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object(Timber\Post)#3711 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(14) "OP_703HSOP.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(7) "1380624" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(19853) "Occasional Papers Statement on State Foreign Offices Howard J. Shatz Public Policy Institute of California Prepared for an Informational Hearing before the California Senate Committee on Banking, Commerce, and International Trade Sacramento, California July 2, 2003 Public Policy Institute of California The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) is a private operating foundation established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Institute is dedicated to improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research. PPIC’s research agenda focuses on three program areas: population, economy, and governance and public finance. Studies within these programs are examining the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including education, health care, immigration, income distribution, welfare, urban growth, and state and local finance. PPIC was created because three concerned citizens – William R. Hewlett, Roger W. Heyns, and Arjay Miller – recognized the need for linking objective research to the realities of California public policy. Their goal was to help the state’s leaders better understand the intricacies and implications of contemporary issues and make informed public policy decisions when confronted with challenges in the future. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or state and federal legislation nor does it endorse or support any political parties or candidates for public office. David W. Lyon is founding President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Raymond L. Watson is Chairman of the Board of Directors. Public Policy Institute of California 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 • San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone: (415) 291-4400 • Fax: (415) 291-4401 info@ppic.org • www.ppic.org Thank you for inviting me. My remarks are based on research conducted at the Public Policy Institute of California, an independent, nonpartisan research institute.1 PPIC does not take positions on legislation, but provides objective information for decisionmakers as they consider policy issues. In the role of providing such policy support, I participated in a roundtable discussion of the California International Trade and Investment Act of 2002, proposed by Senator Polanco, in February 2002, and in a roundtable discussion on standards for evaluating the state foreign offices, in April 2002, organized by staff of this committee. I also co-authored a paper on California’s global economic relations for the California World Trade Commission in fall 2002.2 I have discussed trade issues informally with WTC members; Technology, Trade and Commerce Agency staff; and California Assembly and Senate staff. My comments today focus on research findings regarding state offices and the issues involved with evaluating them. Five appendix tables provide data about state foreign offices based on a proprietary database developed by my colleagues and me. Research Findings on State Offices, Exports, and Foreign Direct Investment3 California state policy, like that of most states, focuses on increasing exports and on attracting foreign companies to set up operations in the state, also known as foreign direct investment (FDI). The state foreign offices are meant to help achieve these goals. Academic research on state action and exports has focused mostly on overall state promotional efforts rather than just foreign offices. In general, this research has found few significant effects of state action on overall exports, and one recent paper found no relation between foreign offices and state exports. This likely is because most U.S. exports are sold by large companies, and most state programs focus on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Even if the 1 500 Washington St., Suite 800, San Francisco, CA 94111, (415) 291-4409, shatz@ppic.org. The views presented here are those of the author and not necessarily those of the staff, officers, or board of directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. 2 Haveman, Shatz, and Vilchis (2002). 3 Papers from which the conclusions for exports are drawn include Bernard and Jensen (2001), Coughlin and Cartwright (1987), Simpson and Kujawa (1974), and Wilkinson and Brouthers (2000). Papers from which the conclusions for FDI are drawn include Bobonis and Shatz (2003), Coughlin, Terza, and Arromdee (1991), Coughlin and Segev (2000), Friedman, Gerlowski, and Silberman (1992), Friedman, Fung, Gerlowski, and Silberman (1996), Head, Ries, and Swenson (1999), Shaver (1998), and Woodward (1992). Full citations appear in the list of references. Other papers, not cited, mirror these conclusions. -1- offices were highly effective, it is doubtful that aggregate export numbers would show large increases. The results are somewhat different for FDI. Papers throughout the 1990s have produced mixed results, with some finding that state promotional efforts, and foreign offices in at least one case, help attract FDI, and others finding no relation. Most recently, my own research found that the number of years a state had a foreign office in a country was positively related to the level of FDI attracted from that country. Issues Involved in Evaluating State Offices4 Evaluating state foreign offices presents a widespread and ongoing problem that is not unique to California. Referring to investment attraction activities, one study noted, “Who, in the end, should be credited with the new investment? The answer is unknowable, and this inability to separate the respective value of the team members can leave the office open to critics it cannot credibly answer.”5 Part of the problem is a mismatch of goals and yardsticks. If the offices are tasked with helping SMEs, they probably will not meet a cost-benefit test in any single year. The export transactions are simply too small, although if a firm gains help in exporting one year it may become a successful exporter over the course of many years. If the offices are judged on the dollar value of transactions, they will have no incentive to help SMEs. Rather, they will help large exporters and investors, who could very well pay private consultants for help. Despite these problems, there are a number of issues that research suggests are important to successful use of overseas offices in international business development programs. First, goals must be clear and yardsticks must match goals. This is largely the task of the legislature. Second, there must be a strong domestic staff to work with the foreign offices, exporters, and investors. 4 Conclusions for this section are drawn from Council of State Governments (2000), Kudrle and Kite (1989), McNiven and Cann (1993), Mittelstaedt, Harben, and Ward (2003), Nothdurft (1992), Simpson and Kujawa (1974), and interviews with a number of non-California state foreign trade officials. Other papers, not cited, mirror these conclusions. 5 McNiven and Cann, p. 175. -2- Third, clients must be carefully chosen. Accepting all comers to the offices is not likely to be effective and could even create problems for a firm by causing it to use scarce resources if it is not export-capable. At least one state clears firms first at home and only then allows them to use state overseas offices. Fourth, public-private partnerships appear most effective. Examples include export finance guarantees, subsidies or soft loans to hire an export consultant, and collaboration with private groups to identify “export-ready” firms and train “export-willing” firms. Fifth, assistance should be carefully tailored to each firm, and sectorspecific programs seem to work best. Sixth, evaluation should be ongoing and consistent across all offices. This should involve follow-up with firms assisted and can include the creation of a tracking database. Such a database should include firm characteristics, type of contact, and results. This could be used in parallel with a case management method, in which each company becomes a separate case that is tracked in Sacramento. Seventh, a market test might help, with fees charged for services. This would not only provide valuable evidence of how useful companies find the offices, but it might also make the offices and the agency more responsive to client needs. -3- References Bernard, Andrew B., and J. Bradford Jensen (2001), “Why Some Firms Export,” Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper W8349, July. Bobonis, Gustavo J., and Howard J. Shatz (2003), “Agglomeration Economies, Investment Promotion and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States,” San Francisco, California: Public Policy Institute of California Working Paper 2003.17, June. Coughlin, Cletus C., and Phillip A. Cartwright (1987), “An Examination of State Foreign Export Promotion and Manufacturing Exports,” Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 439-449. Coughlin, Cletus C., Joseph V. Terza, and Vachira Arromdee (1991), “State Characteristics and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment within the United States,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 73, November, pp. 675-683. Coughlin, Cletus C., and Eran Segev (2000), “Location Determinants of New Foreign-Owned Manufacturing Plants,” Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 323-351. Council of State Governments (2000), An Assessment of States’ International Capacity, Washington, D.C. Friedman, Joseph, Daniel A. Gerlowski, and Jonathan Silberman (1992), “What Attracts Foreign Multinational Corporations? Evidence from Branch Plant Location in the United States,” Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 403418. Friedman, Joseph, Hung-Gay Fung, Daniel A Gerlowski, and Jonathan Silberman (1996), “A Note on ‘State Characteristics and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment within the United States,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 78, No. 2, May, pp. 367-368. Haveman, Jon D., Howard J. Shatz, and Ernesto Vilchis (2002), "California and the World Economy: Exports, Foreign Direct Investment, and U.S. Trade Policy," San Francisco, California: Public Policy Institute of California Occasional Paper, December. Head, C. Keith, John C. Ries, and Deborah L. Swenson (1999), “Attracting Foreign Manufacturing: Investment Promotion and Agglomeration,” Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 29, pp. 197-218. Kudrle, Robert Thomas, and Cynthia Marie Kite (1989), “The Evaluation of State Programs for International Business Development,” Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 4, November, pp. 288-300. -4- McNiven, James D., and Dianna Cann (1993), “Canadian Provincial Trade Offices in the United States,” Chapter 6 (pp. 167-183) in Douglas M. Brown and Earl H. Fry, eds., States and Provinces in the International Economy, Institute of Governmental Studies Press, University of California, Berkeley, and Institute of Intergovernmental Relations, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Mittelstaedt, John D., George N. Harben, and William A. Ward (2003), “How Small Is Too Small? Firm Size as a Barrier to Exporting from the United States,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 68-84. Nothdurft, William E. (1992), Going Global: How Europe Helps Small Firms Export, Washington, D.C.: The German Marshall Fund of the United States and The Brookings Institution. Shaver, J. Myles (1998), “Do Foreign-Owned and U.S.-Owned Establishments Exhibit the Same Location Pattern in U.S. Manufacturing Industries?” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3, Third Quarter, pp. 469-492. Simpson, Claude L., and Duane Kujawa (1974), “The Export Decision Process: An Empirical Inquiry,” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Spring), pp. 107-117. Wilkinson, Timothy J., and Lance Eliot Brouthers (2000), “An Evaluation of State Sponsored Promotion Programs, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 47, pp. 229-236. Woodward, Douglas P. (1992), “Locational Determinants of Japanese Manufacturing Start-ups in the United States,” Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 58, pp. 690-708. -5- Appendix: Supplementary Tables These tables present a profile of state foreign offices. They include the following information: Table 1. State Foreign Offices as of March 31, 2003 Shows counts by country and state for all states. Table 2. Characteristics of State Foreign Offices Shows types of global business development that state offices handle and how they are staffed. Table 3. Counts of State Foreign Offices, by Year Shows evolution of state offices since 1980. Table 4. Number of Countries with State Foreign Offices, by Year Shows evolution of country coverage since 1980. Table 5. Large Markets and California Overseas Offices, 2002 Shows distribution of California state offices compared to prominent export destinations and large markets. -6- Table 1. State Foreign Offices as of March 31, 2003 By Country Number TOTAL 253 Mexico 33 Japan 29 Germany 17 Israel 16 South Korea 16 China 15 Taiwan 15 United Kingdom 15 Brazil 14 South Africa 12 Canada 11 Chile 10 Belgium 9 Singapore 8 Argentina 6 Hong Kong 6 Australia 2 India 2 Netherlands 2 Russia 2 Czech Republic 1 Egypt 1 France 1 Ghana 1 Greece 1 Malaysia 1 Nigeria 1 Poland 1 Spain 1 Sweden 1 Turkey 1 Venezuela 1 Vietnam 1 Share (%) 100.0 13.0 11.5 6.7 6.3 6.3 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.5 4.7 4.3 4.0 3.6 3.2 2.4 2.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 TOTAL Pennsylvania Indiana California Florida Missouri Georgia Maryland New York Ohio Utah Illinois New Jersey Connecticut Wisconsin Kansas Oklahoma North Carolina Oregon Virginia Alaska Washington Arizona Arkansas Idaho Iowa Kentucky Mississippi New Mexico Tennessee Colorado West Virginia Alabama Delaware Hawaii Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Montana South Carolina Louisiana South Dakota Texas By State Number 253 20 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Share (%) 100.0 7.9 5.5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 Note: There are 26 reported shared offices, so the number of unique offices is less than 253. Source: Diep Le, Eli Miloslavsky, and Howard J. Shatz, “State Foreign Offices Database,” developed at PPIC, San Francisco, California, 2003. -7- Table 2. Characteristics of State Foreign Offices Function All FDI Mostly FDI Trade and FDI Mostly Trade All Trade Number 4 6 129 19 95 Employment State Employee Contractor 29 224 Full Time Part Time 202 51 Source: Diep Le, Eli Miloslavsky, and Howard J. Shatz, “State Foreign Offices Database,” developed at PPIC, San Francisco, California, 2003. -8- Table 3. Counts of State Foreign Offices, by Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 28 32 34 45 45 60 68 84 99 108 127 139 139 144 159 166 170 193 221 261 275 279 274 253 Notes: Some of these offices are shared, so the count of unique state offices will be lower. The count for 2003 includes offices open as of the end of the first quarter. Source: Diep Le, Eli Miloslavsky, and Howard J. Shatz, “State Foreign Offices Database,” developed at PPIC, San Francisco, California, 2003. -9- Table 4. Number of Countries with State Foreign Offices, by Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 9 9 9 10 10 13 12 16 18 18 21 20 20 19 25 25 26 28 31 35 37 36 35 33 Source: Diep Le, Eli Miloslavsky, and Howard J. Shatz, “State Foreign Offices Database,” developed at PPIC, San Francisco, California, 2003. - 10 - Table 5. Large Markets and California Overseas Offices, 2002 (countries with a California overseas office are in bold) U.S. Exports California Exports Rank Country and Value ($B) Country and Value ($B) GDP (2001) Country and Value ($B) All countries 693 All countries 92 All countries 31,121 1 Canada 161 Mexico 16 Japan 4,141 2 Mexico 98 Japan 11 United Kingdom 1,424 3 Japan 51 Canada 10 France 1,310 4 United Kingdom 33 Korea 5 China 1,159 5 Germany 27 China 4 Italy 1,089 6 China 22 United Kingdom 4 Canada 694 7 Korea 23 Taiwan 5 Mexico 618 8 Netherlands 18 Hong Kong 4 Spain 582 9 France 19 Germany 3 Brazil 503 10 Singapore 16 Netherlands 4 India 477 11 Taiwan 18 Singapore 3 Korea 422 12 Belgium 13 France 2 Netherlands 380 13 Hong Kong 13 Australia 2 Australia 369 14 Australia 13 Malaysia 2 Russia 310 15 Brazil 12 Belgium 1 Taiwan 288 16 Italy 10 Italy 1 Argentina 269 17 Malaysia 10 Thailand 1 Switzerland 247 18 Philippines 7 Ireland 1 Belgium 230 19 Switzerland 8 Philippines 1 Sweden 210 20 Israel 7 India 1 Austria 189 Notes: GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product, a measure of all goods and services produced. GDP figure for Taiwan is Gross National Product (GNP), a slightly different measure. Some California offices are meant to cover more territory than only the country in which they are located. California also has an office in South Africa (the largest market in Africa in terms of U.S. exports, California exports, and GDP) and an approved although not-yet-opened office in Armenia. Sources: For export figures, Massachusetts Institute for Social and Economic Research; for GDP figures, World Bank; for Taiwan GNP figure, Economic Development, Taiwan, Republic of China, 2002, Council for Economic Planning and Development, Taipei; and for California State Office locations, California Technology, Trade and Commerce Agency. - 11 - PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA Board of Directors Raymond L. Watson, Chairman Vice Chairman of the Board The Irvine Company William K. Coblentz Senior Partner Coblentz, Patch, Duffy & Bass, LLP Edward K. Hamilton Chairman Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities David W. Lyon President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Cheryl White Mason Chief, Civil Liability Management Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office Arjay Miller Dean Emeritus Graduate School of Business Stanford University Ki Suh Park Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates A. Alan Post Former State Legislative Analyst State of California Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Thomas C. Sutton Chairman & CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company Cynthia A. Telles Department of Psychiatry UCLA School of Medicine Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center Harold M. Williams President Emeritus The J. Paul Getty Trust and Of Counsel Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP Advisory Council Mary C. Daly Research Advisor Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Clifford W. Graves General Manager Department of Community Development City of Los Angeles Elizabeth G. Hill Legislative Analyst State of California Hilary W. Hoynes Associate Professor Department of Economics University of California, Davis Andrés E. Jiménez Director California Policy Research Center University of California Office of the President Daniel A. Mazmanian C. Erwin and Ione Piper Dean and Professor School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Dean Misczynski Director California Research Bureau Rudolf Nothenberg Chief Administrative Officer (Retired) City and County of San Francisco Manuel Pastor Professor, Latin American & Latino Studies University of California, Santa Cruz Peter Schrag Contributing Editor The Sacramento Bee James P. Smith Senior Economist RAND PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 San Francisco, California 94111 Phone: (415) 291-4400 Fax: (415) 291-4401 www.ppic.org info@ppic.org" } ["___content":protected]=> string(106) "

OP 703HSOP

" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(79) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/statement-on-state-foreign-offices/op_703hsop/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8347) ["ID"]=> int(8347) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:36:49" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(3534) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(10) "OP 703HSOP" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(10) "op_703hsop" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(14) "OP_703HSOP.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(7) "1380624" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(19853) "Occasional Papers Statement on State Foreign Offices Howard J. Shatz Public Policy Institute of California Prepared for an Informational Hearing before the California Senate Committee on Banking, Commerce, and International Trade Sacramento, California July 2, 2003 Public Policy Institute of California The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) is a private operating foundation established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Institute is dedicated to improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research. PPIC’s research agenda focuses on three program areas: population, economy, and governance and public finance. Studies within these programs are examining the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including education, health care, immigration, income distribution, welfare, urban growth, and state and local finance. PPIC was created because three concerned citizens – William R. Hewlett, Roger W. Heyns, and Arjay Miller – recognized the need for linking objective research to the realities of California public policy. Their goal was to help the state’s leaders better understand the intricacies and implications of contemporary issues and make informed public policy decisions when confronted with challenges in the future. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or state and federal legislation nor does it endorse or support any political parties or candidates for public office. David W. Lyon is founding President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Raymond L. Watson is Chairman of the Board of Directors. Public Policy Institute of California 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 • San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone: (415) 291-4400 • Fax: (415) 291-4401 info@ppic.org • www.ppic.org Thank you for inviting me. My remarks are based on research conducted at the Public Policy Institute of California, an independent, nonpartisan research institute.1 PPIC does not take positions on legislation, but provides objective information for decisionmakers as they consider policy issues. In the role of providing such policy support, I participated in a roundtable discussion of the California International Trade and Investment Act of 2002, proposed by Senator Polanco, in February 2002, and in a roundtable discussion on standards for evaluating the state foreign offices, in April 2002, organized by staff of this committee. I also co-authored a paper on California’s global economic relations for the California World Trade Commission in fall 2002.2 I have discussed trade issues informally with WTC members; Technology, Trade and Commerce Agency staff; and California Assembly and Senate staff. My comments today focus on research findings regarding state offices and the issues involved with evaluating them. Five appendix tables provide data about state foreign offices based on a proprietary database developed by my colleagues and me. Research Findings on State Offices, Exports, and Foreign Direct Investment3 California state policy, like that of most states, focuses on increasing exports and on attracting foreign companies to set up operations in the state, also known as foreign direct investment (FDI). The state foreign offices are meant to help achieve these goals. Academic research on state action and exports has focused mostly on overall state promotional efforts rather than just foreign offices. In general, this research has found few significant effects of state action on overall exports, and one recent paper found no relation between foreign offices and state exports. This likely is because most U.S. exports are sold by large companies, and most state programs focus on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Even if the 1 500 Washington St., Suite 800, San Francisco, CA 94111, (415) 291-4409, shatz@ppic.org. The views presented here are those of the author and not necessarily those of the staff, officers, or board of directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. 2 Haveman, Shatz, and Vilchis (2002). 3 Papers from which the conclusions for exports are drawn include Bernard and Jensen (2001), Coughlin and Cartwright (1987), Simpson and Kujawa (1974), and Wilkinson and Brouthers (2000). Papers from which the conclusions for FDI are drawn include Bobonis and Shatz (2003), Coughlin, Terza, and Arromdee (1991), Coughlin and Segev (2000), Friedman, Gerlowski, and Silberman (1992), Friedman, Fung, Gerlowski, and Silberman (1996), Head, Ries, and Swenson (1999), Shaver (1998), and Woodward (1992). Full citations appear in the list of references. Other papers, not cited, mirror these conclusions. -1- offices were highly effective, it is doubtful that aggregate export numbers would show large increases. The results are somewhat different for FDI. Papers throughout the 1990s have produced mixed results, with some finding that state promotional efforts, and foreign offices in at least one case, help attract FDI, and others finding no relation. Most recently, my own research found that the number of years a state had a foreign office in a country was positively related to the level of FDI attracted from that country. Issues Involved in Evaluating State Offices4 Evaluating state foreign offices presents a widespread and ongoing problem that is not unique to California. Referring to investment attraction activities, one study noted, “Who, in the end, should be credited with the new investment? The answer is unknowable, and this inability to separate the respective value of the team members can leave the office open to critics it cannot credibly answer.”5 Part of the problem is a mismatch of goals and yardsticks. If the offices are tasked with helping SMEs, they probably will not meet a cost-benefit test in any single year. The export transactions are simply too small, although if a firm gains help in exporting one year it may become a successful exporter over the course of many years. If the offices are judged on the dollar value of transactions, they will have no incentive to help SMEs. Rather, they will help large exporters and investors, who could very well pay private consultants for help. Despite these problems, there are a number of issues that research suggests are important to successful use of overseas offices in international business development programs. First, goals must be clear and yardsticks must match goals. This is largely the task of the legislature. Second, there must be a strong domestic staff to work with the foreign offices, exporters, and investors. 4 Conclusions for this section are drawn from Council of State Governments (2000), Kudrle and Kite (1989), McNiven and Cann (1993), Mittelstaedt, Harben, and Ward (2003), Nothdurft (1992), Simpson and Kujawa (1974), and interviews with a number of non-California state foreign trade officials. Other papers, not cited, mirror these conclusions. 5 McNiven and Cann, p. 175. -2- Third, clients must be carefully chosen. Accepting all comers to the offices is not likely to be effective and could even create problems for a firm by causing it to use scarce resources if it is not export-capable. At least one state clears firms first at home and only then allows them to use state overseas offices. Fourth, public-private partnerships appear most effective. Examples include export finance guarantees, subsidies or soft loans to hire an export consultant, and collaboration with private groups to identify “export-ready” firms and train “export-willing” firms. Fifth, assistance should be carefully tailored to each firm, and sectorspecific programs seem to work best. Sixth, evaluation should be ongoing and consistent across all offices. This should involve follow-up with firms assisted and can include the creation of a tracking database. Such a database should include firm characteristics, type of contact, and results. This could be used in parallel with a case management method, in which each company becomes a separate case that is tracked in Sacramento. Seventh, a market test might help, with fees charged for services. This would not only provide valuable evidence of how useful companies find the offices, but it might also make the offices and the agency more responsive to client needs. -3- References Bernard, Andrew B., and J. Bradford Jensen (2001), “Why Some Firms Export,” Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper W8349, July. Bobonis, Gustavo J., and Howard J. Shatz (2003), “Agglomeration Economies, Investment Promotion and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States,” San Francisco, California: Public Policy Institute of California Working Paper 2003.17, June. Coughlin, Cletus C., and Phillip A. Cartwright (1987), “An Examination of State Foreign Export Promotion and Manufacturing Exports,” Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 439-449. Coughlin, Cletus C., Joseph V. Terza, and Vachira Arromdee (1991), “State Characteristics and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment within the United States,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 73, November, pp. 675-683. Coughlin, Cletus C., and Eran Segev (2000), “Location Determinants of New Foreign-Owned Manufacturing Plants,” Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 323-351. Council of State Governments (2000), An Assessment of States’ International Capacity, Washington, D.C. Friedman, Joseph, Daniel A. Gerlowski, and Jonathan Silberman (1992), “What Attracts Foreign Multinational Corporations? Evidence from Branch Plant Location in the United States,” Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 403418. Friedman, Joseph, Hung-Gay Fung, Daniel A Gerlowski, and Jonathan Silberman (1996), “A Note on ‘State Characteristics and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment within the United States,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 78, No. 2, May, pp. 367-368. Haveman, Jon D., Howard J. Shatz, and Ernesto Vilchis (2002), "California and the World Economy: Exports, Foreign Direct Investment, and U.S. Trade Policy," San Francisco, California: Public Policy Institute of California Occasional Paper, December. Head, C. Keith, John C. Ries, and Deborah L. Swenson (1999), “Attracting Foreign Manufacturing: Investment Promotion and Agglomeration,” Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 29, pp. 197-218. Kudrle, Robert Thomas, and Cynthia Marie Kite (1989), “The Evaluation of State Programs for International Business Development,” Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 4, November, pp. 288-300. -4- McNiven, James D., and Dianna Cann (1993), “Canadian Provincial Trade Offices in the United States,” Chapter 6 (pp. 167-183) in Douglas M. Brown and Earl H. Fry, eds., States and Provinces in the International Economy, Institute of Governmental Studies Press, University of California, Berkeley, and Institute of Intergovernmental Relations, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Mittelstaedt, John D., George N. Harben, and William A. Ward (2003), “How Small Is Too Small? Firm Size as a Barrier to Exporting from the United States,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 68-84. Nothdurft, William E. (1992), Going Global: How Europe Helps Small Firms Export, Washington, D.C.: The German Marshall Fund of the United States and The Brookings Institution. Shaver, J. Myles (1998), “Do Foreign-Owned and U.S.-Owned Establishments Exhibit the Same Location Pattern in U.S. Manufacturing Industries?” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3, Third Quarter, pp. 469-492. Simpson, Claude L., and Duane Kujawa (1974), “The Export Decision Process: An Empirical Inquiry,” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Spring), pp. 107-117. Wilkinson, Timothy J., and Lance Eliot Brouthers (2000), “An Evaluation of State Sponsored Promotion Programs, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 47, pp. 229-236. Woodward, Douglas P. (1992), “Locational Determinants of Japanese Manufacturing Start-ups in the United States,” Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 58, pp. 690-708. -5- Appendix: Supplementary Tables These tables present a profile of state foreign offices. They include the following information: Table 1. State Foreign Offices as of March 31, 2003 Shows counts by country and state for all states. Table 2. Characteristics of State Foreign Offices Shows types of global business development that state offices handle and how they are staffed. Table 3. Counts of State Foreign Offices, by Year Shows evolution of state offices since 1980. Table 4. Number of Countries with State Foreign Offices, by Year Shows evolution of country coverage since 1980. Table 5. Large Markets and California Overseas Offices, 2002 Shows distribution of California state offices compared to prominent export destinations and large markets. -6- Table 1. State Foreign Offices as of March 31, 2003 By Country Number TOTAL 253 Mexico 33 Japan 29 Germany 17 Israel 16 South Korea 16 China 15 Taiwan 15 United Kingdom 15 Brazil 14 South Africa 12 Canada 11 Chile 10 Belgium 9 Singapore 8 Argentina 6 Hong Kong 6 Australia 2 India 2 Netherlands 2 Russia 2 Czech Republic 1 Egypt 1 France 1 Ghana 1 Greece 1 Malaysia 1 Nigeria 1 Poland 1 Spain 1 Sweden 1 Turkey 1 Venezuela 1 Vietnam 1 Share (%) 100.0 13.0 11.5 6.7 6.3 6.3 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.5 4.7 4.3 4.0 3.6 3.2 2.4 2.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 TOTAL Pennsylvania Indiana California Florida Missouri Georgia Maryland New York Ohio Utah Illinois New Jersey Connecticut Wisconsin Kansas Oklahoma North Carolina Oregon Virginia Alaska Washington Arizona Arkansas Idaho Iowa Kentucky Mississippi New Mexico Tennessee Colorado West Virginia Alabama Delaware Hawaii Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Montana South Carolina Louisiana South Dakota Texas By State Number 253 20 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Share (%) 100.0 7.9 5.5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 Note: There are 26 reported shared offices, so the number of unique offices is less than 253. Source: Diep Le, Eli Miloslavsky, and Howard J. Shatz, “State Foreign Offices Database,” developed at PPIC, San Francisco, California, 2003. -7- Table 2. Characteristics of State Foreign Offices Function All FDI Mostly FDI Trade and FDI Mostly Trade All Trade Number 4 6 129 19 95 Employment State Employee Contractor 29 224 Full Time Part Time 202 51 Source: Diep Le, Eli Miloslavsky, and Howard J. Shatz, “State Foreign Offices Database,” developed at PPIC, San Francisco, California, 2003. -8- Table 3. Counts of State Foreign Offices, by Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 28 32 34 45 45 60 68 84 99 108 127 139 139 144 159 166 170 193 221 261 275 279 274 253 Notes: Some of these offices are shared, so the count of unique state offices will be lower. The count for 2003 includes offices open as of the end of the first quarter. Source: Diep Le, Eli Miloslavsky, and Howard J. Shatz, “State Foreign Offices Database,” developed at PPIC, San Francisco, California, 2003. -9- Table 4. Number of Countries with State Foreign Offices, by Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 9 9 9 10 10 13 12 16 18 18 21 20 20 19 25 25 26 28 31 35 37 36 35 33 Source: Diep Le, Eli Miloslavsky, and Howard J. Shatz, “State Foreign Offices Database,” developed at PPIC, San Francisco, California, 2003. - 10 - Table 5. Large Markets and California Overseas Offices, 2002 (countries with a California overseas office are in bold) U.S. Exports California Exports Rank Country and Value ($B) Country and Value ($B) GDP (2001) Country and Value ($B) All countries 693 All countries 92 All countries 31,121 1 Canada 161 Mexico 16 Japan 4,141 2 Mexico 98 Japan 11 United Kingdom 1,424 3 Japan 51 Canada 10 France 1,310 4 United Kingdom 33 Korea 5 China 1,159 5 Germany 27 China 4 Italy 1,089 6 China 22 United Kingdom 4 Canada 694 7 Korea 23 Taiwan 5 Mexico 618 8 Netherlands 18 Hong Kong 4 Spain 582 9 France 19 Germany 3 Brazil 503 10 Singapore 16 Netherlands 4 India 477 11 Taiwan 18 Singapore 3 Korea 422 12 Belgium 13 France 2 Netherlands 380 13 Hong Kong 13 Australia 2 Australia 369 14 Australia 13 Malaysia 2 Russia 310 15 Brazil 12 Belgium 1 Taiwan 288 16 Italy 10 Italy 1 Argentina 269 17 Malaysia 10 Thailand 1 Switzerland 247 18 Philippines 7 Ireland 1 Belgium 230 19 Switzerland 8 Philippines 1 Sweden 210 20 Israel 7 India 1 Austria 189 Notes: GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product, a measure of all goods and services produced. GDP figure for Taiwan is Gross National Product (GNP), a slightly different measure. Some California offices are meant to cover more territory than only the country in which they are located. California also has an office in South Africa (the largest market in Africa in terms of U.S. exports, California exports, and GDP) and an approved although not-yet-opened office in Armenia. Sources: For export figures, Massachusetts Institute for Social and Economic Research; for GDP figures, World Bank; for Taiwan GNP figure, Economic Development, Taiwan, Republic of China, 2002, Council for Economic Planning and Development, Taipei; and for California State Office locations, California Technology, Trade and Commerce Agency. - 11 - PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA Board of Directors Raymond L. Watson, Chairman Vice Chairman of the Board The Irvine Company William K. Coblentz Senior Partner Coblentz, Patch, Duffy & Bass, LLP Edward K. Hamilton Chairman Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities David W. Lyon President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Cheryl White Mason Chief, Civil Liability Management Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office Arjay Miller Dean Emeritus Graduate School of Business Stanford University Ki Suh Park Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates A. Alan Post Former State Legislative Analyst State of California Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Thomas C. Sutton Chairman & CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company Cynthia A. Telles Department of Psychiatry UCLA School of Medicine Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center Harold M. Williams President Emeritus The J. Paul Getty Trust and Of Counsel Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP Advisory Council Mary C. Daly Research Advisor Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Clifford W. Graves General Manager Department of Community Development City of Los Angeles Elizabeth G. Hill Legislative Analyst State of California Hilary W. Hoynes Associate Professor Department of Economics University of California, Davis Andrés E. Jiménez Director California Policy Research Center University of California Office of the President Daniel A. Mazmanian C. Erwin and Ione Piper Dean and Professor School of Policy, Planning, and Development University of Southern California Dean Misczynski Director California Research Bureau Rudolf Nothenberg Chief Administrative Officer (Retired) City and County of San Francisco Manuel Pastor Professor, Latin American & Latino Studies University of California, Santa Cruz Peter Schrag Contributing Editor The Sacramento Bee James P. Smith Senior Economist RAND PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 San Francisco, California 94111 Phone: (415) 291-4400 Fax: (415) 291-4401 www.ppic.org info@ppic.org" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:36:49" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(10) "op_703hsop" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:36:49" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:36:49" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(52) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/OP_703HSOP.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }