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Mark Baldassare Research Director & Survey Director The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) is a private operating foundation established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Institute is dedicated to improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research. PPIC’s research agenda focuses on three program areas: population, economy, and governance and public finance. Studies within these programs are examining the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns: the California economy, education, employment and income, immigration, infrastructure and urban growth, poverty and welfare, state and local finance, and the well-being of children and families. PPIC was created because three concerned citizens – William R. Hewlett, Roger W. Heyns, and Arjay Miller – recognized the need for linking objective research to the realities of California public policy. Their goal was to help the state’s leaders better understand the intricacies and implications of contemporary issues and make informed public policy decisions when confronted with challenges in the future. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. David W. Lyon is founding President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Thomas C. Sutton is Chair of the Board of Directors. Public Policy Institute of California 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 • San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone: (415) 291-4400 • Fax: (415) 291-4401 info@ppic.org • www.ppic.org Preface The PPIC Statewide Survey series provides policymakers, the media, and the general public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. Inaugurated in April 1998, the survey series has generated a database that includes the responses of more than 128,000 Californians. This special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey on California’s population is the third in a three-year survey series made possible with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The intent of this special series is to inform state, local, and federal policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about a variety of education, environment, and population issues facing the state. The current survey focuses in particular on public opinion about California’s population, which is expected to grow by 9 million residents, from about 37 million today to 46 million by the year 2025. Previous PPIC surveys have focused on the role of immigration in California’s future growth, although the major contributor to the population increase is expected to be the birth rate. The number of California births has been about 500,000 per year in the 2000s and is projected to be at or above that annual number for the next decade. While fertility rates have recently declined in all racial/ethnic groups, and especially among Latinos, relatively small changes in future fertility rates could have major implications for population growth. In this survey, we seek to understand the perceptions, attitudes, and policy preferences of California’s diverse racial/ethnic groups and geographic regions on population issues and relevant public policies, such as access to birth control and sex education. This special edition presents the responses of 2,504 adult residents throughout the state. With a large sample size and multilingual interviewing, we examine in detail the public’s perceptions, attitudes, and preferences on population issues and relevant public policies. Since population issues have been among the top state and national concerns, some of the questions are repeated from earlier PPIC Statewide Surveys, and we also compare the responses of Californians to those in national surveys. More specifically, we examine the following issues: • The public’s perceptions of California’s population growth and its potential effects, perceptions of regional population increases and the relative contributions of births to future growth, the extent to which unplanned pregnancies are considered a regional problem, the importance placed on access to birth control, and the public’s knowledge about and interest in birth control and contraceptives. • Resident attitudes about the importance of sex education and the adequacy of efforts in public schools, the effectiveness of sex education in reducing pregnancies, appropriate topics for sex education in schools, access to sex education, the preferred focus of sex education programs, and knowledge about and interest in learning more about the issues involving sex education. • Preferences regarding government funding for programs that provide birth control, access to emergency contraception and abortion, importance of Supreme Court and candidates’ positions on abortion, religious and moral objections to abortion, birth control, emergency contraceptives, and other contraceptives, having children outside of marriage, and preferences regarding the ideal number of children for a family to have. • Variations in residents perceptions, attitudes, and policy preferences across the five major regions of the state (Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, the Inland Empire, and the Orange/San Diego regions), between Asians, blacks, Latinos, and non-Hispanic whites, and across socioeconomic, age, family status, gender, religious, and political groups. Copies of this report may be ordered by e-mail (order@ppic.org) or phone (415-291-4400). Copies of this and earlier reports are posted on the publications page of the PPIC web site (www.ppic.org). For questions about the survey, please contact survey@ppic.org. Contents Preface i Press Release v Resident Perceptions 1 Resident Attitudes 7 Resident Preferences 13 Survey Methodology 19 Survey Questions and Results 21 Survey Advisory Committee 27 Press Release Para ver este comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp SPECIAL SURVEY ON POPULATION LET’S TALK ABOUT SEX: CALIFORNIANS SAY EDUCATION, ACCESS TO BIRTH CONTROL, CURB SOCIAL ILLS Widespread Concern About Population Growth, But Little Knowledge About Its Causes SAN FRANCISCO, California, January 5, 2006 — From evangelical Christians to liberal Democrats, Californians find common ground on controversial issues related to sex education, birth control, and abortion, according to a new survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) with funding from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. But on a number of topics where knowledge is prized, residents also reveal a loose grasp of the facts. At a time when abstinence-only programs are in vogue at the federal level, the vast majority of Californians (78%) – including Latinos (74%) and evangelical Christians (66%) – prefer sex education programs that also teach children about obtaining and using contraceptives. One explanation for the strong support: Residents believe deterrence works. Most say sex education in schools is at least somewhat effective in helping teens avoid pregnancy (62%) and sexually transmitted diseases (71%), with public school parents even more likely to hold these views than the general public. And an overwhelming majority of state residents (89%) believe that access to contraception is very (71%) or somewhat important (18%) for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in their region. As a result, most Californians say sex education is a very important part of school curriculum (75%) and favor government funding for programs that provide teens with birth control options (76%). “Despite the perception that ideological and political attitudes make for deep divisions over issues such as sex education, we find just the opposite,” says statewide survey director Mark Baldassare. “The widespread support for sex education programs seems to be fueled by belief in their efficacy.” So how early should sex education in the schools begin? A strong majority of Californians (68%) believe that their local school districts should require such programs in both middle and high schools. Half (50%) say it is appropriate to teach middle and high school students about how to use and where to get contraceptives, and 54 percent advocate teaching both groups about how to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Interestingly, Latinos are more likely than Asians to support starting early with programs related to contraception (56% to 39%) and sexually transmitted diseases (58% to 44%). While residents are nearly universal in their support for sex education and birth control access, not all feel that these programs are distributed equitably: About one in three Californians (36%) believes that lower-income neighborhoods are less likely than other neighborhoods to have sex education in their local schools, and half (51%) also say that lower-income residents are less likely than others to have access to birth control methods or contraception. These views may help fuel the perception that more could be done to provide information about and access to contraception and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Currently, fewer than one in 10 Californians thinks their local public schools are doing more than enough when it comes to teaching sex education, and others are roughly divided between saying schools are doing just enough or not enough (33% to 36%). But however lacking they find their schools in this regard, residents are most comfortable with decisions about sex education being made at the local level – by local schools and teachers (32%) or by parents (21%). The least popular option? Putting the federal government in charge (9%). Press Release Interest in Population Issues High, but Knowledge Needs Improvement Californians are great believers in access to contraception and sex education, but how much do they really know about the topics? A slim majority (52%) report that they are highly informed about issues regarding birth control methods and contraceptives, but this number masks significant differences across racial and ethnic groups. For example, only 24 percent of Asians and 38 percent of Latinos say they know a lot about these issues. When it comes to sex education, a similar pattern holds: 61 percent of adults say they know a lot about the issues involving sex education – including the basics of human reproduction, abstinence, pregnancy prevention, and sexually transmitted diseases – while only 38 percent of Asians and 42 percent of Latinos express this view. Even though majorities of Californians report a high level of knowledge, significant numbers say they are interested in learning more about birth control (38%) and sex education (53%). Latinos are the most likely to express interest in learning more about these topics. State residents reveal some confusion when it comes to a more controversial aspect of birth control – emergency contraception. Although an overwhelming majority of Californians today (85%) say they have heard of emergency contraceptive pills – sometimes called “morning-after” pills – and a majority (58%) favor allowing women to have access to these pills without a doctor’s prescription, only 18 percent are aware that pharmacists can provide emergency contraception in California today without a prescription. And on the macro level, Californians also lack good information about the major drivers of population growth in the state. California’s population is predicted to increase by 9 million residents in the next 20 years. Despite expressing a great deal of angst about the trend – 55 percent say this population growth is a bad thing for themselves and their families – most residents fail to identify the most significant cause of this growth. While births to current residents are the single biggest contributor to the state’s population growth, most state residents (53%) believe immigration is responsible. If Californians’ preferences for number of children remain constant, births to residents are likely to remain the key source of population growth. Thirty-six percent of Californians – and 54 percent of Latinos – say three or more is the ideal number of children for a family to have. Californians Concerned, Unified on Abortion Issues Abortion politics will be central in early 2006 as the Supreme Court considers new challenges to abortion laws and the campaign season begins in earnest. Most Californians (60%) say the Supreme Court’s decisions on abortion are very important to them personally. Given questions about Samuel Alito’s views on abortion, 34 percent of Californian’s currently say that his appointment to the Supreme Court should be confirmed, 29 percent say it should not, and 37 percent are undecided. Where do Californians stand on the issue of overturning Roe v. Wade? Seven in 10 (71%) want the decision to hold, while 22 percent want to overturn it. Majorities of all major racial and ethnic groups support maintaining the status quo, but Latinos (32%) and Asians (25%) are more likely than blacks (19%) and whites (17%) to want to overturn the decision. Among evangelical Christians, 42 percent want the ruling reversed and 52 percent do not. Of the 40 percent of Californians who say they have moral objections to abortion, 38 percent want the Supreme Court to overturn the abortion decision and 54 percent do not. Although most Californians do not want to see Roe v. Wade overturned, a majority of residents (56%) think it would be a good thing to reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States. How should this be accomplished? Residents say that providing greater access to contraception (66%) would be more effective than enacting more restrictive abortion laws (20%). When it comes to electoral politics, abortion is also a pivotal issue for many voters. As Californians look ahead to the 2006 races for governor and U.S. senator, eight in 10 say the candidates’ positions on the issue of abortion are very or somewhat important to them personally. More Key Findings • Residents Unaware of Drop in Teen Pregnancy Rate (page 4) Although statistics indicate that teen pregnancy rates have declined across the state, few residents (13%) are aware of this. In fact, 72 percent believe they have increased (38%) or stayed the same (34%). And 74 percent believe unplanned pregnancy among teens is a problem in their region. Press Release • Ratings for Governor, Legislature Remain Low (page 21) Majorities of state residents (58%) and likely voters (53%) say they disapprove of the way Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger is handling his job. The state legislature also receives low marks, with 54 percent of Californians and 60 percent of likely voters disapproving of its performance. • Californians: State Headed in Wrong Direction (page 21) During the height of the holiday shopping season, state residents express concern about their financial prospects in 2006: More Californians expect bad times financially than good times in the coming year (46% to 41%). In keeping with this gloomy outlook, a strong majority (60%) also believe the state is headed in the wrong direction. About the Survey This survey on population – made possible by funding from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation – is a special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey. This is the third survey in a three-year series intended to raise public awareness, inform decisionmakers, and stimulate public discussions about a variety of education, environment, and population issues facing California. Findings of this survey are based on a telephone survey of 2,504 California adult residents interviewed between November 30th and December 13th, 2005. Interviews were conducted in English, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, or Vietnamese. The sampling error for the total sample is +/- 2%. The sampling error for subgroups is larger. For more information on methodology, see page 19. Mark Baldassare is research director at PPIC, where he holds the Arjay and Frances Fearing Miller Chair in Public Policy. He is founder of the PPIC Statewide Survey, which he has directed since 1998. His recent book, A California State of Mind: The Conflicted Voter in a Changing World, is available at www.ppic.org. PPIC is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to improving public policy through objective, nonpartisan research on the economic, social, and political issues that affect Californians. The institute was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. This report will appear on PPIC’s website (www.ppic.org) on January 5. ### Resident Perceptions State Population Growth A majority of Californians (53%) say that immigration from other countries is the single biggest factor in the state’s population growth, while 12 percent of Californians name births to residents as the biggest factor. These perceptions are similar to those expressed in PPIC’s May 2001 survey, in which 55 percent of Californians named immigration as the biggest growth factor and 8 percent named births to state residents. Demographic statistics indicate that births to California residents are the biggest factor in the state’s population growth, and in recent years almost half of all births in the state have been to immigrant women. Today, a majority of residents across the state’s major regions, income categories, and education groups say immigration from other countries is the single biggest factor in California’s population growth. Blacks and whites (61% each) are more likely than Asians (53%) and Latinos (38%) to say this. Republicans (66%) are more likely than Democrats (55%) and independents (51%) to hold this view. “Which of the following do you think is the single biggest factor that is causing the state's population to grow?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Immigration from other countries 53% 58% 54% 54% 49% 55% 53% 61% 38% 61% Migration from other states 18 15 19 14 22 19 21 18 16 19 Children born to current residents 12 10 14 12 10 12 10 11 15 10 State and local policies 8 12 5 10 9 5 9 4 19 3 Other 3 2 3 2 4 1 3 2 2 3 Don't know 6 3 5 8 6 8 4 4 10 4 California’s population is predicted by the state government’s demographers to increase by nine million residents in the next 20 years. A majority of Californians in all regions believe that this increase will be a bad thing for themselves and their families. Solid majorities of whites (66%) and blacks (58%) hold this view, compared to less than half of Asians (47%) and Latinos (38%). The perception that this growth will be a bad thing increases with age, education, and income, and is higher among U.S. born residents than immigrants, homeowners than renters, and those without children than those with children. “Between now and 2025, California's population is estimated to increase by 9 million people from 37 million to 46 million. On balance, do you think this population growth is a good thing or a bad thing or does it make no difference to you and your family?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Good thing 12% 10% 13% 11% 16% 12% 17% 10% 16% 10% Bad thing 55 55 56 57 52 56 47 58 38 66 No difference 27 30 27 28 25 28 30 31 40 20 Don't know 6 5 4 4 7 4 6 1 6 4 Resident Perceptions Regional Population Growth When asked how much of a problem population growth is in their own region of the state, six in 10 Californians say it is a big problem (27%) or somewhat of a problem (34%). Thirty-seven percent say that it is not a problem. Regions where residents cite population growth as a big problem are those with the fastest growth rates. Residents of the San Francisco Bay Area are less likely than others to say that population growth is a big problem. Republicans (32%) are similar to Democrats (28%) and independents (29%) in the perception that population growth in their region is a big problem, and there are no differences between liberals, moderates, and conservatives in this perception. There are, however, racial/ethnic differences: Whites (32%) and blacks (26%) are more likely than Latinos (18%) and Asians (17%) to see growth in their region as a big problem. Moreover, U.S. born residents are more likely than immigrants to say this. The percentage of residents who hold this view tends to increase with age, education, homeownership, income, and length of time at current residence. “How much of a problem is population growth in your region?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Big problem 27% 28% 22% 30% 29% 34% 17% 26% 18% 32% Somewhat of a problem 34 36 36 30 36 32 32 28 29 38 Not a problem 37 34 40 38 34 31 47 43 51 28 Don't know 2 2 2 2 1 3 4 3 2 2 A majority of Californians (59%) believe that the population in their region of the state will grow rapidly within the next 20 years. This number marks a small decrease from the results of PPIC’s June 2004 survey, in which 65 percent of state residents held this perception. Today, residents in the Inland Empire (73%) are the most likely to say that the population in their region will grow rapidly. Those in the San Francisco Bay Area (49%) are the least likely to have this perception. The majority of Republicans (64%), Democrats (61%), and independents (56%) say that the population in their region will grow rapidly. Blacks (69%) are more likely than whites (60%), Latinos (58%), and Asians (42%) to say so. Majorities of Californians in all age, education, and income groups believe that the population in their region will grow rapidly in the next 20 years. “Thinking about the next 20 years, do you think that the population in your region will grow rapidly, grow slowly, stay about the same, or decline?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Grow rapidly 59% 72% 49% 57% 62% 73% 42% 69% 58% 60% Grow slowly 23 16 32 23 18 14 38 10 23 23 Stay about the same 12 7 14 14 14 10 16 17 12 12 Decline 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 Don't know 4 3 3 4 3 2 3 2 4 3 Resident Perceptions Contributors to Population Growth What factors do Californians perceive as contributing to population growth in the region where they live? About half of state residents (49%) believe that illegal immigration contributes a lot. Far fewer residents say that factors such as legal immigration from other countries (26%), migration from other states (27%), and births to residents (27%) contribute a lot. As noted earlier, births to residents are in fact the greatest contributor to the state’s population growth, and almost half of the births in recent years have been to immigrant women. There are regional differences in the perception of factors believed to contribute to population growth. Majorities of residents in the Inland Empire, Los Angeles (56% each), and Orange/San Diego Counties (52%) say illegal immigration is contributing a lot to growth. Fewer residents have this view in the Central Valley (47%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (39%). Among racial/ethnic groups, about half of blacks (54%) and whites (50%) say illegal immigration contributes a lot; fewer Latinos (47%) and Asians (41%) feel this way. Differences are also found among Republicans and Democrats (62%, 46%). “I am going to read you a list of factors that may contribute to population growth in your region. For each one, please tell me if you think it contributes a lot, some, or not much to population growth. How about…?” Percent all adults Illegal immigration from other countries Legal immigration from other countries Migration from other states Births to residents A lot 49% 26% 27% 27% Some 29 40 38 44 Not much 19 30 30 25 Not at all (volunteered) 1 1 1 1 Don't know 2 3 4 3 One in four Californians say that births to state residents contribute a lot to their region’s population growth. A similar proportion says that this factor has little effect. The perception that births contribute a lot to regional population growth is highest among younger, less educated, and less affluent adults than others. Some regional differences and racial/ethnic differences in this perception also exist. Residents in Los Angeles (31%) and the Central Valley (30%) are more likely than others to say births contribute a lot to growth. Latinos and blacks are more likely than whites and Asians to hold this perception. Moreover, adults with children are about as likely as adults without children to hold this view. “How about births to residents?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites A lot 27% 30% 21% 31% 25% 27% 15% 37% 37% 21% Some 44 42 49 42 45 45 45 33 36 50 Not much 25 24 26 24 25 22 32 26 21 26 Not at all (volunteered) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 Don't know 3 3 3 2 4 5 7 4 5 2 -3 - December 2005 Resident Perceptions Unplanned Teen Pregnancies Although births to residents are not seen by many respondents as a major factor in population growth, three in four Californians (74%) say that unplanned teen pregnancies are a big problem (41%) or somewhat of a problem (33%) in their region. Fewer Californians (50%) say that unplanned pregnancies among adults are a big problem (18%) or somewhat of a problem (32%), and 45 percent say this issue is not really a regional problem. The perception that unplanned teen pregnancies are a problem is more widely held in Los Angeles, the Central Valley, and the Inland Empire than it is in the San Francisco Bay Area and Orange/San Diego Counties. Among racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (63%) are the most likely have this perception, followed by blacks (47%), whites (30%), and Asians (26%). Concerns are higher among residents with children than those without, and younger, lower-income, and less educated residents than others. “I am now going to read you some factors that may contribute to the number of births to residents in your region. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not really a problem. How about unplanned pregnancies among teens?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Big problem 41% 46% 31% 48% 34% 45% 26% 47% 63% 30% Somewhat of a problem 33 31 36 29 36 37 34 30 22 40 Not really a problem 22 19 29 19 23 12 26 22 12 26 Don't know 4 4 4 4 7 6 14 1 3 4 Few residents (13%) perceive a decrease in teen pregnancy in their region, while 38 percent say there has been an increase in the past few years. Demographic statistics indicate that teen pregnancy rates have declined across the state. Residents in the Inland Empire (46%), Los Angeles (42%), and the Central Valley (41%) are most likely to say teen pregnancy rates in their region have increased; residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (27%) and Orange/San Diego Counties (36%) are least likely to say so. Racial/ethnic differences in perceptions also vary: Fewer Asians (22%) and whites (27%) say rates of teen pregnancy have increased in their regions than Latinos (59%) and blacks (44%). Residents with children are more likely to cite an increase than are residents without children. Immigrants, younger adults, those without any college education, and residents with household incomes under $40,000 are all more likely than other Californians to say that rates of teen pregnancy in their region have increased. “In the past few years, would you say that the teen pregnancy rate in your region has increased, decreased, or stayed the same?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Increased 38% 41% 27% 42% 36% 46% 22% 44% 59% 27% Decreased 13 10 17 13 13 8 7 8 8 17 Stayed the same 34 35 38 29 35 32 40 34 27 37 Don't know 15 14 18 16 16 14 31 14 6 19 Resident Perceptions Access to Birth Control Californians overwhelmingly agree that access to birth control methods or contraception is very important (71%) for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in their region. Solid majorities of adults, registered voters, likely voters, and residents in all regions share this perception. Across political groups, Democrats (78%) and liberals (84%) are more likely than Republicans (55%) and conservatives (59%) to say that birth control access is very important for reducing unplanned pregnancies. Evangelical Christians (65%) are less likely than others (73%) to hold this view. Still, majorities in all of these diverse political and religious groups say that access to birth control methods or contraceptives is very important for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in their region. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos and blacks are the most likely to say that access to birth control methods is very important for reducing unplanned pregnancies, though a majority of Asians and whites agree. Although this perception is held by a strong majority, it is lower among older, more educated, and wealthier Californians. However, it is somewhat higher among women (76%) than men (66%). “How important is access to birth control methods or contraceptives for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in your region?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ Very important 71% 53% 74% 79% 69% 76% 72% 65% Somewhat important 18 28 14 13 19 16 17 21 Not too important 8 11 9 6 8 7 8 9 Not at all important (volunteered) 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Don't know 2 8 2 2 4 1 3 4 While strong majorities of Californians say access to birth control methods or contraceptives is important to reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies in their region, a slim majority also believes that birth control methods or contraceptives are not equally accessible to all residents in their part of the state. Across all racial/ethnic groups, about half of California residents agree that lower-income residents are less likely than others to have access to birth control methods or contraceptives. There are also no differences across income groups and education categories on this issue. Liberals hold this perception more than conservatives (62%, 46%), and Democrats more than Republicans (59%, 44%). “Do you think that lower-income residents in your region are less likely than others to have access to birth control methods or contraceptives?” Race/Ethnicity Household Income All Adults Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Under $40,000 $40,000 to $79,999- $80,000 or more Yes, less likely 51% 48% 49% 53% 52% 49% 53% 53% No, not less likely 41 35 45 40 41 40 40 42 Don't know 8 17 6 7 7 11 7 5 -5 - December 2005 Resident Perceptions Knowledge and Interest in Birth Control A majority of Californians (52%) say that they are highly informed about issues regarding birth control methods and contraceptives, while only 12 percent report that they don’t know much about this subject. Across the state’s regions about half of adults say they know a lot about these issues. There are strong racial and ethnic differences in perceived knowledge. Solid majorities of blacks (68%) and whites (60%) report that they know a lot, but Latinos (38%) and Asians (24%) are less likely to say this. Women report higher levels of knowledge than men do (56%, 46%). Immigrants, adults with no college education, and those living in lower-income households are among the least likely to say that they know a lot about these issues. By contrast, solid majorities of U.S.-born residents, upper-income residents, and college graduates say they know a lot. “How much do you feel you know about the issue of birth control methods and contraceptives?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites High School Education Some College College Graduate A lot 52% 24% 68% 38% 60% 38% 57% 62% Some 34 48 22 43 29 39 34 30 Not much 12 23 9 17 9 20 8 8 Nothing (volunteered) 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 Don't know 1 4 0 1 2 2 0 0 Even though a majority of Californians report that they know a lot about birth control issues, about four in 10 adults are very interested (15%) or somewhat interested (23%) in learning more. Six in 10 adults are not really interested in learning more about this subject. Among racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (59%) are much more interested than whites (26%) in learning more. As expected, interest is much higher among those under 35 than among those 55 and older (54%, 25%). Interest is also greater among lower-income than upper-income Californians and among immigrants than U.S.-born residents. There is some regional variation in interest, with residents in Los Angeles (42%) more likely to be at least somewhat interested in learning more, and residents in Orange/San Diego Counties expressing the least interest (36%). Residents with children are more likely than residents without children to be at least somewhat interested in learning more about this topic, while interest is similar among women and men. “How interested are you in learning more about the issue of birth control methods and contraceptives?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ Very interested 15% 10% 21% 29% 7% 24% 13% 8% Somewhat interested 23 32 21 30 19 30 22 17 Not too interested 53 49 49 35 65 41 58 60 Not at all interested (volunteered) 7 7 9 4 9 4 6 13 Don't know 2 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 Resident Attitudes Importance of Sex Education How committed are Californians to sex education in public schools? Seventy-five percent of all adults and 82 percent of parents with public school children say that it is very important for sex education to be part of the curriculum. In comparison, 69 percent of Americans rated sex education in the curriculum as very important in a 2003 national survey conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation. Sex education is rated as a very important part of the curriculum across regions of the state and demographic groups. This belief is strong among both men and women, solid majorities of adults across political parties and ideological groups, and among evangelical Christians and others. It is somewhat stronger among Latinos and blacks than among whites and Asians, and among younger, less-educated, and lower-income residents. “How important do you think it is to have sex education as part of the curriculum in the local schools in your area?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Very important 75% 74% 82% 83% 71% 82% Somewhat important 16 20 12 13 17 13 Not too important 7 4 3 3 9 5 Should not be taught at all (volunteered) 1 0 2 0 2 0 Don't know 1 2 1 1 1 0 Fewer than one in 10 Californians think their local schools are doing more than enough when it comes to teaching sex education. Others are roughly divided between saying schools are doing just enough or not enough (33%, 36%), and 21 percent say they don’t know how schools are doing in this regard. Opinion varies among public school parents: 38 percent think the local schools are not doing enough, 41 percent say they are doing just enough, and 11 percent say they are doing more than enough. Blacks and Latinos are more likely than whites and Asians, and younger residents are more likely than older adults, to say their local schools are not doing enough. Relatively few adults in any age, education, gender, income, political, or religious group say the local schools are doing more than enough in this area. “Is it your impression that when it comes to teaching sex education, the local schools in your area are doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents More than enough 9% 6% 5% 8% 11% 11% Just enough 33 38 31 40 30 41 Not enough 36 27 49 41 33 38 Not taught (volunteered) 1 0 1 0 1 0 Don't know 21 29 14 11 25 10 Resident Attitudes Effectiveness of Sex Education Does sex education make a difference? Six in ten residents believe that sex education in schools is either very effective (17%) or somewhat effective (45%) in helping teens avoid pregnancy; three in 10 believe it is not too effective (21%) or not at all effective (9%). In a 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation, a similar 62 percent of Americans described sex education as effective for this purpose. Among public school parents, 69 percent believe sex education is very (21%) or somewhat (48%) effective in helping teens avoid pregnancy. Belief in the efficacy of sex education for this purpose is strong across political, ideological, and demographic groups. Majorities of Republicans and Democrats, liberals and conservatives, and evangelical Christians and others, all say that sex education is very or somewhat effective in preventing teen pregnancy. Asians (76%) and Latinos (65%) are more likely than blacks (61%) and whites (62%) to say it is very effective or somewhat effective for this purpose. Although attitudes do not vary much by education or income, younger adults are somewhat more likely than older adults to believe that sex education is effective in helping teens avoid pregnancy. “Overall, how effective do you think sex education in schools is in helping teens avoid pregnancy?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Very effective 17% 29% 22% 23% 13% 21% Somewhat effective 45 47 39 42 49 48 Not too effective 21 9 26 20 22 19 Not at all effective 9 6 9 9 9 8 Don't know 8 9 4 6 7 4 Californians are even more likely to say that sex education in schools helps teens to avoid getting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Seventy-one percent believe that sex education is very (26%) or somewhat effective (45%) for this purpose. In a 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation, a similar 68 percent described sex education in schools as effective in preventing disease. In California, this attitude is widely shared across racial/ethnic groups, regions, political parties, ideological groups, religious groups, and demographic categories. However, younger adults are more likely than older adults to believe in the effectiveness of sex education in helping teens avoid getting sexually transmitted diseases. “Overall, how effective do you think sex education in schools is in helping teens avoid getting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Very effective 26% 47% 29% 31% 20% 32% Somewhat effective 45 34 41 43 50 45 Not too effective 15 9 19 13 15 14 Not at all effective 7 1 8 7 7 6 Don't know 7 9 3 6 8 3 Resident Attitudes Access to Sex Education How early should sex education in the schools begin? Strong majorities of Californians say their local school districts should require sex education in both middle schools and high schools. Although 17 percent of adults believe it should be required only in high school, 68 percent say that it should be required at both levels. Only 9 percent say that it shouldn’t be required at either level. Among the parents of public school children, 72 percent believe that sex education should occur at both the middle school and high school levels; 6 percent say it should not be required at all. Across racial/ethnic groups and regions, more than six in 10 adults say that local school districts should require sex education at both levels. Majorities of Democrats and Republicans, liberals and conservatives, and evangelical Christians and others hold these views. Although attitudes are similar among men and women, and across education and income groups, the belief that sex education should be required at both school levels tends to be higher among adults who are 34 and younger (76%) than among those 35 to 54 (69%) or 55 and older (58%). “Do you think sex education should be required in your local school district for middle school students, high school students, both, or neither?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to $79,999 $80,000 or more Public School Parents Middle school students 4% 1% 5% 6% 2% 5% 3% 2% 5% High school students 17 26 15 17 16 16 16 19 17 Both 68 64 74 71 67 70 68 66 72 Neither 9 3 5 4 12 6 11 10 6 It depends (volunteered) 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 Don't know 1 4 1 2 2 2 1 2 0 How equitable is access to sex education in local schools? About one in three Californians (36%) believe that students in lower-income neighborhoods in their region are less likely than others to have exposure to sex education in their local schools. Public school parents have similar views: 36 percent say there is less access to sex education in lower-income areas. The perception of inequities is similar across age, education, and religious groups. However, it is stronger among non-whites than whites and among lower-to-middle-income residents than upper-income residents. This perception is also stronger among Democrats (41%) than Republicans (27%). “Do you think that students in lower-income neighborhoods in your region are less likely than others to have exposure to sex education in their local schools?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to $79,999 $80,000 or more Public School Parents Yes, less likely 36% 39% 50% 41% 31% 38% 37% 30% 36% No, not less likely 49 39 39 49 53 44 52 54 53 Don't know 15 22 11 10 16 18 11 16 11 -9 - December 2005 Resident Attitudes Sex Education Curriculum How much should sex education cover? Californians overwhelmingly believe it should include both abstinence from sex and information about how to get and use condoms and contraceptives. Fewer than one in five adults think it should focus only on abstinence. Seventy-eight percent of parents want the schools to teach about abstinence, condoms, and contraceptives. Across racial/ethnic groups, at least seven in 10 adults agree that sex education programs should go beyond talking only about abstinence. Although Democrats and independents are more in favor of it than Republicans, strong majorities across parties want schools to offer the more comprehensive sex education programs. Strong majorities of evangelical Christians (66%) and others (81%), and conservatives (67%) and liberals (87%) also want sex education programs to go beyond teaching abstinence. A 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 30 percent of Americans wanted the federal government to fund sex education programs that have abstaining from sexual activity as their only purpose, while 67 percent wanted the government to fund comprehensive sex education programs. “Which of the following statements comes closer to your views: sex education programs should have abstaining from sexual activity as their only purpose, or sex education programs should include abstaining from sexual activity and information on how to obtain and use condoms and contraceptives?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Dem Party Rep Ind Public School Parents Abstaining from sexual activity 17% 20% 15% 20% 16% 11% 26% 11% 18% Abstaining and obtaining and using condoms and contraceptives 78 72 83 74 81 86 68 86 78 Don't know 5 8 2 6 3 3 6 3 4 Who should make the decisions about public school sex education? About half of Californians say they want the decisions made at the most local level—by parents, local schools, and teachers. Relatively few want the school districts or state government to have primary responsibility. Least popular is putting the federal government primarily in charge. There is broad agreement among public school parents, across racial/ethnic and demographic groups, and across political and religious groups that parents and local schools and teachers should have the primary responsibility for setting the sex education curriculum. When we asked the question with parents in the list of possibilities, about two in three adults say that parents (49%) and local schools and teachers (15%) should have primary responsibility. “In general, who do you think should have the primary responsibility for deciding on the curriculum for sex education in public schools?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Dem Party Rep Ind Public School Parents The federal government 9% 14% 15% 9% 7% 11% 8% 6% 8% The state government 15 12 15 13 16 16 10 17 14 School districts 15 16 9 14 16 15 15 15 15 Local schools and teachers 32 30 34 26 37 34 33 39 30 Parents (volunteered) 21 20 24 28 18 16 29 16 25 Other answer (specify) 4 1 0 6 4 4 3 2 5 Don't know 4 7 3 4 2 4 2 5 3 Resident Attitudes Age-Appropriate Issues for Sex Education Although the vast majority of Californians believe sex education should go beyond abstinence, and should be taught in middle schools and high schools, many believe there should be differences in what is taught at different ages and grade levels. Fifty percent say that it is appropriate to teach both middle and high school students how to use and where to get contraceptives. However, 35 percent believe this should be taught only at the high school level. Public school parents have a similar response (38% high school only, 50% both). Blacks and Latinos are more likely than whites and Asians to say that this aspect of sex education is appropriate for students at both the middle school and high school levels. Support for providing this information at both levels is also higher among younger, less affluent, and less educated residents than among others, among Democrats than Republicans, among liberals than conservatives, and among those who do not identify themselves as evangelical Christians than those who do. In a 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation, 44 percent of Americans said that how to use and where to get contraceptives was appropriate for both age groups. “Please tell me if you think the following are appropriate topics for middle school students or appropriate for high school students, appropriate for both groups, or not appropriate for either group…How about how to use and where to get contraceptives?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Appropriate for middle school students 4% 4% 3% 6% 2% 4% Appropriate for high school students 35 46 31 28 38 38 Appropriate for both groups 50 39 59 56 48 50 Not appropriate for either group 9 7 7 7 10 7 Don't know 2 4 0 3 2 1 Californians have similar views on teaching students about how to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases: 54 percent say that it is appropriate to teach both middle school and high school students about this, and 35 percent say it should be taught only at the high school level. The response is similar for public school parents (53% both, 37% high school). Also, support for teaching this topic at both school levels is higher among blacks and Latinos than whites and Asians, and among younger, less affluent, and less educated adults than others. In a 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation, 56 percent said that how and where to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases was an appropriate topic for both age groups. “Please tell me if you think the following are appropriate topics for middle school students or appropriate for high school students, appropriate for both groups, or not appropriate for either group…How about how to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Appropriate for middle school students 3% 2% 3% 6% 2% 4% Appropriate for high school students 35 46 25 29 38 37 Appropriate for both groups 54 44 67 58 52 53 Not appropriate for either group 5 2 4 5 6 4 Don't know 3 6 1 2 2 2 -11 - December 2005 Resident Attitudes Knowledge of and Interest in Sex Education How much do Californians know about human reproduction, abstinence, pregnancy prevention, and AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases—the issues covered in sex education? Sixty-one percent say they know a lot, 29 percent say they know some, and just 8 percent say not much. Among parents of public school children, 56 percent claim to know a lot about these issues. There are significant differences in knowledge across demographic groups. For example, about four in 10 Asians and Latinos say they know a lot about sex education, compared to more than seven in 10 blacks and whites. Knowledge is also substantially higher among U.S. born residents than among immigrants, and upper-income residents than lower-income residents. Fewer than half of the non-college educated adults claim to know a lot about sex education compared with three in four who have graduated from college. There are no major differences across regions, between Democrats and Republicans, or among religious groups. “How much do you feel that you know about the issues involving sex education—including the basics of human reproduction, abstinence, pregnancy prevention and AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites High School Education Some College College Graduate Public School Parents A lot 61% 38% 76% 42% 72% 44% 67% 74% 56% Some 29 42 17 45 22 41 26 22 37 Not much 8 14 5 12 5 13 6 4 7 Nothing (volunteered) 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Don't know 1 6 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 Even though many Californians say they know a lot about sex education, 53 percent are very interested (21%) or somewhat interested (32%) in learning still more, while 46 percent have little (41%) or no interest (5%) in becoming better informed. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (75%) are much more interested than whites (41%) in learning more. Similarly, immigrants are far more likely than U.S. born residents, younger adults more likely than older adults, lower-income residents more likely than upper-income residents, and non-college educated adults more likely than college-educated adults to want more information about sex education. Two in three public school parents say they are interested in knowing more, while one in three express little or no interest in being more informed. “How interested are you in learning more about the issues involving sex education?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ Public School Parents Very interested 21% 19% 24% 38% 12% 30% 22% 10% 30% Somewhat interested 32 36 34 37 29 38 31 27 36 Not too interested 41 37 37 23 51 29 42 53 31 Not at all interested (volunteered) 5 4 5 1 7 3 4 9 3 Don't know 1 4 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 Resident Preferences Government Funding of Birth Control When asked about their preferences for public policies relating to population growth, eight in 10 adults, and 79 percent of likely voters, say they favor government funding for programs that provide contraceptives or birth control methods for those who cannot afford them. Solid support for government funding for birth control is evident across all geographic regions and demographic groups. While support in California is highest among Democrats (88%) and independents (83%), two in three Republicans (64%) also support this position. Support for the government funding of birth control programs is strong in all racial and ethnic groups, with favor highest among blacks (88%) and lowest among Asians (70%), while Latinos (83%) and whites (79%) have similar views. Three in four residents who consider themselves to be evangelical Christians (75%)—and 82 percent of those who do not—also favor using public funds for this purpose. Support for this policy is somewhat higher among women than men (84% to 76%) and declines somewhat with age, although 73 percent of those 55 and older support the policy. “Do you favor or oppose the government providing funding to programs that provide lower-income residents with birth control methods or contraceptives?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Favor 80% 88% 64% 83% 70% 88% 83% 79% 79% Oppose 17 10 32 15 26 11 13 18 19 Don't know 3 2 4 2 4 1 4 3 2 More than three in four Californians—and 73 percent of likely voters—favor having the government fund birth control programs for teens. A majority in all political and demographic groups favor using public funds for this purpose, although support is much higher among Democrats (86%) and independents (80%) than Republicans (54%). Residents in Los Angeles (80%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (79%) are somewhat more likely than residents in the Central Valley (76%), Orange/San Diego Counties and the Inland Empire (71% each) to favor funding birth control programs for teens. Support is somewhat stronger among women than men (79% to 74%) and declines somewhat with age, with 66 percent of those 55 or older in favor of this policy. Blacks (86%) and Latinos (83%) are more likely to favor this use of government funds than are Asians (67%) and whites (74%). Two in three of those who describe themselves as evangelical Christians (67%)—and 79 percent of those who do not—support funding government programs to provide teens with birth control methods or contraceptives. “Do you favor or oppose the government providing funding to programs that provide teens with birth control methods or contraceptives?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Favor 76% 86% 54% 80% 67% 86% 83% 74% 73% Oppose 20 11 43 17 29 12 13 23 23 Don't know 4 3 3 3 4 2 4 3 4 Resident Preferences Emergency Contraception An overwhelming majority of adults in California today (85%) say they have heard of emergency contraceptive pills, sometimes called “morning-after” pills. Eight in 10 residents in all geographic regions are familiar with this type of contraception. California is one of seven states that allow a pharmacist to distribute emergency contraception directly to a customer. While most residents are aware of emergency contraception, only 18 percent know that a woman in California can get it directly from a pharmacist without a doctor’s prescription. Forty six percent say this is not possible and 36 percent are unsure. Public knowledge of this provision for emergency contraception is low in all regions and among all demographic and political groups. Awareness is higher among 18 to 34 year olds (24%) than older residents, and men are more aware than are women (23% to 14%). Whites are less likely than others to know that pharmacists can provide emergency contraception in California without a prescription. “To the best of your knowledge, can a woman in California get emergency contraception directly from a pharmacist without having to contact or visit her doctor first?” Party Race/Ethnicity All Likely Adults Voters Dem Rep Ind Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Yes 18% 18% 16% 19% 20% 21% 23% 15% 16% No 46 45 44 51 41 43 51 44 46 Don't know 36 37 40 30 39 36 26 41 38 A majority of California adults (58%), and an even greater proportion of likely voters (63%), favor allowing a woman to get the morning-after pill without a doctor’s prescription. This is similar to PPIC’s October 2005 survey, when 61 percent were in favor of this option. Nationwide, 52 percent of Americans support dispensing the morning-after pill over the counter, according to a July 2005 survey by the Pew Research Center. At least half of Californians in all political parties favor this policy, but support is stronger among Democrats (67%) and independents (61%) than Republicans (50%). Support is higher in the San Francisco Bay Area (66%) and Los Angeles (61%) than in the Central Valley (54%), the Inland Empire (52%), and Orange/San Diego Counties (51%). There are sharp differences between racial/ethnic groups, with solid majorities of whites (64%) and blacks (59%) in favor of allowing access to emergency contraception without a prescription, while 50 percent of Latinos and only 41 percent of Asians support this position. Men are more likely than women to support this policy (62% to 54%), and favor increases with education and income. Among the one in five Californians who have religious or moral objections to emergency contraception, 68 percent oppose making it available without a prescription. A majority of those who consider themselves evangelical Christians also oppose allowing women to get the morning-after pill without a doctor’s prescription (53%). “Do you favor or oppose allowing women to get the morning-after pill, which prevents pregnancy, without a doctor's prescription?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Favor 58% 67% 50% 61% 41% 59% 50% 64% 63% Oppose 36 28 43 30 46 35 45 30 32 Don't know 6 5 7 9 13 6 5 6 5 Resident Preferences U.S. Supreme Court and Abortion As for national policy, 34 percent of California adults think Samuel Alito should be confirmed to the Supreme Court, 29 percent say he should not be confirmed, and 37 percent are undecided. While a solid majority of Republicans back Alito’s confirmation (64%), support drops off sharply among Democrats (17%) and independents (30%). Alito has more support among men than women (39%, 29%) and among conservatives than liberals (56%, 17%). Support for confirming Alito is lower in California than nationwide (49%), according to a CNN/USA Today/Gallup survey released in December. “Do you think the U.S. Senate should or should not confirm Samuel Alito's nomination to the Supreme Court?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Should confirm 34% 17% 64% 30% 23% 27% 36% 35% 38% Should not confirm 29 46 10 33 24 34 23 33 35 Have not heard enough to have an opinion (volunteered) 21 22 19 22 32 16 20 21 18 Don't know 16 15 7 15 21 23 21 11 9 Most California adults (60%) and likely voters (63%) say the Supreme Court’s decisions on abortion are very important to them personally. This is similar to PPIC’s October 2005 survey (63%) and to opinions found nationwide in a July 2005 survey by the Pew Research Center (63%). In California, Democrats (66%) are more likely than independents (56%) and Republicans (54%) to consider the issue very important. Women are more likely than men to hold this view (66%, 53%). While the court’s decisions on abortion are very important to at least six in 10 blacks, Latinos, and whites, only 41 percent of Asians hold this view. The importance of this issue increases with education and declines with age. A major issue is whether or not Roe v. Wade, the landmark Supreme Court decision that established a woman’s right to an abortion, should be overturned. Seven in 10 Californians want the decision to stand, while 22 percent want to completely overturn it. This is similar to PPIC’s August 2005 survey, in which 24 percent wanted to reverse the decision and 70 percent did not. Opposition to overturning the ruling is also high nationwide (65%), according to a November 2005 survey by the Pew Research Center. Almost seven in 10 Californians want the Supreme Court to leave the ability to get an abortion the same as it is now (50%) or make it easier (17%), while 28 percent want to make it harder. Democrats (85%) and independents (81%) are more likely than Republicans (60%) to favor the status quo on Roe v. Wade. Residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (15%) are the least likely to want Roe v. Wade overturned, while residents in the Inland Empire (31%) are the most likely. Latinos (32%) and Asians (25%) are more likely than blacks (19%) and whites (17%) to want to overturn Roe v. Wade. Overall, 40 percent of Californians say they have moral objections to abortion, and 38 percent in this group want the Supreme Court to overturn the abortion decision and 54 percent do not. Among evangelical Christians, 42 percent want the ruling overturned and 52 percent do not. “Would you like to see the Supreme Court completely overturn the Roe versus Wade decision or not? All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Yes, overturn Roe v. Wade 22% 11% 32% 15% 25% 19% 32% 17% 18% No, do not overturn Roe v. Wade 71 85 60 81 58 77 60 79 77 Don’t know 7 4 8 4 17 4 8 4 5 -15 - December 2005 Resident Preferences Number of Abortions Although most Californians do not want the Supreme Court to overturn Roe v. Wade, majorities of residents (56%) and likely voters (58%) think it would be a good thing to reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States; about one in three in each group disagrees. These findings closely parallel national opinion—in a Pew Research Center survey conducted in July 2005, 59 percent said it would be good to reduce the number of abortions, while 33 percent did not feel that way. Majorities of Republicans (63%) and independents (56%) would like to see fewer abortions, while Democrats are somewhat more divided (50% fewer abortions, 40% don’t agree). Across racial/ethnic groups, six in ten Asians (61%) and Latinos (58%) say reducing the number of abortions would be a good thing, compared to 54 percent of whites and 48 percent of blacks. Majorities in all regions would like to see abortions reduced. Seventy one percent of evangelical Christians hold this view. “Regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal, do you think it would be a good thing to reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States, or don't you feel this way?” To reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States, a strong majority of Californians agree that providing more access to contraception (66%) would be more effective than enacting more restrictive abortion laws (20%). The opinion of likely voters is similar (71% contraception, 15% abortion laws). At least half of all adults in all regions and political, racial/ethnic, and demographic groups believe more access to contraception would be the most effective way to lower the abortion rate. However, Democrats (78%) and independents (69%) are more likely than Republicans (54%) to hold this view. Blacks (74%) and whites (71%) are more likely than Latinos (57%) and Asians (50%) to say increased access to contraceptives is the best way to lower abortions. Residents in the Inland Empire (57%) are less likely to agree. Among evangelical Christians, nearly half (48%) see increased access to contraception as the best way to reduce abortions, while 35 percent favor more restrictive abortion laws. “Which of the following do you believe would be most effective in reducing the number of abortions in this country: enacting more restrictive abortion laws or providing more access to contraception?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Enacting more restrictive abortion laws 20% 11% 26% 13% 30% 15% 31% 14% 15% Providing more access to contraception 66 78 54 69 50 74 57 71 71 Both (volunteered) 5 5 6 5 10 5 6 4 4 Neither (volunteered) 6 3 10 9 5 2 2 7 8 Don't know 3 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 2 Resident Preferences Abortion Politics As Californians look ahead to the 2006 races for governor and U.S. senator, eight in 10 say the candidates’ positions on the issue of abortion are very or somewhat important to them personally. In the race for governor, 79 percent of Californians consider candidate positions very (46%) or somewhat important (33%). An identical 79 percent of likely voters say the abortion issue is very (46%) or somewhat (33%) important. Although more than 70 percent in all three major political groups say candidate positions on abortion are at least somewhat important, Democrats (51%) are more likely than Republicans (38%) or independents (39%) to call it very important. Candidate positions on abortion are more important to women than men (54% to 38% very important) and are more likely to be considered very important by Latinos (53%), blacks (46%), and whites (43%) than by Asians (34%). “In thinking about the upcoming California governor's election in 2006, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on the issue of abortion?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Very important 46% 51% 38% 39% 34% 46% 53% 43% 46% Somewhat important 33 34 34 35 48 33 30 34 33 Not too important 16 11 24 22 13 14 12 19 17 Not at all important (volunteered) 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 Don't know 3 2 2 2 4 5 4 2 2 In the 2006 race for the U.S. Senate, 81 percent of residents say candidate positions on abortion are very (47%) or somewhat important (34%). Likely voters hold similar views on this issue. As with the governor’s race, Democrats are more likely than Republicans or independents to consider this issue very important, and Latinos (52%), blacks (51%), and whites (45%) are more concerned about this issue than Asians (38%). Women consider the abortion issue more important to the senate race than do men (55% to 39%). Whether or not Californians express moral or religious objections to abortion has no bearing on the importance they place on a gubernatorial or U.S. Senate candidate’s positions on abortion. Liberals are more likely than conservatives to say that a candidate’s position on abortion is very important in the governor’s race (56%, 47%) and the U.S. Senate race (58%, 47%). Evangelical Christians are more likely than others to say that this is a very important issue in the governor’s race (54%, 44%) and U.S. Senate race (53%, 45%). Among both those who would like the Supreme Court to make it more difficult to get abortions and those who want to make it easier to get abortions, majorities of adults say this issue is very important in the governor’s race and the U.S. Senate race. “In thinking about the upcoming California U.S. Senate election in 2006, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on the issue of abortion?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Very important 47% 56% 39% 41% 38% 51% 52% 45% 49% Somewhat important 34 30 34 37 47 29 35 33 32 Not too important 15 12 23 20 11 16 9 19 16 Not at all important (volunteered) 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 Don't know 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 2 -17 - December 2005 Resident Preferences Personal Preferences In thinking about their personal beliefs, more Californians have religious or moral objections to abortion (40%) than to having a child without being married (30%), emergency contraception (19%), or to contraceptives in general (10%). Abortion is also the most divisive issue of the four—half of Republicans (51%) object to abortion, compared to only 28 percent of Democrats and 39 percent of independents. Half of Asians (52%) and Latinos (50%) say they have religious or moral objections to abortion, compared to one in three whites (34%) and blacks (36%). A majority of Asians (52%) also object to having children outside of marriage. As far as emergency contraception goes, fewer than three in 10 in any political party, racial/ethnic group, or age category have religious or moral objections. And fewer than one in four in any political party, racial/ethnic group, or age category objects to the use of contraceptives in general. “In thinking about your personal beliefs, please tell me if you have religious or moral objections to any of the following. How about …” Percent saying “yes” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ Abortion, regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal 40% 52% 36% 50% 34% 39% 42% 38% Having a child without being married 30 52 35 28 28 23 30 38 Emergency contraception 19 29 13 25 15 16 23 17 Contraceptives ... that is, to using a condom, taking the pill, or using some other method of birth control 10 22 5 16 6 8 10 12 In thinking about their personal preferences on population issues, nearly seven in 10 Californians say their ideal number for a family is to have two (44%) or three (25%) children, while 11 percent say four or more children. Only 3 percent said one or none. Nationwide, a CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll conducted in 2004 found similar views—three in four Americans said two (49%) or three (26%) children were the ideal number, with 12 percent saying four or more children. In California, half of Asians and whites (50% each) say two children is the ideal family size, while fewer blacks (37%) or Latinos (36%) agree. Half of Latinos (54%) say either three or more children, compared to 41 percent of blacks, 38 percent of Asians, and 26 percent of whites. Younger adults are more likely to favor larger family sizes, while those with higher education and higher incomes are more inclined to say two children are ideal. “In your opinion, what do you think is the ideal number of children for a family to have?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ None 1% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% One 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 Two 44 50 37 36 50 40 44 48 Three 25 27 26 38 19 33 21 20 Four or more 11 11 15 16 7 13 9 9 Other answer 10 3 12 4 12 5 12 12 Don't know 7 6 7 3 9 5 11 8 Survey Methodology The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, research director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance in research and writing from Sonja Petek, project manager for this survey, and survey research associates Dean Bonner, Lunna Lopes, and Jennifer Paluch. The survey was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation as part of a three-year grant on education, environment, and population issues. We benefited from discussions with Hewlett program staff and their grantees and with other organizations, including the Kaiser Family Foundation; however, the survey methods, questions, and content of the report were determined solely by Mark Baldassare. The findings of this survey are based on a telephone survey of 2,504 California adult residents interviewed between November 30th and December 13th 2005. Interviewing took place mostly on weekday and weekend evenings, using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All telephone exchanges in California were eligible for calling. Telephone numbers in the survey sample were called up to six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing by using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Interviews took an average of 20 minutes to complete. Interviewing was conducted in English, Spanish, Korean, Vietnamese, or Chinese (Mandarin or Cantonese). We chose these languages because Spanish is the dominant language among non-English speaking adults in California and is followed in prevalence by the three Asian languages noted above. Accent on Languages translated the survey into Spanish with the assistance of Renatta DeFever. Schulman, Ronca & Bucuvalas, Inc. translated the survey into Korean, Vietnamese, and Chinese and conducted the telephone interviewing. We used recent U.S. Census and state figures to compare the demographic characteristics of the survey sample with characteristics of California’s adult population. The survey sample was closely comparable to the census and state figures. The survey data in this report were statistically weighted to account for any demographic differences. The sampling error for the total sample of 2,504 adults is +/- 2 percent at the 95 percent confidence level. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 2 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for subgroups is larger. The sampling error for the 1,816 registered voters is +/- 2.5 percent. The sampling error for the 1,352 likely voters is +/- 3 percent. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. Throughout the report, we refer to five geographic regions. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “SF Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” includes Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. These five regions represent the major population centers of the state, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. We present specific results for respondents in the four self-identified racial/ethnic groups of Asian, black, Latino, and non-Hispanic white. We also compare the opinions of registered Democrats, Republicans, and independents. The “independents” category includes those who are registered to vote as “decline to state.” We also include the responses of “likely voters”— those who are the most likely to vote in the state’s elections. We use earlier PPIC Statewide Surveys to analyze trends over time in California, and we compare responses to those in national surveys by CNN/USA Today/Gallup, the Kaiser Family Foundation, and the Pew Research Center. PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: SPECIAL SURVEY ON POPULATION NOVEMBER 30TH – DECEMBER 13TH, 2005 2,504 CALIFORNIA ADULT RESIDENTS: ENGLISH, SPANISH, CHINESE, KOREAN, AND VIETNAMESE MARGIN OF ERROR +/-2% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE 1. First, thinking about the state as a whole, what do you think is the most important issue facing people in California today? [code, don’t read] 20% economy, jobs, unemployment 12 education, schools, teachers 9 immigration, illegal immigration 6 crime, gangs, drugs 6 state budget, deficit, state spending 5 health care, health costs, health insurance 5 housing costs, housing availability 3 gasoline prices 2 environment, pollution 2 traffic, transportation 21 other (specify) 9 don’t know 2. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Arnold Schwarzenegger is handling his job as governor of California? 32% approve 58 disapprove 10 don't know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California legislature is handling its job? 24% approve 54 disapprove 22 don't know 4. Do you think things in California are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? 29% right direction 60 wrong direction 11 don't know 5. Turning to economic conditions in California, do you think that during the next 12 months we will have good times financially or bad times? 41% good times 46 bad times 13 don't know 6. Changing topics, which of the following do you think is the single biggest factor that is causing the state's population to grow? [read rotated list] 53% immigration from other countries 18 migration from other states 12 children born to current residents 8 state and local policies 3 other (specify) 6 don't know 7. Between now and 2025, California's population is estimated to increase by 9 million people from 37 million to 46 million. On balance, do you think this population growth is a good thing or a bad thing or does it make no difference to you and your family? 12% good thing 55 bad thing 27 no difference 6 don't know 8. Next, we are interested in your opinions about the region or broader geographic area of California that you live in. How much of a problem is population growth in your region—is it a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem? 27% big problem 34 somewhat of a problem 37 not a problem 2 don't know 9. Thinking about the next 20 years, do you think that the population in your region will grow rapidly, grow slowly, stay about the same, or decline? 59% grow rapidly 23 grow slowly 12 stay about the same 2 decline 4 don't know I am going to read you a list of factors that may contribute to population growth in your region. For each one, please tell me if you think it contributes a lot, some, or not much to population growth. [rotate questions 10 to 13] 10. How about legal immigration from other countries? 26% a lot 40 some 30 not much 1 not at all (volunteered) 3 don't know 11. How about illegal immigration from other countries? 49% a lot 29 some 19 not much 1 not at all (volunteered) 2 don't know 12. How about migration from other states? 27% a lot 38 some 30 not much 1 not at all (volunteered) 4 don't know 13. How about births to residents? 27% a lot 44 some 25 not much 1 not at all (volunteered) 3 don't know I am now going to read you some factors that may contribute to the number of births to residents in your region. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not really a problem. [rotate questions 14 and 15] 14. How about unplanned pregnancies among adults? 18% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 45 not really a problem 5 don't know 15. How about unplanned pregnancies among teens? 41% big problem 33 somewhat of a problem 22 not really a problem 4 don't know 16. In the past few years, would you say that the teen pregnancy rate in your region has increased, decreased, or stayed the same? 38% increased 13 decreased 34 stayed the same 15 don't know 17. How important is access to birth control methods or contraceptives for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in your region—very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 71% very important 18 somewhat important 8 not too important 1 not at all important (volunteered) 2 don't know 18. Do you think that lower-income residents in your region are less likely than others to have access to birth control methods or contraceptives? 51% yes, less likely 41 no, not less likely 8 don't know 19. How much do you feel you know about the issue of birth control methods and contraceptives—a lot, some, or not much? 52% a lot 34 some 12 not much 1 nothing (volunteered) 1 don't know 20. How interested are you in learning more about the issue of birth control methods and contraceptives— very interested, somewhat interested, or not too interested? 15% very interested 23 somewhat interested 53 not too interested 7 not at all interested (volunteered) 2 don't know [rotate questions 21 and 22] 21. Do you favor or oppose the government providing funding to programs that provide lower-income residents with birth control methods or contraceptives? 80% favor 17 oppose 3 don't know 22. Do you favor or oppose the government providing funding to programs that provide teens with birth control methods or contraceptives? 76% favor 20 oppose 4 don't know 23. On another topic, how important do you think it is to have sex education as part of the curriculum in the local schools in your area—very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 75% very important 16 somewhat important 7 not too important 1 should not be taught at all (volunteered) 1 don't know 24. Is it your impression that when it comes to teaching sex education, the local schools in your area are doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough? 9% more than enough 33 just enough 36 not enough 1 not taught (volunteered) 21 don't know 25. Overall, how effective do you think sex education in schools is in helping teens avoid pregnancy—very effective, somewhat effective, not too effective, or not at all effective? 17% very effective 45 somewhat effective 21 not too effective 9 not at all effective 8 don't know 26. Overall, how effective do you think sex education in schools is in helping teens avoid getting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases—very effective, somewhat effective, not too effective, or not at all effective? 26% very effective 45 somewhat effective 15 not too effective 7 not at all effective 7 don't know Next, please tell me if you think the following are appropriate topics for middle school students—that is, grades 6, 7, and 8—or appropriate for high school students—grades 9 through 12—appropriate for both groups, or not appropriate for either group. 27a. How about how to use and where to get contraceptives? 4% appropriate for middle school students 35 appropriate for high school students 50 appropriate for both groups 9 not appropriate for either group 2 don't know 28. How about how to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases? 3% appropriate for middle school students 35 appropriate for high school students 54 appropriate for both groups 5 not appropriate for either group 3 don't know 29. Do you think sex education should be required in your local school district for middle school students, high school students, both, or neither? 4% middle school students 17 high school students 68 both 9 neither 1 it depends (volunteered) 1 don't know 30. Do you think that students in lower-income neighborhoods in your region are less likely than others to have exposure to sex education in their local schools? 36% yes, less likely 49 no, not less likely 15 don't know 31. Which of the following statements comes closer to your views? [rotate] (1) sex education programs should have abstaining from sexual activity as their only purpose; [or] (2) sex education programs should include abstaining from sexual activity and information on how to obtain and use condoms and contraceptives. 17% abstaining from sexual activity 78 abstaining and obtaining and using condoms and contraceptives 5 don't know -23 -December 2005 [questions 32a and 32b asked of a split sample of respondents] 32a. In general, who do you think should have the primary responsibility for deciding on the curriculum for sex education in public schools? [rotate list as a set, starting from either the top or the bottom; read list] 6% the federal government 12 the state government 11 school districts 15 local schools and teachers 49 parents 6 other answer (specify) 1 don't know 32b. In general, who do you think should have the primary responsibility for deciding on the curriculum for sex education in public schools? [rotate list as a set, starting from either the top or the bottom; read list] 9% the federal government 15 the state government 15 school districts 32 local schools and teachers 21 parents (volunteered) 4 other answer (specify) 4 don't know 33. How much do you feel that you know about the issues involving sex education—including the basics of human reproduction, abstinence, pregnancy prevention, and AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases—a lot, some, or not much? 61% a lot 29 some 8 not much 1 nothing (volunteered) 1 don't know 34. How interested are you in learning more about the issues involving sex education—very interested, somewhat interested, or not too interested? 21% very interested 32 somewhat interested 41 not too interested 5 not at all interested (volunteered) 1 don't know 35. On another topic, as you may know, emergency contraceptive pills are a higher dose of birth control pills that are taken after unprotected sexual intercourse. If taken within days of having sex, they greatly reduce the chance of pregnancy. Have you ever heard of emergency contraceptive pills, sometimes called morning after pills? 85% yes 15 no 36. To the best of your knowledge, can a woman in California get emergency contraception directly from a pharmacist without having to contact or visit her doctor first? 18% yes 46 no 36 don't know 37. Do you favor or oppose allowing women to get the morning-after pill, which prevents pregnancy, without a doctor's prescription? 58% favor 36 oppose 6 don't know 38. Changing topics, as you may know, George W. Bush has nominated Samuel Alito to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. Do you think the U.S. Senate should or should not confirm Alito's nomination to the Supreme Court? 34% should confirm 29 should not confirm 21 have not heard enough to have an opinion (volunteered) 16 don't know 39. Abortion is one issue the Supreme Court may rule on in the coming years. Please tell me how important this issue is to you personally—are court decisions on abortion very important, fairly important, not too important, or not at all important to you? 60% very important 23 fairly important 8 not too important 7 not at all important 2 don't know 40. In 1973, the Roe versus Wade decision established a woman's constitutional right to an abortion, at least in the first three months of pregnancy. Would you like to see the Supreme Court completely overturn the Roe versus Wade decision, or not? 22% yes, overturn Roe versus Wade 71 no, do not overturn Roe versus Wade 7 don't know 41. Would you like to see the Supreme Court make it harder to get an abortion than it is now, make it easier to get an abortion than it is now, or leave the ability to get an abortion the same as it is now? 28% harder 42. Regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal, do you think it would be a good thing to reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States, or don't you feel this way? 56% good thing to reduce the number of abortions 35 don't feel this way 9 don't know 43. Which of the following do you believe would be most effective in reducing the number of abortions in this country… [rotate] (1) enacting more restrictive abortion laws [or] (2) providing more access to contraception? 17 easier 50 same 5 don't know 20% enacting more restrictive abortion laws 66 providing more access to contraception 5 both 6 neither 3 don't know 44. In thinking about the upcoming California governor's election in 2006, how important to you are the candidates' positions on the issue of abortion—very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 46% very important 33 somewhat important 16 not too important 2 not at all important (volunteered) 3 don't know 45. In thinking about the upcoming California U.S. Senate election in 2006, how important to you are the candidates' positions on the issue of abortion—very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 47% very important 34 somewhat important 15 not too important 1 not at all important (volunteered) 3 don't know Next, in thinking about your personal beliefs, please tell me if you have religious or moral objections to any of the following: [rotate questions 46 to 48] 46. How about abortion, regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal? 40% yes, have religious or moral objections 58 no, no religious or moral objections 2 don't know 47. How about emergency contraception? 19% yes, have religious or moral objections 77 no, no religious or moral objections 4 don't know 48. How about contraceptives—that is, to using a condom, taking the pill, or using some other method of birth control? 10% yes, have religious or moral objections 88 no, no religious or moral objections 2 don't know 49. How about having a child without being married? 30% yes, have religious or moral objections 68 no, no religious or moral objections 2 don't know 50. In your opinion, what do you think is the ideal number of children for a family to have? 1% none 2 one 44 two 25 three 11 four or more 10 other answer (specify) 7 don’t know -25 -December 2005 51. Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics—a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none? 29% great deal 36 fair amount 26 only a little 9 none 52. On another topic, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote? 73% yes 27 no [skip to q.54a] 53. Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or as an independent? 43% Democrat [skip to q.54b] 34 Republican [skip to q.54c] 18 independent [ask q.54a] 5 another party [skip to q.55] 54a. Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? 23% Republican Party 41 Democratic Party 25 neither (volunteered) 11 don’t know [go to q.55] 54b. Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 53% strong 43 not very strong 4 don’t know [go to q.55] 54c. Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 52% strong 44 not very strong 4 don’t know 55. How often would you say you vote—always, nearly always, part of the time, seldom, or never? 50% always 18 nearly always 9 part of the time 4 seldom 19 never 56. Would you consider yourself to be politically … [rotate list as a set, starting from either the top or the bottom; read list] 12% very liberal 20 somewhat liberal 31 middle-of-the-road 22 somewhat conservative 10 very conservative 5 don’t know [D1-D12: background and demographic questions] PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY Advisory Committee Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Paul Brest President The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Mollyann Brodie Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Director Institute of Governmental Studies University of California, Berkeley James E. Canales President The James Irvine Foundation Matthew K. Fong President Strategic Advisory Group William Hauck President California Business Roundtable Dennis A. Hunt Vice President Communications and Public Affairs The California Endowment Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Publisher and CEO La Opinión Donna Lucas Deputy Chief of Staff Office of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Dan Rosenheim News Director KPIX-TV Carol Stogsdill President Stogsdill Consulting Cathy Taylor Vice President and Editorial Commentary Director Orange County Register Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA Board of Directors Thomas C. Sutton, Chair Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Pacific Life Insurance Company Linda Griego President and Chief Executive Officer Griego Enterprises, Inc. Edward K. Hamilton Chairman Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. Gary K. Hart Founder Institute for Education Reform California State University, Sacramento Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities David W. Lyon President and Chief Executive Officer Public Policy Institute of California Advisory Council Clifford W. Graves General Manager Community Development Department City of Los Angeles Elizabeth G. Hill Legislative Analyst State of California Hilary W. Hoynes Associate Professor Department of Economics University of California, Davis Andrés E. Jiménez Director California Policy Research Center University of California Office of the President Norman R. King Executive Director San Bernardino Associated Governments Cheryl White Mason Vice-President Litigation Legal Department Hospital Corporation of America Arjay Miller Dean Emeritus Graduate School of Business Stanford University Ki Suh Park Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center Daniel A. Mazmanian School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Dean Misczynski Director California Research Bureau Rudolf Nothenberg Chief Administrative Officer (Retired) City and County of San Francisco Manuel Pastor Professor, Latin American & Latino Studies University of California, Santa Cruz Peter Schrag Contributing Editor The Sacramento Bee James P. Smith Senior Economist RAND Corporation PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 O San Francisco, California 94111 Phone: (415) 291-4400 O Fax: (415) 291-4401 www.ppic.org O info@ppic.org" } ["___content":protected]=> string(104) "

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Mark Baldassare Research Director & Survey Director The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) is a private operating foundation established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Institute is dedicated to improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research. PPIC’s research agenda focuses on three program areas: population, economy, and governance and public finance. Studies within these programs are examining the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns: the California economy, education, employment and income, immigration, infrastructure and urban growth, poverty and welfare, state and local finance, and the well-being of children and families. PPIC was created because three concerned citizens – William R. Hewlett, Roger W. Heyns, and Arjay Miller – recognized the need for linking objective research to the realities of California public policy. Their goal was to help the state’s leaders better understand the intricacies and implications of contemporary issues and make informed public policy decisions when confronted with challenges in the future. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. David W. Lyon is founding President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Thomas C. Sutton is Chair of the Board of Directors. Public Policy Institute of California 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 • San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone: (415) 291-4400 • Fax: (415) 291-4401 info@ppic.org • www.ppic.org Preface The PPIC Statewide Survey series provides policymakers, the media, and the general public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. Inaugurated in April 1998, the survey series has generated a database that includes the responses of more than 128,000 Californians. This special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey on California’s population is the third in a three-year survey series made possible with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The intent of this special series is to inform state, local, and federal policymakers, encourage discussion, and raise public awareness about a variety of education, environment, and population issues facing the state. The current survey focuses in particular on public opinion about California’s population, which is expected to grow by 9 million residents, from about 37 million today to 46 million by the year 2025. Previous PPIC surveys have focused on the role of immigration in California’s future growth, although the major contributor to the population increase is expected to be the birth rate. The number of California births has been about 500,000 per year in the 2000s and is projected to be at or above that annual number for the next decade. While fertility rates have recently declined in all racial/ethnic groups, and especially among Latinos, relatively small changes in future fertility rates could have major implications for population growth. In this survey, we seek to understand the perceptions, attitudes, and policy preferences of California’s diverse racial/ethnic groups and geographic regions on population issues and relevant public policies, such as access to birth control and sex education. This special edition presents the responses of 2,504 adult residents throughout the state. With a large sample size and multilingual interviewing, we examine in detail the public’s perceptions, attitudes, and preferences on population issues and relevant public policies. Since population issues have been among the top state and national concerns, some of the questions are repeated from earlier PPIC Statewide Surveys, and we also compare the responses of Californians to those in national surveys. More specifically, we examine the following issues: • The public’s perceptions of California’s population growth and its potential effects, perceptions of regional population increases and the relative contributions of births to future growth, the extent to which unplanned pregnancies are considered a regional problem, the importance placed on access to birth control, and the public’s knowledge about and interest in birth control and contraceptives. • Resident attitudes about the importance of sex education and the adequacy of efforts in public schools, the effectiveness of sex education in reducing pregnancies, appropriate topics for sex education in schools, access to sex education, the preferred focus of sex education programs, and knowledge about and interest in learning more about the issues involving sex education. • Preferences regarding government funding for programs that provide birth control, access to emergency contraception and abortion, importance of Supreme Court and candidates’ positions on abortion, religious and moral objections to abortion, birth control, emergency contraceptives, and other contraceptives, having children outside of marriage, and preferences regarding the ideal number of children for a family to have. • Variations in residents perceptions, attitudes, and policy preferences across the five major regions of the state (Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County, the Inland Empire, and the Orange/San Diego regions), between Asians, blacks, Latinos, and non-Hispanic whites, and across socioeconomic, age, family status, gender, religious, and political groups. Copies of this report may be ordered by e-mail (order@ppic.org) or phone (415-291-4400). Copies of this and earlier reports are posted on the publications page of the PPIC web site (www.ppic.org). For questions about the survey, please contact survey@ppic.org. Contents Preface i Press Release v Resident Perceptions 1 Resident Attitudes 7 Resident Preferences 13 Survey Methodology 19 Survey Questions and Results 21 Survey Advisory Committee 27 Press Release Para ver este comunicado de prensa en español, por favor visite nuestra página de internet: http://www.ppic.org/main/pressreleaseindex.asp SPECIAL SURVEY ON POPULATION LET’S TALK ABOUT SEX: CALIFORNIANS SAY EDUCATION, ACCESS TO BIRTH CONTROL, CURB SOCIAL ILLS Widespread Concern About Population Growth, But Little Knowledge About Its Causes SAN FRANCISCO, California, January 5, 2006 — From evangelical Christians to liberal Democrats, Californians find common ground on controversial issues related to sex education, birth control, and abortion, according to a new survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) with funding from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. But on a number of topics where knowledge is prized, residents also reveal a loose grasp of the facts. At a time when abstinence-only programs are in vogue at the federal level, the vast majority of Californians (78%) – including Latinos (74%) and evangelical Christians (66%) – prefer sex education programs that also teach children about obtaining and using contraceptives. One explanation for the strong support: Residents believe deterrence works. Most say sex education in schools is at least somewhat effective in helping teens avoid pregnancy (62%) and sexually transmitted diseases (71%), with public school parents even more likely to hold these views than the general public. And an overwhelming majority of state residents (89%) believe that access to contraception is very (71%) or somewhat important (18%) for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in their region. As a result, most Californians say sex education is a very important part of school curriculum (75%) and favor government funding for programs that provide teens with birth control options (76%). “Despite the perception that ideological and political attitudes make for deep divisions over issues such as sex education, we find just the opposite,” says statewide survey director Mark Baldassare. “The widespread support for sex education programs seems to be fueled by belief in their efficacy.” So how early should sex education in the schools begin? A strong majority of Californians (68%) believe that their local school districts should require such programs in both middle and high schools. Half (50%) say it is appropriate to teach middle and high school students about how to use and where to get contraceptives, and 54 percent advocate teaching both groups about how to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Interestingly, Latinos are more likely than Asians to support starting early with programs related to contraception (56% to 39%) and sexually transmitted diseases (58% to 44%). While residents are nearly universal in their support for sex education and birth control access, not all feel that these programs are distributed equitably: About one in three Californians (36%) believes that lower-income neighborhoods are less likely than other neighborhoods to have sex education in their local schools, and half (51%) also say that lower-income residents are less likely than others to have access to birth control methods or contraception. These views may help fuel the perception that more could be done to provide information about and access to contraception and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Currently, fewer than one in 10 Californians thinks their local public schools are doing more than enough when it comes to teaching sex education, and others are roughly divided between saying schools are doing just enough or not enough (33% to 36%). But however lacking they find their schools in this regard, residents are most comfortable with decisions about sex education being made at the local level – by local schools and teachers (32%) or by parents (21%). The least popular option? Putting the federal government in charge (9%). Press Release Interest in Population Issues High, but Knowledge Needs Improvement Californians are great believers in access to contraception and sex education, but how much do they really know about the topics? A slim majority (52%) report that they are highly informed about issues regarding birth control methods and contraceptives, but this number masks significant differences across racial and ethnic groups. For example, only 24 percent of Asians and 38 percent of Latinos say they know a lot about these issues. When it comes to sex education, a similar pattern holds: 61 percent of adults say they know a lot about the issues involving sex education – including the basics of human reproduction, abstinence, pregnancy prevention, and sexually transmitted diseases – while only 38 percent of Asians and 42 percent of Latinos express this view. Even though majorities of Californians report a high level of knowledge, significant numbers say they are interested in learning more about birth control (38%) and sex education (53%). Latinos are the most likely to express interest in learning more about these topics. State residents reveal some confusion when it comes to a more controversial aspect of birth control – emergency contraception. Although an overwhelming majority of Californians today (85%) say they have heard of emergency contraceptive pills – sometimes called “morning-after” pills – and a majority (58%) favor allowing women to have access to these pills without a doctor’s prescription, only 18 percent are aware that pharmacists can provide emergency contraception in California today without a prescription. And on the macro level, Californians also lack good information about the major drivers of population growth in the state. California’s population is predicted to increase by 9 million residents in the next 20 years. Despite expressing a great deal of angst about the trend – 55 percent say this population growth is a bad thing for themselves and their families – most residents fail to identify the most significant cause of this growth. While births to current residents are the single biggest contributor to the state’s population growth, most state residents (53%) believe immigration is responsible. If Californians’ preferences for number of children remain constant, births to residents are likely to remain the key source of population growth. Thirty-six percent of Californians – and 54 percent of Latinos – say three or more is the ideal number of children for a family to have. Californians Concerned, Unified on Abortion Issues Abortion politics will be central in early 2006 as the Supreme Court considers new challenges to abortion laws and the campaign season begins in earnest. Most Californians (60%) say the Supreme Court’s decisions on abortion are very important to them personally. Given questions about Samuel Alito’s views on abortion, 34 percent of Californian’s currently say that his appointment to the Supreme Court should be confirmed, 29 percent say it should not, and 37 percent are undecided. Where do Californians stand on the issue of overturning Roe v. Wade? Seven in 10 (71%) want the decision to hold, while 22 percent want to overturn it. Majorities of all major racial and ethnic groups support maintaining the status quo, but Latinos (32%) and Asians (25%) are more likely than blacks (19%) and whites (17%) to want to overturn the decision. Among evangelical Christians, 42 percent want the ruling reversed and 52 percent do not. Of the 40 percent of Californians who say they have moral objections to abortion, 38 percent want the Supreme Court to overturn the abortion decision and 54 percent do not. Although most Californians do not want to see Roe v. Wade overturned, a majority of residents (56%) think it would be a good thing to reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States. How should this be accomplished? Residents say that providing greater access to contraception (66%) would be more effective than enacting more restrictive abortion laws (20%). When it comes to electoral politics, abortion is also a pivotal issue for many voters. As Californians look ahead to the 2006 races for governor and U.S. senator, eight in 10 say the candidates’ positions on the issue of abortion are very or somewhat important to them personally. More Key Findings • Residents Unaware of Drop in Teen Pregnancy Rate (page 4) Although statistics indicate that teen pregnancy rates have declined across the state, few residents (13%) are aware of this. In fact, 72 percent believe they have increased (38%) or stayed the same (34%). And 74 percent believe unplanned pregnancy among teens is a problem in their region. Press Release • Ratings for Governor, Legislature Remain Low (page 21) Majorities of state residents (58%) and likely voters (53%) say they disapprove of the way Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger is handling his job. The state legislature also receives low marks, with 54 percent of Californians and 60 percent of likely voters disapproving of its performance. • Californians: State Headed in Wrong Direction (page 21) During the height of the holiday shopping season, state residents express concern about their financial prospects in 2006: More Californians expect bad times financially than good times in the coming year (46% to 41%). In keeping with this gloomy outlook, a strong majority (60%) also believe the state is headed in the wrong direction. About the Survey This survey on population – made possible by funding from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation – is a special edition of the PPIC Statewide Survey. This is the third survey in a three-year series intended to raise public awareness, inform decisionmakers, and stimulate public discussions about a variety of education, environment, and population issues facing California. Findings of this survey are based on a telephone survey of 2,504 California adult residents interviewed between November 30th and December 13th, 2005. Interviews were conducted in English, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, or Vietnamese. The sampling error for the total sample is +/- 2%. The sampling error for subgroups is larger. For more information on methodology, see page 19. Mark Baldassare is research director at PPIC, where he holds the Arjay and Frances Fearing Miller Chair in Public Policy. He is founder of the PPIC Statewide Survey, which he has directed since 1998. His recent book, A California State of Mind: The Conflicted Voter in a Changing World, is available at www.ppic.org. PPIC is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to improving public policy through objective, nonpartisan research on the economic, social, and political issues that affect Californians. The institute was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. This report will appear on PPIC’s website (www.ppic.org) on January 5. ### Resident Perceptions State Population Growth A majority of Californians (53%) say that immigration from other countries is the single biggest factor in the state’s population growth, while 12 percent of Californians name births to residents as the biggest factor. These perceptions are similar to those expressed in PPIC’s May 2001 survey, in which 55 percent of Californians named immigration as the biggest growth factor and 8 percent named births to state residents. Demographic statistics indicate that births to California residents are the biggest factor in the state’s population growth, and in recent years almost half of all births in the state have been to immigrant women. Today, a majority of residents across the state’s major regions, income categories, and education groups say immigration from other countries is the single biggest factor in California’s population growth. Blacks and whites (61% each) are more likely than Asians (53%) and Latinos (38%) to say this. Republicans (66%) are more likely than Democrats (55%) and independents (51%) to hold this view. “Which of the following do you think is the single biggest factor that is causing the state's population to grow?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Immigration from other countries 53% 58% 54% 54% 49% 55% 53% 61% 38% 61% Migration from other states 18 15 19 14 22 19 21 18 16 19 Children born to current residents 12 10 14 12 10 12 10 11 15 10 State and local policies 8 12 5 10 9 5 9 4 19 3 Other 3 2 3 2 4 1 3 2 2 3 Don't know 6 3 5 8 6 8 4 4 10 4 California’s population is predicted by the state government’s demographers to increase by nine million residents in the next 20 years. A majority of Californians in all regions believe that this increase will be a bad thing for themselves and their families. Solid majorities of whites (66%) and blacks (58%) hold this view, compared to less than half of Asians (47%) and Latinos (38%). The perception that this growth will be a bad thing increases with age, education, and income, and is higher among U.S. born residents than immigrants, homeowners than renters, and those without children than those with children. “Between now and 2025, California's population is estimated to increase by 9 million people from 37 million to 46 million. On balance, do you think this population growth is a good thing or a bad thing or does it make no difference to you and your family?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Good thing 12% 10% 13% 11% 16% 12% 17% 10% 16% 10% Bad thing 55 55 56 57 52 56 47 58 38 66 No difference 27 30 27 28 25 28 30 31 40 20 Don't know 6 5 4 4 7 4 6 1 6 4 Resident Perceptions Regional Population Growth When asked how much of a problem population growth is in their own region of the state, six in 10 Californians say it is a big problem (27%) or somewhat of a problem (34%). Thirty-seven percent say that it is not a problem. Regions where residents cite population growth as a big problem are those with the fastest growth rates. Residents of the San Francisco Bay Area are less likely than others to say that population growth is a big problem. Republicans (32%) are similar to Democrats (28%) and independents (29%) in the perception that population growth in their region is a big problem, and there are no differences between liberals, moderates, and conservatives in this perception. There are, however, racial/ethnic differences: Whites (32%) and blacks (26%) are more likely than Latinos (18%) and Asians (17%) to see growth in their region as a big problem. Moreover, U.S. born residents are more likely than immigrants to say this. The percentage of residents who hold this view tends to increase with age, education, homeownership, income, and length of time at current residence. “How much of a problem is population growth in your region?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Big problem 27% 28% 22% 30% 29% 34% 17% 26% 18% 32% Somewhat of a problem 34 36 36 30 36 32 32 28 29 38 Not a problem 37 34 40 38 34 31 47 43 51 28 Don't know 2 2 2 2 1 3 4 3 2 2 A majority of Californians (59%) believe that the population in their region of the state will grow rapidly within the next 20 years. This number marks a small decrease from the results of PPIC’s June 2004 survey, in which 65 percent of state residents held this perception. Today, residents in the Inland Empire (73%) are the most likely to say that the population in their region will grow rapidly. Those in the San Francisco Bay Area (49%) are the least likely to have this perception. The majority of Republicans (64%), Democrats (61%), and independents (56%) say that the population in their region will grow rapidly. Blacks (69%) are more likely than whites (60%), Latinos (58%), and Asians (42%) to say so. Majorities of Californians in all age, education, and income groups believe that the population in their region will grow rapidly in the next 20 years. “Thinking about the next 20 years, do you think that the population in your region will grow rapidly, grow slowly, stay about the same, or decline?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Grow rapidly 59% 72% 49% 57% 62% 73% 42% 69% 58% 60% Grow slowly 23 16 32 23 18 14 38 10 23 23 Stay about the same 12 7 14 14 14 10 16 17 12 12 Decline 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 Don't know 4 3 3 4 3 2 3 2 4 3 Resident Perceptions Contributors to Population Growth What factors do Californians perceive as contributing to population growth in the region where they live? About half of state residents (49%) believe that illegal immigration contributes a lot. Far fewer residents say that factors such as legal immigration from other countries (26%), migration from other states (27%), and births to residents (27%) contribute a lot. As noted earlier, births to residents are in fact the greatest contributor to the state’s population growth, and almost half of the births in recent years have been to immigrant women. There are regional differences in the perception of factors believed to contribute to population growth. Majorities of residents in the Inland Empire, Los Angeles (56% each), and Orange/San Diego Counties (52%) say illegal immigration is contributing a lot to growth. Fewer residents have this view in the Central Valley (47%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (39%). Among racial/ethnic groups, about half of blacks (54%) and whites (50%) say illegal immigration contributes a lot; fewer Latinos (47%) and Asians (41%) feel this way. Differences are also found among Republicans and Democrats (62%, 46%). “I am going to read you a list of factors that may contribute to population growth in your region. For each one, please tell me if you think it contributes a lot, some, or not much to population growth. How about…?” Percent all adults Illegal immigration from other countries Legal immigration from other countries Migration from other states Births to residents A lot 49% 26% 27% 27% Some 29 40 38 44 Not much 19 30 30 25 Not at all (volunteered) 1 1 1 1 Don't know 2 3 4 3 One in four Californians say that births to state residents contribute a lot to their region’s population growth. A similar proportion says that this factor has little effect. The perception that births contribute a lot to regional population growth is highest among younger, less educated, and less affluent adults than others. Some regional differences and racial/ethnic differences in this perception also exist. Residents in Los Angeles (31%) and the Central Valley (30%) are more likely than others to say births contribute a lot to growth. Latinos and blacks are more likely than whites and Asians to hold this perception. Moreover, adults with children are about as likely as adults without children to hold this view. “How about births to residents?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites A lot 27% 30% 21% 31% 25% 27% 15% 37% 37% 21% Some 44 42 49 42 45 45 45 33 36 50 Not much 25 24 26 24 25 22 32 26 21 26 Not at all (volunteered) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 Don't know 3 3 3 2 4 5 7 4 5 2 -3 - December 2005 Resident Perceptions Unplanned Teen Pregnancies Although births to residents are not seen by many respondents as a major factor in population growth, three in four Californians (74%) say that unplanned teen pregnancies are a big problem (41%) or somewhat of a problem (33%) in their region. Fewer Californians (50%) say that unplanned pregnancies among adults are a big problem (18%) or somewhat of a problem (32%), and 45 percent say this issue is not really a regional problem. The perception that unplanned teen pregnancies are a problem is more widely held in Los Angeles, the Central Valley, and the Inland Empire than it is in the San Francisco Bay Area and Orange/San Diego Counties. Among racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (63%) are the most likely have this perception, followed by blacks (47%), whites (30%), and Asians (26%). Concerns are higher among residents with children than those without, and younger, lower-income, and less educated residents than others. “I am now going to read you some factors that may contribute to the number of births to residents in your region. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not really a problem. How about unplanned pregnancies among teens?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Big problem 41% 46% 31% 48% 34% 45% 26% 47% 63% 30% Somewhat of a problem 33 31 36 29 36 37 34 30 22 40 Not really a problem 22 19 29 19 23 12 26 22 12 26 Don't know 4 4 4 4 7 6 14 1 3 4 Few residents (13%) perceive a decrease in teen pregnancy in their region, while 38 percent say there has been an increase in the past few years. Demographic statistics indicate that teen pregnancy rates have declined across the state. Residents in the Inland Empire (46%), Los Angeles (42%), and the Central Valley (41%) are most likely to say teen pregnancy rates in their region have increased; residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (27%) and Orange/San Diego Counties (36%) are least likely to say so. Racial/ethnic differences in perceptions also vary: Fewer Asians (22%) and whites (27%) say rates of teen pregnancy have increased in their regions than Latinos (59%) and blacks (44%). Residents with children are more likely to cite an increase than are residents without children. Immigrants, younger adults, those without any college education, and residents with household incomes under $40,000 are all more likely than other Californians to say that rates of teen pregnancy in their region have increased. “In the past few years, would you say that the teen pregnancy rate in your region has increased, decreased, or stayed the same?” All Adults Central Valley SF Bay Area Region Los Angeles Orange/San Diego Inland Empire Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Increased 38% 41% 27% 42% 36% 46% 22% 44% 59% 27% Decreased 13 10 17 13 13 8 7 8 8 17 Stayed the same 34 35 38 29 35 32 40 34 27 37 Don't know 15 14 18 16 16 14 31 14 6 19 Resident Perceptions Access to Birth Control Californians overwhelmingly agree that access to birth control methods or contraception is very important (71%) for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in their region. Solid majorities of adults, registered voters, likely voters, and residents in all regions share this perception. Across political groups, Democrats (78%) and liberals (84%) are more likely than Republicans (55%) and conservatives (59%) to say that birth control access is very important for reducing unplanned pregnancies. Evangelical Christians (65%) are less likely than others (73%) to hold this view. Still, majorities in all of these diverse political and religious groups say that access to birth control methods or contraceptives is very important for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in their region. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos and blacks are the most likely to say that access to birth control methods is very important for reducing unplanned pregnancies, though a majority of Asians and whites agree. Although this perception is held by a strong majority, it is lower among older, more educated, and wealthier Californians. However, it is somewhat higher among women (76%) than men (66%). “How important is access to birth control methods or contraceptives for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in your region?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ Very important 71% 53% 74% 79% 69% 76% 72% 65% Somewhat important 18 28 14 13 19 16 17 21 Not too important 8 11 9 6 8 7 8 9 Not at all important (volunteered) 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Don't know 2 8 2 2 4 1 3 4 While strong majorities of Californians say access to birth control methods or contraceptives is important to reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies in their region, a slim majority also believes that birth control methods or contraceptives are not equally accessible to all residents in their part of the state. Across all racial/ethnic groups, about half of California residents agree that lower-income residents are less likely than others to have access to birth control methods or contraceptives. There are also no differences across income groups and education categories on this issue. Liberals hold this perception more than conservatives (62%, 46%), and Democrats more than Republicans (59%, 44%). “Do you think that lower-income residents in your region are less likely than others to have access to birth control methods or contraceptives?” Race/Ethnicity Household Income All Adults Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Under $40,000 $40,000 to $79,999- $80,000 or more Yes, less likely 51% 48% 49% 53% 52% 49% 53% 53% No, not less likely 41 35 45 40 41 40 40 42 Don't know 8 17 6 7 7 11 7 5 -5 - December 2005 Resident Perceptions Knowledge and Interest in Birth Control A majority of Californians (52%) say that they are highly informed about issues regarding birth control methods and contraceptives, while only 12 percent report that they don’t know much about this subject. Across the state’s regions about half of adults say they know a lot about these issues. There are strong racial and ethnic differences in perceived knowledge. Solid majorities of blacks (68%) and whites (60%) report that they know a lot, but Latinos (38%) and Asians (24%) are less likely to say this. Women report higher levels of knowledge than men do (56%, 46%). Immigrants, adults with no college education, and those living in lower-income households are among the least likely to say that they know a lot about these issues. By contrast, solid majorities of U.S.-born residents, upper-income residents, and college graduates say they know a lot. “How much do you feel you know about the issue of birth control methods and contraceptives?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites High School Education Some College College Graduate A lot 52% 24% 68% 38% 60% 38% 57% 62% Some 34 48 22 43 29 39 34 30 Not much 12 23 9 17 9 20 8 8 Nothing (volunteered) 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 Don't know 1 4 0 1 2 2 0 0 Even though a majority of Californians report that they know a lot about birth control issues, about four in 10 adults are very interested (15%) or somewhat interested (23%) in learning more. Six in 10 adults are not really interested in learning more about this subject. Among racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (59%) are much more interested than whites (26%) in learning more. As expected, interest is much higher among those under 35 than among those 55 and older (54%, 25%). Interest is also greater among lower-income than upper-income Californians and among immigrants than U.S.-born residents. There is some regional variation in interest, with residents in Los Angeles (42%) more likely to be at least somewhat interested in learning more, and residents in Orange/San Diego Counties expressing the least interest (36%). Residents with children are more likely than residents without children to be at least somewhat interested in learning more about this topic, while interest is similar among women and men. “How interested are you in learning more about the issue of birth control methods and contraceptives?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ Very interested 15% 10% 21% 29% 7% 24% 13% 8% Somewhat interested 23 32 21 30 19 30 22 17 Not too interested 53 49 49 35 65 41 58 60 Not at all interested (volunteered) 7 7 9 4 9 4 6 13 Don't know 2 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 Resident Attitudes Importance of Sex Education How committed are Californians to sex education in public schools? Seventy-five percent of all adults and 82 percent of parents with public school children say that it is very important for sex education to be part of the curriculum. In comparison, 69 percent of Americans rated sex education in the curriculum as very important in a 2003 national survey conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation. Sex education is rated as a very important part of the curriculum across regions of the state and demographic groups. This belief is strong among both men and women, solid majorities of adults across political parties and ideological groups, and among evangelical Christians and others. It is somewhat stronger among Latinos and blacks than among whites and Asians, and among younger, less-educated, and lower-income residents. “How important do you think it is to have sex education as part of the curriculum in the local schools in your area?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Very important 75% 74% 82% 83% 71% 82% Somewhat important 16 20 12 13 17 13 Not too important 7 4 3 3 9 5 Should not be taught at all (volunteered) 1 0 2 0 2 0 Don't know 1 2 1 1 1 0 Fewer than one in 10 Californians think their local schools are doing more than enough when it comes to teaching sex education. Others are roughly divided between saying schools are doing just enough or not enough (33%, 36%), and 21 percent say they don’t know how schools are doing in this regard. Opinion varies among public school parents: 38 percent think the local schools are not doing enough, 41 percent say they are doing just enough, and 11 percent say they are doing more than enough. Blacks and Latinos are more likely than whites and Asians, and younger residents are more likely than older adults, to say their local schools are not doing enough. Relatively few adults in any age, education, gender, income, political, or religious group say the local schools are doing more than enough in this area. “Is it your impression that when it comes to teaching sex education, the local schools in your area are doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents More than enough 9% 6% 5% 8% 11% 11% Just enough 33 38 31 40 30 41 Not enough 36 27 49 41 33 38 Not taught (volunteered) 1 0 1 0 1 0 Don't know 21 29 14 11 25 10 Resident Attitudes Effectiveness of Sex Education Does sex education make a difference? Six in ten residents believe that sex education in schools is either very effective (17%) or somewhat effective (45%) in helping teens avoid pregnancy; three in 10 believe it is not too effective (21%) or not at all effective (9%). In a 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation, a similar 62 percent of Americans described sex education as effective for this purpose. Among public school parents, 69 percent believe sex education is very (21%) or somewhat (48%) effective in helping teens avoid pregnancy. Belief in the efficacy of sex education for this purpose is strong across political, ideological, and demographic groups. Majorities of Republicans and Democrats, liberals and conservatives, and evangelical Christians and others, all say that sex education is very or somewhat effective in preventing teen pregnancy. Asians (76%) and Latinos (65%) are more likely than blacks (61%) and whites (62%) to say it is very effective or somewhat effective for this purpose. Although attitudes do not vary much by education or income, younger adults are somewhat more likely than older adults to believe that sex education is effective in helping teens avoid pregnancy. “Overall, how effective do you think sex education in schools is in helping teens avoid pregnancy?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Very effective 17% 29% 22% 23% 13% 21% Somewhat effective 45 47 39 42 49 48 Not too effective 21 9 26 20 22 19 Not at all effective 9 6 9 9 9 8 Don't know 8 9 4 6 7 4 Californians are even more likely to say that sex education in schools helps teens to avoid getting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Seventy-one percent believe that sex education is very (26%) or somewhat effective (45%) for this purpose. In a 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation, a similar 68 percent described sex education in schools as effective in preventing disease. In California, this attitude is widely shared across racial/ethnic groups, regions, political parties, ideological groups, religious groups, and demographic categories. However, younger adults are more likely than older adults to believe in the effectiveness of sex education in helping teens avoid getting sexually transmitted diseases. “Overall, how effective do you think sex education in schools is in helping teens avoid getting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Very effective 26% 47% 29% 31% 20% 32% Somewhat effective 45 34 41 43 50 45 Not too effective 15 9 19 13 15 14 Not at all effective 7 1 8 7 7 6 Don't know 7 9 3 6 8 3 Resident Attitudes Access to Sex Education How early should sex education in the schools begin? Strong majorities of Californians say their local school districts should require sex education in both middle schools and high schools. Although 17 percent of adults believe it should be required only in high school, 68 percent say that it should be required at both levels. Only 9 percent say that it shouldn’t be required at either level. Among the parents of public school children, 72 percent believe that sex education should occur at both the middle school and high school levels; 6 percent say it should not be required at all. Across racial/ethnic groups and regions, more than six in 10 adults say that local school districts should require sex education at both levels. Majorities of Democrats and Republicans, liberals and conservatives, and evangelical Christians and others hold these views. Although attitudes are similar among men and women, and across education and income groups, the belief that sex education should be required at both school levels tends to be higher among adults who are 34 and younger (76%) than among those 35 to 54 (69%) or 55 and older (58%). “Do you think sex education should be required in your local school district for middle school students, high school students, both, or neither?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to $79,999 $80,000 or more Public School Parents Middle school students 4% 1% 5% 6% 2% 5% 3% 2% 5% High school students 17 26 15 17 16 16 16 19 17 Both 68 64 74 71 67 70 68 66 72 Neither 9 3 5 4 12 6 11 10 6 It depends (volunteered) 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 Don't know 1 4 1 2 2 2 1 2 0 How equitable is access to sex education in local schools? About one in three Californians (36%) believe that students in lower-income neighborhoods in their region are less likely than others to have exposure to sex education in their local schools. Public school parents have similar views: 36 percent say there is less access to sex education in lower-income areas. The perception of inequities is similar across age, education, and religious groups. However, it is stronger among non-whites than whites and among lower-to-middle-income residents than upper-income residents. This perception is also stronger among Democrats (41%) than Republicans (27%). “Do you think that students in lower-income neighborhoods in your region are less likely than others to have exposure to sex education in their local schools?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Household Income Under $40,000 $40,000 to $79,999 $80,000 or more Public School Parents Yes, less likely 36% 39% 50% 41% 31% 38% 37% 30% 36% No, not less likely 49 39 39 49 53 44 52 54 53 Don't know 15 22 11 10 16 18 11 16 11 -9 - December 2005 Resident Attitudes Sex Education Curriculum How much should sex education cover? Californians overwhelmingly believe it should include both abstinence from sex and information about how to get and use condoms and contraceptives. Fewer than one in five adults think it should focus only on abstinence. Seventy-eight percent of parents want the schools to teach about abstinence, condoms, and contraceptives. Across racial/ethnic groups, at least seven in 10 adults agree that sex education programs should go beyond talking only about abstinence. Although Democrats and independents are more in favor of it than Republicans, strong majorities across parties want schools to offer the more comprehensive sex education programs. Strong majorities of evangelical Christians (66%) and others (81%), and conservatives (67%) and liberals (87%) also want sex education programs to go beyond teaching abstinence. A 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 30 percent of Americans wanted the federal government to fund sex education programs that have abstaining from sexual activity as their only purpose, while 67 percent wanted the government to fund comprehensive sex education programs. “Which of the following statements comes closer to your views: sex education programs should have abstaining from sexual activity as their only purpose, or sex education programs should include abstaining from sexual activity and information on how to obtain and use condoms and contraceptives?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Dem Party Rep Ind Public School Parents Abstaining from sexual activity 17% 20% 15% 20% 16% 11% 26% 11% 18% Abstaining and obtaining and using condoms and contraceptives 78 72 83 74 81 86 68 86 78 Don't know 5 8 2 6 3 3 6 3 4 Who should make the decisions about public school sex education? About half of Californians say they want the decisions made at the most local level—by parents, local schools, and teachers. Relatively few want the school districts or state government to have primary responsibility. Least popular is putting the federal government primarily in charge. There is broad agreement among public school parents, across racial/ethnic and demographic groups, and across political and religious groups that parents and local schools and teachers should have the primary responsibility for setting the sex education curriculum. When we asked the question with parents in the list of possibilities, about two in three adults say that parents (49%) and local schools and teachers (15%) should have primary responsibility. “In general, who do you think should have the primary responsibility for deciding on the curriculum for sex education in public schools?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Dem Party Rep Ind Public School Parents The federal government 9% 14% 15% 9% 7% 11% 8% 6% 8% The state government 15 12 15 13 16 16 10 17 14 School districts 15 16 9 14 16 15 15 15 15 Local schools and teachers 32 30 34 26 37 34 33 39 30 Parents (volunteered) 21 20 24 28 18 16 29 16 25 Other answer (specify) 4 1 0 6 4 4 3 2 5 Don't know 4 7 3 4 2 4 2 5 3 Resident Attitudes Age-Appropriate Issues for Sex Education Although the vast majority of Californians believe sex education should go beyond abstinence, and should be taught in middle schools and high schools, many believe there should be differences in what is taught at different ages and grade levels. Fifty percent say that it is appropriate to teach both middle and high school students how to use and where to get contraceptives. However, 35 percent believe this should be taught only at the high school level. Public school parents have a similar response (38% high school only, 50% both). Blacks and Latinos are more likely than whites and Asians to say that this aspect of sex education is appropriate for students at both the middle school and high school levels. Support for providing this information at both levels is also higher among younger, less affluent, and less educated residents than among others, among Democrats than Republicans, among liberals than conservatives, and among those who do not identify themselves as evangelical Christians than those who do. In a 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation, 44 percent of Americans said that how to use and where to get contraceptives was appropriate for both age groups. “Please tell me if you think the following are appropriate topics for middle school students or appropriate for high school students, appropriate for both groups, or not appropriate for either group…How about how to use and where to get contraceptives?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Appropriate for middle school students 4% 4% 3% 6% 2% 4% Appropriate for high school students 35 46 31 28 38 38 Appropriate for both groups 50 39 59 56 48 50 Not appropriate for either group 9 7 7 7 10 7 Don't know 2 4 0 3 2 1 Californians have similar views on teaching students about how to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases: 54 percent say that it is appropriate to teach both middle school and high school students about this, and 35 percent say it should be taught only at the high school level. The response is similar for public school parents (53% both, 37% high school). Also, support for teaching this topic at both school levels is higher among blacks and Latinos than whites and Asians, and among younger, less affluent, and less educated adults than others. In a 2003 national survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation, 56 percent said that how and where to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases was an appropriate topic for both age groups. “Please tell me if you think the following are appropriate topics for middle school students or appropriate for high school students, appropriate for both groups, or not appropriate for either group…How about how to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Public School Parents Appropriate for middle school students 3% 2% 3% 6% 2% 4% Appropriate for high school students 35 46 25 29 38 37 Appropriate for both groups 54 44 67 58 52 53 Not appropriate for either group 5 2 4 5 6 4 Don't know 3 6 1 2 2 2 -11 - December 2005 Resident Attitudes Knowledge of and Interest in Sex Education How much do Californians know about human reproduction, abstinence, pregnancy prevention, and AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases—the issues covered in sex education? Sixty-one percent say they know a lot, 29 percent say they know some, and just 8 percent say not much. Among parents of public school children, 56 percent claim to know a lot about these issues. There are significant differences in knowledge across demographic groups. For example, about four in 10 Asians and Latinos say they know a lot about sex education, compared to more than seven in 10 blacks and whites. Knowledge is also substantially higher among U.S. born residents than among immigrants, and upper-income residents than lower-income residents. Fewer than half of the non-college educated adults claim to know a lot about sex education compared with three in four who have graduated from college. There are no major differences across regions, between Democrats and Republicans, or among religious groups. “How much do you feel that you know about the issues involving sex education—including the basics of human reproduction, abstinence, pregnancy prevention and AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites High School Education Some College College Graduate Public School Parents A lot 61% 38% 76% 42% 72% 44% 67% 74% 56% Some 29 42 17 45 22 41 26 22 37 Not much 8 14 5 12 5 13 6 4 7 Nothing (volunteered) 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Don't know 1 6 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 Even though many Californians say they know a lot about sex education, 53 percent are very interested (21%) or somewhat interested (32%) in learning still more, while 46 percent have little (41%) or no interest (5%) in becoming better informed. Across racial/ethnic groups, Latinos (75%) are much more interested than whites (41%) in learning more. Similarly, immigrants are far more likely than U.S. born residents, younger adults more likely than older adults, lower-income residents more likely than upper-income residents, and non-college educated adults more likely than college-educated adults to want more information about sex education. Two in three public school parents say they are interested in knowing more, while one in three express little or no interest in being more informed. “How interested are you in learning more about the issues involving sex education?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ Public School Parents Very interested 21% 19% 24% 38% 12% 30% 22% 10% 30% Somewhat interested 32 36 34 37 29 38 31 27 36 Not too interested 41 37 37 23 51 29 42 53 31 Not at all interested (volunteered) 5 4 5 1 7 3 4 9 3 Don't know 1 4 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 Resident Preferences Government Funding of Birth Control When asked about their preferences for public policies relating to population growth, eight in 10 adults, and 79 percent of likely voters, say they favor government funding for programs that provide contraceptives or birth control methods for those who cannot afford them. Solid support for government funding for birth control is evident across all geographic regions and demographic groups. While support in California is highest among Democrats (88%) and independents (83%), two in three Republicans (64%) also support this position. Support for the government funding of birth control programs is strong in all racial and ethnic groups, with favor highest among blacks (88%) and lowest among Asians (70%), while Latinos (83%) and whites (79%) have similar views. Three in four residents who consider themselves to be evangelical Christians (75%)—and 82 percent of those who do not—also favor using public funds for this purpose. Support for this policy is somewhat higher among women than men (84% to 76%) and declines somewhat with age, although 73 percent of those 55 and older support the policy. “Do you favor or oppose the government providing funding to programs that provide lower-income residents with birth control methods or contraceptives?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Favor 80% 88% 64% 83% 70% 88% 83% 79% 79% Oppose 17 10 32 15 26 11 13 18 19 Don't know 3 2 4 2 4 1 4 3 2 More than three in four Californians—and 73 percent of likely voters—favor having the government fund birth control programs for teens. A majority in all political and demographic groups favor using public funds for this purpose, although support is much higher among Democrats (86%) and independents (80%) than Republicans (54%). Residents in Los Angeles (80%) and the San Francisco Bay Area (79%) are somewhat more likely than residents in the Central Valley (76%), Orange/San Diego Counties and the Inland Empire (71% each) to favor funding birth control programs for teens. Support is somewhat stronger among women than men (79% to 74%) and declines somewhat with age, with 66 percent of those 55 or older in favor of this policy. Blacks (86%) and Latinos (83%) are more likely to favor this use of government funds than are Asians (67%) and whites (74%). Two in three of those who describe themselves as evangelical Christians (67%)—and 79 percent of those who do not—support funding government programs to provide teens with birth control methods or contraceptives. “Do you favor or oppose the government providing funding to programs that provide teens with birth control methods or contraceptives?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Favor 76% 86% 54% 80% 67% 86% 83% 74% 73% Oppose 20 11 43 17 29 12 13 23 23 Don't know 4 3 3 3 4 2 4 3 4 Resident Preferences Emergency Contraception An overwhelming majority of adults in California today (85%) say they have heard of emergency contraceptive pills, sometimes called “morning-after” pills. Eight in 10 residents in all geographic regions are familiar with this type of contraception. California is one of seven states that allow a pharmacist to distribute emergency contraception directly to a customer. While most residents are aware of emergency contraception, only 18 percent know that a woman in California can get it directly from a pharmacist without a doctor’s prescription. Forty six percent say this is not possible and 36 percent are unsure. Public knowledge of this provision for emergency contraception is low in all regions and among all demographic and political groups. Awareness is higher among 18 to 34 year olds (24%) than older residents, and men are more aware than are women (23% to 14%). Whites are less likely than others to know that pharmacists can provide emergency contraception in California without a prescription. “To the best of your knowledge, can a woman in California get emergency contraception directly from a pharmacist without having to contact or visit her doctor first?” Party Race/Ethnicity All Likely Adults Voters Dem Rep Ind Asians Blacks Latinos Whites Yes 18% 18% 16% 19% 20% 21% 23% 15% 16% No 46 45 44 51 41 43 51 44 46 Don't know 36 37 40 30 39 36 26 41 38 A majority of California adults (58%), and an even greater proportion of likely voters (63%), favor allowing a woman to get the morning-after pill without a doctor’s prescription. This is similar to PPIC’s October 2005 survey, when 61 percent were in favor of this option. Nationwide, 52 percent of Americans support dispensing the morning-after pill over the counter, according to a July 2005 survey by the Pew Research Center. At least half of Californians in all political parties favor this policy, but support is stronger among Democrats (67%) and independents (61%) than Republicans (50%). Support is higher in the San Francisco Bay Area (66%) and Los Angeles (61%) than in the Central Valley (54%), the Inland Empire (52%), and Orange/San Diego Counties (51%). There are sharp differences between racial/ethnic groups, with solid majorities of whites (64%) and blacks (59%) in favor of allowing access to emergency contraception without a prescription, while 50 percent of Latinos and only 41 percent of Asians support this position. Men are more likely than women to support this policy (62% to 54%), and favor increases with education and income. Among the one in five Californians who have religious or moral objections to emergency contraception, 68 percent oppose making it available without a prescription. A majority of those who consider themselves evangelical Christians also oppose allowing women to get the morning-after pill without a doctor’s prescription (53%). “Do you favor or oppose allowing women to get the morning-after pill, which prevents pregnancy, without a doctor's prescription?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Favor 58% 67% 50% 61% 41% 59% 50% 64% 63% Oppose 36 28 43 30 46 35 45 30 32 Don't know 6 5 7 9 13 6 5 6 5 Resident Preferences U.S. Supreme Court and Abortion As for national policy, 34 percent of California adults think Samuel Alito should be confirmed to the Supreme Court, 29 percent say he should not be confirmed, and 37 percent are undecided. While a solid majority of Republicans back Alito’s confirmation (64%), support drops off sharply among Democrats (17%) and independents (30%). Alito has more support among men than women (39%, 29%) and among conservatives than liberals (56%, 17%). Support for confirming Alito is lower in California than nationwide (49%), according to a CNN/USA Today/Gallup survey released in December. “Do you think the U.S. Senate should or should not confirm Samuel Alito's nomination to the Supreme Court?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Should confirm 34% 17% 64% 30% 23% 27% 36% 35% 38% Should not confirm 29 46 10 33 24 34 23 33 35 Have not heard enough to have an opinion (volunteered) 21 22 19 22 32 16 20 21 18 Don't know 16 15 7 15 21 23 21 11 9 Most California adults (60%) and likely voters (63%) say the Supreme Court’s decisions on abortion are very important to them personally. This is similar to PPIC’s October 2005 survey (63%) and to opinions found nationwide in a July 2005 survey by the Pew Research Center (63%). In California, Democrats (66%) are more likely than independents (56%) and Republicans (54%) to consider the issue very important. Women are more likely than men to hold this view (66%, 53%). While the court’s decisions on abortion are very important to at least six in 10 blacks, Latinos, and whites, only 41 percent of Asians hold this view. The importance of this issue increases with education and declines with age. A major issue is whether or not Roe v. Wade, the landmark Supreme Court decision that established a woman’s right to an abortion, should be overturned. Seven in 10 Californians want the decision to stand, while 22 percent want to completely overturn it. This is similar to PPIC’s August 2005 survey, in which 24 percent wanted to reverse the decision and 70 percent did not. Opposition to overturning the ruling is also high nationwide (65%), according to a November 2005 survey by the Pew Research Center. Almost seven in 10 Californians want the Supreme Court to leave the ability to get an abortion the same as it is now (50%) or make it easier (17%), while 28 percent want to make it harder. Democrats (85%) and independents (81%) are more likely than Republicans (60%) to favor the status quo on Roe v. Wade. Residents in the San Francisco Bay Area (15%) are the least likely to want Roe v. Wade overturned, while residents in the Inland Empire (31%) are the most likely. Latinos (32%) and Asians (25%) are more likely than blacks (19%) and whites (17%) to want to overturn Roe v. Wade. Overall, 40 percent of Californians say they have moral objections to abortion, and 38 percent in this group want the Supreme Court to overturn the abortion decision and 54 percent do not. Among evangelical Christians, 42 percent want the ruling overturned and 52 percent do not. “Would you like to see the Supreme Court completely overturn the Roe versus Wade decision or not? All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Yes, overturn Roe v. Wade 22% 11% 32% 15% 25% 19% 32% 17% 18% No, do not overturn Roe v. Wade 71 85 60 81 58 77 60 79 77 Don’t know 7 4 8 4 17 4 8 4 5 -15 - December 2005 Resident Preferences Number of Abortions Although most Californians do not want the Supreme Court to overturn Roe v. Wade, majorities of residents (56%) and likely voters (58%) think it would be a good thing to reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States; about one in three in each group disagrees. These findings closely parallel national opinion—in a Pew Research Center survey conducted in July 2005, 59 percent said it would be good to reduce the number of abortions, while 33 percent did not feel that way. Majorities of Republicans (63%) and independents (56%) would like to see fewer abortions, while Democrats are somewhat more divided (50% fewer abortions, 40% don’t agree). Across racial/ethnic groups, six in ten Asians (61%) and Latinos (58%) say reducing the number of abortions would be a good thing, compared to 54 percent of whites and 48 percent of blacks. Majorities in all regions would like to see abortions reduced. Seventy one percent of evangelical Christians hold this view. “Regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal, do you think it would be a good thing to reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States, or don't you feel this way?” To reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States, a strong majority of Californians agree that providing more access to contraception (66%) would be more effective than enacting more restrictive abortion laws (20%). The opinion of likely voters is similar (71% contraception, 15% abortion laws). At least half of all adults in all regions and political, racial/ethnic, and demographic groups believe more access to contraception would be the most effective way to lower the abortion rate. However, Democrats (78%) and independents (69%) are more likely than Republicans (54%) to hold this view. Blacks (74%) and whites (71%) are more likely than Latinos (57%) and Asians (50%) to say increased access to contraceptives is the best way to lower abortions. Residents in the Inland Empire (57%) are less likely to agree. Among evangelical Christians, nearly half (48%) see increased access to contraception as the best way to reduce abortions, while 35 percent favor more restrictive abortion laws. “Which of the following do you believe would be most effective in reducing the number of abortions in this country: enacting more restrictive abortion laws or providing more access to contraception?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Enacting more restrictive abortion laws 20% 11% 26% 13% 30% 15% 31% 14% 15% Providing more access to contraception 66 78 54 69 50 74 57 71 71 Both (volunteered) 5 5 6 5 10 5 6 4 4 Neither (volunteered) 6 3 10 9 5 2 2 7 8 Don't know 3 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 2 Resident Preferences Abortion Politics As Californians look ahead to the 2006 races for governor and U.S. senator, eight in 10 say the candidates’ positions on the issue of abortion are very or somewhat important to them personally. In the race for governor, 79 percent of Californians consider candidate positions very (46%) or somewhat important (33%). An identical 79 percent of likely voters say the abortion issue is very (46%) or somewhat (33%) important. Although more than 70 percent in all three major political groups say candidate positions on abortion are at least somewhat important, Democrats (51%) are more likely than Republicans (38%) or independents (39%) to call it very important. Candidate positions on abortion are more important to women than men (54% to 38% very important) and are more likely to be considered very important by Latinos (53%), blacks (46%), and whites (43%) than by Asians (34%). “In thinking about the upcoming California governor's election in 2006, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on the issue of abortion?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Very important 46% 51% 38% 39% 34% 46% 53% 43% 46% Somewhat important 33 34 34 35 48 33 30 34 33 Not too important 16 11 24 22 13 14 12 19 17 Not at all important (volunteered) 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 Don't know 3 2 2 2 4 5 4 2 2 In the 2006 race for the U.S. Senate, 81 percent of residents say candidate positions on abortion are very (47%) or somewhat important (34%). Likely voters hold similar views on this issue. As with the governor’s race, Democrats are more likely than Republicans or independents to consider this issue very important, and Latinos (52%), blacks (51%), and whites (45%) are more concerned about this issue than Asians (38%). Women consider the abortion issue more important to the senate race than do men (55% to 39%). Whether or not Californians express moral or religious objections to abortion has no bearing on the importance they place on a gubernatorial or U.S. Senate candidate’s positions on abortion. Liberals are more likely than conservatives to say that a candidate’s position on abortion is very important in the governor’s race (56%, 47%) and the U.S. Senate race (58%, 47%). Evangelical Christians are more likely than others to say that this is a very important issue in the governor’s race (54%, 44%) and U.S. Senate race (53%, 45%). Among both those who would like the Supreme Court to make it more difficult to get abortions and those who want to make it easier to get abortions, majorities of adults say this issue is very important in the governor’s race and the U.S. Senate race. “In thinking about the upcoming California U.S. Senate election in 2006, how important to you are the candidates’ positions on the issue of abortion?” All Adults Dem Party Rep Ind Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites Likely Voters Very important 47% 56% 39% 41% 38% 51% 52% 45% 49% Somewhat important 34 30 34 37 47 29 35 33 32 Not too important 15 12 23 20 11 16 9 19 16 Not at all important (volunteered) 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 Don't know 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 2 -17 - December 2005 Resident Preferences Personal Preferences In thinking about their personal beliefs, more Californians have religious or moral objections to abortion (40%) than to having a child without being married (30%), emergency contraception (19%), or to contraceptives in general (10%). Abortion is also the most divisive issue of the four—half of Republicans (51%) object to abortion, compared to only 28 percent of Democrats and 39 percent of independents. Half of Asians (52%) and Latinos (50%) say they have religious or moral objections to abortion, compared to one in three whites (34%) and blacks (36%). A majority of Asians (52%) also object to having children outside of marriage. As far as emergency contraception goes, fewer than three in 10 in any political party, racial/ethnic group, or age category have religious or moral objections. And fewer than one in four in any political party, racial/ethnic group, or age category objects to the use of contraceptives in general. “In thinking about your personal beliefs, please tell me if you have religious or moral objections to any of the following. How about …” Percent saying “yes” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ Abortion, regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal 40% 52% 36% 50% 34% 39% 42% 38% Having a child without being married 30 52 35 28 28 23 30 38 Emergency contraception 19 29 13 25 15 16 23 17 Contraceptives ... that is, to using a condom, taking the pill, or using some other method of birth control 10 22 5 16 6 8 10 12 In thinking about their personal preferences on population issues, nearly seven in 10 Californians say their ideal number for a family is to have two (44%) or three (25%) children, while 11 percent say four or more children. Only 3 percent said one or none. Nationwide, a CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll conducted in 2004 found similar views—three in four Americans said two (49%) or three (26%) children were the ideal number, with 12 percent saying four or more children. In California, half of Asians and whites (50% each) say two children is the ideal family size, while fewer blacks (37%) or Latinos (36%) agree. Half of Latinos (54%) say either three or more children, compared to 41 percent of blacks, 38 percent of Asians, and 26 percent of whites. Younger adults are more likely to favor larger family sizes, while those with higher education and higher incomes are more inclined to say two children are ideal. “In your opinion, what do you think is the ideal number of children for a family to have?” All Adults Asians Race/Ethnicity Blacks Latinos Whites 18-34 Age 35-54 55+ None 1% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% One 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 Two 44 50 37 36 50 40 44 48 Three 25 27 26 38 19 33 21 20 Four or more 11 11 15 16 7 13 9 9 Other answer 10 3 12 4 12 5 12 12 Don't know 7 6 7 3 9 5 11 8 Survey Methodology The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, research director at the Public Policy Institute of California, with assistance in research and writing from Sonja Petek, project manager for this survey, and survey research associates Dean Bonner, Lunna Lopes, and Jennifer Paluch. The survey was conducted with funding from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation as part of a three-year grant on education, environment, and population issues. We benefited from discussions with Hewlett program staff and their grantees and with other organizations, including the Kaiser Family Foundation; however, the survey methods, questions, and content of the report were determined solely by Mark Baldassare. The findings of this survey are based on a telephone survey of 2,504 California adult residents interviewed between November 30th and December 13th 2005. Interviewing took place mostly on weekday and weekend evenings, using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. All telephone exchanges in California were eligible for calling. Telephone numbers in the survey sample were called up to six times to increase the likelihood of reaching eligible households. Once a household was reached, an adult respondent (age 18 or older) was randomly chosen for interviewing by using the “last birthday method” to avoid biases in age and gender. Interviews took an average of 20 minutes to complete. Interviewing was conducted in English, Spanish, Korean, Vietnamese, or Chinese (Mandarin or Cantonese). We chose these languages because Spanish is the dominant language among non-English speaking adults in California and is followed in prevalence by the three Asian languages noted above. Accent on Languages translated the survey into Spanish with the assistance of Renatta DeFever. Schulman, Ronca & Bucuvalas, Inc. translated the survey into Korean, Vietnamese, and Chinese and conducted the telephone interviewing. We used recent U.S. Census and state figures to compare the demographic characteristics of the survey sample with characteristics of California’s adult population. The survey sample was closely comparable to the census and state figures. The survey data in this report were statistically weighted to account for any demographic differences. The sampling error for the total sample of 2,504 adults is +/- 2 percent at the 95 percent confidence level. This means that 95 times out of 100, the results will be within 2 percentage points of what they would be if all adults in California were interviewed. The sampling error for subgroups is larger. The sampling error for the 1,816 registered voters is +/- 2.5 percent. The sampling error for the 1,352 likely voters is +/- 3 percent. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. Throughout the report, we refer to five geographic regions. “Central Valley” includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Tulare, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. “SF Bay Area” includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. “Los Angeles” refers to Los Angeles County, “Inland Empire” includes Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, and “Orange/San Diego” refers to Orange and San Diego Counties. These five regions represent the major population centers of the state, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. We present specific results for respondents in the four self-identified racial/ethnic groups of Asian, black, Latino, and non-Hispanic white. We also compare the opinions of registered Democrats, Republicans, and independents. The “independents” category includes those who are registered to vote as “decline to state.” We also include the responses of “likely voters”— those who are the most likely to vote in the state’s elections. We use earlier PPIC Statewide Surveys to analyze trends over time in California, and we compare responses to those in national surveys by CNN/USA Today/Gallup, the Kaiser Family Foundation, and the Pew Research Center. PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY: SPECIAL SURVEY ON POPULATION NOVEMBER 30TH – DECEMBER 13TH, 2005 2,504 CALIFORNIA ADULT RESIDENTS: ENGLISH, SPANISH, CHINESE, KOREAN, AND VIETNAMESE MARGIN OF ERROR +/-2% AT 95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR TOTAL SAMPLE 1. First, thinking about the state as a whole, what do you think is the most important issue facing people in California today? [code, don’t read] 20% economy, jobs, unemployment 12 education, schools, teachers 9 immigration, illegal immigration 6 crime, gangs, drugs 6 state budget, deficit, state spending 5 health care, health costs, health insurance 5 housing costs, housing availability 3 gasoline prices 2 environment, pollution 2 traffic, transportation 21 other (specify) 9 don’t know 2. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Arnold Schwarzenegger is handling his job as governor of California? 32% approve 58 disapprove 10 don't know 3. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California legislature is handling its job? 24% approve 54 disapprove 22 don't know 4. Do you think things in California are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? 29% right direction 60 wrong direction 11 don't know 5. Turning to economic conditions in California, do you think that during the next 12 months we will have good times financially or bad times? 41% good times 46 bad times 13 don't know 6. Changing topics, which of the following do you think is the single biggest factor that is causing the state's population to grow? [read rotated list] 53% immigration from other countries 18 migration from other states 12 children born to current residents 8 state and local policies 3 other (specify) 6 don't know 7. Between now and 2025, California's population is estimated to increase by 9 million people from 37 million to 46 million. On balance, do you think this population growth is a good thing or a bad thing or does it make no difference to you and your family? 12% good thing 55 bad thing 27 no difference 6 don't know 8. Next, we are interested in your opinions about the region or broader geographic area of California that you live in. How much of a problem is population growth in your region—is it a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem? 27% big problem 34 somewhat of a problem 37 not a problem 2 don't know 9. Thinking about the next 20 years, do you think that the population in your region will grow rapidly, grow slowly, stay about the same, or decline? 59% grow rapidly 23 grow slowly 12 stay about the same 2 decline 4 don't know I am going to read you a list of factors that may contribute to population growth in your region. For each one, please tell me if you think it contributes a lot, some, or not much to population growth. [rotate questions 10 to 13] 10. How about legal immigration from other countries? 26% a lot 40 some 30 not much 1 not at all (volunteered) 3 don't know 11. How about illegal immigration from other countries? 49% a lot 29 some 19 not much 1 not at all (volunteered) 2 don't know 12. How about migration from other states? 27% a lot 38 some 30 not much 1 not at all (volunteered) 4 don't know 13. How about births to residents? 27% a lot 44 some 25 not much 1 not at all (volunteered) 3 don't know I am now going to read you some factors that may contribute to the number of births to residents in your region. For each one, please tell me if you think it is a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not really a problem. [rotate questions 14 and 15] 14. How about unplanned pregnancies among adults? 18% big problem 32 somewhat of a problem 45 not really a problem 5 don't know 15. How about unplanned pregnancies among teens? 41% big problem 33 somewhat of a problem 22 not really a problem 4 don't know 16. In the past few years, would you say that the teen pregnancy rate in your region has increased, decreased, or stayed the same? 38% increased 13 decreased 34 stayed the same 15 don't know 17. How important is access to birth control methods or contraceptives for reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies in your region—very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 71% very important 18 somewhat important 8 not too important 1 not at all important (volunteered) 2 don't know 18. Do you think that lower-income residents in your region are less likely than others to have access to birth control methods or contraceptives? 51% yes, less likely 41 no, not less likely 8 don't know 19. How much do you feel you know about the issue of birth control methods and contraceptives—a lot, some, or not much? 52% a lot 34 some 12 not much 1 nothing (volunteered) 1 don't know 20. How interested are you in learning more about the issue of birth control methods and contraceptives— very interested, somewhat interested, or not too interested? 15% very interested 23 somewhat interested 53 not too interested 7 not at all interested (volunteered) 2 don't know [rotate questions 21 and 22] 21. Do you favor or oppose the government providing funding to programs that provide lower-income residents with birth control methods or contraceptives? 80% favor 17 oppose 3 don't know 22. Do you favor or oppose the government providing funding to programs that provide teens with birth control methods or contraceptives? 76% favor 20 oppose 4 don't know 23. On another topic, how important do you think it is to have sex education as part of the curriculum in the local schools in your area—very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 75% very important 16 somewhat important 7 not too important 1 should not be taught at all (volunteered) 1 don't know 24. Is it your impression that when it comes to teaching sex education, the local schools in your area are doing more than enough, just enough, or not enough? 9% more than enough 33 just enough 36 not enough 1 not taught (volunteered) 21 don't know 25. Overall, how effective do you think sex education in schools is in helping teens avoid pregnancy—very effective, somewhat effective, not too effective, or not at all effective? 17% very effective 45 somewhat effective 21 not too effective 9 not at all effective 8 don't know 26. Overall, how effective do you think sex education in schools is in helping teens avoid getting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases—very effective, somewhat effective, not too effective, or not at all effective? 26% very effective 45 somewhat effective 15 not too effective 7 not at all effective 7 don't know Next, please tell me if you think the following are appropriate topics for middle school students—that is, grades 6, 7, and 8—or appropriate for high school students—grades 9 through 12—appropriate for both groups, or not appropriate for either group. 27a. How about how to use and where to get contraceptives? 4% appropriate for middle school students 35 appropriate for high school students 50 appropriate for both groups 9 not appropriate for either group 2 don't know 28. How about how to get tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases? 3% appropriate for middle school students 35 appropriate for high school students 54 appropriate for both groups 5 not appropriate for either group 3 don't know 29. Do you think sex education should be required in your local school district for middle school students, high school students, both, or neither? 4% middle school students 17 high school students 68 both 9 neither 1 it depends (volunteered) 1 don't know 30. Do you think that students in lower-income neighborhoods in your region are less likely than others to have exposure to sex education in their local schools? 36% yes, less likely 49 no, not less likely 15 don't know 31. Which of the following statements comes closer to your views? [rotate] (1) sex education programs should have abstaining from sexual activity as their only purpose; [or] (2) sex education programs should include abstaining from sexual activity and information on how to obtain and use condoms and contraceptives. 17% abstaining from sexual activity 78 abstaining and obtaining and using condoms and contraceptives 5 don't know -23 -December 2005 [questions 32a and 32b asked of a split sample of respondents] 32a. In general, who do you think should have the primary responsibility for deciding on the curriculum for sex education in public schools? [rotate list as a set, starting from either the top or the bottom; read list] 6% the federal government 12 the state government 11 school districts 15 local schools and teachers 49 parents 6 other answer (specify) 1 don't know 32b. In general, who do you think should have the primary responsibility for deciding on the curriculum for sex education in public schools? [rotate list as a set, starting from either the top or the bottom; read list] 9% the federal government 15 the state government 15 school districts 32 local schools and teachers 21 parents (volunteered) 4 other answer (specify) 4 don't know 33. How much do you feel that you know about the issues involving sex education—including the basics of human reproduction, abstinence, pregnancy prevention, and AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases—a lot, some, or not much? 61% a lot 29 some 8 not much 1 nothing (volunteered) 1 don't know 34. How interested are you in learning more about the issues involving sex education—very interested, somewhat interested, or not too interested? 21% very interested 32 somewhat interested 41 not too interested 5 not at all interested (volunteered) 1 don't know 35. On another topic, as you may know, emergency contraceptive pills are a higher dose of birth control pills that are taken after unprotected sexual intercourse. If taken within days of having sex, they greatly reduce the chance of pregnancy. Have you ever heard of emergency contraceptive pills, sometimes called morning after pills? 85% yes 15 no 36. To the best of your knowledge, can a woman in California get emergency contraception directly from a pharmacist without having to contact or visit her doctor first? 18% yes 46 no 36 don't know 37. Do you favor or oppose allowing women to get the morning-after pill, which prevents pregnancy, without a doctor's prescription? 58% favor 36 oppose 6 don't know 38. Changing topics, as you may know, George W. Bush has nominated Samuel Alito to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. Do you think the U.S. Senate should or should not confirm Alito's nomination to the Supreme Court? 34% should confirm 29 should not confirm 21 have not heard enough to have an opinion (volunteered) 16 don't know 39. Abortion is one issue the Supreme Court may rule on in the coming years. Please tell me how important this issue is to you personally—are court decisions on abortion very important, fairly important, not too important, or not at all important to you? 60% very important 23 fairly important 8 not too important 7 not at all important 2 don't know 40. In 1973, the Roe versus Wade decision established a woman's constitutional right to an abortion, at least in the first three months of pregnancy. Would you like to see the Supreme Court completely overturn the Roe versus Wade decision, or not? 22% yes, overturn Roe versus Wade 71 no, do not overturn Roe versus Wade 7 don't know 41. Would you like to see the Supreme Court make it harder to get an abortion than it is now, make it easier to get an abortion than it is now, or leave the ability to get an abortion the same as it is now? 28% harder 42. Regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal, do you think it would be a good thing to reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States, or don't you feel this way? 56% good thing to reduce the number of abortions 35 don't feel this way 9 don't know 43. Which of the following do you believe would be most effective in reducing the number of abortions in this country… [rotate] (1) enacting more restrictive abortion laws [or] (2) providing more access to contraception? 17 easier 50 same 5 don't know 20% enacting more restrictive abortion laws 66 providing more access to contraception 5 both 6 neither 3 don't know 44. In thinking about the upcoming California governor's election in 2006, how important to you are the candidates' positions on the issue of abortion—very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 46% very important 33 somewhat important 16 not too important 2 not at all important (volunteered) 3 don't know 45. In thinking about the upcoming California U.S. Senate election in 2006, how important to you are the candidates' positions on the issue of abortion—very important, somewhat important, or not too important? 47% very important 34 somewhat important 15 not too important 1 not at all important (volunteered) 3 don't know Next, in thinking about your personal beliefs, please tell me if you have religious or moral objections to any of the following: [rotate questions 46 to 48] 46. How about abortion, regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal? 40% yes, have religious or moral objections 58 no, no religious or moral objections 2 don't know 47. How about emergency contraception? 19% yes, have religious or moral objections 77 no, no religious or moral objections 4 don't know 48. How about contraceptives—that is, to using a condom, taking the pill, or using some other method of birth control? 10% yes, have religious or moral objections 88 no, no religious or moral objections 2 don't know 49. How about having a child without being married? 30% yes, have religious or moral objections 68 no, no religious or moral objections 2 don't know 50. In your opinion, what do you think is the ideal number of children for a family to have? 1% none 2 one 44 two 25 three 11 four or more 10 other answer (specify) 7 don’t know -25 -December 2005 51. Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics—a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none? 29% great deal 36 fair amount 26 only a little 9 none 52. On another topic, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote? 73% yes 27 no [skip to q.54a] 53. Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or as an independent? 43% Democrat [skip to q.54b] 34 Republican [skip to q.54c] 18 independent [ask q.54a] 5 another party [skip to q.55] 54a. Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? 23% Republican Party 41 Democratic Party 25 neither (volunteered) 11 don’t know [go to q.55] 54b. Would you call yourself a strong Democrat or not a very strong Democrat? 53% strong 43 not very strong 4 don’t know [go to q.55] 54c. Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? 52% strong 44 not very strong 4 don’t know 55. How often would you say you vote—always, nearly always, part of the time, seldom, or never? 50% always 18 nearly always 9 part of the time 4 seldom 19 never 56. Would you consider yourself to be politically … [rotate list as a set, starting from either the top or the bottom; read list] 12% very liberal 20 somewhat liberal 31 middle-of-the-road 22 somewhat conservative 10 very conservative 5 don’t know [D1-D12: background and demographic questions] PPIC STATEWIDE SURVEY Advisory Committee Angela Blackwell Founder and CEO PolicyLink Paul Brest President The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Mollyann Brodie Vice President Kaiser Family Foundation Bruce E. Cain Director Institute of Governmental Studies University of California, Berkeley James E. Canales President The James Irvine Foundation Matthew K. Fong President Strategic Advisory Group William Hauck President California Business Roundtable Dennis A. Hunt Vice President Communications and Public Affairs The California Endowment Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Senior Scholar School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California The PPIC Statewide Survey Advisory Committee is a diverse group of experts who provide advice on survey issues. However, survey methods, questions, content, and timing are determined solely by PPIC. Carol S. Larson President and CEO The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Monica Lozano Publisher and CEO La Opinión Donna Lucas Deputy Chief of Staff Office of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Dan Rosenheim News Director KPIX-TV Carol Stogsdill President Stogsdill Consulting Cathy Taylor Vice President and Editorial Commentary Director Orange County Register Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA Board of Directors Thomas C. Sutton, Chair Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Pacific Life Insurance Company Linda Griego President and Chief Executive Officer Griego Enterprises, Inc. Edward K. Hamilton Chairman Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. Gary K. Hart Founder Institute for Education Reform California State University, Sacramento Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities David W. Lyon President and Chief Executive Officer Public Policy Institute of California Advisory Council Clifford W. Graves General Manager Community Development Department City of Los Angeles Elizabeth G. Hill Legislative Analyst State of California Hilary W. Hoynes Associate Professor Department of Economics University of California, Davis Andrés E. Jiménez Director California Policy Research Center University of California Office of the President Norman R. King Executive Director San Bernardino Associated Governments Cheryl White Mason Vice-President Litigation Legal Department Hospital Corporation of America Arjay Miller Dean Emeritus Graduate School of Business Stanford University Ki Suh Park Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Raymond L. Watson Vice Chairman of the Board Emeritus The Irvine Company Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center Daniel A. Mazmanian School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Dean Misczynski Director California Research Bureau Rudolf Nothenberg Chief Administrative Officer (Retired) City and County of San Francisco Manuel Pastor Professor, Latin American & Latino Studies University of California, Santa Cruz Peter Schrag Contributing Editor The Sacramento Bee James P. Smith Senior Economist RAND Corporation PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 O San Francisco, California 94111 Phone: (415) 291-4400 O Fax: (415) 291-4401 www.ppic.org O info@ppic.org" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:38:19" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(9) "s_1205mbs" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-06-15 22:21:16" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-06-16 05:21:16" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(51) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/S_1205MBS.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }