 6 1 0 2 7 26 2001 15% 9 8 13 6 3 5 3 2 15 1 5 15 2002 17% 14 11 10 8 7 6 3 3 2 2 5 12 -1- Central Valley Issues Concern over issues differs considerably across sub-regions of the Central Valley. Growth is most likely to be mentioned by Sacramento Metro (25%) and North San Joaquin (23%) residents. For a plurality of North Valley residents (24%), water is the most important issue. In the South San Joaquin area, residents are most concerned about pollution (19%). Latinos are more likely than nonHispanic whites to mention jobs and the economy (17% to 7%) and much less likely to name growth (9% to 21%) as the top Central Valley issue. The mention of population growth as the top issue tends to increase with age, education, and income. Growth is seen as the most important issue by both men and women and by registered voters across the political spectrum. Recent residents are as likely as lifelong residents to see growth as the Central Valley's most important issue. "What do you think is the most important issue facing the Central Valley today?" Population growth, sprawl Pollution, air pollution Water supply and quality Jobs and the economy Loss of farmlands, agriculture Crime and gangs Traffic and transportation Education, schools Housing Electricity Legal/illegal immigration Other issues Don't know All Adults 17% 14 11 10 8 7 6 3 3 2 2 5 12 North Valley 16% 6 24 13 5 3 4 4 2 1 1 8 13 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro 25% 10 8 4 9 7 8 4 5 2 1 4 13 North San Joaquin 23% 11 5 14 8 7 9 4 4 1 1 5 8 South San Joaquin 8% 19 13 11 7 9 4 3 1 2 2 8 13 Latino 9% 11 9 17 5 11 5 3 3 2 3 10 12 -2- Central Valley Issues Overall Mood Although overall opinions about the Central Valley's direction and economy are positive, they have become less positive since 1999 and vary, sometimes considerably, across sub-regions. More than half of all residents say that things are generally headed in the right direction in the Central Valley, while one in three says things are headed in the wrong direction. The number who say things are generally going in the right direction has declined from 63 percent in 1999 and 59 percent in 2001 to 55 percent this year. Men and women and recent and lifelong residents hold similar views on how things are going in the Central Valley. However, opinions differ among some population groups and across sub-regions. Latinos are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to say that the Central Valley is headed in the right direction (59% to 52%). Older, better educated, and higher-income residents are less likely to believe that things are going in the right direction. Across sub-regions, people in North San Joaquin are the most likely to say that things are headed in the wrong direction. Overall, people are less positive about the Central Valley's economy than about its general direction, and their assessment of the economy has also deteriorated over the last three years. Forty-five percent of residents rate the Central Valley’s current economy as excellent or good. That is down from 49 percent in 2001 and 55 percent in 1999. Sacramento residents (58%) are much more likely than residents in other areas of the Central Valley to give the economy high ratings. Latinos (41%) are somewhat less likely than non-Hispanic whites (47%) to say the economy is excellent or good. Ratings of the economy tend to increase with age, education, and income. Despite the erosion of positive feelings about the Central Valley's direction and economy, perceptions of the quality of life are high and have not eroded: 81 percent of respondents say things are going very well or somewhat well with the quality of life in the Central Valley (81 percent also said the same in the 1999 survey). Positive ratings of the quality of life in the current Central Valley survey tend to be consistent across all sub-regions and demographic groups. "Do you think that things in the Central Valley are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction?" Right direction Wrong direction Don't know All Adults 55% 34 11 North Valley 57% 28 15 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 53% 47% 37 42 10 11 South San Joaquin 59% 29 12 Latino 59% 30 11 Excellent/Good Fair Poor Don't know "How would you rate the economy in the Central Valley?" All Adults 45% 41 12 2 North Valley 37% 44 18 1 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 58% 37% 34 46 6 16 21 South San Joaquin 42% 43 13 2 Latino 41% 43 14 2 - 3 - April 2002 Central Valley Issues Pollution The percentage of residents who consider air pollution a problem in the Central Valley today is high (83%), but only slightly higher than it was a year ago (80%). However, 39 percent now call it a big problem, compared to 31 percent in the 2001 survey. The size of the air pollution problem differs depending on who is asked: ! In South San Joaquin, 48 percent consider air pollution a big problem, while only 16 percent of people in the North Valley see it that way. ! Latinos (34%) are less likely than non-Hispanic whites (41%) to name air pollution as a big problem. ! The perception of air pollution as a big problem tends to increase with age, education, income, and years of residence in the current community. Central Valley residents have also become more concerned about the effect of air and water pollution on their health and well-being: 64 percent believe the threat is somewhat or very serious, up from 55 percent in 2001. There are no significant differences in perceived environmental threats between men and women; across age, education, income groups; or between recent and long-term residents. However, there are sub-regional and demographic differences: People in South San Joaquin (70%) are most likely to say air and water pollution pose a very serious or somewhat serious threat to their health and well-being, while those living in the North Valley (47%) are the least likely to share this concern. Concern about the threat of these environmental conditions is also somewhat higher among Latinos (68%) than among non-Hispanic whites (63%). "How much of a problem is air pollution in the Central Valley today?" Big problem Somewhat of a problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 39% 44 16 1 North Valley 16% 53 31 0 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 41% 36% 48 46 10 17 11 South San Joaquin 48% 37 14 1 Latino 34% 45 19 2 "Overall, how serious a threat to your own health and well-being are environmental conditions in the Central Valley today, such as air pollution and water quality?" Very serious Somewhat serious Not too serious Don't know All Adults 22% 42 35 1 North Valley 12% 35 52 1 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 20% 19% 45 43 34 37 11 South San Joaquin 28% 42 29 1 Latino 25% 43 31 1 -4- Central Valley Issues Electricity Problems and Solutions Although few residents name electricity as the most important issue for the Central Valley, eight in ten residents say it is at least somewhat of a problem. Four in 10 believe the cost, supply, and demand for electricity constitute a big problem. The perception of electricity as a problem does not vary by race and ethnicity, sub-region, or demographic group. Today, Central Valley residents are even more unwilling (73%) than they were a year ago (61%) to sacrifice air quality to increase energy supply. In every sub-region, at least seven in 10 residents are opposed to relaxing air quality standards, and opposition is strong across all political, racial and ethnic, and demographic groups. Central Valley residents are more divided about nuclear power plants. A slim majority (51%) opposes the idea of bringing fission plants to the Central Valley. There are virtually no differences across sub-regions, but there are some across population groups: Registered Democrats (58%) and independents (53%) oppose the nuclear option, while Republicans (54%) support it. Non-Hispanic whites (45%) are more likely than Latinos (33%), and men (49%) are much more likely than women (32%), to support a nuclear power plant in the Central Valley. Support also increases with age, education, and income. In the aftermath of the state’s power crisis, 57 percent of Central Valley residents think it would be a good idea for local governments to form municipal power authorities to replace private electric companies. Twenty-six percent think it would be a bad idea. Enthusiasm for municipal power authorities is highest among residents of the Sacramento Metro area (66%), where municipal power is already in place. Registered voters across the political spectrum think that municipal power authorities would be a good idea. Support for municipal power increases with education and income, and there is no difference in support between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. "How much of a problem is the cost, supply, and demand for electricity in the Central Valley today?" Big problem Somewhat of a problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 41% 38 19 2 North Valley 40% 39 18 3 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 41% 38% 37 40 20 21 21 South San Joaquin 42% 38 18 2 Latino 45% 35 18 2 "Do you favor or oppose relaxing the air quality standards that regulate power plants, even if it means more pollution in the Central Valley?" Favor Oppose Don't know All Adults 20% 73 7 North Valley 23% 71 6 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 16% 19% 78 73 68 South San Joaquin 23% 70 7 Latino 20% 71 9 - 5 - April 2002 Central Valley Issues "What if a nuclear power plant was proposed for the Central Valley? Would you favor or oppose it?" Favor Oppose Don't know All Adults 40% 51 9 North Valley 36% 52 12 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 42% 39% 50 52 89 South San Joaquin 42% 49 9 Latino 33% 57 10 "Some say that local governments should form municipal power authorities that would take the place of private electric companies. There are now municipal power authorities in places such as Los Angeles and Sacramento. In general, do you think that municipal power authorities are a good idea or a bad idea?" Good idea Bad idea Don't know All Adults 57% 26 17 North Valley 56% 24 20 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 66% 58% 21 27 13 15 South San Joaquin 51% 30 19 Latino 58% 24 18 News about the Central Valley Three in four Central Valley residents say they follow news about issues facing the Central Valley either very closely or fairly closely. The results are similar to the 2001 survey. Those living in North San Joaquin and South San Joaquin are more likely than others to very closely follow the news about the Central Valley. The percentage of respondents who follow news about the Central Valley increases with age, education, income, and years at the current residence. Latinos (74%) are just as likely as non-Hispanic whites (75%) to very closely or fairly closely follow news about issues facing the Central Valley. "How closely do you follow news about issues facing the Central Valley?" Very closely Fairly closely Not too closely Not at all closely All Adults 23% 52 21 4 North Valley 19% 48 26 7 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 20% 24% 53 54 24 18 34 South San Joaquin 26% 50 19 5 Latino 28% 46 21 5 -6- Sub-Regional Issues Sub-Regional Problems Central Valley residents appear to be growing more aware of the implications of being one of the fastest growing regions in the state. While a lack of good jobs is considered by a plurality of residents to be a big problem, growth-related problems are also seen as significant and growing more serious. However, these perceptions vary, sometimes greatly, across sub-regions and population groups. The survey asked residents to assess the severity of six problems in their part of the Central Valley. These are the overall “big problem” ratings for the six: lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs (42%), loss of farmlands (38%), air pollution (35%), traffic congestion (33%), availability of affordable housing (30%), and growth and urban development (29%). It is interesting that growth, arguably a major cause of most of the other problems, rates lower on the problem meter than its effects. Since the 1999 Central Valley survey, there have been significant increases in the percentage of residents who rate the loss of farmlands (+15), traffic (+10), growth (+8), and air pollution (+7) as big problems in their part of the Central Valley. The region-wide numbers mask significant sub-regional differences. Traffic congestion on freeways and major roads is more likely to be seen as a big problem in Sacramento Metro (56%) and North San Joaquin (34%) than it is in South San Joaquin (18%) and the North Valley (15%). Sacramento Metro (43%) and North San Joaquin (33%) also share higher problem assessments of population growth and urban development than residents in other parts of the Central Valley. Fiftysix percent of both North Valley and North San Joaquin residents think that availability of wellpaying jobs is a big problem in their parts of the Central Valley, compared to 44 percent of South San Joaquin and 24 percent of Sacramento Metro residents. There are also significant differences between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. On the one hand, 53 percent of Latinos see the lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs as a big problem, compared to only 37 percent of non-Hispanic whites. Latinos are also somewhat more likely than non-Hispanic whites to see affordable housing as a big problem (35% to 28%). On the other hand, non-Hispanic whites are more likely than Latinos to see traffic (36% to 24%), growth (31% to 25%), air pollution (37% to 30%), and the loss of farmlands (42% to 31%) as big problems in their parts of the Central Valley. "I am going to read you a list of problems other people have told us about. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your part of the Central Valley." Percent seeing the issue as a big problem: Lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs Loss of farms and agricultural land Air pollution Traffic congestion on freeways and major roads Availability of affordable housing Population growth and urban development . All Adults 1999 – 23 28 23 – 21 2001 35% 34 26 29 26 26 2002 42% 38 35 33 30 29 -7- Sub-Regional Issues "I am going to read you a list of problems other people have told us about. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your part of the Central Valley." Lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know Loss of farms and agricultural land Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know Air pollution Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know Traffic congestion on freeways and major roads Big problem Some problem Not a problem Availability of affordable housing Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know Population growth, urban development Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 42% 34 21 3 38% 28 28 6 35% 32 32 1 33% 32 35 30% 32 35 3 29% 32 37 2 North Valley 56% 33 8 3 21% 34 36 9 12% 27 61 0 15% 35 50 23% 39 35 3 13% 34 50 3 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin South San Joaquin Latino 24% 35 37 4 56% 29 11 4 44% 35 17 4 53% 28 17 2 41% 27 24 8 36% 38 25 1 45% 30 20 5 29% 37 32 2 36% 27 32 5 44% 26 29 1 31% 27 35 7 30% 34 36 0 56% 32 12 39% 35 22 4 43% 31 24 2 34% 33 33 37% 34 26 3 33% 33 32 2 18% 31 51 20% 27 50 3 19% 32 47 2 24% 29 47 35% 29 33 3 25% 26 47 2 -8- Sub-Regional Issues Current Water Issues Many commentators have predicted that water supply and, to a lesser degree, quality will be the next big infrastructure crisis in the state. How do people in the agricultural-intensive Central Valley view these issues? It is interesting that they see water supply as less of a problem than water quality. While there are sub-regional differences in these perceptions, there are no major differences across the major demographic groups in views about water quality or supply. More than half of all Central Valley residents think water quality is at least somewhat of a problem, while one in five sees it as a big problem. Across the region, water quality is seen as a big problem more often in South San Joaquin (25%) than in North San Joaquin (21%), Sacramento Metro (17%), or the North Valley (9%). "How much of a problem is water quality in your part of the Central Valley?" Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 20% 31 48 1 North Valley 9% 25 65 1 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin 17% 21% 32 32 50 46 11 South San Joaquin 25% 33 41 1 Latino 23% 30 45 2 Fewer Central Valley residents (37%) cite water supply as at least somewhat of a problem. In fact, only 13 percent see it as a big problem. To place this finding in perspective, more than twice as many residents name growth, housing, traffic, air pollution, loss of farmlands, and jobs as big problems in their part of the Central Valley. However, as with water quality, perceptions of the supply issue vary significantly across the region: 18 percent of South San Joaquin residents see their water supply as a big problem, compared to only 7 percent of North Valley residents. "How much of a problem is the supply of water in your part of the Central Valley?" Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 13% 24 60 3 North Valley 7% 20 71 2 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin 11% 13% 24 26 61 58 43 South San Joaquin 18% 24 56 2 Latino 14% 20 63 3 - 9 - April 2002 Sub-Regional Issues Future Water Supply While water supply does not register with many Central Valley residents as a current problem, most predict that the water supply they have today will not cover future needs: 51 percent of residents believe that the current supply will be inadequate to meet their area’s needs through the next 10 years. Only North Valley residents (56%) tend to see the current water supplies in their part of the Central Valley as adequate to meet their area’s future need. In contrast, majorities of North San Joaquin (56%), South San Joaquin (55%), and Sacramento Metro (50%) residents see the water supply as inadequate to meet their coming needs. Older residents are more likely than younger residents to see the water supply as inadequate, but opinion about the future supply does not vary by race and ethnicity, education, income, or political affiliation. "Do you think that the water supply that is available in your part of the Central Valley will be adequate or inadequate to meet its needs through the next 10 years?" Adequate Inadequate Don't know All Adults 39% 51 10 North Valley 56% 35 9 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin 41% 34% 50 56 9 10 South San Joaquin 35% 55 10 Latino 39% 50 11 Central Valley residents are divided over how the state should meet its future water needs: 46 percent believe that the state should encourage conservation and reallocate the existing water supply, and 41 percent think that the state should build new dams and reservoirs. Support for new dams and reservoirs is almost invariable across sub-regions, which is interesting in light of the variations in perceptions of the adequacy of current water supply across sub-regions. Support does vary across political groups: 48 percent of Republicans favor new dams, compared to only 36 percent of Democrats and 35 percent of other voters. Conservatives (51%) are much more likely than moderates (38%) or liberals (29%) to favor building new dams and reservoirs. "Regarding ways to help the state meet its future water needs, do you favor…?" Building new dams and reservoirs Encouraging conservation and reallocating the existing water supply Other answer / don't know All Adults 41% North Valley 40% 46 42 13 18 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin 42% 42% South San Joaquin Latino 40% 45% 48 45 48 44 10 13 12 11 - 10 - Sub-Regional Issues Local Community Perceptions While citing a host of problems in their part of the Central Valley, three in four residents (76%) say their communities are excellent or good places to live. Similar positive ratings were evident in the 1999 (73%) and 2001 (75%) surveys. Although community ratings are generally high across the Central Valley, there are some significant sub-regional variations and demographic differences. For example, residents of large cities (21%) are less likely than people who live in suburbs (31%), small cities or towns (30%), and rural areas (37%) to think that their communities are excellent places to live. Central Valley residents with higher household incomes are more likely than others to describe life in their communities as excellent. Latinos are more likely (33%) than non-Hispanic whites (21%) to rate their communities as fair or poor. "Overall, how would you rate your community as a place to live?" Excellent Good Fair Poor All Adults 29% 47 20 4 North Valley 35% 43 20 2 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 33% 29% 46 44 17 23 44 South San Joaquin 24% 49 22 5 Latino 23% 44 28 5 Local Public Services Consistent with the high community ratings, most Central Valley residents give excellent or good ratings to local police (72%), parks and recreation facilities (68%), public schools (58%), and streets and roads (52%). The high local public-service ratings are consistent with the ratings reported in the 1999 and 2001 Central Valley surveys. The public services ratings are generally high across all major sub-regions and among all demographic groups. However, these high overall ratings mask several interesting differences in service ratings across sub-regions and residents. Parks and other recreational facilities are more likely to get excellent or good ratings from North Valley (74%) and Sacramento Metro (78%) residents than from people in the North San Joaquin (61%) or South San Joaquin (62%) areas. Suburban Central Valley residents are more likely than others to give high ratings to their local streets and roads (61%) and parks and recreational facilities (78%). People living in large cities are the least likely to give excellent or good ratings to local public schools (53%). Latinos and non-Hispanic whites give nearly identical ratings to local streets and roads and local public schools. However, non-Hispanic whites are more likely than Latinos to give high marks to police protection (75% to 68%), as well as to parks and other recreational facilities (72% to 60%). Central Valley residents with annual household incomes above $80,000 are more likely than residents with incomes lower than $40,000 to give high ratings to streets and roads (60% to 48%) and to local police protection (78% to 69%). Central Valley residents are evenly divided about whether their local governments have adequate (46%) or inadequate (46%) funding to provide for local public services such as libraries, police, parks, roads, and schools. The same split opinion was evident in the 2001 Central Valley survey. North Valley residents (56%) are more likely than others to believe that their local governments have inadequate funding. There are no significant differences by race and ethnicity. - 11 - April 2002 Sub-Regional Issues "How would you rate some of the public services you receive in your local area?" Local police protection Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know Local parks and public recreational facilities Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know Local public schools Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know Local streets and roads Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know All Adults North Valley 19% 53 19 7 2 21% 55 17 7 0 20% 48 22 7 3 15% 43 22 8 12 8% 44 33 14 1 29% 45 18 6 2 13% 46 22 9 10 6% 47 31 16 0 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin South San Joaquin Latino 21% 53 18 5 3 21% 48 21 7 3 17% 55 18 8 2 15% 53 19 11 2 27% 51 15 4 3 18% 35 21 9 17 13% 45 30 11 1 17% 44 28 7 4 11% 48 21 9 11 8% 41 35 16 0 13% 49 24 11 3 16% 46 22 7 9 6% 44 33 16 1 12% 48 24 14 2 12% 48 21 9 10 7% 43 33 17 0 - 12 - Governance Issues Regional Planning Seven in 10 residents say that local governments should get together and agree on land use and growth policy. At least two-thirds of residents in each of the sub-regions support local intergovernmental cooperation. There are no significant differences between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. A higher percentage of Democrats (76%) than independents (71%) or Republicans (68%) favor collaboration, and support for regional collaboration increases with education and income. However, these generally positive opinions about regional efforts should be considered in the following context: When asked if they had a favorable or unfavorable opinion of regional planning in the Central Valley, nearly seven in 10 residents said they did not know enough about the situation to have an opinion. The remaining residents were split between favorable (16%) and unfavorable (15%) opinions. Residents throughout the Central Valley say that it is important to have a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization to bring together city and county governments, businesses, and citizens’ groups to work together on Central Valley issues. Nine in 10 say this is very or somewhat important, with 55 percent saying it is very important. Democrats (91%), independents (90%), and Republicans (86%) agree that it is important to have such an organization. Large majorities across sub-regions and all demographic groups think it is important to have this type of organization that can focus on Central Valley issues. "Which of the following statements is closer to your view … ?" All Adults City and county governments in your region should get together and agree on land use and growth policy Each city and county government in the region should decide land use and growth policy on its own Other answer / don't know 69% 25 6 North Valley 65% 30 5 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin South San Joaquin Latino 71% 72% 68% 65% 24 23 26 27 5 5 68 "How important do you think it is to have a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization with the purpose of bringing together city and county governments, businesses, and citizens’ groups to work together on issues facing the Central Valley?" Very important Somewhat important Not important Don't know All Adults 55% 34 8 3 North Valley 48% 38 10 4 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 56% 57% 32 34 98 31 South San Joaquin 55% 34 8 3 Latino 63% 27 7 3 - 13 - Governance Issues Trust in Government When it comes to addressing the most important issues facing the Central Valley, residents have more faith in state government (33%) than in county or city government (28% and 16%, respectively), and only one in ten (11%) trusts the federal government most. Results were similar in our 2001 Central Valley survey. There are only modest differences in trust across sub-regions, but Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to trust county government (21% to 32%) and more likely to trust the federal government (19% to 8%). Growth and development policy receives a somewhat different response. Residents are more willing to trust county government (36%) than state government (26%) or city government (23%) with this responsibility, and the federal government is again mentioned the least (7%). Latinos are less comfortable than non-Hispanic whites with county government (27% to 40%) and are more likely to trust the federal government (12% to 5%). For both the most important issues and for growth and development policy, Republicans are more likely than independents or Democrats to trust county and city government. Responding to a separate question, 40 percent of Central Valley residents say they have very little or no confidence in the ability of state government to plan for future growth in the Central Valley. In the November 2001 PPIC Statewide Survey, 38 percent of Californians expressed a similar lack of confidence in the ability of the state to plan for growth. Latinos are only slightly more likely than non-Hispanic whites to have a lot of faith in state government planning (15% to 10%). "Which level of government do you trust the most to solve the most important issues facing the Central Valley today?" All Adults State government County government City government Federal government Other answer (volunteered) Don't know 33% 28 16 11 5 7 North Valley 32% 34 12 7 7 8 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 38% 30% 26 27 14 17 9 11 75 6 10 South San Joaquin 29% 29 18 14 4 6 Latino 32% 21 17 19 3 8 "Which level of government do you think should be most responsible for growth and development in the part of the Central Valley where you live?" All Adults County government State government City government Federal government Other answer (volunteered) Don't know 36% 26 23 7 2 6 North Valley 41% 22 25 7 2 3 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 38% 33% 31 25 19 26 67 22 47 South San Joaquin 35% 24 24 8 2 7 Latino 27% 28 22 12 2 9 - 14 - Governance Issues Local Government Ratings Ratings of local government in the Central Valley are surprisingly weak, given that three in four residents have positive feelings about their communities and that most are satisfied with the public services they receive from their local governments. Roughly four in ten residents give their city (42%) and county (44%) an excellent or good rating for solving problems; both ratings are virtually the same as they were in the 1999 and 2001 Central Valley surveys. The lack of strong performance ratings for city and county government is consistent with our findings about trust in government: Residents do not express much trust in their city or county government when it comes to solving the most important Central Valley issues or handling growth and development policy in their local area. While only one in 20 thinks either city or county government is doing an excellent job, few express a complete lack of faith in their local governments: 13 percent give their city, and 11 percent their county, a rating of poor. Three-fourths of residents rate their local governments as good or fair. Residents who give their community positive ratings – both overall as a place to live and on specific local services such as police protection and schools – tend to rate their city and county governments more favorably than do others. Sub-regional differences in evaluations of local government are not significant, and Latinos do not differ substantially from non-Hispanic whites in their opinions. Republicans and Democrats are equally positive about local government performance, and independent voters are less positive than the major parties’ voters in their evaluations. "How would you rate the performance of your city government in solving problems in your community?" All Adults Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know / don't live in a city 5% 37 37 13 8 North Valley 4% 39 36 14 7 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 4% 6% 37 34 37 39 12 13 10 8 South San Joaquin 5% 40 35 13 7 Latino 5% 39 38 12 6 Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know "How would you rate the performance of county government in solving problems in your county?" All Adults 5% 39 40 11 5 North Valley 3% 39 42 11 5 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 4% 6% 39 34 41 44 10 10 66 South San Joaquin 5% 41 38 12 4 Latino 6% 41 36 12 5 - 15 - April 2002 Governance Issues State Budget Deficit When asked to pick their top spending priority, given the state’s projected budget deficit, residents of the Central Valley overwhelmingly choose education (52%). Fewer identify public health and welfare (21%), infrastructure (12%), colleges and universities (6%), and prisons (4%) as the number-one budget priority. K-12 education is the number-one issue among every partisan and demographic group, but budget priorities do differ. After education, Democrats (24%) and independents (19%) are most likely to mention public health and welfare, while Republicans are most likely to focus on roads and other infrastructure (20%). Latinos are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to consider higher education an important priority (11% to 4%). When asked their preference in balancing the budget, a majority of Central Valley residents said they would prefer to reduce spending (55%) rather than raise taxes (9%), while 29 percent favor a mixed approach. In this respect, residents of the Central Valley mirror Californians as a whole, who most often chose spending cuts alone (53%) in the January 2002 Statewide Survey. Avoiding tax increases is the most popular option in every partisan group, although Democrats (37%) and independents (32%) are more likely than Republicans (23%) to favor a mixed approach. NonHispanic whites (57%) are more likely than Latinos (48%) to favor spending cuts alone. "The state government faces a $17 billion budget deficit next year. Given the state’s limited funds, which of the following should be the number-one priority for public spending in the state budget?" Party Registration K-12 public education Public health and welfare Roads and other infrastructure Public colleges and universities Corrections, including prisons Other answer / don't know All Adults 52% 21 12 6 4 5 Democrat 55% 24 9 5 3 4 Republican 46% 17 20 5 6 6 Independent/ Other 56% 19 11 5 4 5 Not Registered 51% 25 8 9 3 4 Latino 57% 20 6 11 2 4 "Which of the following would you most prefer as a way to balance the state budget?" Party Registration Reduce spending and avoid tax increases Mix of spending cuts and tax increases Increase taxes and avoid spending cuts Other answer / don't know All Adults 55% 29 9 7 Democrat 46% 37 10 7 Republican 66% Independent/ Not Other Registered Latino 47% 56% 48% 23 32 24 28 7 12 10 13 4 9 10 11 - 16 - Economic and Social Trends Computers and the Internet In recent years, the Central Valley has lagged behind the rest of the state in computer and Internet use. Today, 75 percent of Central Valley residents use computers either at home, at work, or at school, which is comparable to the 78 percent of all California adults who reported that they use a computer in the January 2002 Statewide Survey. Moreover, 67 percent of Central Valley residents go on line to access the Internet, compared to 72 percent of all Californians. Since the 1999 survey, computer use in the Central Valley has increased somewhat (70% to 75%), and we have see a 13-point increase in Internet use (54% to 67%) and a 16-point increase in having a computer in the home (55% to 71%). The Sacramento Metro area continues to lead other sub-regions in computer use, Internet use, and computers in the home. Sacramento residents are now as likely to use a computer (83%) and go on line (78%) as San Francisco Bay Area residents (83% and 79%, respectively). While computer use and Internet use have increased throughout the Central Valley, some residents are not participating in this trend. As is also the case statewide, Internet use is relatively low for Central Valley residents who are age 55 or older (44%) or who have no college education (43%). There is also a strong relationship between income and computer and Internet use: Of those residents with household incomes below $40,000, only 63 percent use a computer and only 53 percent go on line. Latino Internet use has grown from 38 percent in 1999 to 54 percent in 2002. However, there is still a 17-point “digital divide” in the Central Valley between Latino and non-Hispanic white Internet users. Income continues to be a key determinant of this digital divide: Latinos with annual household incomes of more than $40,000 are just as likely as non-Hispanic whites with household incomes of more than $40,000 to use computers (90% each) and the Internet (81% to 85%). Do you ever use a computer at home, at work, or at school? All adults Non-Hispanic white Latino Do you ever go on line to access the Internet or World Wide Web or to send or receive e-mail? All adults Non-Hispanic white Latino Do you have a personal computer at home? All adults Non-Hispanic white Latino 1999 2002 70% 70 60 75% 78 65 54% 57 38 55% 60 35 67% 71 54 71% 77 55 - 17 - Economic and Social Trends Health Care The availability, cost, and quality of health care are considered to be critical policy issues in California. In the Central Valley, 85 percent of residents are covered by health insurance. These results mirror the results of a July 2001 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Harvard School of Public Health. Latinos (72%) are less likely than non-Hispanic whites (89%) to have some form of health coverage. Other groups with a high percentage of uninsured individuals include residents who make less than $40,000 a year (23%), those who have no college education (24%), and those who are younger than 35 years old (25%). Three-fourths of residents are satisfied with the quality of health care they receive. Younger, less-educated, and lower-income residents are the least satisfied; and Latinos are less satisfied than non-Hispanic whites (69% to 77%). Residents are less pleased with the cost of the care they receive: About one-third say they are dissatisfied. Satisfaction with costs increases with income and education. There is no significant difference between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. Residents who lack health care coverage are half as likely as those who do have coverage to be satisfied with the cost (32% to 66%) and the quality (43% to 81%) of health care. Central Valley adults who make less than $40,000 a year and residents who have not attended college are the least satisfied with both the quality and cost of the health care they receive. Are you, yourself, now covered by any form of health insurance or health plan? Yes No Are you generally satisfied or dissatisfied with the quality of health care you receive? Satisfied Dissatisfied Don't know Are you generally satisfied or dissatisfied with the cost of the health care you receive? Satisfied Dissatisfied Don't know All Adults 85% 15 75% 20 5 61% 35 4 Less than $40,000 Annual Income $40,000 $79,999 77% 23 91% 9 68% 25 7 81% 17 2 56% 36 8 63% 34 3 $80,000 or more 94% 6 87% 13 0 70% 29 1 Latino 72% 28 69% 22 9 60% 30 10 - 18 - Economic and Social Trends Personal Finance One in three Central Valley residents reports being financially better off today than a year ago. Consumer confidence thus appears to be on the rebound: In our December 2001 Statewide Survey, only 22 percent of Central Valley residents and 21 percent of Californians said they were better off than a year earlier. Latinos and non-Hispanic whites are equally likely to say they are doing better financially today (38% and 33%, respectively). Younger residents and those with higher incomes are more likely than others to say they are better off today than they were a year ago. Consumer confidence is similar across all four sub-regions. Nonetheless, nearly one-quarter of Central Valley residents are concerned that they or another member of their family might lose their job in the coming year. Across sub-regions, concern about the possibility of job loss ranges from 18 percent in the North Valley to 23 percent in North and South San Joaquin. Latinos (31%) are more likely than non-Hispanic whites (18%) to be concerned about job losses. Residents in the lowest income levels are the most concerned about this possibility. In the December 2001 survey, 23 percent of Central Valley residents and 31 percent of California adults were concerned that they or another family member might be laid off. When asked about their perceptions of the future, 41 percent of Central Valley residents say they expect to be better off next year than they are now. This perception is similar across all subregions of the Central Valley. Latinos (47%) are slightly more likely to expect to be financially better off in a year than are non-Hispanic whites (39%). Residents with higher incomes are also more likely to expect better financial times a year from now. In December 2001, when evaluations of current finances were more gloomy than they are today, 47 percent of Central Valley residents and 41 percent of Californians expected to be better off in a year than they were at the time. "As far as your own situation, would you say that you and your family are financially better off, worse off, or just about the same as you were a year ago?" Annual Income Better off Worse off Just about the same All Adults 34% 17 49 Less than $40,000 29% 20 51 $40,000 $79,999 38% 14 48 $80,000 or more 50% 13 37 Latino 38% 16 46 "Are you concerned that you or someone in your family will lose his or her job in the next year or not?" Annual Income Yes, very concerned Yes, somewhat concerned Not concerned All Adults 12% 10 78 Less than $40,000 15% 11 74 $40,000 $79,999 10% 9 81 $80,000 or more 7% 10 83 Latino 18% 13 69 - 19 - April 2002 Economic and Social Trends Donations to Nonprofits and Charities About eight in 10 residents in the Central Valley say they donated money to nonprofits and charities last year – including religious, educational, and medical causes. One in three donated at least $500, while one in five donated $1,000 or more. One out of five residents who makes less than $40,000 a year gave $500 or more last year, and three out of five of those who make $80,000 or more gave $1,000 or more. Latinos are much less likely than Non-Hispanic whites to donate $500 or more (21% to 39%). Forty percent of residents ages 35 and older, and 50 percent of residents with college degrees, contributed $500 or more last year. There are no major differences in giving across sub-regions or between men and women. Half say there has been no change in personal donations in recent years, while one in three says that their amount of giving has been increasing, and 11 percent say that their personal giving is lower today than in the past. Latinos (20%) are much less likely than non-Hispanic whites (37%) to say that they have increased their donations in recent years. Residents between the ages of 35 and 54 (38%), those who make $80,000 or more (52%), and those with college degrees (46%), are the most likely to say they have increased their charitable giving. Among those who say they have increased their giving in recent years, 59 percent gave donations of at least $500 last year, and 42 percent gave $1,000 or more. Of those who say they have been giving the same level of donations in recent years, over 56 percent gave $100 or more last year, and 25 percent gave $500 or more. Among those whose donations have been declining, 48 percent gave less than $100 to a nonprofit or charity during the preceding year. "Overall, about how much money did you give to all nonprofits and charities last year?" Annual Income Nothing Under $100 $100 to under $500 $500 to under $1,000 $1,000 or more Don't know All Adults 15% 18 29 12 22 4 Less than $40,000 22% 27 29 8 12 2 $40,000 $79,999 9% 13 34 15 28 1 $80,000 or more 4% 8 25 21 40 2 Latino 23% 24 26 10 11 6 "In recent years, has the money you donate to nonprofits and charities increased, decreased, or stayed the same?" Annual Income Increased Decreased Stayed the same Don’t know All Adults 32% 11 53 4 Less than $40,000 21% 12 61 6 $40,000 $79,999 41% 9 48 2 $80,000 or more 52% 8 40 0 Latino 20% 9 59 12 - 20 - Economic and Social Trends Civic and Religious Life More than half of Central Valley residents are somewhat or very involved in religious groups (54%), neighborhood groups (57%), and volunteer and charity groups (52%). One in five is very involved in religious groups, and one in six is very involved in neighborhood or volunteer groups. Residents in the Central Valley seem to have pulled back from some of their participation in civic and religious activities. Compared to a year ago, there have been small declines in involvement in religious groups (60% to 54%), neighborhood groups (64% to 57%), and volunteering (58% to 52%). Sacramento Metro residents are the least involved in religious groups, while South San Joaquin residents are the most likely to report being involved in this kind of activity. North Valley residents are more involved than others in volunteering, and South San Joaquin residents are the least likely to be involved with neighborhood groups. Latinos are more active in faith-based activities than non-Hispanic whites (64% to 51%) and are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to report involvement in neighborhood groups (53% to 59%). Latinos and non-Hispanic whites are about equally likely to volunteer their time or to participate in charity groups (49% to 51%). Neighborhood involvement tends to increase with age: Roughly six in 10 adults over 35 years of age say they are involved in neighborhood activities. Of those residents who make $40,000 or more a year, 57 percent say that they volunteer their time, compared to 47 percent of those who make less than $40,000. Education is also a factor: 43 percent of those without college education volunteer, compared to 54 percent of those who have some college education and 62 percent of those with a college degree. Religious involvement is higher for those with children in the home (59%) than it is for those with no children at home (51%). "How involved are you with ..." A church or some other religious institution Very involved Somewhat involved Not involved Neighbors and neighborhood groups Very involved Somewhat involved Not involved Volunteering and charity groups Very involved Somewhat involved Not involved All Adults 1999 2001 2002 25% 33 42 23% 37 40 21% 33 46 – 17% 14% – 47 43 – 36 43 19% 38 43 16% 42 42 16% 36 48 - 21 - April 2002 Survey Methodology The Central Valley Survey is a special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey, which is directed by Mark Baldassare, senior fellow at the Public Policy Institute of California, with the assistance of survey research manager Jon Cohen and research associates Lisa Cole and Eric McGhee. The survey was conducted in collaboration with the Great Valley Center; however, the survey methodology and questions and the content of this report were solely determined by Mark Baldassare. The survey benefited from consultation with Carol Whiteside and her staff members and from discussions organized by the Great Valley Center. The findings of the survey are based on telephone interviews from April 1 to April 8, 2002, with 2,004 adult residents in the 18-county Central Valley region. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights, using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers, ensuring that both listed and unlisted telephone numbers were called. All telephone exchanges in the Central Valley were eligible for calling. Telephone numbers in the survey sample were called up to four times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Each interview took an average of 20 minutes to complete. Interviewing was conducted in English or Spanish, as needed. We used recent U.S. Census and state figures to compare the demographic characteristics of the survey sample with characteristics of the Central Valley’s adult population. The survey sample was closely comparable to U.S. Census and state figures. The survey data in this report were statistically weighted by age, gender, and region to account for any demographic differences. The sampling error for the total sample of 2,004 adults is +/- 2 percent at the 95 percent confidence level. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 2 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in the Central Valley were interviewed. The sampling error for subgroups is larger. Sampling error is just one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. Throughout this report, we refer to four geographic subregions in the Central Valley. “North Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Shasta, Sutter, Tehama, and Yuba Counties (11 percent of the Central Valley’s adult population). “Sacramento Metro” includes Placer, Sacramento, and Yolo Counties (31 percent of the population). “North San Joaquin” includes Merced, San Joaquin, and Stanislaus Counties (22 percent of the population). “South San Joaquin” includes Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, and Tulare Counties (36 percent of the population). We compare the results for Latinos with those for non-Hispanic whites. Latinos account for about 26 percent of the Central Valley’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest growing groups in this region. The sample sizes for the African American and Asian subgroups are not large enough for separate statistical analysis. In some cases, the Central Valley Survey uses questions and/or compares results from national surveys conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation / Harvard School of Public Health in July 2001, the New York Times in July 1999, and the Gallup Organization in September 2000. We use the 1999 and 2001 PPIC Central Valley surveys to compare trends over time in the Central Valley, and we use the 1998-2002 PPIC Statewide Surveys to compare opinions of Central Valley residents today with those of adult residents in the state as a whole and residents of the state’s other major regions. - 23 - PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: SPECIAL SURVEY OF THE CENTRAL VALLEY APRIL 1-8, 2002 2,004 CENTRAL VALLEY RESIDENTS; ENGLISH AND SPANISH MARGIN OF ERROR +/- 2% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE 1. Which of the following describes the community where you now live – is it a large city, a suburb, a small city or town, or a rural area? 25% large city 13 suburb 48 small city or town 14 rural area 2. How long have you lived in your community – fewer than five years, five to ten years, ten to twenty years, more than twenty years, or all of your life? 24% fewer than five years 17 five to ten years 23 ten to twenty years 24 more than twenty years 12 all of my life 3. Overall, how would you rate your community as a place to live? Would you say it is excellent, good fair, or poor? 29% excellent 47 good 20 fair 4 poor I’d like you to rate some of the local public services available to you. For each of the following services, please tell me if you think the services are excellent, good, fair, or poor. (rotate questions 4 to 7) 4. How about local streets and roads? 8% excellent 44 good 33 fair 14 poor 1 don’t know 5. How about local public schools? 15% excellent 43 good 22 fair 8 poor 12 don’t know 6. How about local parks and other public recreational facilities? 20% excellent 48 good 22 fair 7 poor 3 don’t know 7. How about local police protection? 19% excellent 53 good 19 fair 7 poor 2 don’t know 8. How would you rate the performance of your city government in solving problems in your community – excellent, good, fair, or poor? 5% excellent 37 good 37 fair 13 poor 8 don’t know, don't live in a city 9. How would you rate the performance of your county government in solving problems in your county – excellent, good, fair, or poor? 5% excellent 39 good 40 fair 11 poor 5 don’t know 10. Overall, do you think your local governments do or do not have adequate funding for public services, such as libraries, police, parks, roads, and schools? 46% adequate 46 inadequate 8 don’t know Next, a few questions about the part of the Central Valley you live in. I am going to read to you a list of problems other people have told us about. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your part of the Central Valley. (rotate questions 11 to 16) 11. How about traffic congestion on freeways and major roads? 33% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 35 not a problem - 25 - 12. How about population growth and urban development? 29% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 37 not a problem 2 don’t know 13. How about air pollution? 35% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 32 not a problem 1 don’t know 14. How about the loss of farms and agricultural land? 38% big problem 28 somewhat of a problem 28 not a problem 6 don’t know 15. How about the lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs? 42% big problem 34 somewhat of a problem 21 not a problem 3 don’t know 16. How about the availability of affordable housing? 30% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 35 not a problem 3 don’t know 17. How about water quality? 20% big problem 31 somewhat of a problem 48 not a problem 1 don’t know 18. How about the supply of water? 13% big problem 24 somewhat of a problem 60 not a problem 3 don’t know 19. Do you think that the water supply available in your part of the Central Valley today will be adequate or inadequate to meet its needs through the next 10 years? (if inadequate: Is that somewhat or very inadequate?) 39% adequate 31 somewhat inadequate 20 very inadequate 10 don’t know 20. Regarding ways to help the Central Valley meet its future water needs, do you favor (rotate) (a) building new dams and reservoirs, or (b) encouraging conservation and reallocating the existing water supply? 41% building new dams 46 encouraging conservation 5 other answer 8 don’t know 21. On another topic, which level of government do you think should be most responsible for growth and development policy in the part of the Central Valley where you live: (rotate) (a) federal government, (b) state government, (c) county government, or (d) city government? 36% county government 26 state government 23 city government 7 federal government 2 other answer 6 don’t know 22. Which of the following statements is closer to your view: (rotate) (a) city and county governments in your region should get together and agree on land use and growth policy, or (b) each city and county government in the region should decide land use and growth policy on its own? 69% local governments should get together 25 local government decide on their own 1 other answer 5 don’t know 23. We are interested in your opinions about the broader geographic region you live in – the Central Valley – which is the inland area of California stretching from Bakersfield to Redding. First, what do you think is the most important issue facing the Central Valley today? (code, don’t read) 17% population, growth, sprawl 14 pollution, air pollution 11 water quality or availability 10 jobs and the economy 8 loss of farmlands, agriculture 7 crime and gangs 6 traffic and transportation 3 education, schools 3 housing 2 electricity 2 immigration, illegal immigration 5 other answer 12 don’t know - 26 - 24. Do you think that things in the Central Valley are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? 55% right direction 34 wrong direction 11 don’t know 25. In general, how would you rate the economy in the Central Valley – is it excellent, good, fair, or poor? 5% excellent 40 good 41 fair 12 poor 2 don’t know 26. Thinking about the quality of life in the Central Valley, how would you say things are going – very well, somewhat well, somewhat badly, or very badly? 16% very well 65 somewhat well 15 somewhat badly 2 very badly 2 don’t know 27. How closely do you follow news about issues facing the Central Valley – very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely? 23% very closely 52 fairly closely 21 not too closely 4 not at all closely 28. How much of a problem is air pollution in the Central Valley today – is it a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem? 39% big problem 44 somewhat of a problem 16 not a problem 1 don’t know 29. Overall, how serious a threat to your own health and well-being are environmental conditions in the Central Valley today, such as air pollution and water quality – very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious? 22% very serious 42 somewhat serious 35 not too serious 1 don’t know 30. On another topic, how much of a problem is the cost, supply, and demand for electricity in the Central Valley today? Is it a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem? 41% big problem 38 somewhat of a problem 19 not a problem 2 don’t know 31. Currently, state officials are looking at ways to increase electricity supply. Do you favor or oppose relaxing the air quality standards that regulate power plants, even if it means more pollution in the Central Valley? 20% favor 73 oppose 7 don’t know 32. What if a nuclear power plant was proposed for the Central Valley? Would you favor or oppose it? 40% favor 51 oppose 9 don’t know 33. Some say that local governments should form municipal power authorities that would take the place of private electric companies. There are now municipal power authorities in places such as Los Angeles and Sacramento. In general, do you think that municipal power authorities are a good idea or a bad idea? 57% good idea 26 bad idea 17 don’t know 34. In general, which level of government do you trust the most to solve the most important issues facing the Central Valley today – federal government, state government, county government, or city government? 33% state government 28 county government 16 city government 11 federal government 5 other answer 7 don’t know 35. How much confidence do you have in the state government’s ability to plan for the land use and growth issues affecting the Central Valley’s future – including building the necessary roads and infrastructure – a lot, only some, very little, or none? 12% a lot 46 only some 29 very little 11 none 2 don’t know 36. Do you have a favorable or unfavorable opinion of regional planning in the Central Valley, or don’t you know enough to have an opinion? 16% favorable 15 unfavorable 69 don’t know - 27 - April 2002 37. How important do you think it is to have a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization with the purpose of bringing together city and county governments, businesses, and citizens’ groups to work together on issues facing the Central Valley – very important, somewhat important, or not important? 55% very important 34 somewhat important 8 not important 3 don’t know 38. On another topic, the state government faces a $17 billion budget deficit next year. Given the state’s limited funds, which of the following should be the number-one priority for public spending in the state budget? (rotate response categories) 52% kindergarten through 12th grade public education 21 public health and welfare 12 roads and other infrastructure projects 6 public colleges and universities 4 corrections, including prisons 2 other answer 3 don’t know 39. Which of the following would you most prefer as a way to balance the state budget: (rotate) (a) reduce spending and avoid tax increases, (b) increase taxes and avoid spending cuts, or (c) adopt a mix of spending cuts and tax increases? 55% reduce spending 29 mix of spending cuts and tax increases 9 increase taxes 1 other answer 6 don’t know 40. On another topic, are you, yourself, now covered by any form of health insurance or health plan? A health plan would include any private insurance plan through your employer or a plan that you purchased yourself, as well as a government program like Medicare, Medicaid, or Medi-Cal. 85% yes 15 no 41. Are you generally satisfied or dissatisfied with the quality of health care you receive? 75% satisfied 20 dissatisfied 5 don’t know 42. Are you generally satisfied or dissatisfied with the cost of the health care that you receive? 61% satisfied 35 dissatisfied 4 don’t know 43. How much of a problem for you is the lack of available transportation to and from health care providers – is it a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem? 8% big problem 11 somewhat of a problem 81 not a problem 44. On another topic, as far as your own situation, would you say that you and your family are financially better off or worse off or just about the same as you were a year ago? 34% better off 17 worse off 49 same 45. Do you think that a year from now you and your family will be financially better off or worse off or just about the same as now? 41% better off 7 worse off 49 same 3 don’t know 46. Are you concerned that you or someone in your family will lose his or her job in the next year or not? (if yes: Are you very concerned or somewhat concerned?) 12% yes, very concerned 10 yes, somewhat concerned 78 no 47. On another topic, we are interested in how people spend their time. How involved are you with a church or some other religious institution – would you say you are very involved, somewhat involved, or not involved? 21% very involved 33 somewhat involved 46 not involved 48. How involved are you with neighbors and neighborhood groups – would you say you are very involved, somewhat involved, or not involved? 14% very involved 43 somewhat involved 43 not involved 49. How involved are you with volunteering for nonprofit and charity groups – would you say you are very involved, somewhat involved, or not involved? 16% very involved 36 somewhat involved 48 not involved - 28 - 50. Overall, about how much money did you give to all nonprofits and charities last year – such as donations to religious, medical, and education causes – nothing, under $100, $100 to under $500, $500 to under $1,000, or $1,000 or more? 15% nothing 18 under $100 29 $100 to under $500 12 $500 to under $1000 22 $1000 or more 4 don’t know 51. In recent years, has the money you donate to nonprofits and charities increased, decreased, or stayed the same? 32% increased 11 decreased 53 stayed the same 4 don’t know 52. Have you felt more patriotic or done things such as display the U.S. flag because of the terrorism attacks? (if yes: Is that a lot or a little?) 46% yes, a lot 21 yes, a little 33 no 53. On another topic, do you yourself ever use a computer at home, at work, or at school? (if yes: Do you do this often or only sometimes?) 59% yes, often 16 yes, sometimes 25 no 54. Do you ever go on line to access the Internet or World Wide Web or to send or receive e-mail? (if yes: Do you do this often or only sometimes?) 50% yes, often 17 yes, sometimes 8 no 25 don’t know 55. Do you have any type of personal computer, including laptops, in your home? This does not include game machines such as Nintendo or Sega. (if yes: Do you use your home computer often, only sometimes, or don’t you use your home computer?) 46% yes, often 17 yes, sometimes 8 yes, do not use 29 no [56-66: political and demographic questions] - 29 - April 2002 PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY Advisory Committee Mary Bitterman President The James Irvine Foundation Angela Blackwell President Policy Link Paul Brest President The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Mollyann Brodie Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Director Institute of Governmental Studies University of California, Berkeley Matt Fong Chairman Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Advisory Committee William Hauck President California Business Roundtable Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Monica Lozano President and Chief Operating Officer La Opinión Donna Lucas President NCG Porter Novelli Max Neiman Director Center for Social and Behavioral Research University of California, Riverside Dan Rosenheim News Director KPIX-TV Richard Schlosberg President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Carol Stogsdill President Stogsdill Consulting Cathy Taylor Vice President and Editorial Commentary Director Orange County Register Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center - 30-" } ["___content":protected]=> string(102) "

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" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(112) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/ppic-statewide-survey-special-survey-of-the-central-valley-april-2002/s_402mbs/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8164) ["ID"]=> int(8164) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:35:24" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(3295) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(8) "S 402MBS" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(8) "s_402mbs" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "S_402MBS.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "338428" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(81770) "PPIC Statewide Survey: Special Survey of the Central Valley Mark Baldassare Senior Fellow and Survey Director April 2002 Public Policy Institute of California Preface The Central Valley Survey – an ongoing collaborative effort of the Public Policy Institute of California and the Great Valley Center – is a special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey. This is the third PPIC survey of the Central Valley. The first was conducted in October 1999 (published in a survey report in November 1999), and the second was conducted in February 2001 (published in a survey report in March 2001). The purpose of the surveys is to provide comprehensive, advocacy-free information on the opinions and public policy preferences of Central Valley residents. The Central Valley has been of considerable interest to researchers and state and national leaders for some time because of its increasing role in the social, economic, and political life of California. The current survey was co-sponsored by the Great Valley Center, with support from the Fresno Bee, Modesto Bee, and Sacramento Bee, the Bakersfield Californian, and KVIE-TV in Sacramento. The Central Valley – the inland area of California stretching 400 miles from Bakersfield to Redding – is home to 5.5 million residents and is one of the fastest growing areas of the state. Latinos now account for 26 percent of the Central Valley adult population, and growth in the Latino population is expected to accelerate over the next few decades. Because the region is the agricultural center of the state – and because agriculture is the state’s leading industry – the urbanization of farmland in the Central Valley is of great concern to policymakers. The impact of development on the water supply, open space, and natural resources is a major concern today throughout this region. Since neither of the major political parties has a large voter registration advantage in this region, the Central Valley is considered one of the most critical “swing regions” in the state, consisting of many independent-minded voters who can have a tremendous effect on statewide elections. This survey of 2,004 adult residents includes some of the “benchmark” and “tracking” questions from the 1999 and 2001 surveys in order to measure changes in key indicators over time. The survey also includes comparisons with national surveys, other major regions of California, and the state as a whole. The following issues are explored in this edition of the survey: • Public policy issues in the Central Valley, including perceptions of the most important problem facing the region; personal opinions about the economy and quality of life; and perceptions regarding electricity supply, air quality, and the environment. • Local ratings, including satisfaction with the community and local public services; sub-regional perceptions, including the severity of problems such as the adequacy and quality of the water supply in the respondent’s area of the Central Valley. • Governance issues, including ratings of city and county government, trust in government, attitudes towards regional planning efforts, and preferences for state spending on programs in light of the budget deficit. • Social and economic trends, including personal finances, health care, civic and religious life, charitable donations, and use of computers and the Internet. • Trends in attitudes over time and across four different sub-regions of the Central Valley (i.e., North Valley, Sacramento Metro, North San Joaquin, and South San Joaquin); between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites; and across demographic and political groups. Copies of this report may be ordered by e-mail (order@ppic.org) or phone (415-291-4400). This report and the November 1999 and March 2001 reports are posted on the publications page of the PPIC web site (www.ppic.org). -i- The Central Valley Map Goes on This Page Sub-Regional Groupings Used in This Report ----------------------------------------- - ii - Contents Preface Press Release Central Valley Issues Sub-Regional Issues Governance Issues Economic and Social Trends Survey Methodology Survey Questions and Results Survey Advisory Committee i v 1 7 13 17 23 25 30 - iii - Press Release SPECIAL SURVEY OF THE CENTRAL VALLEY CENTRAL VALLEY RESIDENTS FEELING EFFECTS OF REGION’S GROWTH Rising Concern About Traffic, Air Pollution, Resources; But Residents Remain Upbeat About Their Quality of Life SAN FRANCISCO, California, April 25, 2002 — The realities of rapid population growth and development in California’s Central Valley have hit home for many residents, according to a new survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) and the Great Valley Center. And while they continue to be positive about their communities and local amenities, Central Valley residents are less optimistic today about the region’s overall direction and economic conditions. The large-scale public opinion survey of the 18-county Central Valley region found that growth and growth-related issues top the list when residents are asked to name the most important issues facing the region. Indeed, four of the top five issues mentioned were related to growth and development: Population growth (17%), pollution (14%), water supply and quality (11%), jobs and the economy (10%), and the loss of farmlands (8%) are seen as the region’s most pressing issues. Between 1999 and 2002, worry grew considerably about population growth (from 8% to 17%) and pollution (10% to 14%). “The practical consequences of being one of California’s fastest growing regions are capturing the attention of Central Valley residents,” said PPIC Statewide Survey Director Mark Baldassare. “While they see these issues as being region-wide concerns, residents are also feeling the effects of growth and development in their own areas.” Since 1999, there has been a significant increase in the number of residents who rate the loss of farmland (23% to 38%), traffic congestion (23% to 33%), population growth and urban development (21% to 29%), and air pollution (28% to 35%) as big problems in their part of the Valley. Compared to 2001, more residents today also see the availability of affordable housing as a big problem (26% to 30%) in their community. As concerns have escalated about the pace and consequences of change in the Central Valley, residents have become less certain about the direction of their region and its economy. While more than half (55%) of all residents say that things are generally headed in the right direction in the Central Valley, that number has declined from 63 percent in 1999 and 59 percent in 2001. Fewer residents today (45%) than in 1999 (55%) rate the region’s economy as excellent or good. And 42 percent see the lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs as a big problem in their part of the Central Valley today, up from 35 percent in 2001. Fifty-three percent of Central Valley Latinos say the lack of good jobs is a big problem. Quality of Life Still An Attraction, Local Government a Frustration Despite their concerns about the economy, consumer confidence appears to be increasing among residents of the Central Valley. Thirty-four percent report being financially better off today than a year ago, compared to 22 percent in December 2001. And growth-driven changes fail to dim their enthusiasm for their local communities: 76 percent of Central Valley residents rate their communities as excellent or good places to live. Consistent with these high community ratings, most residents -v- continue to give excellent or good ratings to local services and amenities, including police (72%), parks and recreation facilities (68%), public schools (58%), and streets and roads (52%). “People in the Valley still like their communities, but they do sense some of the regional issues we are facing,” said Carol Whiteside, President of the Great Valley Center. “As our common challenges take center stage, we may have a chance to build consensus around real solutions.” However, Central Valley residents appear to have little faith in the ability of county and city government to solve problems facing their communities; only four in ten give their local governments excellent or good ratings. In fact, residents remain more likely to say they trust the state government (33%) than county (28%) or city (16%) government to solve the important issues facing the Central Valley. Although residents are less than impressed with their local governments, they still see a role for government in solving problems associated with growth. Indeed, a solid majority of residents (69%) favor a regional approach to growth and land use development in the Central Valley. Strong Feelings About Environment and Resource Issues Pollution: Central Valley residents are increasingly concerned about the effect of environmental conditions, including air and water pollution, on their health and well-being: 64 percent believe the threat is somewhat or very serious, up from 55 percent in 2001. Eighty-three percent of residents consider air pollution a problem in the Central Valley today, with 39 percent now calling it a big problem, compared to 31 percent in 2001. Water: Consistent with their worries about pollution, half (51%) of all Central Valley residents say water quality is at least somewhat of a problem, while one in five sees it as a big problem. Interestingly, fewer residents see water supply as a concern today, with 37 percent citing it as at least somewhat of a problem. However, the majority of residents (51%) predict that the water supply available in their part of the Central Valley will be inadequate to meet their area’s needs over the next decade. They are divided about a solution to the looming shortage: 46 percent favor encouraging conservation and reallocating the existing water supply, while 41 percent support building new dams and reservoirs. Electricity: Although it doesn’t rank as a top issue for most people in the Central Valley, 79 percent see the cost, supply, and demand for electricity as at least somewhat of a problem. However, residents today are even more unwilling (73%) than they were one year ago (61%) to relax air quality standards that regulate power plants in order to increase energy supply. A slight majority (51%) — and 57 percent of Latinos — also say they would oppose the idea of bringing nuclear power to the Central Valley. There is consensus across the region about one proposed solution: 57 percent of residents think it would be a good idea for local governments to form municipal power authorities to replace private electric companies. Little Unity: Sub-Regions Distinct Although there is a good deal of consensus about common problems and solutions across the Central Valley as a whole, there are significant differences within the region on many key issues. While Sacramento Metro and North San Joaquin residents say population growth is the most important issue facing the region (25% and 23%, respectively), North Valley residents cite water supply and quality (24%) and South San Joaquin residents say pollution (19%) is the most important problem. Sacramento Metro residents (24%) are far less likely than North Valley and North San Joaquin residents (56% each) to see the lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs as a big problem in their part of the Central Valley. But they are more likely than residents from other sub-regions to view traffic congestion as a big problem. - vi - Other Key Findings • State Budget Deficit (page 16) When asked to prioritize state spending given the current budget shortfall, Central Valley residents overwhelmingly choose K-12 education (52%), followed by health and welfare (21%). Their preferred method of balancing the budget? Fifty-five percent say they prefer to reduce spending rather than raise taxes (9%), while 29 percent prefer a combination of spending cuts and tax increases. • Digital Divide (page 17) The Central Valley no longer lags behind the rest of the state in computer and Internet use. Seventy-five percent of Central Valley residents today use computers at home, at work, or at school, compared to 78 percent of Californians. However, a large digital divide still exists in the region between non-Hispanic whites and Latinos in Internet use (71% to 54%) and computer ownership (77% to 55%). • Health Care (page 18) Eighty-five percent of Central Valley residents have health insurance, and 75 percent say they are generally satisfied with the quality of health care they receive. Fewer (61%) are satisfied with their health care costs. Latinos, residents earning less than $40,000 per year, and those with no college education are less likely to say they are insured or are satisfied with the quality and cost of care. • Civic and Religious Life (pages 20-21) Compared to 2001, residents are slightly less likely today (down from 60% to 54%) to be very or somewhat involved in religious groups and are also less likely to be involved in neighborhood groups (64% to 57%) or volunteer groups (58% to 52%). Over half (53%) say their charitable giving has remained the same in recent years, while 32 percent say it has increased. About the Survey The Central Valley Survey – an ongoing collaborative effort of the Public Policy Institute of California and the Great Valley Center – is a special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey. The purpose of this survey is to provide a comprehensive, advocacy-free study of the political, social, and economic attitudes and public policy preferences of Central Valley residents. Previous PPIC surveys of the Central Valley were conducted in 1999 and 2001. Findings of the current survey are based on a telephone survey of 2,004 adult residents in the 18county Central Valley region, interviewed from April 1 to April 8, 2002. Interviews were conducted in English or Spanish. The sampling error for the total sample is +/- 2%. For additional information on survey methodology, see page 23. Dr. Mark Baldassare is a senior fellow at PPIC, where he holds the Arjay and Frances Fearing Miller Chair in Public Policy. He is founder and director of the PPIC Statewide Survey, which he has conducted since 1998. Dr. Baldassare is the author of numerous books, including California in the New Millennium: The Changing Social and Political Landscape (University of California Press, 2000). PPIC is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to objective, nonpartisan research on economic, social, and political issues that affect the lives of Californians. The Institute was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Great Valley Center is a private, nonprofit organization promoting the economic, social, and environmental well-being of California's Central Valley. This report will appear on PPIC’s website (www.ppic.org) on April 25, 2002. ### - vii - Top five issues facing the Central Valley today Percent All Adults 20 17% 15 14% 11% 10% 10 8% 5 0 Growth Pollut ion Water Economy Loss of f armlands The water supply available in your part of the Central Valley through the next 10 years is … Percent All Adults Inadequate Adequate Don't know 10% 51% 39% On-line usage over time Percent All Adults California Central Valley 80 61% 60 54% 72% 67% 40 20 0 1999 2002 Central Valley moving in the right direction? Percent "Yes": All Adults 70 63% 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1999 59% 2001 55% 2002 Regarding ways to help meet the state’s future water needs, do you favor … Percent All Adults Encouraging conservation Building dams and reservoirs Other answer/Don't know 13% 41% 46% Top three state budget priorities Percent All Adults 60 52% 50 40 30 20 10 0 K-12 Educatio n 21% Health & Welfare 12% Infrastructure - viii - Central Valley Issues Most Important Issue When asked to identify the most important issue in the Central Valley today, six in 10 name five issues: population growth and sprawl (17%), pollution and air pollution (14%), water supply and quality (11%), and jobs and the economy (10%), and loss of farmland (8%). Fewer than one in 10 identify loss of farmlands, crime, traffic, education, housing, electricity, or immigration. Homeland security is mentioned by only 1 percent. Since the first PPIC Central Valley survey in 1999, residents of the region have become more conscious of growth-related issues and much less likely to say they "don't know" the most important issue facing the Central Valley. Concern with growth and pollution has increased the most. In the 1999 Central Valley survey, one in six residents identified these two as the most important issues, compared with one in four residents in the 2001 survey and nearly one in three residents in the 2002 survey. Concern with water has remained fairly constant: About as many people mentioned water in the 1999 survey – when it was the number one issue in the Central Valley – as name it today. In contrast, electricity – identified as the most important problem in the 2001 survey – is rarely mentioned now. Evidently, Central Valley residents believe that the state's most pressing issues differ from theirs. When asked (in a variety of ways) to name the most important problem facing California in the PPIC Statewide Surveys in December 2001, January 2002, and February 2002, Central Valley residents consistently put three issues at the top of state concerns: education, electricity, and the economy. Of these three, only the economy is named as one of the most important issues for the Central Valley. "What do you think is the most important issue facing the Central Valley today?" Population growth, sprawl Pollution, air pollution Water supply and quality Jobs and the economy Loss of farmlands, agriculture Crime and gangs Traffic and transportation Education, schools Housing Electricity Legal/illegal immigration Other issues Don't know All Adults 1999 8% 10 13 5 8 8 6 6 1 0 2 7 26 2001 15% 9 8 13 6 3 5 3 2 15 1 5 15 2002 17% 14 11 10 8 7 6 3 3 2 2 5 12 -1- Central Valley Issues Concern over issues differs considerably across sub-regions of the Central Valley. Growth is most likely to be mentioned by Sacramento Metro (25%) and North San Joaquin (23%) residents. For a plurality of North Valley residents (24%), water is the most important issue. In the South San Joaquin area, residents are most concerned about pollution (19%). Latinos are more likely than nonHispanic whites to mention jobs and the economy (17% to 7%) and much less likely to name growth (9% to 21%) as the top Central Valley issue. The mention of population growth as the top issue tends to increase with age, education, and income. Growth is seen as the most important issue by both men and women and by registered voters across the political spectrum. Recent residents are as likely as lifelong residents to see growth as the Central Valley's most important issue. "What do you think is the most important issue facing the Central Valley today?" Population growth, sprawl Pollution, air pollution Water supply and quality Jobs and the economy Loss of farmlands, agriculture Crime and gangs Traffic and transportation Education, schools Housing Electricity Legal/illegal immigration Other issues Don't know All Adults 17% 14 11 10 8 7 6 3 3 2 2 5 12 North Valley 16% 6 24 13 5 3 4 4 2 1 1 8 13 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro 25% 10 8 4 9 7 8 4 5 2 1 4 13 North San Joaquin 23% 11 5 14 8 7 9 4 4 1 1 5 8 South San Joaquin 8% 19 13 11 7 9 4 3 1 2 2 8 13 Latino 9% 11 9 17 5 11 5 3 3 2 3 10 12 -2- Central Valley Issues Overall Mood Although overall opinions about the Central Valley's direction and economy are positive, they have become less positive since 1999 and vary, sometimes considerably, across sub-regions. More than half of all residents say that things are generally headed in the right direction in the Central Valley, while one in three says things are headed in the wrong direction. The number who say things are generally going in the right direction has declined from 63 percent in 1999 and 59 percent in 2001 to 55 percent this year. Men and women and recent and lifelong residents hold similar views on how things are going in the Central Valley. However, opinions differ among some population groups and across sub-regions. Latinos are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to say that the Central Valley is headed in the right direction (59% to 52%). Older, better educated, and higher-income residents are less likely to believe that things are going in the right direction. Across sub-regions, people in North San Joaquin are the most likely to say that things are headed in the wrong direction. Overall, people are less positive about the Central Valley's economy than about its general direction, and their assessment of the economy has also deteriorated over the last three years. Forty-five percent of residents rate the Central Valley’s current economy as excellent or good. That is down from 49 percent in 2001 and 55 percent in 1999. Sacramento residents (58%) are much more likely than residents in other areas of the Central Valley to give the economy high ratings. Latinos (41%) are somewhat less likely than non-Hispanic whites (47%) to say the economy is excellent or good. Ratings of the economy tend to increase with age, education, and income. Despite the erosion of positive feelings about the Central Valley's direction and economy, perceptions of the quality of life are high and have not eroded: 81 percent of respondents say things are going very well or somewhat well with the quality of life in the Central Valley (81 percent also said the same in the 1999 survey). Positive ratings of the quality of life in the current Central Valley survey tend to be consistent across all sub-regions and demographic groups. "Do you think that things in the Central Valley are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction?" Right direction Wrong direction Don't know All Adults 55% 34 11 North Valley 57% 28 15 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 53% 47% 37 42 10 11 South San Joaquin 59% 29 12 Latino 59% 30 11 Excellent/Good Fair Poor Don't know "How would you rate the economy in the Central Valley?" All Adults 45% 41 12 2 North Valley 37% 44 18 1 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 58% 37% 34 46 6 16 21 South San Joaquin 42% 43 13 2 Latino 41% 43 14 2 - 3 - April 2002 Central Valley Issues Pollution The percentage of residents who consider air pollution a problem in the Central Valley today is high (83%), but only slightly higher than it was a year ago (80%). However, 39 percent now call it a big problem, compared to 31 percent in the 2001 survey. The size of the air pollution problem differs depending on who is asked: ! In South San Joaquin, 48 percent consider air pollution a big problem, while only 16 percent of people in the North Valley see it that way. ! Latinos (34%) are less likely than non-Hispanic whites (41%) to name air pollution as a big problem. ! The perception of air pollution as a big problem tends to increase with age, education, income, and years of residence in the current community. Central Valley residents have also become more concerned about the effect of air and water pollution on their health and well-being: 64 percent believe the threat is somewhat or very serious, up from 55 percent in 2001. There are no significant differences in perceived environmental threats between men and women; across age, education, income groups; or between recent and long-term residents. However, there are sub-regional and demographic differences: People in South San Joaquin (70%) are most likely to say air and water pollution pose a very serious or somewhat serious threat to their health and well-being, while those living in the North Valley (47%) are the least likely to share this concern. Concern about the threat of these environmental conditions is also somewhat higher among Latinos (68%) than among non-Hispanic whites (63%). "How much of a problem is air pollution in the Central Valley today?" Big problem Somewhat of a problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 39% 44 16 1 North Valley 16% 53 31 0 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 41% 36% 48 46 10 17 11 South San Joaquin 48% 37 14 1 Latino 34% 45 19 2 "Overall, how serious a threat to your own health and well-being are environmental conditions in the Central Valley today, such as air pollution and water quality?" Very serious Somewhat serious Not too serious Don't know All Adults 22% 42 35 1 North Valley 12% 35 52 1 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 20% 19% 45 43 34 37 11 South San Joaquin 28% 42 29 1 Latino 25% 43 31 1 -4- Central Valley Issues Electricity Problems and Solutions Although few residents name electricity as the most important issue for the Central Valley, eight in ten residents say it is at least somewhat of a problem. Four in 10 believe the cost, supply, and demand for electricity constitute a big problem. The perception of electricity as a problem does not vary by race and ethnicity, sub-region, or demographic group. Today, Central Valley residents are even more unwilling (73%) than they were a year ago (61%) to sacrifice air quality to increase energy supply. In every sub-region, at least seven in 10 residents are opposed to relaxing air quality standards, and opposition is strong across all political, racial and ethnic, and demographic groups. Central Valley residents are more divided about nuclear power plants. A slim majority (51%) opposes the idea of bringing fission plants to the Central Valley. There are virtually no differences across sub-regions, but there are some across population groups: Registered Democrats (58%) and independents (53%) oppose the nuclear option, while Republicans (54%) support it. Non-Hispanic whites (45%) are more likely than Latinos (33%), and men (49%) are much more likely than women (32%), to support a nuclear power plant in the Central Valley. Support also increases with age, education, and income. In the aftermath of the state’s power crisis, 57 percent of Central Valley residents think it would be a good idea for local governments to form municipal power authorities to replace private electric companies. Twenty-six percent think it would be a bad idea. Enthusiasm for municipal power authorities is highest among residents of the Sacramento Metro area (66%), where municipal power is already in place. Registered voters across the political spectrum think that municipal power authorities would be a good idea. Support for municipal power increases with education and income, and there is no difference in support between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. "How much of a problem is the cost, supply, and demand for electricity in the Central Valley today?" Big problem Somewhat of a problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 41% 38 19 2 North Valley 40% 39 18 3 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 41% 38% 37 40 20 21 21 South San Joaquin 42% 38 18 2 Latino 45% 35 18 2 "Do you favor or oppose relaxing the air quality standards that regulate power plants, even if it means more pollution in the Central Valley?" Favor Oppose Don't know All Adults 20% 73 7 North Valley 23% 71 6 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 16% 19% 78 73 68 South San Joaquin 23% 70 7 Latino 20% 71 9 - 5 - April 2002 Central Valley Issues "What if a nuclear power plant was proposed for the Central Valley? Would you favor or oppose it?" Favor Oppose Don't know All Adults 40% 51 9 North Valley 36% 52 12 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 42% 39% 50 52 89 South San Joaquin 42% 49 9 Latino 33% 57 10 "Some say that local governments should form municipal power authorities that would take the place of private electric companies. There are now municipal power authorities in places such as Los Angeles and Sacramento. In general, do you think that municipal power authorities are a good idea or a bad idea?" Good idea Bad idea Don't know All Adults 57% 26 17 North Valley 56% 24 20 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 66% 58% 21 27 13 15 South San Joaquin 51% 30 19 Latino 58% 24 18 News about the Central Valley Three in four Central Valley residents say they follow news about issues facing the Central Valley either very closely or fairly closely. The results are similar to the 2001 survey. Those living in North San Joaquin and South San Joaquin are more likely than others to very closely follow the news about the Central Valley. The percentage of respondents who follow news about the Central Valley increases with age, education, income, and years at the current residence. Latinos (74%) are just as likely as non-Hispanic whites (75%) to very closely or fairly closely follow news about issues facing the Central Valley. "How closely do you follow news about issues facing the Central Valley?" Very closely Fairly closely Not too closely Not at all closely All Adults 23% 52 21 4 North Valley 19% 48 26 7 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 20% 24% 53 54 24 18 34 South San Joaquin 26% 50 19 5 Latino 28% 46 21 5 -6- Sub-Regional Issues Sub-Regional Problems Central Valley residents appear to be growing more aware of the implications of being one of the fastest growing regions in the state. While a lack of good jobs is considered by a plurality of residents to be a big problem, growth-related problems are also seen as significant and growing more serious. However, these perceptions vary, sometimes greatly, across sub-regions and population groups. The survey asked residents to assess the severity of six problems in their part of the Central Valley. These are the overall “big problem” ratings for the six: lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs (42%), loss of farmlands (38%), air pollution (35%), traffic congestion (33%), availability of affordable housing (30%), and growth and urban development (29%). It is interesting that growth, arguably a major cause of most of the other problems, rates lower on the problem meter than its effects. Since the 1999 Central Valley survey, there have been significant increases in the percentage of residents who rate the loss of farmlands (+15), traffic (+10), growth (+8), and air pollution (+7) as big problems in their part of the Central Valley. The region-wide numbers mask significant sub-regional differences. Traffic congestion on freeways and major roads is more likely to be seen as a big problem in Sacramento Metro (56%) and North San Joaquin (34%) than it is in South San Joaquin (18%) and the North Valley (15%). Sacramento Metro (43%) and North San Joaquin (33%) also share higher problem assessments of population growth and urban development than residents in other parts of the Central Valley. Fiftysix percent of both North Valley and North San Joaquin residents think that availability of wellpaying jobs is a big problem in their parts of the Central Valley, compared to 44 percent of South San Joaquin and 24 percent of Sacramento Metro residents. There are also significant differences between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. On the one hand, 53 percent of Latinos see the lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs as a big problem, compared to only 37 percent of non-Hispanic whites. Latinos are also somewhat more likely than non-Hispanic whites to see affordable housing as a big problem (35% to 28%). On the other hand, non-Hispanic whites are more likely than Latinos to see traffic (36% to 24%), growth (31% to 25%), air pollution (37% to 30%), and the loss of farmlands (42% to 31%) as big problems in their parts of the Central Valley. "I am going to read you a list of problems other people have told us about. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your part of the Central Valley." Percent seeing the issue as a big problem: Lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs Loss of farms and agricultural land Air pollution Traffic congestion on freeways and major roads Availability of affordable housing Population growth and urban development . All Adults 1999 – 23 28 23 – 21 2001 35% 34 26 29 26 26 2002 42% 38 35 33 30 29 -7- Sub-Regional Issues "I am going to read you a list of problems other people have told us about. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your part of the Central Valley." Lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know Loss of farms and agricultural land Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know Air pollution Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know Traffic congestion on freeways and major roads Big problem Some problem Not a problem Availability of affordable housing Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know Population growth, urban development Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 42% 34 21 3 38% 28 28 6 35% 32 32 1 33% 32 35 30% 32 35 3 29% 32 37 2 North Valley 56% 33 8 3 21% 34 36 9 12% 27 61 0 15% 35 50 23% 39 35 3 13% 34 50 3 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin South San Joaquin Latino 24% 35 37 4 56% 29 11 4 44% 35 17 4 53% 28 17 2 41% 27 24 8 36% 38 25 1 45% 30 20 5 29% 37 32 2 36% 27 32 5 44% 26 29 1 31% 27 35 7 30% 34 36 0 56% 32 12 39% 35 22 4 43% 31 24 2 34% 33 33 37% 34 26 3 33% 33 32 2 18% 31 51 20% 27 50 3 19% 32 47 2 24% 29 47 35% 29 33 3 25% 26 47 2 -8- Sub-Regional Issues Current Water Issues Many commentators have predicted that water supply and, to a lesser degree, quality will be the next big infrastructure crisis in the state. How do people in the agricultural-intensive Central Valley view these issues? It is interesting that they see water supply as less of a problem than water quality. While there are sub-regional differences in these perceptions, there are no major differences across the major demographic groups in views about water quality or supply. More than half of all Central Valley residents think water quality is at least somewhat of a problem, while one in five sees it as a big problem. Across the region, water quality is seen as a big problem more often in South San Joaquin (25%) than in North San Joaquin (21%), Sacramento Metro (17%), or the North Valley (9%). "How much of a problem is water quality in your part of the Central Valley?" Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 20% 31 48 1 North Valley 9% 25 65 1 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin 17% 21% 32 32 50 46 11 South San Joaquin 25% 33 41 1 Latino 23% 30 45 2 Fewer Central Valley residents (37%) cite water supply as at least somewhat of a problem. In fact, only 13 percent see it as a big problem. To place this finding in perspective, more than twice as many residents name growth, housing, traffic, air pollution, loss of farmlands, and jobs as big problems in their part of the Central Valley. However, as with water quality, perceptions of the supply issue vary significantly across the region: 18 percent of South San Joaquin residents see their water supply as a big problem, compared to only 7 percent of North Valley residents. "How much of a problem is the supply of water in your part of the Central Valley?" Big problem Some problem Not a problem Don't know All Adults 13% 24 60 3 North Valley 7% 20 71 2 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin 11% 13% 24 26 61 58 43 South San Joaquin 18% 24 56 2 Latino 14% 20 63 3 - 9 - April 2002 Sub-Regional Issues Future Water Supply While water supply does not register with many Central Valley residents as a current problem, most predict that the water supply they have today will not cover future needs: 51 percent of residents believe that the current supply will be inadequate to meet their area’s needs through the next 10 years. Only North Valley residents (56%) tend to see the current water supplies in their part of the Central Valley as adequate to meet their area’s future need. In contrast, majorities of North San Joaquin (56%), South San Joaquin (55%), and Sacramento Metro (50%) residents see the water supply as inadequate to meet their coming needs. Older residents are more likely than younger residents to see the water supply as inadequate, but opinion about the future supply does not vary by race and ethnicity, education, income, or political affiliation. "Do you think that the water supply that is available in your part of the Central Valley will be adequate or inadequate to meet its needs through the next 10 years?" Adequate Inadequate Don't know All Adults 39% 51 10 North Valley 56% 35 9 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin 41% 34% 50 56 9 10 South San Joaquin 35% 55 10 Latino 39% 50 11 Central Valley residents are divided over how the state should meet its future water needs: 46 percent believe that the state should encourage conservation and reallocate the existing water supply, and 41 percent think that the state should build new dams and reservoirs. Support for new dams and reservoirs is almost invariable across sub-regions, which is interesting in light of the variations in perceptions of the adequacy of current water supply across sub-regions. Support does vary across political groups: 48 percent of Republicans favor new dams, compared to only 36 percent of Democrats and 35 percent of other voters. Conservatives (51%) are much more likely than moderates (38%) or liberals (29%) to favor building new dams and reservoirs. "Regarding ways to help the state meet its future water needs, do you favor…?" Building new dams and reservoirs Encouraging conservation and reallocating the existing water supply Other answer / don't know All Adults 41% North Valley 40% 46 42 13 18 Sub-Region Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin 42% 42% South San Joaquin Latino 40% 45% 48 45 48 44 10 13 12 11 - 10 - Sub-Regional Issues Local Community Perceptions While citing a host of problems in their part of the Central Valley, three in four residents (76%) say their communities are excellent or good places to live. Similar positive ratings were evident in the 1999 (73%) and 2001 (75%) surveys. Although community ratings are generally high across the Central Valley, there are some significant sub-regional variations and demographic differences. For example, residents of large cities (21%) are less likely than people who live in suburbs (31%), small cities or towns (30%), and rural areas (37%) to think that their communities are excellent places to live. Central Valley residents with higher household incomes are more likely than others to describe life in their communities as excellent. Latinos are more likely (33%) than non-Hispanic whites (21%) to rate their communities as fair or poor. "Overall, how would you rate your community as a place to live?" Excellent Good Fair Poor All Adults 29% 47 20 4 North Valley 35% 43 20 2 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 33% 29% 46 44 17 23 44 South San Joaquin 24% 49 22 5 Latino 23% 44 28 5 Local Public Services Consistent with the high community ratings, most Central Valley residents give excellent or good ratings to local police (72%), parks and recreation facilities (68%), public schools (58%), and streets and roads (52%). The high local public-service ratings are consistent with the ratings reported in the 1999 and 2001 Central Valley surveys. The public services ratings are generally high across all major sub-regions and among all demographic groups. However, these high overall ratings mask several interesting differences in service ratings across sub-regions and residents. Parks and other recreational facilities are more likely to get excellent or good ratings from North Valley (74%) and Sacramento Metro (78%) residents than from people in the North San Joaquin (61%) or South San Joaquin (62%) areas. Suburban Central Valley residents are more likely than others to give high ratings to their local streets and roads (61%) and parks and recreational facilities (78%). People living in large cities are the least likely to give excellent or good ratings to local public schools (53%). Latinos and non-Hispanic whites give nearly identical ratings to local streets and roads and local public schools. However, non-Hispanic whites are more likely than Latinos to give high marks to police protection (75% to 68%), as well as to parks and other recreational facilities (72% to 60%). Central Valley residents with annual household incomes above $80,000 are more likely than residents with incomes lower than $40,000 to give high ratings to streets and roads (60% to 48%) and to local police protection (78% to 69%). Central Valley residents are evenly divided about whether their local governments have adequate (46%) or inadequate (46%) funding to provide for local public services such as libraries, police, parks, roads, and schools. The same split opinion was evident in the 2001 Central Valley survey. North Valley residents (56%) are more likely than others to believe that their local governments have inadequate funding. There are no significant differences by race and ethnicity. - 11 - April 2002 Sub-Regional Issues "How would you rate some of the public services you receive in your local area?" Local police protection Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know Local parks and public recreational facilities Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know Local public schools Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know Local streets and roads Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know All Adults North Valley 19% 53 19 7 2 21% 55 17 7 0 20% 48 22 7 3 15% 43 22 8 12 8% 44 33 14 1 29% 45 18 6 2 13% 46 22 9 10 6% 47 31 16 0 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin South San Joaquin Latino 21% 53 18 5 3 21% 48 21 7 3 17% 55 18 8 2 15% 53 19 11 2 27% 51 15 4 3 18% 35 21 9 17 13% 45 30 11 1 17% 44 28 7 4 11% 48 21 9 11 8% 41 35 16 0 13% 49 24 11 3 16% 46 22 7 9 6% 44 33 16 1 12% 48 24 14 2 12% 48 21 9 10 7% 43 33 17 0 - 12 - Governance Issues Regional Planning Seven in 10 residents say that local governments should get together and agree on land use and growth policy. At least two-thirds of residents in each of the sub-regions support local intergovernmental cooperation. There are no significant differences between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. A higher percentage of Democrats (76%) than independents (71%) or Republicans (68%) favor collaboration, and support for regional collaboration increases with education and income. However, these generally positive opinions about regional efforts should be considered in the following context: When asked if they had a favorable or unfavorable opinion of regional planning in the Central Valley, nearly seven in 10 residents said they did not know enough about the situation to have an opinion. The remaining residents were split between favorable (16%) and unfavorable (15%) opinions. Residents throughout the Central Valley say that it is important to have a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization to bring together city and county governments, businesses, and citizens’ groups to work together on Central Valley issues. Nine in 10 say this is very or somewhat important, with 55 percent saying it is very important. Democrats (91%), independents (90%), and Republicans (86%) agree that it is important to have such an organization. Large majorities across sub-regions and all demographic groups think it is important to have this type of organization that can focus on Central Valley issues. "Which of the following statements is closer to your view … ?" All Adults City and county governments in your region should get together and agree on land use and growth policy Each city and county government in the region should decide land use and growth policy on its own Other answer / don't know 69% 25 6 North Valley 65% 30 5 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin South San Joaquin Latino 71% 72% 68% 65% 24 23 26 27 5 5 68 "How important do you think it is to have a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization with the purpose of bringing together city and county governments, businesses, and citizens’ groups to work together on issues facing the Central Valley?" Very important Somewhat important Not important Don't know All Adults 55% 34 8 3 North Valley 48% 38 10 4 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 56% 57% 32 34 98 31 South San Joaquin 55% 34 8 3 Latino 63% 27 7 3 - 13 - Governance Issues Trust in Government When it comes to addressing the most important issues facing the Central Valley, residents have more faith in state government (33%) than in county or city government (28% and 16%, respectively), and only one in ten (11%) trusts the federal government most. Results were similar in our 2001 Central Valley survey. There are only modest differences in trust across sub-regions, but Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to trust county government (21% to 32%) and more likely to trust the federal government (19% to 8%). Growth and development policy receives a somewhat different response. Residents are more willing to trust county government (36%) than state government (26%) or city government (23%) with this responsibility, and the federal government is again mentioned the least (7%). Latinos are less comfortable than non-Hispanic whites with county government (27% to 40%) and are more likely to trust the federal government (12% to 5%). For both the most important issues and for growth and development policy, Republicans are more likely than independents or Democrats to trust county and city government. Responding to a separate question, 40 percent of Central Valley residents say they have very little or no confidence in the ability of state government to plan for future growth in the Central Valley. In the November 2001 PPIC Statewide Survey, 38 percent of Californians expressed a similar lack of confidence in the ability of the state to plan for growth. Latinos are only slightly more likely than non-Hispanic whites to have a lot of faith in state government planning (15% to 10%). "Which level of government do you trust the most to solve the most important issues facing the Central Valley today?" All Adults State government County government City government Federal government Other answer (volunteered) Don't know 33% 28 16 11 5 7 North Valley 32% 34 12 7 7 8 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 38% 30% 26 27 14 17 9 11 75 6 10 South San Joaquin 29% 29 18 14 4 6 Latino 32% 21 17 19 3 8 "Which level of government do you think should be most responsible for growth and development in the part of the Central Valley where you live?" All Adults County government State government City government Federal government Other answer (volunteered) Don't know 36% 26 23 7 2 6 North Valley 41% 22 25 7 2 3 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 38% 33% 31 25 19 26 67 22 47 South San Joaquin 35% 24 24 8 2 7 Latino 27% 28 22 12 2 9 - 14 - Governance Issues Local Government Ratings Ratings of local government in the Central Valley are surprisingly weak, given that three in four residents have positive feelings about their communities and that most are satisfied with the public services they receive from their local governments. Roughly four in ten residents give their city (42%) and county (44%) an excellent or good rating for solving problems; both ratings are virtually the same as they were in the 1999 and 2001 Central Valley surveys. The lack of strong performance ratings for city and county government is consistent with our findings about trust in government: Residents do not express much trust in their city or county government when it comes to solving the most important Central Valley issues or handling growth and development policy in their local area. While only one in 20 thinks either city or county government is doing an excellent job, few express a complete lack of faith in their local governments: 13 percent give their city, and 11 percent their county, a rating of poor. Three-fourths of residents rate their local governments as good or fair. Residents who give their community positive ratings – both overall as a place to live and on specific local services such as police protection and schools – tend to rate their city and county governments more favorably than do others. Sub-regional differences in evaluations of local government are not significant, and Latinos do not differ substantially from non-Hispanic whites in their opinions. Republicans and Democrats are equally positive about local government performance, and independent voters are less positive than the major parties’ voters in their evaluations. "How would you rate the performance of your city government in solving problems in your community?" All Adults Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know / don't live in a city 5% 37 37 13 8 North Valley 4% 39 36 14 7 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 4% 6% 37 34 37 39 12 13 10 8 South San Joaquin 5% 40 35 13 7 Latino 5% 39 38 12 6 Excellent Good Fair Poor Don't know "How would you rate the performance of county government in solving problems in your county?" All Adults 5% 39 40 11 5 North Valley 3% 39 42 11 5 Sub-Region Sacramento North Metro San Joaquin 4% 6% 39 34 41 44 10 10 66 South San Joaquin 5% 41 38 12 4 Latino 6% 41 36 12 5 - 15 - April 2002 Governance Issues State Budget Deficit When asked to pick their top spending priority, given the state’s projected budget deficit, residents of the Central Valley overwhelmingly choose education (52%). Fewer identify public health and welfare (21%), infrastructure (12%), colleges and universities (6%), and prisons (4%) as the number-one budget priority. K-12 education is the number-one issue among every partisan and demographic group, but budget priorities do differ. After education, Democrats (24%) and independents (19%) are most likely to mention public health and welfare, while Republicans are most likely to focus on roads and other infrastructure (20%). Latinos are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to consider higher education an important priority (11% to 4%). When asked their preference in balancing the budget, a majority of Central Valley residents said they would prefer to reduce spending (55%) rather than raise taxes (9%), while 29 percent favor a mixed approach. In this respect, residents of the Central Valley mirror Californians as a whole, who most often chose spending cuts alone (53%) in the January 2002 Statewide Survey. Avoiding tax increases is the most popular option in every partisan group, although Democrats (37%) and independents (32%) are more likely than Republicans (23%) to favor a mixed approach. NonHispanic whites (57%) are more likely than Latinos (48%) to favor spending cuts alone. "The state government faces a $17 billion budget deficit next year. Given the state’s limited funds, which of the following should be the number-one priority for public spending in the state budget?" Party Registration K-12 public education Public health and welfare Roads and other infrastructure Public colleges and universities Corrections, including prisons Other answer / don't know All Adults 52% 21 12 6 4 5 Democrat 55% 24 9 5 3 4 Republican 46% 17 20 5 6 6 Independent/ Other 56% 19 11 5 4 5 Not Registered 51% 25 8 9 3 4 Latino 57% 20 6 11 2 4 "Which of the following would you most prefer as a way to balance the state budget?" Party Registration Reduce spending and avoid tax increases Mix of spending cuts and tax increases Increase taxes and avoid spending cuts Other answer / don't know All Adults 55% 29 9 7 Democrat 46% 37 10 7 Republican 66% Independent/ Not Other Registered Latino 47% 56% 48% 23 32 24 28 7 12 10 13 4 9 10 11 - 16 - Economic and Social Trends Computers and the Internet In recent years, the Central Valley has lagged behind the rest of the state in computer and Internet use. Today, 75 percent of Central Valley residents use computers either at home, at work, or at school, which is comparable to the 78 percent of all California adults who reported that they use a computer in the January 2002 Statewide Survey. Moreover, 67 percent of Central Valley residents go on line to access the Internet, compared to 72 percent of all Californians. Since the 1999 survey, computer use in the Central Valley has increased somewhat (70% to 75%), and we have see a 13-point increase in Internet use (54% to 67%) and a 16-point increase in having a computer in the home (55% to 71%). The Sacramento Metro area continues to lead other sub-regions in computer use, Internet use, and computers in the home. Sacramento residents are now as likely to use a computer (83%) and go on line (78%) as San Francisco Bay Area residents (83% and 79%, respectively). While computer use and Internet use have increased throughout the Central Valley, some residents are not participating in this trend. As is also the case statewide, Internet use is relatively low for Central Valley residents who are age 55 or older (44%) or who have no college education (43%). There is also a strong relationship between income and computer and Internet use: Of those residents with household incomes below $40,000, only 63 percent use a computer and only 53 percent go on line. Latino Internet use has grown from 38 percent in 1999 to 54 percent in 2002. However, there is still a 17-point “digital divide” in the Central Valley between Latino and non-Hispanic white Internet users. Income continues to be a key determinant of this digital divide: Latinos with annual household incomes of more than $40,000 are just as likely as non-Hispanic whites with household incomes of more than $40,000 to use computers (90% each) and the Internet (81% to 85%). Do you ever use a computer at home, at work, or at school? All adults Non-Hispanic white Latino Do you ever go on line to access the Internet or World Wide Web or to send or receive e-mail? All adults Non-Hispanic white Latino Do you have a personal computer at home? All adults Non-Hispanic white Latino 1999 2002 70% 70 60 75% 78 65 54% 57 38 55% 60 35 67% 71 54 71% 77 55 - 17 - Economic and Social Trends Health Care The availability, cost, and quality of health care are considered to be critical policy issues in California. In the Central Valley, 85 percent of residents are covered by health insurance. These results mirror the results of a July 2001 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Harvard School of Public Health. Latinos (72%) are less likely than non-Hispanic whites (89%) to have some form of health coverage. Other groups with a high percentage of uninsured individuals include residents who make less than $40,000 a year (23%), those who have no college education (24%), and those who are younger than 35 years old (25%). Three-fourths of residents are satisfied with the quality of health care they receive. Younger, less-educated, and lower-income residents are the least satisfied; and Latinos are less satisfied than non-Hispanic whites (69% to 77%). Residents are less pleased with the cost of the care they receive: About one-third say they are dissatisfied. Satisfaction with costs increases with income and education. There is no significant difference between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. Residents who lack health care coverage are half as likely as those who do have coverage to be satisfied with the cost (32% to 66%) and the quality (43% to 81%) of health care. Central Valley adults who make less than $40,000 a year and residents who have not attended college are the least satisfied with both the quality and cost of the health care they receive. Are you, yourself, now covered by any form of health insurance or health plan? Yes No Are you generally satisfied or dissatisfied with the quality of health care you receive? Satisfied Dissatisfied Don't know Are you generally satisfied or dissatisfied with the cost of the health care you receive? Satisfied Dissatisfied Don't know All Adults 85% 15 75% 20 5 61% 35 4 Less than $40,000 Annual Income $40,000 $79,999 77% 23 91% 9 68% 25 7 81% 17 2 56% 36 8 63% 34 3 $80,000 or more 94% 6 87% 13 0 70% 29 1 Latino 72% 28 69% 22 9 60% 30 10 - 18 - Economic and Social Trends Personal Finance One in three Central Valley residents reports being financially better off today than a year ago. Consumer confidence thus appears to be on the rebound: In our December 2001 Statewide Survey, only 22 percent of Central Valley residents and 21 percent of Californians said they were better off than a year earlier. Latinos and non-Hispanic whites are equally likely to say they are doing better financially today (38% and 33%, respectively). Younger residents and those with higher incomes are more likely than others to say they are better off today than they were a year ago. Consumer confidence is similar across all four sub-regions. Nonetheless, nearly one-quarter of Central Valley residents are concerned that they or another member of their family might lose their job in the coming year. Across sub-regions, concern about the possibility of job loss ranges from 18 percent in the North Valley to 23 percent in North and South San Joaquin. Latinos (31%) are more likely than non-Hispanic whites (18%) to be concerned about job losses. Residents in the lowest income levels are the most concerned about this possibility. In the December 2001 survey, 23 percent of Central Valley residents and 31 percent of California adults were concerned that they or another family member might be laid off. When asked about their perceptions of the future, 41 percent of Central Valley residents say they expect to be better off next year than they are now. This perception is similar across all subregions of the Central Valley. Latinos (47%) are slightly more likely to expect to be financially better off in a year than are non-Hispanic whites (39%). Residents with higher incomes are also more likely to expect better financial times a year from now. In December 2001, when evaluations of current finances were more gloomy than they are today, 47 percent of Central Valley residents and 41 percent of Californians expected to be better off in a year than they were at the time. "As far as your own situation, would you say that you and your family are financially better off, worse off, or just about the same as you were a year ago?" Annual Income Better off Worse off Just about the same All Adults 34% 17 49 Less than $40,000 29% 20 51 $40,000 $79,999 38% 14 48 $80,000 or more 50% 13 37 Latino 38% 16 46 "Are you concerned that you or someone in your family will lose his or her job in the next year or not?" Annual Income Yes, very concerned Yes, somewhat concerned Not concerned All Adults 12% 10 78 Less than $40,000 15% 11 74 $40,000 $79,999 10% 9 81 $80,000 or more 7% 10 83 Latino 18% 13 69 - 19 - April 2002 Economic and Social Trends Donations to Nonprofits and Charities About eight in 10 residents in the Central Valley say they donated money to nonprofits and charities last year – including religious, educational, and medical causes. One in three donated at least $500, while one in five donated $1,000 or more. One out of five residents who makes less than $40,000 a year gave $500 or more last year, and three out of five of those who make $80,000 or more gave $1,000 or more. Latinos are much less likely than Non-Hispanic whites to donate $500 or more (21% to 39%). Forty percent of residents ages 35 and older, and 50 percent of residents with college degrees, contributed $500 or more last year. There are no major differences in giving across sub-regions or between men and women. Half say there has been no change in personal donations in recent years, while one in three says that their amount of giving has been increasing, and 11 percent say that their personal giving is lower today than in the past. Latinos (20%) are much less likely than non-Hispanic whites (37%) to say that they have increased their donations in recent years. Residents between the ages of 35 and 54 (38%), those who make $80,000 or more (52%), and those with college degrees (46%), are the most likely to say they have increased their charitable giving. Among those who say they have increased their giving in recent years, 59 percent gave donations of at least $500 last year, and 42 percent gave $1,000 or more. Of those who say they have been giving the same level of donations in recent years, over 56 percent gave $100 or more last year, and 25 percent gave $500 or more. Among those whose donations have been declining, 48 percent gave less than $100 to a nonprofit or charity during the preceding year. "Overall, about how much money did you give to all nonprofits and charities last year?" Annual Income Nothing Under $100 $100 to under $500 $500 to under $1,000 $1,000 or more Don't know All Adults 15% 18 29 12 22 4 Less than $40,000 22% 27 29 8 12 2 $40,000 $79,999 9% 13 34 15 28 1 $80,000 or more 4% 8 25 21 40 2 Latino 23% 24 26 10 11 6 "In recent years, has the money you donate to nonprofits and charities increased, decreased, or stayed the same?" Annual Income Increased Decreased Stayed the same Don’t know All Adults 32% 11 53 4 Less than $40,000 21% 12 61 6 $40,000 $79,999 41% 9 48 2 $80,000 or more 52% 8 40 0 Latino 20% 9 59 12 - 20 - Economic and Social Trends Civic and Religious Life More than half of Central Valley residents are somewhat or very involved in religious groups (54%), neighborhood groups (57%), and volunteer and charity groups (52%). One in five is very involved in religious groups, and one in six is very involved in neighborhood or volunteer groups. Residents in the Central Valley seem to have pulled back from some of their participation in civic and religious activities. Compared to a year ago, there have been small declines in involvement in religious groups (60% to 54%), neighborhood groups (64% to 57%), and volunteering (58% to 52%). Sacramento Metro residents are the least involved in religious groups, while South San Joaquin residents are the most likely to report being involved in this kind of activity. North Valley residents are more involved than others in volunteering, and South San Joaquin residents are the least likely to be involved with neighborhood groups. Latinos are more active in faith-based activities than non-Hispanic whites (64% to 51%) and are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to report involvement in neighborhood groups (53% to 59%). Latinos and non-Hispanic whites are about equally likely to volunteer their time or to participate in charity groups (49% to 51%). Neighborhood involvement tends to increase with age: Roughly six in 10 adults over 35 years of age say they are involved in neighborhood activities. Of those residents who make $40,000 or more a year, 57 percent say that they volunteer their time, compared to 47 percent of those who make less than $40,000. Education is also a factor: 43 percent of those without college education volunteer, compared to 54 percent of those who have some college education and 62 percent of those with a college degree. Religious involvement is higher for those with children in the home (59%) than it is for those with no children at home (51%). "How involved are you with ..." A church or some other religious institution Very involved Somewhat involved Not involved Neighbors and neighborhood groups Very involved Somewhat involved Not involved Volunteering and charity groups Very involved Somewhat involved Not involved All Adults 1999 2001 2002 25% 33 42 23% 37 40 21% 33 46 – 17% 14% – 47 43 – 36 43 19% 38 43 16% 42 42 16% 36 48 - 21 - April 2002 Survey Methodology The Central Valley Survey is a special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey, which is directed by Mark Baldassare, senior fellow at the Public Policy Institute of California, with the assistance of survey research manager Jon Cohen and research associates Lisa Cole and Eric McGhee. The survey was conducted in collaboration with the Great Valley Center; however, the survey methodology and questions and the content of this report were solely determined by Mark Baldassare. The survey benefited from consultation with Carol Whiteside and her staff members and from discussions organized by the Great Valley Center. The findings of the survey are based on telephone interviews from April 1 to April 8, 2002, with 2,004 adult residents in the 18-county Central Valley region. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights, using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers, ensuring that both listed and unlisted telephone numbers were called. All telephone exchanges in the Central Valley were eligible for calling. Telephone numbers in the survey sample were called up to four times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Each interview took an average of 20 minutes to complete. Interviewing was conducted in English or Spanish, as needed. We used recent U.S. Census and state figures to compare the demographic characteristics of the survey sample with characteristics of the Central Valley’s adult population. The survey sample was closely comparable to U.S. Census and state figures. The survey data in this report were statistically weighted by age, gender, and region to account for any demographic differences. The sampling error for the total sample of 2,004 adults is +/- 2 percent at the 95 percent confidence level. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 2 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in the Central Valley were interviewed. The sampling error for subgroups is larger. Sampling error is just one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. Throughout this report, we refer to four geographic subregions in the Central Valley. “North Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Shasta, Sutter, Tehama, and Yuba Counties (11 percent of the Central Valley’s adult population). “Sacramento Metro” includes Placer, Sacramento, and Yolo Counties (31 percent of the population). “North San Joaquin” includes Merced, San Joaquin, and Stanislaus Counties (22 percent of the population). “South San Joaquin” includes Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, and Tulare Counties (36 percent of the population). We compare the results for Latinos with those for non-Hispanic whites. Latinos account for about 26 percent of the Central Valley’s adult population and constitute one of the fastest growing groups in this region. The sample sizes for the African American and Asian subgroups are not large enough for separate statistical analysis. In some cases, the Central Valley Survey uses questions and/or compares results from national surveys conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation / Harvard School of Public Health in July 2001, the New York Times in July 1999, and the Gallup Organization in September 2000. We use the 1999 and 2001 PPIC Central Valley surveys to compare trends over time in the Central Valley, and we use the 1998-2002 PPIC Statewide Surveys to compare opinions of Central Valley residents today with those of adult residents in the state as a whole and residents of the state’s other major regions. - 23 - PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: SPECIAL SURVEY OF THE CENTRAL VALLEY APRIL 1-8, 2002 2,004 CENTRAL VALLEY RESIDENTS; ENGLISH AND SPANISH MARGIN OF ERROR +/- 2% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE 1. Which of the following describes the community where you now live – is it a large city, a suburb, a small city or town, or a rural area? 25% large city 13 suburb 48 small city or town 14 rural area 2. How long have you lived in your community – fewer than five years, five to ten years, ten to twenty years, more than twenty years, or all of your life? 24% fewer than five years 17 five to ten years 23 ten to twenty years 24 more than twenty years 12 all of my life 3. Overall, how would you rate your community as a place to live? Would you say it is excellent, good fair, or poor? 29% excellent 47 good 20 fair 4 poor I’d like you to rate some of the local public services available to you. For each of the following services, please tell me if you think the services are excellent, good, fair, or poor. (rotate questions 4 to 7) 4. How about local streets and roads? 8% excellent 44 good 33 fair 14 poor 1 don’t know 5. How about local public schools? 15% excellent 43 good 22 fair 8 poor 12 don’t know 6. How about local parks and other public recreational facilities? 20% excellent 48 good 22 fair 7 poor 3 don’t know 7. How about local police protection? 19% excellent 53 good 19 fair 7 poor 2 don’t know 8. How would you rate the performance of your city government in solving problems in your community – excellent, good, fair, or poor? 5% excellent 37 good 37 fair 13 poor 8 don’t know, don't live in a city 9. How would you rate the performance of your county government in solving problems in your county – excellent, good, fair, or poor? 5% excellent 39 good 40 fair 11 poor 5 don’t know 10. Overall, do you think your local governments do or do not have adequate funding for public services, such as libraries, police, parks, roads, and schools? 46% adequate 46 inadequate 8 don’t know Next, a few questions about the part of the Central Valley you live in. I am going to read to you a list of problems other people have told us about. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem in your part of the Central Valley. (rotate questions 11 to 16) 11. How about traffic congestion on freeways and major roads? 33% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 35 not a problem - 25 - 12. How about population growth and urban development? 29% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 37 not a problem 2 don’t know 13. How about air pollution? 35% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 32 not a problem 1 don’t know 14. How about the loss of farms and agricultural land? 38% big problem 28 somewhat of a problem 28 not a problem 6 don’t know 15. How about the lack of opportunities for well-paying jobs? 42% big problem 34 somewhat of a problem 21 not a problem 3 don’t know 16. How about the availability of affordable housing? 30% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 35 not a problem 3 don’t know 17. How about water quality? 20% big problem 31 somewhat of a problem 48 not a problem 1 don’t know 18. How about the supply of water? 13% big problem 24 somewhat of a problem 60 not a problem 3 don’t know 19. Do you think that the water supply available in your part of the Central Valley today will be adequate or inadequate to meet its needs through the next 10 years? (if inadequate: Is that somewhat or very inadequate?) 39% adequate 31 somewhat inadequate 20 very inadequate 10 don’t know 20. Regarding ways to help the Central Valley meet its future water needs, do you favor (rotate) (a) building new dams and reservoirs, or (b) encouraging conservation and reallocating the existing water supply? 41% building new dams 46 encouraging conservation 5 other answer 8 don’t know 21. On another topic, which level of government do you think should be most responsible for growth and development policy in the part of the Central Valley where you live: (rotate) (a) federal government, (b) state government, (c) county government, or (d) city government? 36% county government 26 state government 23 city government 7 federal government 2 other answer 6 don’t know 22. Which of the following statements is closer to your view: (rotate) (a) city and county governments in your region should get together and agree on land use and growth policy, or (b) each city and county government in the region should decide land use and growth policy on its own? 69% local governments should get together 25 local government decide on their own 1 other answer 5 don’t know 23. We are interested in your opinions about the broader geographic region you live in – the Central Valley – which is the inland area of California stretching from Bakersfield to Redding. First, what do you think is the most important issue facing the Central Valley today? (code, don’t read) 17% population, growth, sprawl 14 pollution, air pollution 11 water quality or availability 10 jobs and the economy 8 loss of farmlands, agriculture 7 crime and gangs 6 traffic and transportation 3 education, schools 3 housing 2 electricity 2 immigration, illegal immigration 5 other answer 12 don’t know - 26 - 24. Do you think that things in the Central Valley are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? 55% right direction 34 wrong direction 11 don’t know 25. In general, how would you rate the economy in the Central Valley – is it excellent, good, fair, or poor? 5% excellent 40 good 41 fair 12 poor 2 don’t know 26. Thinking about the quality of life in the Central Valley, how would you say things are going – very well, somewhat well, somewhat badly, or very badly? 16% very well 65 somewhat well 15 somewhat badly 2 very badly 2 don’t know 27. How closely do you follow news about issues facing the Central Valley – very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely? 23% very closely 52 fairly closely 21 not too closely 4 not at all closely 28. How much of a problem is air pollution in the Central Valley today – is it a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem? 39% big problem 44 somewhat of a problem 16 not a problem 1 don’t know 29. Overall, how serious a threat to your own health and well-being are environmental conditions in the Central Valley today, such as air pollution and water quality – very serious, somewhat serious, or not too serious? 22% very serious 42 somewhat serious 35 not too serious 1 don’t know 30. On another topic, how much of a problem is the cost, supply, and demand for electricity in the Central Valley today? Is it a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem? 41% big problem 38 somewhat of a problem 19 not a problem 2 don’t know 31. Currently, state officials are looking at ways to increase electricity supply. Do you favor or oppose relaxing the air quality standards that regulate power plants, even if it means more pollution in the Central Valley? 20% favor 73 oppose 7 don’t know 32. What if a nuclear power plant was proposed for the Central Valley? Would you favor or oppose it? 40% favor 51 oppose 9 don’t know 33. Some say that local governments should form municipal power authorities that would take the place of private electric companies. There are now municipal power authorities in places such as Los Angeles and Sacramento. In general, do you think that municipal power authorities are a good idea or a bad idea? 57% good idea 26 bad idea 17 don’t know 34. In general, which level of government do you trust the most to solve the most important issues facing the Central Valley today – federal government, state government, county government, or city government? 33% state government 28 county government 16 city government 11 federal government 5 other answer 7 don’t know 35. How much confidence do you have in the state government’s ability to plan for the land use and growth issues affecting the Central Valley’s future – including building the necessary roads and infrastructure – a lot, only some, very little, or none? 12% a lot 46 only some 29 very little 11 none 2 don’t know 36. Do you have a favorable or unfavorable opinion of regional planning in the Central Valley, or don’t you know enough to have an opinion? 16% favorable 15 unfavorable 69 don’t know - 27 - April 2002 37. How important do you think it is to have a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization with the purpose of bringing together city and county governments, businesses, and citizens’ groups to work together on issues facing the Central Valley – very important, somewhat important, or not important? 55% very important 34 somewhat important 8 not important 3 don’t know 38. On another topic, the state government faces a $17 billion budget deficit next year. Given the state’s limited funds, which of the following should be the number-one priority for public spending in the state budget? (rotate response categories) 52% kindergarten through 12th grade public education 21 public health and welfare 12 roads and other infrastructure projects 6 public colleges and universities 4 corrections, including prisons 2 other answer 3 don’t know 39. Which of the following would you most prefer as a way to balance the state budget: (rotate) (a) reduce spending and avoid tax increases, (b) increase taxes and avoid spending cuts, or (c) adopt a mix of spending cuts and tax increases? 55% reduce spending 29 mix of spending cuts and tax increases 9 increase taxes 1 other answer 6 don’t know 40. On another topic, are you, yourself, now covered by any form of health insurance or health plan? A health plan would include any private insurance plan through your employer or a plan that you purchased yourself, as well as a government program like Medicare, Medicaid, or Medi-Cal. 85% yes 15 no 41. Are you generally satisfied or dissatisfied with the quality of health care you receive? 75% satisfied 20 dissatisfied 5 don’t know 42. Are you generally satisfied or dissatisfied with the cost of the health care that you receive? 61% satisfied 35 dissatisfied 4 don’t know 43. How much of a problem for you is the lack of available transportation to and from health care providers – is it a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem? 8% big problem 11 somewhat of a problem 81 not a problem 44. On another topic, as far as your own situation, would you say that you and your family are financially better off or worse off or just about the same as you were a year ago? 34% better off 17 worse off 49 same 45. Do you think that a year from now you and your family will be financially better off or worse off or just about the same as now? 41% better off 7 worse off 49 same 3 don’t know 46. Are you concerned that you or someone in your family will lose his or her job in the next year or not? (if yes: Are you very concerned or somewhat concerned?) 12% yes, very concerned 10 yes, somewhat concerned 78 no 47. On another topic, we are interested in how people spend their time. How involved are you with a church or some other religious institution – would you say you are very involved, somewhat involved, or not involved? 21% very involved 33 somewhat involved 46 not involved 48. How involved are you with neighbors and neighborhood groups – would you say you are very involved, somewhat involved, or not involved? 14% very involved 43 somewhat involved 43 not involved 49. How involved are you with volunteering for nonprofit and charity groups – would you say you are very involved, somewhat involved, or not involved? 16% very involved 36 somewhat involved 48 not involved - 28 - 50. Overall, about how much money did you give to all nonprofits and charities last year – such as donations to religious, medical, and education causes – nothing, under $100, $100 to under $500, $500 to under $1,000, or $1,000 or more? 15% nothing 18 under $100 29 $100 to under $500 12 $500 to under $1000 22 $1000 or more 4 don’t know 51. In recent years, has the money you donate to nonprofits and charities increased, decreased, or stayed the same? 32% increased 11 decreased 53 stayed the same 4 don’t know 52. Have you felt more patriotic or done things such as display the U.S. flag because of the terrorism attacks? (if yes: Is that a lot or a little?) 46% yes, a lot 21 yes, a little 33 no 53. On another topic, do you yourself ever use a computer at home, at work, or at school? (if yes: Do you do this often or only sometimes?) 59% yes, often 16 yes, sometimes 25 no 54. Do you ever go on line to access the Internet or World Wide Web or to send or receive e-mail? (if yes: Do you do this often or only sometimes?) 50% yes, often 17 yes, sometimes 8 no 25 don’t know 55. Do you have any type of personal computer, including laptops, in your home? This does not include game machines such as Nintendo or Sega. (if yes: Do you use your home computer often, only sometimes, or don’t you use your home computer?) 46% yes, often 17 yes, sometimes 8 yes, do not use 29 no [56-66: political and demographic questions] - 29 - April 2002 PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY Advisory Committee Mary Bitterman President The James Irvine Foundation Angela Blackwell President Policy Link Paul Brest President The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Mollyann Brodie Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Director Institute of Governmental Studies University of California, Berkeley Matt Fong Chairman Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Advisory Committee William Hauck President California Business Roundtable Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Monica Lozano President and Chief Operating Officer La Opinión Donna Lucas President NCG Porter Novelli Max Neiman Director Center for Social and Behavioral Research University of California, Riverside Dan Rosenheim News Director KPIX-TV Richard Schlosberg President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Carol Stogsdill President Stogsdill Consulting Cathy Taylor Vice President and Editorial Commentary Director Orange County Register Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center - 30-" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:35:24" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(8) "s_402mbs" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:35:24" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:35:24" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(50) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/S_402MBS.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }