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object(Timber\Post)#3742 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "R_613HJR.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(7) "1476135" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(69269) "www.ppic.org Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree J u n e 2 013 Hans Johnson • Marisol Cuellar Mejia • David Ezekiel Betsey Zeiger Supported with funding from the Donald Bren Foundation SUMMARY S kyrocketing tuition and fees, increasing student debt, and a weak economy have led many to wonder whether the benefts of going to college are worth the costs. More students than ever are taking on student loans—a troubling trend that suggests that college is becoming less accessible to many students, even as our economy requires greater numbers of highly educated workers. In this report, we review the status of undergraduate student debt in California and consider it in light of the economic benefts of attaining a col- lege degree. We fnd that student debt has increased notably in recent years. In 2010, almost half of California freshmen took out a student loan—ten years earlier, only one-third did so. More - over, the size of those loans has increased. The average loan amount for freshmen in California increased 36 percent (adjusted for infation) between 2005 and 2010, reaching almost $8,000 for that frst year alone. Students at private colleges are much more likely than students at the state’s public colleges to take out loans, and the amounts of those loans are substantially higher at private institutions. Of particular concern are students at private for-proft colleges. Almost all students attending those institutions take out loans, and the loan amounts are higher than at any other type of institution. Despite the increase in debt, college is a good investment for the vast majority of stu - dents. Labor market outcomes, including employment and wages, remain far better for col - lege graduates than for less educated workers, and all but the lowest-paid college graduates PEATHEGEE INC./BLEND IMAGES/ COR BIS Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 2 www.ppic.org earn sufcient wages to pay of average debts. However, certain students do not fare so well. Those who do not fnish college have far lower earning potential than those who do. And a small share of students take out massive loans and have trouble paying them back. Default rates are particularly high for students who attend private for-proft colleges. By keeping tuition low in the past (and even now at community colleges) and, more recently, by expanding grant aid to those attending public institutions, California policy- makers and higher education ofcials have ensured that student debt is lower in California than in the rest of the United States. Relatively high graduation rates coupled with strong labor market outcomes have kept default rates on student loans very low for attendees of the University of California and the California State University, and at almost all private non- proft colleges. Eforts by policymakers to limit state aid to institutions with poor student out - comes, including high student loan default rates, should continue. Almost all of the poorly performing schools are private for-proft institutions. In an era with seemingly ever-increasing college tuition, the state should fnd additional ways to make college afordable for greater numbers of Californians. Improving pathways from community colleges, with their very low tuition, to four-year colleges should be a high priority. The new associate degree for transfer is a step in the right direction. Finding ways to help families save for college should be another state priority. One option would be to create a college savings program that guarantees full tuition at the state’s public universities. Numerous states have adopted such programs, and hundreds of thousands of families are participating in them. Finally, to keep costs down, state policymakers and higher education ofcials need to ensure adequate funding of higher education institutions, as well as efciency in the delivery of higher education. Online oferings are one—as yet unproven—possibility for efciency gains. Ultimately, the signifcance of a college education is larger than the gains enjoyed by any one person. California’s future prosperity depends on public policies that promote college enrollment and completion for increasing numbers of Californians. For the full report and related resources, please visit our publication page: www.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=1056 3 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org Introduction Recent rapid increases in student debt are troubling for a number of reasons. Some have posited that the total amount of student debt has become so large that it will have serious economic consequences, a kind of sequel to the mortgage debt crisis that led to the Great Recession. Another concern is that increasing college costs, coupled with uncertainties about the labor market, will deter stu- dents from attending college, even as long-term projections show strong increases in the demand for greater numbers of highly educated workers. Indeed, lowered rates of college enrollment could have harmful long-term efects on the economy, as employers would not be able to fnd the skilled workers they need, and less skilled individuals would not be able to fnd the work they need. PPIC has projected that by 2025, Cali- fornia will face a shortage of one million workers with at least a bachelor’s degree, and others have identifed an even greater shortage of workers with other kinds of post- secondary education (Johnson and Sengupta 2009; Cali- fornia Competes 2012). Te cost of attending public colleges and universities has risen primarily because states have withdrawn fscal support, not because the institutions are becoming less efcient. In California, reductions in state support have been unprecedented, with total general-fund contributions to the University of California (UC), the California State University (CSU), and the community colleges falling by one-third between 2001–02 and 2011–12. Tese reductions have occurred even as enrollment has increased. 1 Tuition and fees have risen dramatically (Figure 1), but not enough to make up for the loss in state revenue. 2 As a result, UC and CSU spend less per capita to educate Today, nearly half of California freshmen take out student loans, a sharp increase from one-third just ten years ago. KEV IN DODGE/ COR BIS SOURCES: University of California Ofce of the President and California State University Chancellor’s Ofce. Figure 1. Tuition and fees have risen dramatically $ thousands 12 6 2009–10 2003–04 1997–98 1991–92 1985–86 1981–82 1983–84 1987–88 1989–90 1993–94 1995–96 1999–00 2001–02 2005–06 2007–08 2011–12 1979–80 4 2 14 0 10 8$ thousands 12 6 2009–10 2003–04 1997–98 1991–92 1985–86 1981–82 1983–84 1987–88 1989–90 1993–94 1995–96 1999–00 2001–02 2005–06 2007–082011–121979–80 4 2 14 0 10 8 UC tuition and fees, 1979–2012 CSU tuition and fees, 1979–2012 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 4 www.ppic.org students today than they did just a few years ago. Califor- nians are worried about the afordability of higher educa- tion, and the governor has recently attended meetings of the CSU trustees and the UC regents, urging no additional increases in tuition. Student debt is an especially strong concern of Californians, with 78 percent agreeing that “students have to borrow too much money to pay for their college education” (Baldassare et al. 2011).In this report, we examine undergraduate student debt in light of employment and other labor market outcomes of college graduates in California. First, we examine trends in student debt—the numbers of students taking out loans, the size of those loans, and rates of default. Next, we look at a range of labor market outcomes, including employment, wages, and lifetime earnings, for those with education levels from less than high school to graduate degrees. We also consider the economic returns to particular college majors. Finally, we suggest a number of ways that public policy can address student debt and support college-going in California. How Has Student Debt Changed? Student debt has increased dramatically over the past few years. More students are taking out loans, and the size of those loans has increased, even afer adjusting for infa- tion. Te type of institution students attend largely deter- mines their borrowing patterns. 3 For example, the share of students taking out loans and loan amounts themselves are much higher at private colleges, especially for-proft private colleges, than at public colleges. Te good news for California is that students in the state are less likely than students in the rest of the country to take out loans. An important factor in this diference is the large role the public sector plays in higher education in California. A relatively large share of college students in California attend low-cost community colleges. Te Cal-Grant program and grants provided by UC and CSU also help to keep loan burdens lower than in the rest of the country. Still, the rise in student debt in California has prompted concern among policymakers, educators, and families. Measuring student debt In this study, analyses of student debt are derived primarily from two sources. To examine trends and levels of student debt across time, we rely on institutional data collected by the federal government and made available from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) via the Delta Cost Project Database. These data provide the most comprehensive and consistent information on student debt across time, institu - tions, and states but are limited to summary data based on frst-time full-time freshmen. 4 One advantage of focusing on frst-time full-time freshmen is that these students are likely to be the group most responsive to changes in the fnancial demands of attending college. To examine determinants of student debt and to iden - tify students with very high levels of debt, we use individual records from the Beginning Postsecondary Survey (BPS). The BPS follows a national cohort of college students for six years, providing detailed individual-level data from a relatively lim- ited sample (16,000 participants) of students frst entering col- lege in 2003–04. The BPS data allow us to identify California residents at California colleges. Loans other than education loans, such as home equity loans taken out by parents, are not included in the datasets. 5 Other sources of institutional data that we rely on provide additional measures of student debt, including total debt of recent graduates, but they are less comprehensive across time and institutions (the Common Data Set, for example). The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) provides institutional measures of debt of all enrolled students (rather than only frst-time full-time freshmen), but the most recent NPSAS data are from 2007–08. Technical Appendix A describes our methods and provides further details about the data. The increase in student loans has been particularly sharp in recent years, coinciding with tuition hikes at UC and CSU. 5 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org In this section, we examine the share of students tak- ing out loans and the amount of those loans. We focus on patterns among frst-time freshmen, but we note other measures as well (see “Measuring student debt”). We also consider the role of diferent types of higher education institutions (see “Te higher education sector”). What Proportion of Students Take Out Loans? Just ten years ago, less than one-third of California fresh- men took out student loans; today, almost half do so (Figure 2). Te increase in student loans has been particu- larly sharp in recent years, coinciding with tuition hikes at UC and CSU. But other factors are also at work—in particular, a rise in the share of students attending private for-proft institutions, where student loans are especially ubiquitous. 6 In California, the vast majority of undergraduates, including frst-time freshmen, attend one of the state’s public colleges (UC, CSU, or a community college). Both nationally and in California, students at public institutions are less likely than those at private institutions to take out 2009200820072006200520042003200220012000 2010 SOURCE: Authors’ calculations based on IPEDS Delta Cost institutional data for frst-time full-time freshmen; institutional classifcation based on Carnegie 2005 classifcations. Figure 2. Nearly half of frst-year students in California take out loans Percentage 80 70 60 30 45 20 10 90 0 50 40Private for-proft colleges Private non-proft colleges All colleges Public four-year colleges 39 59 78 The higher education sector We consider several diferent sectors of undergraduate higher education in this report, including • Public four-year colleges and universities. In California, these are the UC campuses and the CSU campuses. In 2010, almost one-third (31%) of full-time freshmen in California attended one of these campuses. 7 • Public two-year colleges. In California, these are the com - munity colleges. Slightly less than half (45%) of full-time freshmen in California in 2010 attended a community college. • Private non-profit colleges and universities. These include dozens of colleges in California ranging in size from the University of Southern California, with over 15,000 under- graduates, to very small colleges with fewer than 500 undergraduates. Overall, only 10 percent of full-time fresh- men in California in 2010 attended a private non-proft institution. • Private for-profit colleges and universities. The three larg- est for-proft educational institutions in California are the University of Phoenix, the Academy of Art University, and DeVry University. In 2010, 14 percent of full-time freshmen in California attended a for-proft college. a loan. Moreover, students at public colleges in California are less likely than students at public colleges elsewhere to take out a loan. Tis diference is especially pronounced for community college students—in California, only 4 percent of community college freshmen took out loans, compared with 21 percent nationally. Tis diference is large but not surprising, given that California’s community colleges have the lowest fees in the country and waive those fees for a large share of low-income students. 8 Te small share of students taking out loans at public four-year colleges in California can be wholly attributed to CSU. At CSU, only 33 percent of full-time freshmen took out a loan in 2010, compared with almost half (47%) of freshmen at UC. Lower tuitions help explain the relatively small share of CSU students with loans. 9 Notably, however, the share of students taking out loans at the state’s public research universities (including most of the UC campuses) is similar to the share doing so at public research universi- ties elsewhere in the country. 10 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 6 www.ppic.org Private colleges tend to be more expensive than public colleges. Consequently, the share of students taking out loans at these institutions is much higher. In 2010, 59 per - cent of full-time freshmen at private non-proft colleges in California took out loans, compared with only 39 percent of freshmen at public four-year colleges. 11 Te share of full-time freshmen taking out loans is particularly high at private for- proft colleges—about 80 percent. Even when we control for student demographic and economic characteristics, students at private colleges, especially for-proft colleges, are much more likely to take out loans than those at public colleges. 12 Aside from the type of college a student attends, what factors predict student borrowing? Time in college mat- ters most: Te longer students remain in college, the more likely they are to take out a loan. Also, students with less educated parents and those from low-income families are much more likely to take out loans than otherwise similar students. Children of immigrants and Asian Americans are less likely to take out loans, while African Americans are more likely to do so. 13 How Large Are Student Loans? Not only are more California students taking out loans, the amount they borrow has also increased. Between 2005 and 2010, average loan amounts among full-time freshmen rose 36 percent, even afer adjusting for infation (Figure 3). Loan amounts vary tremendously between public and private colleges. Average loan amounts for freshmen at private for-proft colleges are almost double those for students at public four-year colleges. In 2010, frst-year students at private for-proft colleges had loans averaging $9,189, while frst-year student loans at public four-year colleges averaged $5,289. In general, loan amounts at California’s public colleges are relatively modest. Indeed, freshmen at California’s pub- lic four-year colleges have lower loan amounts than their counterparts at public colleges in the rest of the country. Average loan amounts are slightly higher at UC than at CSU. But what happens afer that frst year? How does stu- dent debt accumulate? We looked at debt levels in 2009 for students who had entered college six years earlier. 14 Te median accumulated debt for students who had attended a public four-year college in California was $14,600. For those who attended a private non-proft college, the median was $25,500. And for those who attended a private for- proft college, the median was $12,000 (Table 1). One of the strongest predictors of accumulated debt is the amount of time a student spends in college—more time correlates with higher debt. Although time to degree has declined at UC and CSU, a large share of students take more than four years to complete their degrees. Te lower accumulated median debt among students who attended a private for-proft college may seem surpris - ing, given that we found higher loan amounts among fresh - men at those colleges. But students attending these schools are much less likely to fnish their degrees and therefore spend less time in college. When we control for years spent in school, we fnd that students at private institutions—both non-proft and for-proft—acquire substantially more debt than those at public colleges. 15 In fact, students at private col - leges, including for-proft colleges, are much more likely to take on large amounts of debt than those at public colleges. Private for-proft colleges Private non-proft colleges All colleges Public four-year colleges Figure 3. Loan amounts in California are highest at private for-proft colleges SOURCE: Authors’ calculations based on IPEDS Delta Cost institutional data for frst-time full-time freshmen; institutional classifcation based on Carnegie 2005 classifcations. NOTES: Sample restricted to students with loans. Loan amounts are converted into 2011 dollars using the CPI-U. Loan amount ($ thousands) 9 7 6 3 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 2010 2 1 10 0 8 5 4 7,783 5,289 7,591 9,189 7 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org For example, 10 percent of students at private non-proft colleges in California accumulate at least $53,000 in debt, compared with $45,800 at private for-proft colleges and only $26,000 at public colleges (Table 1). Tese patterns hold true even when we control for a variety of student character - istics, including family income, and for net tuition costs. We fnd that, among students at four-year colleges, Asian and Latino students are less likely than others to take on debt and less likely to take on large amounts of debt. In addition, students who attend colleges with high tuition (not ofset by grants) are more likely to take on excessive debt. (See Technical Appendix C for full results.) Default Rates Many are concerned that student debt may constitute a future credit crisis similar to the recent crisis in the hous- ing market. One way to assess the urgency of this concern is to look at default rates. According to the U.S. Depart- ment of Education, which calculates borrower default rates by institution for federal student loans, California’s default rates are similar to the national average but have risen sharply in recent years. Default rates are very low at UC, CSU, and private non-proft colleges in California but quite high at commu- nity colleges and private for-proft institutions (Table 2). Te share of community college students who take out loans is extremely low, so even though the default rates are high, the number of students involved is quite small. In contrast, students at private for-proft institutions make up 49 percent of students in default, although they account for only about 10 percent of all enrolled students in the state. 16 Clearly, the students most at risk of defaulting are those who attend private for-proft institutions. In general, students who attend for-proft colleges appear to be at risk of not making strong returns on their college investment. Specifc information for California is hard to come by, but one study based on national data sug- gests that these students have annual wage earnings $1,800 to $2,000 lower than they would have had if they had gone to a public or non-proft institution (Deming, Goldin, and Katz 2012). Te same study found that beginning students at for-proft institutions accumulate larger student debt, are more likely to default on their student loans, and have poorer employment outcomes in the medium term. In addition, completion rates of students at for-proft insti- tutions are much lower than those of students starting in four-year public and non-proft schools (an estimated 12-percentage-point completion defcit for students start - ing bachelor’s programs at for-proft institutions). Tese diferences are signifcant even afer adjusting for student characteristics (for-proft institutions disproportion - ately attract minority, older, independent, and disadvantaged Table 1. Students at private colleges take on more debt Accumulated debt ($) 10th percentile 25th percentile50th percentile 75th percentile 90th percentile California 3,800 9,500 15,000 25,000 40,000 Public four-year 3,000 9,700 14,600 19, 8 0 0 26,000 Private non-proft 4,800 11,1 0 0 25,500 41,9 0 0 53,000 Private for-proft 3,400 5,400 12,000 29,000 45,800 Rest of U .S. 4,200 9,900 17,1 0 0 28,000 42,900 Public four-year 3,700 8,500 16,500 25,000 39,800 Private non-proft 6,000 12,300 20,000 3 4 ,10 0 49,900 Private for-proft 4,200 9,900 16 , 8 0 0 29,500 45,000 SOURCE: Authors’ estimates based on the BPS. NOTE: Based on 2009 data for a sample of students with loans who entered four-year colleges as freshmen in 2003–04. Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 8 www.ppic.org students). Students who begin at for-proft colleges are also less likely to state that their education was worth the amount they paid for it and less likely to think their student loans were a worthwhile investment, according to the same study. Is College Still Worth It? For students who cannot aford college without taking out loans, the key economic question is whether it is better to go into debt to attend college or go to work directly out of high school. Te answer depends a great deal on how much a college degree can improve one’s wages and employ- ment prospects. In this section, we examine labor market outcomes—wages, employment, and lifetime earnings— for a range of education levels. We also break down wages according to college major and look at the wages of indi- viduals who earn more than a bachelor’s degree. Employment Te Great Recession and subsequent slow recovery have hurt the employment and wage prospects of college gradu- ates, but workers with a college degree still fare far better in the labor market than less educated workers. Indeed, diferences in unemployment rates between highly edu- cated and less educated workers are wider now than they were before the recession. Pre-recession, the unemploy - ment rate for workers with only a high school education was 5.4 percent, 2.6 percentage points above the rate for those with a bachelor’s degree. By 2012, the unemployment rate was 12.1 percent for high school graduates and 7.2 per- cent for four-year college graduates—a 5-percentage-point diference (Figure 4). 17 For new entrants to the labor market, the distinctions are even sharper. Te unemployment rate of high school graduates 18 to 22 years of age increased from 16.9 percent in 2007 to 29 percent in 2011, while for four-year college graduates 22 to 26 years of age, the unemployment rate increased from 6.7 percent to 10.5 percent. 18 Table 2. Half of California students in default attended private for-profit colleges Number of institutions Students in defaultStudents in repayment Default rate (%) Public 15 48,40612 8 , 0 0 9 6.6 UC 1175933,690 2.3 CSU 233,300 66,205 5.0 Community colleges 1144,326 2 7, 9 5 2 15 . 5 Private non-proft 13 64 ,1138 8 ,141 4.7 Private for-proft 23812 , 2 11 12 6 ,174 9.7 California total 52824,730 342,324 7. 2 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, “Ofcial Cohort Default Rates for Schools.” NOTES: Ofcial two-year cohort default rates published for schools participating in Title IV student fnancial assistance programs. See Appendix E for more information. State summary tables show similar statistics. Total includes institutions that do not grant degrees. SOURCE: Authors’ analysis of Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement. NOTE: Civilian population 25 years old and older. Figure 4. Less educated Californians face higher unemployment rates Unemployment rate (percentage) 16 12 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 8 4 20 0 12.1 10.8 7.2 16.7 5.4 5.4 3.9 2.8 8.8 2.3 Less than high school High school diploma Some college/ associate degree Bachelor’s degree Graduate degree 9 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org Not only are college graduates more likely to be employed, they are also more likely to end up in jobs with greater stabil - ity. Among full-time year-round workers, 24.1 percent have a bachelor’s degree and 18.7 percent have a high school diploma only. 19 In contrast, among those who work less than full-time year round, 18.7 percent have a bachelor’s degree and 19.8 percent have a high school diploma only. Underemployment is much higher among those with less education. Underemployed workers include those who are unemployed but actively seeking employment, poten- tial workers who want work and are able to work but are not actively looking for a job, and part-time workers who want full-time work but cannot fnd it due to economic reasons. High school graduates have an underemployment rate of 23 percent, while those with a bachelor’s degree or higher have an underemployment rate of 11.8 percent. 20 Finally, labor force participation is lower among those with a high school diploma only. Among people 25 to 64 years of age, 72 percent of those who had completed high school (but did not attend college) participated in the civil- ian labor force in 2012, compared with 83 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree. A recent study found that over the course of their working lives, adults with a bachelor’s degree or more will spend 6.8 more years employed than those with a high school diploma only (Stiles, Hout, and Brady 2012). Wages Measuring the causal efect of college on wages is difcult. In this analysis, we use the standard ordinary least-squares approach to estimate wage diferentials between college graduates and high school graduates controlling for per- sonal characteristics. Research evidence suggests that this approach overestimates the efect of college on an indi- vidual’s earnings, given that wage earnings potentially correlate with unobservable characteristics that determine education choice (for example, higher skilled people are more likely to attend and fnish college). However, a thor- ough survey of the literature suggests that this upward bias is rather small—about 10 percent. 21 On average, college graduates earn signifcantly higher wages than those with a high school diploma only, a phe- nomenon known as the college wage premium. In Califor- nia, the college wage premium increased rapidly through the 1980s and 1990s. Tis growth occurred even as the share of workers with a bachelor’s degree grew. During the 2000s, the premium has experienced a much slower rate of growth but has persisted at historically high levels. Tese trends are not unique to California—they are also occur- ring nationally. In 1990, a woman with a bachelor’s degree working in California earned 39.1 percent more than one who had only a high school diploma (Figure 5). In the case of male work - ers, the diference was 36.7 percent. By 2011, the diference had grown to 57.3 percent for women and 56.5 percent for men. Tis means more than an 18-percentage-point increase over a 20-year period. (In the rest of the nation, college wage premiums are slightly lower, and the increase between 1990 and 2010 was more modest.) SOURCE: Authors‘ analysis of the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census and 2009–2011 multiyear ACS. NOTES: Full-time year-round workers ages 25 to 64. See Technical Appendices B and D for more information. Figure 5. The returns to a college education have grown signifcantly Women Men Wage premium relative to high school graduates (percentage) 60 50 40 30 20 10 70 0 California Rest of U.S. California Rest of U.S. 19 9 0 2000 2 011 Diferences in unemployment rates between highly educated and less educated workers are wider now than they were before the recession. Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 10 www.ppic.org Workers with an associate degree and even those with some college education but no degree still enjoy an impor- tant wage premium over those who completed only high school. Wage premiums for those who earn a graduate degree are even higher, between 75 percent and 105 per- cent over the premiums for those who earn a high school diploma only (Figure 6). Do College Majors Matter? Wages vary tremendously depending on the worker’s col- lege major (Figure 7). At the high end, those with an engi- neering degree earn a median annual wage of $96,000. At the low end, those with a degree in education administra- tion and teaching have a median annual wage of $57,000. But even this lower amount is substantially more than the wages of those with a high school diploma only—their median annual wage is $39,000. 22 Regardless of major, there is a wide disparity in wages between the highest- and lowest-paid college graduates. For example, annual wages for someone with a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts range from $48,000 to $90,000 (com- paring graduates at the 10th percentile of the wage distri- bution with those at the 90th percentile). For those with an engineering degree, the range is even wider, from $65,400 to $124,200. Given these wide ranges, it is dif cult for students to easily predict their future wages and therefore to weigh the economic value of a college degree and their ability to pay back loans. Furthermore, some high school graduates are high earners, and some college graduates are low earners. 23 A worker with a college degree who is at the bottom of the wage distribution could very well earn less than a high- wage worker with only a high school diploma. For exam- ple, 15.6 percent of high school graduates earn more than education majors, who are at the bottom (the 25th per- centile) of their wage distribution. T e share of high-wage high school graduates (the 90th percentile) who earn more than low-wage college-educated workers (the 10th percen- tile) varies from 8.5 percent to 42.7 percent, depending on major. But for every major, the median wage of high school graduates is below that of college-educated workers. Not only is there a wide disparity in wages among the most highly paid and least highly paid college graduates, the gap has grown over time. Wages at the higher percen- tiles have grown faster than those at the bottom of the wage distribution. T is increase in wage inequality among SOURCE: Authors’ analysis of the 2009–2011 multiyear ACS. NOTES: Full-time year-round California workers ages 25 to 64. See Technical Appendices B and D for more information. Figure 6. All levels of higher education confer signifcant wage premiums 100 80 60 40 20 0 –20 –40 Professional degree Master’s degree Bachelor’s degree Associate degree Some college Less than high school Doctorate 120 Men Women Wage premium relative to high school graduates (percentage) 92.4 105.4 95.9 79.0 75.8 56.5 57.3 26.5 30.7 19.7 18.3 –21.6 90.0 –27.9 SOURCE: Authors’ analysis of the 2009–2011 multiyear ACS. NOTES: Full-time year-round California workers ages 25 to 64. See Technical Appendices B and D for more information. Figure 7. Wages vary tremendously depending on the worker’s college major Engineering Computer science Business Social science, law Science, medicine Liberal artsOther Education High school only 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 Annual wages ($) Percentiles 10th–24th 25th–49th 50th–74th 75th–90th 75th–90th 11 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org college graduates could be due to an increase in the dispar- ity of skills or to dispersion in labor market demand for college graduates. 24 Lifetime Earnings and the Cost of College Te diference between the wages earned by higher- and lower-educated workers compounds over a lifetime. A typical California worker with only a high school diploma can expect to earn about $1 million over a 40-year work life. A worker with a bachelor’s degree can expect to earn $1.9 million. 25 In addition, lifetime earnings across college majors vary substantially. Te estimated 40-year work-life earnings of workers with only a bachelor’s degree range from $1.36 million for those with a degree in education administration and teaching to $2.27 million for those with a degree in engineering. 26 How does the cost of college stack up against these lifetime earnings? And how much income do students lose by paying for college rather than earning money right of high school? Te average individual return to education is only one component in a full analysis of the private returns to education, which would have to balance individual costs against a fow of such returns over a working life. Tuition and fees vary signifcantly depending on where students attend college. Currently, the estimated gross expenses for tuition and fees at a four-year public institu- tion in California are about $52,800. Tis fgure is an upper threshold, as it does not take into account grant aid and fed - eral income tax benefts. For most students, out-of-pocket expenses are signifcantly lower. Let us assume that a student completes a bachelor’s degree in four years. Te median wage for a high school graduate in prime college-going years is $20,300 a year, which means that someone pursuing a bachelor’s degree will forgo about $81,300 in earnings. 27 When the cost of attend - ing college and the forgone earnings are subtracted from the lifetime wage gains that college graduates experience, the net payof of pursuing a bachelor’s degree is still signifcant, varying on average from $0.24 million to $1.15 million dur - ing a hypothetical 40-year working life (Figure 8). 28 As this exercise shows, the economic returns of attaining a bachelor’s degree are, on average, quite large regardless of major. Average loan debts are relatively low in comparison with the average economic returns to earning a college degree; consequently, paying back student loans should not pose a huge fnancial problem for the typical college graduate. Still, some students and their families might have trepidation about taking out loans because of uncertainty about future wages. Graduates in the least remunerative majors who are at the bottom of the wage distribution and have large student debts may very well have difculty pay- ing back their loans. Tose who took out loans for college but never graduated are at higher risk still. Even though our estimates suggest that the typical college graduate will enjoy a signifcant wage premium over the individual with The economic returns of attaining a bachelor’s degree are, on average, quite large regardless of major. SOURCE: Authors’ analysis of the 2009–2011 multiyear ACS. NOTES: California workers ages 25 to 64. See Technical Appendices B and D for more information. Figure 8. Lifetime wage diferences between college graduates and high school graduates vary by major Net payof of a college education relativeto a high school diploma ($ millions) 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 1.4 0 Engineering Computerscience Business Social science, law Science, medicine Liberal arts OtherEducation Full-time year-round workers All people with earnings Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 12 www.ppic.org a high school diploma only, there are, of course, no guar- antees. Te recent increases in student debt are worrisome in part because it is difcult to predict where in the wage distribution a college graduate will end up—which inevita- bly afects his or her ability to make good on student loans. Policy Recommendations A highly educated and highly skilled population confers both public and private benefts. Research has shown strong public returns (including higher tax revenues) to public investments in higher education in California (Stiles, Hout, and Brady 2012). Nevertheless, the state has increasingly shifed the burden of paying for higher education from the state to the student, and even gaining access to college has become more difcult (Bohn, Reyes, and Johnson 2013; Johnson 2012). For growing numbers of students, loans are an essential component of fnancing a college education. Tis report has shown that for most students, future incomes will be sufcient to repay student loans. Indeed, if taking out loans allows a student to enroll in and com- plete college, assuming debt can be a very smart economic choice. In such cases, public policy should seek to provide more opportunities for students by making loans more available and afordable. However, student debt can be a problem if graduates are not able to pay back their loans— especially if they cannot pay of their loans because they received a low-quality education and/or took on an exorbi- tant amount of debt. Public policy should seek to fnd ways to prevent such outcomes. Of particular concern are students at private for-proft colleges. Labor market outcomes are worse and debt levels much higher for these students. In contrast, most students who attend private non-proft and public four-year colleges have quite manageable student debt, and their labor market outcomes tend to be stronger. In recognition of these dif - ferences, policymakers and higher education ofcials have enacted new requirements that limit institutional eligibility for grants and loans. For example, the California state leg - islature has recently required higher education institutions to meet specifed default rates and graduation rates in order to participate in the Cal Grant program. 29 Eforts by policy - makers to limit state aid to institutions with poor student outcomes, including high debt loads, should continue. In many ways, California has done a good job of help- ing students aford college. Higher education policies have until recently kept tuition low at UC and CSU. In addition, as tuition has increased, more grant aid has been provided for low-income students. California’s policy of directing many students to community colleges rather than the more expensive public four-year colleges has also kept debt levels in check. 30 However, tuition has continued to increase rapidly, and many students still need loans. Some have suggested that the state establish its own loan program, as several other states have done. Massachusetts, for example, has estab- lished an educational fnancing authority that ofers low- cost loans to students attending college in the state. Te authority is self-fnancing and issues bonds to generate the initial capital required to fund the program. Interest rates on the loans it provides are lower than those for unsubsi- dized loans, and repayment periods can be longer. While there might be merit in developing such a program in California, a better option is to ensure greater use of federal student loans, as well as federal and state grants. Providing accurate information to students is key. One study indicates that a majority of undergraduates with private loans (which tend to be risky and expensive) could have taken out more in federal loans. 31 Income-based repayment plans are an important component of federal student loans that allow students to repay their debt even if their wages are relatively modest. In addition, California could create programs to encourage parents to save more money for their children’s education. State prepaid savings programs are one option (see Technical Appendix F). In Florida, for example, more than 300,000 students have attended college under a pre- paid savings plan. For such programs to be successful, the state must make accurate actuarial projections and its pub- lic colleges must have agreements with it regarding future funding and tuition. 13 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org Increasing efciencies in higher education is yet another way to lower student debt. Improving completion rates and decreasing time to degree (or time to transfer) are two of the most important efciency gains policymakers and higher education ofcials can pursue, since the more quickly students complete their education, the lower their loan amounts are likely to be. Several eforts in these areas are under way or have been proposed recently, including eforts by the community colleges (based on recommenda- tions of the Student Success Task Force), CSU’s graduation initiative, and the governor’s proposal to eliminate state funding for students who have excessive units. Te ef- cacy of these eforts should be monitored on an ongoing basis. Of course, it is important to keep in mind that recent increases in tuition at public colleges in California are not driven by increases in the cost of providing instruction to students but are instead attributable to a decline in state funding. (Colleges have only partially made up for the loss in state funding by charging higher tuition.) 32 Online ofer - ings have been suggested as another way to more efectively and efciently provide higher education courses. Online course oferings have increased dramatically, especially at California’s community colleges, but the efcacy and cost savings of online instruction still need to be determined. Te creation of a state higher education coordinat - ing body (as proposed by California Competes, a group of independent business and civic leaders) would help policy- For every dollar California spends on its public colleges, it receives more than four dollars in additional tax revenue generated by college graduates. makers plan for the future of higher education. Prioritiz- ing and targeting public investments in higher education should be informed by rigorous analyses based on good information and data, which a higher education agency could and should provide. Finally, the state’s primary goal in establishing any new fnancing program should be to encourage more students to enroll in and complete college. To the extent that college costs are preventing students from doing so, fnding ways to reduce those costs is essential for the state’s future prosperity. In the past, California provided large subsidies to students attending the state’s public colleges by providing general fund support to colleges for undergradu- ate instruction. Subsidies were so large that private con- tributions, through tuition and fees, made up only a very small share of the actual cost of a college education. Today, students at UC and CSU pay a large share of the cost of their education. Privatizing the cost of college attendance might not necessarily be a bad policy, given the state’s limited resources and the strong private returns to completing college. But it is important to remember that college graduates contribute enormously to the public good. One study estimates that for every dollar the state spends on its public colleges, it receives more than four dollars in additional tax revenue generated by college graduates (Stiles, Hout, and Brady 2012). Over time, California has seen strong intergenerational economic progress, fueled largely by improvements in col- lege enrollment and completion. It is perhaps no coincidence that at the same time the state has privatized more of the costs of attending UC and CSU, those generational gains have slowed and perhaps even ceased. California’s future prosperity depends on substantial increases in college enroll- ment and completion. Achieving those increases will require new eforts by state policymakers and higher education ofcials to make college accessible and afordable. Technical appendices to this report are available on the PPIC website: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/other/613HJR_appendix.pdf Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 14 www.ppic.org Notes 1 Between 2001–02 and 2011–12, state general funds for UC, CSU, and the community colleges were cut by $4 billion (in real terms). 2 One-third of the fee increases have been used to provide grants to low- and middle-income students, thereby reducing the net revenue generated by the increases. Tuition and fees have increased at the state’s private colleges and universities as well (see Technical Appendix A). 3 In this report, we focus primarily on public colleges, private non-proft colleges, and private for-proft colleges. We categorize these institutions into two-year colleges and four-year colleges; two-year colleges typically ofer associate degrees and vocational certifcates, and four-year colleges ofer bachelor’s degrees (and ofen graduate degrees). 4 Te Delta Cost Project Database provides institutional longi- tudinal data on the vast majority of colleges and universities in the country. Te data are assembled from IPEDS. Freshmen are identifed based on the location of the college, not necessarily the student’s state of residence. See Lenihan (2012) for details. 5 Most student loans are federal or institutional loans. Nation - wide, about 14 percent of undergraduates had private loans in 2007–08. Only 4 percent of students at public two-year colleges had private loans, compared with 42 percent of students at private for-proft colleges (TICAS 2011). Private student loans are included in the BPS data, but not loans to parents, such as home equity loans. 6 Between 2000 and 2010, the number of full-time freshmen at for-proft colleges in California almost doubled (growing 89%, compared with 43% for all other colleges in the state). Private for-proft college reports typically show more students with loans than full-tim efreshmen. Tose colleges typically have many part-time students and rolling enrollment, with students enrolling at many diferent dates. For them, we have used the reported percentage of students with loans (averaged across all institutions and weighted by each institution’s reporting of the number of full-time freshmen). 7 Authors’ calculations based on IPEDS Delta Cost institutional data for frst-time full-time freshmen. Sample restricted to two- year and four-year colleges. 8 Moreover, several California community colleges do not par- ticipate in federal student loan programs. 9 Students at CSU are less likely to receive grant aid than those at UC. In 2010, 64 percent of CSU full-time freshmen received either a federal, state, or institutional grant, compared with 72 percent at UC. 10 Based on the authors’ analyses using IPEDS data comparing public universities classifed by Carnegie as having the highest level of research activity. 11 Net tuition, taking into account institutional grants, is also higher at private colleges. 12 Based on the authors’ analyses using the BPS. See Technical Appendix C for details. 13 Based on the authors’ analyses using the BPS. See Technical Appendix C for details. 14 We analyzed data from the BPS to develop these fgures. See Technical Appendix B for a description of the data and methods. 15 Tis fnding holds true even if we consider only those who took out loans, a much less common practice at public colleges than at private colleges. See Technical Appendix C for details. 16 For-proft private colleges account for 14 percent of freshman enrollment. Tis is higher than the overall share of enrollment for these institutions partly because of higher dropout rates. 17 By high school graduates, we mean students who have com - pleted high school but have not attended college. By college grad - uates, we mean those who have completed a bachelor’s degree. 18 Based on American Community Survey (ACS) data. 19 American Community Survey 2011. 20 Based on data from the Economic Roundtable, accessed at w w w.economicrt.org/download/data_tools.html. 21 Our analysis of wage premiums relies on standard human- capital earnings functions. Specifcally, wage premiums are esti- mated using regressions of the log of annual wages on education categorical variables. Tese models are estimated separately by gender and year and control for potential experience and per- sonal characteristics such as race, ethnicity, marital status, and citizenship status. However, given the potential for the unob- servable characteristics that determine education choice to also be correlated with wage earnings, the estimated wage premiums reported in Figure 5 do not necessarily measure a purely causal efect of education. Estimation strategies that attempt to identify causal efects (controlling directly for unobserved ability, using 15 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org instrumental variables, relying on twins’ studies, etc.) also fnd a high and rising college wage premium. A thorough survey of the literature concludes that the average (or average marginal) return to education is not much below the estimate that emerges from a standard human-capital earnings function ft by ordinary least squares (OLS). Evidence from the latest studies of identical twins suggests a small upward “ability” bias in the OLS estimates— on the order of 10 percent (Card 1999). In our analysis, we treat separately those with only a bachelor’s degree and those with a graduate degree. Terefore, our estimates of the college wage premium could also be biased (downward) because of the selec- tion efect of not going on to earn a graduate degree. 22 See Technical Appendices B and D for details. Tese fgures are adjusted based on wage regressions that control for potential experience and personal characteristics. 23 One possible explanation for the great wage dispersion that exists among workers with comparable levels of education and experience is the complementarity between ability and education—if higher-ability persons earn more, this might explain the higher returns in the upper deciles of the wage distri - bution. Quantile regression techniques allow for heterogeneous returns and therefore are used to address the relation between education and wage inequality. Quantile regressions parsimoni - ously describe the entire conditional wage distribution. 24 Tere are many possible reasons for the increasing wage inequality among college graduates. For example, it could be the result of a demand-driven increase in the return to skills linked to school quality, intrinsic ability, efort, motivation, persever- ance, etc. Or it could be that the dispersion in unobserved skills may be growing over time. For example, if unobserved skills are more dispersed among older and more-educated workers, dispersion in unobserved skills could increase because of com- position efects linked to the aging and increasing educational achievement of the workforce (Lemieux 2006a). 25 We discount future earnings at an annual rate of 3 percent. Synthetic work-life earnings are estimated using one-point- in-time cross-sectional data, as opposed to following a single cohort from the start of the work life to the end. In other words, this methodology estimates the amounts that young workers will earn over the course of a hypothetical 40-year work life if they are paid in the same manner as older workers today. Tere- fore, these fgures are only suggestive and not predictive of accu- mulated future earnings, as earnings diferences observed today may not continue in the future. In addition, these estimates cannot account for an individual’s past partial employment or unemployment, which may reduce current full-time earnings. 26 Based on the authors’ analyses of 2009–2011 ACS. See Techni- cal Appendices B and D for more information. 27 Forgone earnings are equal to the median salary earned by a full-time year-round worker with a high school diploma 20 to 24 years of age, multiplied by four. Many students take longer than four years to earn a degree, in which case, forgone earnings would increase. 28 When people who work less than full time are included, the net payof decreases for all but the engineering and computer science majors, varying from $0.19 million to $1.29 million. 29 At the national level, the U.S. Department of Education has introduced a requirement that institutions receiving Title IV federal funding must adequately prepare graduates for gainful employment. State attorneys general and class-action plaintifs have also fled and settled lawsuits against institutions accused of deceptive and unfair business practices. Accrediting agen- cies also play a role in determining institutional eligibility. (See Technical Appendix F for a discussion of the state and national policy environments.) 30 As outlined in the state’s Master Plan for Higher Education, the top eighth of high school graduates are eligible for admission to UC and the top third are eligible for CSU. Community colleges provide higher education access to all other high school graduates. 31 See TICAS (2011), available at http://ticas.org/fles/pub/critical _choices.pdf, for an excellent discussion of the issue and best practices. 32 See Johnson (2012) for a discussion of budget cuts and expen- ditures at UC and CSU. References Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools. 2011. “Initial Grant of Accreditation Denied-Final Decision.” September 23. Available at w w w.acics.org/uploadedFiles /Actions/Institute_of_Medical_Education_Lanuage_for _webpage.pdf. ACIC S . See Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools. Bagley, Chris. 2008. “Student Lending Woes Kill 124 Jobs in Carmel Valley.” North County Times , May 14. Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 16 www.ppic.org Baldassare, Mark, Dean Bonner, Sonja Petek, and Jui Shrestha. 2011. “PPIC Statewide Survey: Californians and Higher Education.” Available at w w w.ppic.org/main/publication .asp?i=999. Bohn, Sarah, Belinda Reyes, and Hans Johnson. 2013. Te Impact of Budget Cuts on California’s Community Colleges . Public Policy Institute of California. Available at www.ppic .org /main/p ublication.asp?i=1048 . BPPE. See Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education. BPPVE. See Bureau for Private Postsecondary and Vocational Education. Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education. Various years. “Annual Report Summary.” Available at www.dca.ca.gov /webapps/bppe/annual_report.php. Bureau for Private Postsecondary and Vocational Education. 2005. “Initial Report: California Department of Consumer Afairs, Bureau for Private Postsecondary and Vocational Edu- cation Operations and Administrative Monitor.” Available at w w w.bppe.ca.gov/about_us/op_monitor_report.pdf. California Competes. 2012. “Te Credential Crunch.” Available at http://californiacompetes.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06 /CaCompetes_Credential_Crunch.pdf. Te California State University. 2012. “Measuring the Value of the CSU.” April 11. Available at www.calstate.edu/value/systemwide. California Student Aid Commission. FAQ. Available at www.csac .ca.gov/pubs/forms/grnt_frm/faqs_institutional_eligibility.pdf. Card, David. 1999. “Te Causal Efect of Education on Earn- ings.” In Handbook of Labor Economics , Ed. 1, Vol. 3, Ch. 30, 1801–1863. Available at w w w.stanford.edu/group/scspi/_media /pdf/Classic_Media/Card_1999_Education.pdf. Carnevale, Anthony, Jef Strohl, and Michelle Melton. 2011. “What’s It Worth? Te Economic Value of College Majors.” Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. Available at http://cew.georgetown.edu/whatsitworth. Cheeseman Day, Jennifer, and Eric C. Newburger. 2002. “Te Big Payof: Educational Attainment and Synthetic Estimates of Work-Life Earnings.” U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Reports. Available at www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-210.pdf. Cochrane, Debbie. 2012. “California’s Oversight of Private Postsecondary Education.” Testimony to the Assembly Higher Education Committee, Senate Business, Professions and Eco- nomic Development Committee Joint Legislative Oversight Hearing, February 14, 2012. Cochrane, Deborah Frankle, and Robert Shireman. 2008. “Denied, Community College Students Lack Access to Aford- able Loans.” Available at http://projectonstudentdebt.org/pub _view.php?idx=329. Deming, David J., Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence F. Katz. 2012. “Te For-Proft Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators?” Journal of Economic Perspectives , 26(1): 139–164. Federal Student Aid. 2010. “Exit: Counseling Guide for Federal Student Loan Borrowers.” Available at www.direct.ed.gov/pubs /exitcounselguide.pdf. Te Institute for College Access and Success. 2012a. “Making Loans Work: How Community Colleges Support Responsible Student Borrowing.” Available at http://ticas.org/fles/pub /Making _Loans_Work.pdf. Te Institute for College Access and Success. 2012b. “Student Debt and the Class of 2011.” Available at http:// projectonstudentdebt.org/fles/pub/classof2011.pdf. Te Institute for College Access and Success. 2011. “Critical Choices: How Colleges Can Help Students and Families Make Better Decisions about Private Loans.” Available at http://projectonstudentdebt.org/fles/pub/critical_choices.pdf. Johnson, Hans P. 2012. Defunding Higher Education: What Are the Efects on College Enrollment? Public Policy Institute of Cali- fornia. Available at w w w.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=988. Johnson, Hans P., and Ria Sengupta. 2009. Closing the Gap: Meeting California’s Need for College Graduates . Public Policy Institute of California. Available at w w w.ppic.org/main /publication.asp?i= 835. Julian, Tifany, and Robert Kominski. 2011. Education and Synthetic Work-Like Earnings Estimates . U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Reports. Available at w w w.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acs-14.pdf. Kinser, Kevin. 2006. From Main Street to Wall Street: Te Transformation of For-Proft Education . ASHE Higher Education Report Special Issue, 31(5): 1–155. LegInfo. 2012. “AB 2296 Bill Analysis.” Available at w w w.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/11-12/bill/asm/ab_2251-2300/ab_2296 _cfa_20120416_144008_asm_comm.html. 17 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org Lemieux, Tomas. 2006a. “Increasing Residual Wage Inequality: Composition Efects, Noisy Data, or Rising Demand for Skill?” Te American Economic Review , 96(3): 461–498. Lemieux, Tomas. 2006b. “Te Mincer Equation Tirty Years afer Schooling, Experience, and Earnings.” In S. Grossbard- Shechtman (ed.). Jacob Mincer, A Pioneer of Modern Labor Economics . Springer Verlag. Lenihan, Colleen. 2012. IPEDS Analytics: Delta Cost Project Database 1987–2010 . U.S. Department of Education and National Center for Education Statistics. NCES 2012-823. Available at http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012823.pdf. Mishel, Lawrence, Josh Bivens, Elise Gould, and Heidi Shier- holz. 2012. “Te State of Working America, 12th Edition.” A forthcoming Economic Policy Institute book. Cornell University Press. Available at http://stateofworkingamerica.org/subjects /overview/?reader. NPSAS. See U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Various dates. Ofce of the California Attorney General. 2009. “Brown and 11 States Force Loan Provider to Forgive $112.7 Million in Debts of Helicopter Flight School Students.” Press Release. October 27. Available at http://oag.ca.gov/news/press-releases/brown-and -11-states-force-loan-provider-forgive-1127-million-debts -helicopter. Perez, Erica. 2011. “Harris Seeks Millions in For-Proft Lawsuit.” California Watch , August 15. Available at http://californiawatch .org/dailyreport/harris-seeks-millions-proft-college-lawsuit-12070. Pew Research Center. 2011. “Is College Worth It? College Presi- dents, Public Assess Value and Mission of Higher Education.” Available at w w w.pewsocialtrends.org/fles/2011/05/higher-ed -report.pdf. Project on Student Debt. 2010. “Quick Facts About Student Debt.” Available at http://projectonstudentdebt.org/fles/File /Debt_Facts_and_Sources.pdf. San Francisco County Superior Court. 2011. “Settlement Agreement and Release.” August 15. Available at www.ccaclassactionsettlement.com/Documents/Settlement _Agreement_and_Release.pdf. Schmitt, John. 2003. Creating a Consistent Hourly Wage Series from the Current Population Survey’s Outgoing Rotation Group, 1979–2002 . Center for Economic and Policy Research. SEC. See U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Siebens, Julie, and Camille L. Ryan. 2012. Field of Bachelor’s Degree in the United States: 2009 . U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Reports. Stiles, Jon, Michael Hout, and Henry Brady. 2012. “California’s Fiscal Returns on Investment in Higher Education.” Research and Occasional Papers Series, Center for Studies in Higher Edu- cation. Available at http://cshe.berkeley.edu/publications/docs /ROPS.Stilesetal.ReturnOnInvestment.10.2.2012.pdf. TICAS. See Te Institute for College Access and Success. U.S. Department of Education. 2012a. “Five Percent of Career Training Programs Risk Losing Access to Federal Funds; 35 Percent Meet All Tree Standards Under Gainful Employ- ment Regulation.” June 26. Available at www.ed.gov/news /press-releases/fve-percent-career-training-programs-risk -losing-access-federal-funds-35-percen. U.S. Department of Education. 2012b. “Gainful Employment Operations Manual.” May 23. Available at www.ifap.ed.gov /GainfulEmploymentOperationsManual/attachments /GainfulEmploymentOperationsManualMasterFile.pdf. U.S. Department of Education. 2011. “Obama Administration Announces New Steps to Protect Students from Inefective Career College Programs.” June 2. Available at www.ed.gov /news/press-releases/gainful-employment-regulations. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 1995–96, 1999–2000, 2003–04, and 2007–08. National Postsecondary Student Aid Studies NPSAS:96, NPSAS:2000, NPSAS:04, and NPSAS:08. Available at http://nces.ed.gov /pubs2011/2011218.pdf. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2011. “Education Management Corporation. Form 10-Q.” Available at w w w.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/880059/000119312512046933 /d 277693d10q.ht m. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2012. “An Introduc- tion to 529 Plans.” Available at www.sec.gov/investor/pubs /intro529.htm. WA S C . See Te Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Te Western Association of Schools and Colleges. 2008. “Hand- book for Accreditation 2008.” Available at www.wascsenior.org /fles/Handbook _of_Accreditation.pdf. Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 18 www.ppic.org About the Authors Hans Johnson is co-director of research and a Bren fellow at the Public Policy Institute of Califor- nia. His work focuses on the dynamics of population change in California and policy implications of the state’s changing demography, with a focus on higher education. At PPIC, he has conducted research on education projections and workforce skills, population projections, international and domestic migration, and housing. Before joining PPIC as a research fellow, he was senior demogra- pher at the California Research Bureau, where he conducted research on population issues for the state legislature and the governor’s ofce. He has also worked as a demographer at the California Department of Finance, specializing in population projections. He holds a Ph.D. in demography from the University of California, Berkeley. Marisol Cuellar Mejia is a research associate at the Public Policy Institute of California’s Sacramento Center, where her work focuses on tracking economic and demographic trends that shape policy issues in the state. Her research interests include labor markets, housing, business climate, workforce skills, and higher education. Before joining PPIC, she worked at Colombia’s National Association of Financial Institutions as an economic analyst, concentrating on issues related to the manufacturing sector and small business. She has also conducted agricultural and commodity market research for the Colombian National Federation of Cofee Growers and the National Federation of Palm Oil Growers of Colombia. She holds an M.S. in agricultural and resource economics from the Univer- sity of California, Davis. David Ezekiel is a research associate at the Public Policy Institute of California. In 2010, he worked as a summer intern with PPIC’s survey team as part of a project sponsored by the California Endowment. Before joining PPIC, David worked as an intern at the City of Berkeley Public Health Division, where he worked on Latino health issues and the Heart 2 Heart community health survey. He holds a B.A. in public health from the University of California, Berkeley. Betsey Zeiger is a Ph.D. student in school organization and education policy at the University of California, Davis. Her research primarily focuses on higher education policy, particularly at Cali- fornia community colleges. She also teaches in the Hospitality, Recreation and Leisure Department at California State University, East Bay. Betsey holds a B.A. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley, and an M.A. in education from California State University, East Bay. Acknowledgments Te authors would like to acknowledge the helpful comments and reviews of Sandy Baum, Steve Boilard, Debbie Cochrane, Bob Gleeson, Eric McGhee, Patrick Murphy, and Robert Shireman of an earlier draf of this report. Lynette Ubois and Janet DeLand provided excellent editorial contributions. www.ppic.org Board of Directors GAR Y K . H ART, CHAIRFormer State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California MARK BALDASSAREPresident and CEO Public Policy Institute of California RUBEN BARRALESPresident and CEO GROW Elect MAR ÍA BLANCOVice President, Civic Engagement California Community Foundation BRIGITTE BRENAttorney ROBERT M. HERTZBERGPartner Mayer Brown, LLP W A LT E R B. HEWLETTChair, Board of Directors William and Flora Hewlett Foundation DONNA LUCASChief Executive Ofcer Lucas Public Afairs M AS MASUMOTOAuthor and farmer STEVEN A. MERKSAMERSenior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni, LLP KIM POLESEChairman ClearStreet, Inc. THOMAS C. SUT TONRetired Chairman and CEO Pacifc Life Insurance Company PPIC is a private operating foundation. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public ofce. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. © 2013 Public Policy Institute of California. All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the above copyright notice is included. Research publications refect the views of the authors and do not necessarily refect the views of the staf, ofcers, or Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data are available for this publication. I S B N 978 -1-5 8213 -15 4 -2 PUBLIC POLIC Y INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone 415.291.4400 Fa x 415 . 2 91. 4 4 01 PPIC S ACRAMENTO CENTER Senator Ofce Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 Telephone 916.440.1120 Fax 916.440.1121 Additional resources related to education policy are available at www.ppic.org. The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research." } ["___content":protected]=> string(102) "

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" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(89) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/student-debt-and-the-value-of-a-college-degree/r_613hjr/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8870) ["ID"]=> int(8870) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:41:37" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(4283) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(8) "R 613HJR" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(8) "r_613hjr" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(12) "R_613HJR.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(7) "1476135" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(69269) "www.ppic.org Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree J u n e 2 013 Hans Johnson • Marisol Cuellar Mejia • David Ezekiel Betsey Zeiger Supported with funding from the Donald Bren Foundation SUMMARY S kyrocketing tuition and fees, increasing student debt, and a weak economy have led many to wonder whether the benefts of going to college are worth the costs. More students than ever are taking on student loans—a troubling trend that suggests that college is becoming less accessible to many students, even as our economy requires greater numbers of highly educated workers. In this report, we review the status of undergraduate student debt in California and consider it in light of the economic benefts of attaining a col- lege degree. We fnd that student debt has increased notably in recent years. In 2010, almost half of California freshmen took out a student loan—ten years earlier, only one-third did so. More - over, the size of those loans has increased. The average loan amount for freshmen in California increased 36 percent (adjusted for infation) between 2005 and 2010, reaching almost $8,000 for that frst year alone. Students at private colleges are much more likely than students at the state’s public colleges to take out loans, and the amounts of those loans are substantially higher at private institutions. Of particular concern are students at private for-proft colleges. Almost all students attending those institutions take out loans, and the loan amounts are higher than at any other type of institution. Despite the increase in debt, college is a good investment for the vast majority of stu - dents. Labor market outcomes, including employment and wages, remain far better for col - lege graduates than for less educated workers, and all but the lowest-paid college graduates PEATHEGEE INC./BLEND IMAGES/ COR BIS Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 2 www.ppic.org earn sufcient wages to pay of average debts. However, certain students do not fare so well. Those who do not fnish college have far lower earning potential than those who do. And a small share of students take out massive loans and have trouble paying them back. Default rates are particularly high for students who attend private for-proft colleges. By keeping tuition low in the past (and even now at community colleges) and, more recently, by expanding grant aid to those attending public institutions, California policy- makers and higher education ofcials have ensured that student debt is lower in California than in the rest of the United States. Relatively high graduation rates coupled with strong labor market outcomes have kept default rates on student loans very low for attendees of the University of California and the California State University, and at almost all private non- proft colleges. Eforts by policymakers to limit state aid to institutions with poor student out - comes, including high student loan default rates, should continue. Almost all of the poorly performing schools are private for-proft institutions. In an era with seemingly ever-increasing college tuition, the state should fnd additional ways to make college afordable for greater numbers of Californians. Improving pathways from community colleges, with their very low tuition, to four-year colleges should be a high priority. The new associate degree for transfer is a step in the right direction. Finding ways to help families save for college should be another state priority. One option would be to create a college savings program that guarantees full tuition at the state’s public universities. Numerous states have adopted such programs, and hundreds of thousands of families are participating in them. Finally, to keep costs down, state policymakers and higher education ofcials need to ensure adequate funding of higher education institutions, as well as efciency in the delivery of higher education. Online oferings are one—as yet unproven—possibility for efciency gains. Ultimately, the signifcance of a college education is larger than the gains enjoyed by any one person. California’s future prosperity depends on public policies that promote college enrollment and completion for increasing numbers of Californians. For the full report and related resources, please visit our publication page: www.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=1056 3 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org Introduction Recent rapid increases in student debt are troubling for a number of reasons. Some have posited that the total amount of student debt has become so large that it will have serious economic consequences, a kind of sequel to the mortgage debt crisis that led to the Great Recession. Another concern is that increasing college costs, coupled with uncertainties about the labor market, will deter stu- dents from attending college, even as long-term projections show strong increases in the demand for greater numbers of highly educated workers. Indeed, lowered rates of college enrollment could have harmful long-term efects on the economy, as employers would not be able to fnd the skilled workers they need, and less skilled individuals would not be able to fnd the work they need. PPIC has projected that by 2025, Cali- fornia will face a shortage of one million workers with at least a bachelor’s degree, and others have identifed an even greater shortage of workers with other kinds of post- secondary education (Johnson and Sengupta 2009; Cali- fornia Competes 2012). Te cost of attending public colleges and universities has risen primarily because states have withdrawn fscal support, not because the institutions are becoming less efcient. In California, reductions in state support have been unprecedented, with total general-fund contributions to the University of California (UC), the California State University (CSU), and the community colleges falling by one-third between 2001–02 and 2011–12. Tese reductions have occurred even as enrollment has increased. 1 Tuition and fees have risen dramatically (Figure 1), but not enough to make up for the loss in state revenue. 2 As a result, UC and CSU spend less per capita to educate Today, nearly half of California freshmen take out student loans, a sharp increase from one-third just ten years ago. KEV IN DODGE/ COR BIS SOURCES: University of California Ofce of the President and California State University Chancellor’s Ofce. Figure 1. Tuition and fees have risen dramatically $ thousands 12 6 2009–10 2003–04 1997–98 1991–92 1985–86 1981–82 1983–84 1987–88 1989–90 1993–94 1995–96 1999–00 2001–02 2005–06 2007–08 2011–12 1979–80 4 2 14 0 10 8$ thousands 12 6 2009–10 2003–04 1997–98 1991–92 1985–86 1981–82 1983–84 1987–88 1989–90 1993–94 1995–96 1999–00 2001–02 2005–06 2007–082011–121979–80 4 2 14 0 10 8 UC tuition and fees, 1979–2012 CSU tuition and fees, 1979–2012 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 4 www.ppic.org students today than they did just a few years ago. Califor- nians are worried about the afordability of higher educa- tion, and the governor has recently attended meetings of the CSU trustees and the UC regents, urging no additional increases in tuition. Student debt is an especially strong concern of Californians, with 78 percent agreeing that “students have to borrow too much money to pay for their college education” (Baldassare et al. 2011).In this report, we examine undergraduate student debt in light of employment and other labor market outcomes of college graduates in California. First, we examine trends in student debt—the numbers of students taking out loans, the size of those loans, and rates of default. Next, we look at a range of labor market outcomes, including employment, wages, and lifetime earnings, for those with education levels from less than high school to graduate degrees. We also consider the economic returns to particular college majors. Finally, we suggest a number of ways that public policy can address student debt and support college-going in California. How Has Student Debt Changed? Student debt has increased dramatically over the past few years. More students are taking out loans, and the size of those loans has increased, even afer adjusting for infa- tion. Te type of institution students attend largely deter- mines their borrowing patterns. 3 For example, the share of students taking out loans and loan amounts themselves are much higher at private colleges, especially for-proft private colleges, than at public colleges. Te good news for California is that students in the state are less likely than students in the rest of the country to take out loans. An important factor in this diference is the large role the public sector plays in higher education in California. A relatively large share of college students in California attend low-cost community colleges. Te Cal-Grant program and grants provided by UC and CSU also help to keep loan burdens lower than in the rest of the country. Still, the rise in student debt in California has prompted concern among policymakers, educators, and families. Measuring student debt In this study, analyses of student debt are derived primarily from two sources. To examine trends and levels of student debt across time, we rely on institutional data collected by the federal government and made available from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) via the Delta Cost Project Database. These data provide the most comprehensive and consistent information on student debt across time, institu - tions, and states but are limited to summary data based on frst-time full-time freshmen. 4 One advantage of focusing on frst-time full-time freshmen is that these students are likely to be the group most responsive to changes in the fnancial demands of attending college. To examine determinants of student debt and to iden - tify students with very high levels of debt, we use individual records from the Beginning Postsecondary Survey (BPS). The BPS follows a national cohort of college students for six years, providing detailed individual-level data from a relatively lim- ited sample (16,000 participants) of students frst entering col- lege in 2003–04. The BPS data allow us to identify California residents at California colleges. Loans other than education loans, such as home equity loans taken out by parents, are not included in the datasets. 5 Other sources of institutional data that we rely on provide additional measures of student debt, including total debt of recent graduates, but they are less comprehensive across time and institutions (the Common Data Set, for example). The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) provides institutional measures of debt of all enrolled students (rather than only frst-time full-time freshmen), but the most recent NPSAS data are from 2007–08. Technical Appendix A describes our methods and provides further details about the data. The increase in student loans has been particularly sharp in recent years, coinciding with tuition hikes at UC and CSU. 5 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org In this section, we examine the share of students tak- ing out loans and the amount of those loans. We focus on patterns among frst-time freshmen, but we note other measures as well (see “Measuring student debt”). We also consider the role of diferent types of higher education institutions (see “Te higher education sector”). What Proportion of Students Take Out Loans? Just ten years ago, less than one-third of California fresh- men took out student loans; today, almost half do so (Figure 2). Te increase in student loans has been particu- larly sharp in recent years, coinciding with tuition hikes at UC and CSU. But other factors are also at work—in particular, a rise in the share of students attending private for-proft institutions, where student loans are especially ubiquitous. 6 In California, the vast majority of undergraduates, including frst-time freshmen, attend one of the state’s public colleges (UC, CSU, or a community college). Both nationally and in California, students at public institutions are less likely than those at private institutions to take out 2009200820072006200520042003200220012000 2010 SOURCE: Authors’ calculations based on IPEDS Delta Cost institutional data for frst-time full-time freshmen; institutional classifcation based on Carnegie 2005 classifcations. Figure 2. Nearly half of frst-year students in California take out loans Percentage 80 70 60 30 45 20 10 90 0 50 40Private for-proft colleges Private non-proft colleges All colleges Public four-year colleges 39 59 78 The higher education sector We consider several diferent sectors of undergraduate higher education in this report, including • Public four-year colleges and universities. In California, these are the UC campuses and the CSU campuses. In 2010, almost one-third (31%) of full-time freshmen in California attended one of these campuses. 7 • Public two-year colleges. In California, these are the com - munity colleges. Slightly less than half (45%) of full-time freshmen in California in 2010 attended a community college. • Private non-profit colleges and universities. These include dozens of colleges in California ranging in size from the University of Southern California, with over 15,000 under- graduates, to very small colleges with fewer than 500 undergraduates. Overall, only 10 percent of full-time fresh- men in California in 2010 attended a private non-proft institution. • Private for-profit colleges and universities. The three larg- est for-proft educational institutions in California are the University of Phoenix, the Academy of Art University, and DeVry University. In 2010, 14 percent of full-time freshmen in California attended a for-proft college. a loan. Moreover, students at public colleges in California are less likely than students at public colleges elsewhere to take out a loan. Tis diference is especially pronounced for community college students—in California, only 4 percent of community college freshmen took out loans, compared with 21 percent nationally. Tis diference is large but not surprising, given that California’s community colleges have the lowest fees in the country and waive those fees for a large share of low-income students. 8 Te small share of students taking out loans at public four-year colleges in California can be wholly attributed to CSU. At CSU, only 33 percent of full-time freshmen took out a loan in 2010, compared with almost half (47%) of freshmen at UC. Lower tuitions help explain the relatively small share of CSU students with loans. 9 Notably, however, the share of students taking out loans at the state’s public research universities (including most of the UC campuses) is similar to the share doing so at public research universi- ties elsewhere in the country. 10 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 6 www.ppic.org Private colleges tend to be more expensive than public colleges. Consequently, the share of students taking out loans at these institutions is much higher. In 2010, 59 per - cent of full-time freshmen at private non-proft colleges in California took out loans, compared with only 39 percent of freshmen at public four-year colleges. 11 Te share of full-time freshmen taking out loans is particularly high at private for- proft colleges—about 80 percent. Even when we control for student demographic and economic characteristics, students at private colleges, especially for-proft colleges, are much more likely to take out loans than those at public colleges. 12 Aside from the type of college a student attends, what factors predict student borrowing? Time in college mat- ters most: Te longer students remain in college, the more likely they are to take out a loan. Also, students with less educated parents and those from low-income families are much more likely to take out loans than otherwise similar students. Children of immigrants and Asian Americans are less likely to take out loans, while African Americans are more likely to do so. 13 How Large Are Student Loans? Not only are more California students taking out loans, the amount they borrow has also increased. Between 2005 and 2010, average loan amounts among full-time freshmen rose 36 percent, even afer adjusting for infation (Figure 3). Loan amounts vary tremendously between public and private colleges. Average loan amounts for freshmen at private for-proft colleges are almost double those for students at public four-year colleges. In 2010, frst-year students at private for-proft colleges had loans averaging $9,189, while frst-year student loans at public four-year colleges averaged $5,289. In general, loan amounts at California’s public colleges are relatively modest. Indeed, freshmen at California’s pub- lic four-year colleges have lower loan amounts than their counterparts at public colleges in the rest of the country. Average loan amounts are slightly higher at UC than at CSU. But what happens afer that frst year? How does stu- dent debt accumulate? We looked at debt levels in 2009 for students who had entered college six years earlier. 14 Te median accumulated debt for students who had attended a public four-year college in California was $14,600. For those who attended a private non-proft college, the median was $25,500. And for those who attended a private for- proft college, the median was $12,000 (Table 1). One of the strongest predictors of accumulated debt is the amount of time a student spends in college—more time correlates with higher debt. Although time to degree has declined at UC and CSU, a large share of students take more than four years to complete their degrees. Te lower accumulated median debt among students who attended a private for-proft college may seem surpris - ing, given that we found higher loan amounts among fresh - men at those colleges. But students attending these schools are much less likely to fnish their degrees and therefore spend less time in college. When we control for years spent in school, we fnd that students at private institutions—both non-proft and for-proft—acquire substantially more debt than those at public colleges. 15 In fact, students at private col - leges, including for-proft colleges, are much more likely to take on large amounts of debt than those at public colleges. Private for-proft colleges Private non-proft colleges All colleges Public four-year colleges Figure 3. Loan amounts in California are highest at private for-proft colleges SOURCE: Authors’ calculations based on IPEDS Delta Cost institutional data for frst-time full-time freshmen; institutional classifcation based on Carnegie 2005 classifcations. NOTES: Sample restricted to students with loans. Loan amounts are converted into 2011 dollars using the CPI-U. Loan amount ($ thousands) 9 7 6 3 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 2010 2 1 10 0 8 5 4 7,783 5,289 7,591 9,189 7 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org For example, 10 percent of students at private non-proft colleges in California accumulate at least $53,000 in debt, compared with $45,800 at private for-proft colleges and only $26,000 at public colleges (Table 1). Tese patterns hold true even when we control for a variety of student character - istics, including family income, and for net tuition costs. We fnd that, among students at four-year colleges, Asian and Latino students are less likely than others to take on debt and less likely to take on large amounts of debt. In addition, students who attend colleges with high tuition (not ofset by grants) are more likely to take on excessive debt. (See Technical Appendix C for full results.) Default Rates Many are concerned that student debt may constitute a future credit crisis similar to the recent crisis in the hous- ing market. One way to assess the urgency of this concern is to look at default rates. According to the U.S. Depart- ment of Education, which calculates borrower default rates by institution for federal student loans, California’s default rates are similar to the national average but have risen sharply in recent years. Default rates are very low at UC, CSU, and private non-proft colleges in California but quite high at commu- nity colleges and private for-proft institutions (Table 2). Te share of community college students who take out loans is extremely low, so even though the default rates are high, the number of students involved is quite small. In contrast, students at private for-proft institutions make up 49 percent of students in default, although they account for only about 10 percent of all enrolled students in the state. 16 Clearly, the students most at risk of defaulting are those who attend private for-proft institutions. In general, students who attend for-proft colleges appear to be at risk of not making strong returns on their college investment. Specifc information for California is hard to come by, but one study based on national data sug- gests that these students have annual wage earnings $1,800 to $2,000 lower than they would have had if they had gone to a public or non-proft institution (Deming, Goldin, and Katz 2012). Te same study found that beginning students at for-proft institutions accumulate larger student debt, are more likely to default on their student loans, and have poorer employment outcomes in the medium term. In addition, completion rates of students at for-proft insti- tutions are much lower than those of students starting in four-year public and non-proft schools (an estimated 12-percentage-point completion defcit for students start - ing bachelor’s programs at for-proft institutions). Tese diferences are signifcant even afer adjusting for student characteristics (for-proft institutions disproportion - ately attract minority, older, independent, and disadvantaged Table 1. Students at private colleges take on more debt Accumulated debt ($) 10th percentile 25th percentile50th percentile 75th percentile 90th percentile California 3,800 9,500 15,000 25,000 40,000 Public four-year 3,000 9,700 14,600 19, 8 0 0 26,000 Private non-proft 4,800 11,1 0 0 25,500 41,9 0 0 53,000 Private for-proft 3,400 5,400 12,000 29,000 45,800 Rest of U .S. 4,200 9,900 17,1 0 0 28,000 42,900 Public four-year 3,700 8,500 16,500 25,000 39,800 Private non-proft 6,000 12,300 20,000 3 4 ,10 0 49,900 Private for-proft 4,200 9,900 16 , 8 0 0 29,500 45,000 SOURCE: Authors’ estimates based on the BPS. NOTE: Based on 2009 data for a sample of students with loans who entered four-year colleges as freshmen in 2003–04. Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 8 www.ppic.org students). Students who begin at for-proft colleges are also less likely to state that their education was worth the amount they paid for it and less likely to think their student loans were a worthwhile investment, according to the same study. Is College Still Worth It? For students who cannot aford college without taking out loans, the key economic question is whether it is better to go into debt to attend college or go to work directly out of high school. Te answer depends a great deal on how much a college degree can improve one’s wages and employ- ment prospects. In this section, we examine labor market outcomes—wages, employment, and lifetime earnings— for a range of education levels. We also break down wages according to college major and look at the wages of indi- viduals who earn more than a bachelor’s degree. Employment Te Great Recession and subsequent slow recovery have hurt the employment and wage prospects of college gradu- ates, but workers with a college degree still fare far better in the labor market than less educated workers. Indeed, diferences in unemployment rates between highly edu- cated and less educated workers are wider now than they were before the recession. Pre-recession, the unemploy - ment rate for workers with only a high school education was 5.4 percent, 2.6 percentage points above the rate for those with a bachelor’s degree. By 2012, the unemployment rate was 12.1 percent for high school graduates and 7.2 per- cent for four-year college graduates—a 5-percentage-point diference (Figure 4). 17 For new entrants to the labor market, the distinctions are even sharper. Te unemployment rate of high school graduates 18 to 22 years of age increased from 16.9 percent in 2007 to 29 percent in 2011, while for four-year college graduates 22 to 26 years of age, the unemployment rate increased from 6.7 percent to 10.5 percent. 18 Table 2. Half of California students in default attended private for-profit colleges Number of institutions Students in defaultStudents in repayment Default rate (%) Public 15 48,40612 8 , 0 0 9 6.6 UC 1175933,690 2.3 CSU 233,300 66,205 5.0 Community colleges 1144,326 2 7, 9 5 2 15 . 5 Private non-proft 13 64 ,1138 8 ,141 4.7 Private for-proft 23812 , 2 11 12 6 ,174 9.7 California total 52824,730 342,324 7. 2 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, “Ofcial Cohort Default Rates for Schools.” NOTES: Ofcial two-year cohort default rates published for schools participating in Title IV student fnancial assistance programs. See Appendix E for more information. State summary tables show similar statistics. Total includes institutions that do not grant degrees. SOURCE: Authors’ analysis of Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement. NOTE: Civilian population 25 years old and older. Figure 4. Less educated Californians face higher unemployment rates Unemployment rate (percentage) 16 12 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2012 8 4 20 0 12.1 10.8 7.2 16.7 5.4 5.4 3.9 2.8 8.8 2.3 Less than high school High school diploma Some college/ associate degree Bachelor’s degree Graduate degree 9 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org Not only are college graduates more likely to be employed, they are also more likely to end up in jobs with greater stabil - ity. Among full-time year-round workers, 24.1 percent have a bachelor’s degree and 18.7 percent have a high school diploma only. 19 In contrast, among those who work less than full-time year round, 18.7 percent have a bachelor’s degree and 19.8 percent have a high school diploma only. Underemployment is much higher among those with less education. Underemployed workers include those who are unemployed but actively seeking employment, poten- tial workers who want work and are able to work but are not actively looking for a job, and part-time workers who want full-time work but cannot fnd it due to economic reasons. High school graduates have an underemployment rate of 23 percent, while those with a bachelor’s degree or higher have an underemployment rate of 11.8 percent. 20 Finally, labor force participation is lower among those with a high school diploma only. Among people 25 to 64 years of age, 72 percent of those who had completed high school (but did not attend college) participated in the civil- ian labor force in 2012, compared with 83 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree. A recent study found that over the course of their working lives, adults with a bachelor’s degree or more will spend 6.8 more years employed than those with a high school diploma only (Stiles, Hout, and Brady 2012). Wages Measuring the causal efect of college on wages is difcult. In this analysis, we use the standard ordinary least-squares approach to estimate wage diferentials between college graduates and high school graduates controlling for per- sonal characteristics. Research evidence suggests that this approach overestimates the efect of college on an indi- vidual’s earnings, given that wage earnings potentially correlate with unobservable characteristics that determine education choice (for example, higher skilled people are more likely to attend and fnish college). However, a thor- ough survey of the literature suggests that this upward bias is rather small—about 10 percent. 21 On average, college graduates earn signifcantly higher wages than those with a high school diploma only, a phe- nomenon known as the college wage premium. In Califor- nia, the college wage premium increased rapidly through the 1980s and 1990s. Tis growth occurred even as the share of workers with a bachelor’s degree grew. During the 2000s, the premium has experienced a much slower rate of growth but has persisted at historically high levels. Tese trends are not unique to California—they are also occur- ring nationally. In 1990, a woman with a bachelor’s degree working in California earned 39.1 percent more than one who had only a high school diploma (Figure 5). In the case of male work - ers, the diference was 36.7 percent. By 2011, the diference had grown to 57.3 percent for women and 56.5 percent for men. Tis means more than an 18-percentage-point increase over a 20-year period. (In the rest of the nation, college wage premiums are slightly lower, and the increase between 1990 and 2010 was more modest.) SOURCE: Authors‘ analysis of the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census and 2009–2011 multiyear ACS. NOTES: Full-time year-round workers ages 25 to 64. See Technical Appendices B and D for more information. Figure 5. The returns to a college education have grown signifcantly Women Men Wage premium relative to high school graduates (percentage) 60 50 40 30 20 10 70 0 California Rest of U.S. California Rest of U.S. 19 9 0 2000 2 011 Diferences in unemployment rates between highly educated and less educated workers are wider now than they were before the recession. Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 10 www.ppic.org Workers with an associate degree and even those with some college education but no degree still enjoy an impor- tant wage premium over those who completed only high school. Wage premiums for those who earn a graduate degree are even higher, between 75 percent and 105 per- cent over the premiums for those who earn a high school diploma only (Figure 6). Do College Majors Matter? Wages vary tremendously depending on the worker’s col- lege major (Figure 7). At the high end, those with an engi- neering degree earn a median annual wage of $96,000. At the low end, those with a degree in education administra- tion and teaching have a median annual wage of $57,000. But even this lower amount is substantially more than the wages of those with a high school diploma only—their median annual wage is $39,000. 22 Regardless of major, there is a wide disparity in wages between the highest- and lowest-paid college graduates. For example, annual wages for someone with a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts range from $48,000 to $90,000 (com- paring graduates at the 10th percentile of the wage distri- bution with those at the 90th percentile). For those with an engineering degree, the range is even wider, from $65,400 to $124,200. Given these wide ranges, it is dif cult for students to easily predict their future wages and therefore to weigh the economic value of a college degree and their ability to pay back loans. Furthermore, some high school graduates are high earners, and some college graduates are low earners. 23 A worker with a college degree who is at the bottom of the wage distribution could very well earn less than a high- wage worker with only a high school diploma. For exam- ple, 15.6 percent of high school graduates earn more than education majors, who are at the bottom (the 25th per- centile) of their wage distribution. T e share of high-wage high school graduates (the 90th percentile) who earn more than low-wage college-educated workers (the 10th percen- tile) varies from 8.5 percent to 42.7 percent, depending on major. But for every major, the median wage of high school graduates is below that of college-educated workers. Not only is there a wide disparity in wages among the most highly paid and least highly paid college graduates, the gap has grown over time. Wages at the higher percen- tiles have grown faster than those at the bottom of the wage distribution. T is increase in wage inequality among SOURCE: Authors’ analysis of the 2009–2011 multiyear ACS. NOTES: Full-time year-round California workers ages 25 to 64. See Technical Appendices B and D for more information. Figure 6. All levels of higher education confer signifcant wage premiums 100 80 60 40 20 0 –20 –40 Professional degree Master’s degree Bachelor’s degree Associate degree Some college Less than high school Doctorate 120 Men Women Wage premium relative to high school graduates (percentage) 92.4 105.4 95.9 79.0 75.8 56.5 57.3 26.5 30.7 19.7 18.3 –21.6 90.0 –27.9 SOURCE: Authors’ analysis of the 2009–2011 multiyear ACS. NOTES: Full-time year-round California workers ages 25 to 64. See Technical Appendices B and D for more information. Figure 7. Wages vary tremendously depending on the worker’s college major Engineering Computer science Business Social science, law Science, medicine Liberal artsOther Education High school only 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 Annual wages ($) Percentiles 10th–24th 25th–49th 50th–74th 75th–90th 75th–90th 11 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org college graduates could be due to an increase in the dispar- ity of skills or to dispersion in labor market demand for college graduates. 24 Lifetime Earnings and the Cost of College Te diference between the wages earned by higher- and lower-educated workers compounds over a lifetime. A typical California worker with only a high school diploma can expect to earn about $1 million over a 40-year work life. A worker with a bachelor’s degree can expect to earn $1.9 million. 25 In addition, lifetime earnings across college majors vary substantially. Te estimated 40-year work-life earnings of workers with only a bachelor’s degree range from $1.36 million for those with a degree in education administration and teaching to $2.27 million for those with a degree in engineering. 26 How does the cost of college stack up against these lifetime earnings? And how much income do students lose by paying for college rather than earning money right of high school? Te average individual return to education is only one component in a full analysis of the private returns to education, which would have to balance individual costs against a fow of such returns over a working life. Tuition and fees vary signifcantly depending on where students attend college. Currently, the estimated gross expenses for tuition and fees at a four-year public institu- tion in California are about $52,800. Tis fgure is an upper threshold, as it does not take into account grant aid and fed - eral income tax benefts. For most students, out-of-pocket expenses are signifcantly lower. Let us assume that a student completes a bachelor’s degree in four years. Te median wage for a high school graduate in prime college-going years is $20,300 a year, which means that someone pursuing a bachelor’s degree will forgo about $81,300 in earnings. 27 When the cost of attend - ing college and the forgone earnings are subtracted from the lifetime wage gains that college graduates experience, the net payof of pursuing a bachelor’s degree is still signifcant, varying on average from $0.24 million to $1.15 million dur - ing a hypothetical 40-year working life (Figure 8). 28 As this exercise shows, the economic returns of attaining a bachelor’s degree are, on average, quite large regardless of major. Average loan debts are relatively low in comparison with the average economic returns to earning a college degree; consequently, paying back student loans should not pose a huge fnancial problem for the typical college graduate. Still, some students and their families might have trepidation about taking out loans because of uncertainty about future wages. Graduates in the least remunerative majors who are at the bottom of the wage distribution and have large student debts may very well have difculty pay- ing back their loans. Tose who took out loans for college but never graduated are at higher risk still. Even though our estimates suggest that the typical college graduate will enjoy a signifcant wage premium over the individual with The economic returns of attaining a bachelor’s degree are, on average, quite large regardless of major. SOURCE: Authors’ analysis of the 2009–2011 multiyear ACS. NOTES: California workers ages 25 to 64. See Technical Appendices B and D for more information. Figure 8. Lifetime wage diferences between college graduates and high school graduates vary by major Net payof of a college education relativeto a high school diploma ($ millions) 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 1.4 0 Engineering Computerscience Business Social science, law Science, medicine Liberal arts OtherEducation Full-time year-round workers All people with earnings Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 12 www.ppic.org a high school diploma only, there are, of course, no guar- antees. Te recent increases in student debt are worrisome in part because it is difcult to predict where in the wage distribution a college graduate will end up—which inevita- bly afects his or her ability to make good on student loans. Policy Recommendations A highly educated and highly skilled population confers both public and private benefts. Research has shown strong public returns (including higher tax revenues) to public investments in higher education in California (Stiles, Hout, and Brady 2012). Nevertheless, the state has increasingly shifed the burden of paying for higher education from the state to the student, and even gaining access to college has become more difcult (Bohn, Reyes, and Johnson 2013; Johnson 2012). For growing numbers of students, loans are an essential component of fnancing a college education. Tis report has shown that for most students, future incomes will be sufcient to repay student loans. Indeed, if taking out loans allows a student to enroll in and com- plete college, assuming debt can be a very smart economic choice. In such cases, public policy should seek to provide more opportunities for students by making loans more available and afordable. However, student debt can be a problem if graduates are not able to pay back their loans— especially if they cannot pay of their loans because they received a low-quality education and/or took on an exorbi- tant amount of debt. Public policy should seek to fnd ways to prevent such outcomes. Of particular concern are students at private for-proft colleges. Labor market outcomes are worse and debt levels much higher for these students. In contrast, most students who attend private non-proft and public four-year colleges have quite manageable student debt, and their labor market outcomes tend to be stronger. In recognition of these dif - ferences, policymakers and higher education ofcials have enacted new requirements that limit institutional eligibility for grants and loans. For example, the California state leg - islature has recently required higher education institutions to meet specifed default rates and graduation rates in order to participate in the Cal Grant program. 29 Eforts by policy - makers to limit state aid to institutions with poor student outcomes, including high debt loads, should continue. In many ways, California has done a good job of help- ing students aford college. Higher education policies have until recently kept tuition low at UC and CSU. In addition, as tuition has increased, more grant aid has been provided for low-income students. California’s policy of directing many students to community colleges rather than the more expensive public four-year colleges has also kept debt levels in check. 30 However, tuition has continued to increase rapidly, and many students still need loans. Some have suggested that the state establish its own loan program, as several other states have done. Massachusetts, for example, has estab- lished an educational fnancing authority that ofers low- cost loans to students attending college in the state. Te authority is self-fnancing and issues bonds to generate the initial capital required to fund the program. Interest rates on the loans it provides are lower than those for unsubsi- dized loans, and repayment periods can be longer. While there might be merit in developing such a program in California, a better option is to ensure greater use of federal student loans, as well as federal and state grants. Providing accurate information to students is key. One study indicates that a majority of undergraduates with private loans (which tend to be risky and expensive) could have taken out more in federal loans. 31 Income-based repayment plans are an important component of federal student loans that allow students to repay their debt even if their wages are relatively modest. In addition, California could create programs to encourage parents to save more money for their children’s education. State prepaid savings programs are one option (see Technical Appendix F). In Florida, for example, more than 300,000 students have attended college under a pre- paid savings plan. For such programs to be successful, the state must make accurate actuarial projections and its pub- lic colleges must have agreements with it regarding future funding and tuition. 13 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org Increasing efciencies in higher education is yet another way to lower student debt. Improving completion rates and decreasing time to degree (or time to transfer) are two of the most important efciency gains policymakers and higher education ofcials can pursue, since the more quickly students complete their education, the lower their loan amounts are likely to be. Several eforts in these areas are under way or have been proposed recently, including eforts by the community colleges (based on recommenda- tions of the Student Success Task Force), CSU’s graduation initiative, and the governor’s proposal to eliminate state funding for students who have excessive units. Te ef- cacy of these eforts should be monitored on an ongoing basis. Of course, it is important to keep in mind that recent increases in tuition at public colleges in California are not driven by increases in the cost of providing instruction to students but are instead attributable to a decline in state funding. (Colleges have only partially made up for the loss in state funding by charging higher tuition.) 32 Online ofer - ings have been suggested as another way to more efectively and efciently provide higher education courses. Online course oferings have increased dramatically, especially at California’s community colleges, but the efcacy and cost savings of online instruction still need to be determined. Te creation of a state higher education coordinat - ing body (as proposed by California Competes, a group of independent business and civic leaders) would help policy- For every dollar California spends on its public colleges, it receives more than four dollars in additional tax revenue generated by college graduates. makers plan for the future of higher education. Prioritiz- ing and targeting public investments in higher education should be informed by rigorous analyses based on good information and data, which a higher education agency could and should provide. Finally, the state’s primary goal in establishing any new fnancing program should be to encourage more students to enroll in and complete college. To the extent that college costs are preventing students from doing so, fnding ways to reduce those costs is essential for the state’s future prosperity. In the past, California provided large subsidies to students attending the state’s public colleges by providing general fund support to colleges for undergradu- ate instruction. Subsidies were so large that private con- tributions, through tuition and fees, made up only a very small share of the actual cost of a college education. Today, students at UC and CSU pay a large share of the cost of their education. Privatizing the cost of college attendance might not necessarily be a bad policy, given the state’s limited resources and the strong private returns to completing college. But it is important to remember that college graduates contribute enormously to the public good. One study estimates that for every dollar the state spends on its public colleges, it receives more than four dollars in additional tax revenue generated by college graduates (Stiles, Hout, and Brady 2012). Over time, California has seen strong intergenerational economic progress, fueled largely by improvements in col- lege enrollment and completion. It is perhaps no coincidence that at the same time the state has privatized more of the costs of attending UC and CSU, those generational gains have slowed and perhaps even ceased. California’s future prosperity depends on substantial increases in college enroll- ment and completion. Achieving those increases will require new eforts by state policymakers and higher education ofcials to make college accessible and afordable. Technical appendices to this report are available on the PPIC website: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/other/613HJR_appendix.pdf Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 14 www.ppic.org Notes 1 Between 2001–02 and 2011–12, state general funds for UC, CSU, and the community colleges were cut by $4 billion (in real terms). 2 One-third of the fee increases have been used to provide grants to low- and middle-income students, thereby reducing the net revenue generated by the increases. Tuition and fees have increased at the state’s private colleges and universities as well (see Technical Appendix A). 3 In this report, we focus primarily on public colleges, private non-proft colleges, and private for-proft colleges. We categorize these institutions into two-year colleges and four-year colleges; two-year colleges typically ofer associate degrees and vocational certifcates, and four-year colleges ofer bachelor’s degrees (and ofen graduate degrees). 4 Te Delta Cost Project Database provides institutional longi- tudinal data on the vast majority of colleges and universities in the country. Te data are assembled from IPEDS. Freshmen are identifed based on the location of the college, not necessarily the student’s state of residence. See Lenihan (2012) for details. 5 Most student loans are federal or institutional loans. Nation - wide, about 14 percent of undergraduates had private loans in 2007–08. Only 4 percent of students at public two-year colleges had private loans, compared with 42 percent of students at private for-proft colleges (TICAS 2011). Private student loans are included in the BPS data, but not loans to parents, such as home equity loans. 6 Between 2000 and 2010, the number of full-time freshmen at for-proft colleges in California almost doubled (growing 89%, compared with 43% for all other colleges in the state). Private for-proft college reports typically show more students with loans than full-tim efreshmen. Tose colleges typically have many part-time students and rolling enrollment, with students enrolling at many diferent dates. For them, we have used the reported percentage of students with loans (averaged across all institutions and weighted by each institution’s reporting of the number of full-time freshmen). 7 Authors’ calculations based on IPEDS Delta Cost institutional data for frst-time full-time freshmen. Sample restricted to two- year and four-year colleges. 8 Moreover, several California community colleges do not par- ticipate in federal student loan programs. 9 Students at CSU are less likely to receive grant aid than those at UC. In 2010, 64 percent of CSU full-time freshmen received either a federal, state, or institutional grant, compared with 72 percent at UC. 10 Based on the authors’ analyses using IPEDS data comparing public universities classifed by Carnegie as having the highest level of research activity. 11 Net tuition, taking into account institutional grants, is also higher at private colleges. 12 Based on the authors’ analyses using the BPS. See Technical Appendix C for details. 13 Based on the authors’ analyses using the BPS. See Technical Appendix C for details. 14 We analyzed data from the BPS to develop these fgures. See Technical Appendix B for a description of the data and methods. 15 Tis fnding holds true even if we consider only those who took out loans, a much less common practice at public colleges than at private colleges. See Technical Appendix C for details. 16 For-proft private colleges account for 14 percent of freshman enrollment. Tis is higher than the overall share of enrollment for these institutions partly because of higher dropout rates. 17 By high school graduates, we mean students who have com - pleted high school but have not attended college. By college grad - uates, we mean those who have completed a bachelor’s degree. 18 Based on American Community Survey (ACS) data. 19 American Community Survey 2011. 20 Based on data from the Economic Roundtable, accessed at w w w.economicrt.org/download/data_tools.html. 21 Our analysis of wage premiums relies on standard human- capital earnings functions. Specifcally, wage premiums are esti- mated using regressions of the log of annual wages on education categorical variables. Tese models are estimated separately by gender and year and control for potential experience and per- sonal characteristics such as race, ethnicity, marital status, and citizenship status. However, given the potential for the unob- servable characteristics that determine education choice to also be correlated with wage earnings, the estimated wage premiums reported in Figure 5 do not necessarily measure a purely causal efect of education. Estimation strategies that attempt to identify causal efects (controlling directly for unobserved ability, using 15 Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree www.ppic.org instrumental variables, relying on twins’ studies, etc.) also fnd a high and rising college wage premium. A thorough survey of the literature concludes that the average (or average marginal) return to education is not much below the estimate that emerges from a standard human-capital earnings function ft by ordinary least squares (OLS). Evidence from the latest studies of identical twins suggests a small upward “ability” bias in the OLS estimates— on the order of 10 percent (Card 1999). In our analysis, we treat separately those with only a bachelor’s degree and those with a graduate degree. Terefore, our estimates of the college wage premium could also be biased (downward) because of the selec- tion efect of not going on to earn a graduate degree. 22 See Technical Appendices B and D for details. Tese fgures are adjusted based on wage regressions that control for potential experience and personal characteristics. 23 One possible explanation for the great wage dispersion that exists among workers with comparable levels of education and experience is the complementarity between ability and education—if higher-ability persons earn more, this might explain the higher returns in the upper deciles of the wage distri - bution. Quantile regression techniques allow for heterogeneous returns and therefore are used to address the relation between education and wage inequality. Quantile regressions parsimoni - ously describe the entire conditional wage distribution. 24 Tere are many possible reasons for the increasing wage inequality among college graduates. For example, it could be the result of a demand-driven increase in the return to skills linked to school quality, intrinsic ability, efort, motivation, persever- ance, etc. Or it could be that the dispersion in unobserved skills may be growing over time. For example, if unobserved skills are more dispersed among older and more-educated workers, dispersion in unobserved skills could increase because of com- position efects linked to the aging and increasing educational achievement of the workforce (Lemieux 2006a). 25 We discount future earnings at an annual rate of 3 percent. Synthetic work-life earnings are estimated using one-point- in-time cross-sectional data, as opposed to following a single cohort from the start of the work life to the end. In other words, this methodology estimates the amounts that young workers will earn over the course of a hypothetical 40-year work life if they are paid in the same manner as older workers today. Tere- fore, these fgures are only suggestive and not predictive of accu- mulated future earnings, as earnings diferences observed today may not continue in the future. In addition, these estimates cannot account for an individual’s past partial employment or unemployment, which may reduce current full-time earnings. 26 Based on the authors’ analyses of 2009–2011 ACS. See Techni- cal Appendices B and D for more information. 27 Forgone earnings are equal to the median salary earned by a full-time year-round worker with a high school diploma 20 to 24 years of age, multiplied by four. Many students take longer than four years to earn a degree, in which case, forgone earnings would increase. 28 When people who work less than full time are included, the net payof decreases for all but the engineering and computer science majors, varying from $0.19 million to $1.29 million. 29 At the national level, the U.S. Department of Education has introduced a requirement that institutions receiving Title IV federal funding must adequately prepare graduates for gainful employment. State attorneys general and class-action plaintifs have also fled and settled lawsuits against institutions accused of deceptive and unfair business practices. Accrediting agen- cies also play a role in determining institutional eligibility. (See Technical Appendix F for a discussion of the state and national policy environments.) 30 As outlined in the state’s Master Plan for Higher Education, the top eighth of high school graduates are eligible for admission to UC and the top third are eligible for CSU. Community colleges provide higher education access to all other high school graduates. 31 See TICAS (2011), available at http://ticas.org/fles/pub/critical _choices.pdf, for an excellent discussion of the issue and best practices. 32 See Johnson (2012) for a discussion of budget cuts and expen- ditures at UC and CSU. References Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools. 2011. “Initial Grant of Accreditation Denied-Final Decision.” September 23. Available at w w w.acics.org/uploadedFiles /Actions/Institute_of_Medical_Education_Lanuage_for _webpage.pdf. ACIC S . See Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools. 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Bureau for Private Postsecondary and Vocational Education. 2005. “Initial Report: California Department of Consumer Afairs, Bureau for Private Postsecondary and Vocational Edu- cation Operations and Administrative Monitor.” Available at w w w.bppe.ca.gov/about_us/op_monitor_report.pdf. California Competes. 2012. “Te Credential Crunch.” Available at http://californiacompetes.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06 /CaCompetes_Credential_Crunch.pdf. Te California State University. 2012. “Measuring the Value of the CSU.” April 11. Available at www.calstate.edu/value/systemwide. California Student Aid Commission. FAQ. Available at www.csac .ca.gov/pubs/forms/grnt_frm/faqs_institutional_eligibility.pdf. Card, David. 1999. “Te Causal Efect of Education on Earn- ings.” In Handbook of Labor Economics , Ed. 1, Vol. 3, Ch. 30, 1801–1863. Available at w w w.stanford.edu/group/scspi/_media /pdf/Classic_Media/Card_1999_Education.pdf. Carnevale, Anthony, Jef Strohl, and Michelle Melton. 2011. “What’s It Worth? Te Economic Value of College Majors.” Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. Available at http://cew.georgetown.edu/whatsitworth. Cheeseman Day, Jennifer, and Eric C. Newburger. 2002. “Te Big Payof: Educational Attainment and Synthetic Estimates of Work-Life Earnings.” U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Reports. Available at www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-210.pdf. Cochrane, Debbie. 2012. “California’s Oversight of Private Postsecondary Education.” Testimony to the Assembly Higher Education Committee, Senate Business, Professions and Eco- nomic Development Committee Joint Legislative Oversight Hearing, February 14, 2012. Cochrane, Deborah Frankle, and Robert Shireman. 2008. “Denied, Community College Students Lack Access to Aford- able Loans.” Available at http://projectonstudentdebt.org/pub _view.php?idx=329. Deming, David J., Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence F. 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Public Policy Institute of Cali- fornia. Available at w w w.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=988. Johnson, Hans P., and Ria Sengupta. 2009. Closing the Gap: Meeting California’s Need for College Graduates . Public Policy Institute of California. Available at w w w.ppic.org/main /publication.asp?i= 835. Julian, Tifany, and Robert Kominski. 2011. Education and Synthetic Work-Like Earnings Estimates . U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Reports. Available at w w w.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acs-14.pdf. Kinser, Kevin. 2006. From Main Street to Wall Street: Te Transformation of For-Proft Education . ASHE Higher Education Report Special Issue, 31(5): 1–155. 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Project on Student Debt. 2010. “Quick Facts About Student Debt.” Available at http://projectonstudentdebt.org/fles/File /Debt_Facts_and_Sources.pdf. San Francisco County Superior Court. 2011. “Settlement Agreement and Release.” August 15. Available at www.ccaclassactionsettlement.com/Documents/Settlement _Agreement_and_Release.pdf. Schmitt, John. 2003. Creating a Consistent Hourly Wage Series from the Current Population Survey’s Outgoing Rotation Group, 1979–2002 . Center for Economic and Policy Research. SEC. See U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Siebens, Julie, and Camille L. Ryan. 2012. Field of Bachelor’s Degree in the United States: 2009 . U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Reports. Stiles, Jon, Michael Hout, and Henry Brady. 2012. “California’s Fiscal Returns on Investment in Higher Education.” Research and Occasional Papers Series, Center for Studies in Higher Edu- cation. Available at http://cshe.berkeley.edu/publications/docs /ROPS.Stilesetal.ReturnOnInvestment.10.2.2012.pdf. TICAS. See Te Institute for College Access and Success. U.S. Department of Education. 2012a. “Five Percent of Career Training Programs Risk Losing Access to Federal Funds; 35 Percent Meet All Tree Standards Under Gainful Employ- ment Regulation.” June 26. Available at www.ed.gov/news /press-releases/fve-percent-career-training-programs-risk -losing-access-federal-funds-35-percen. U.S. Department of Education. 2012b. “Gainful Employment Operations Manual.” May 23. Available at www.ifap.ed.gov /GainfulEmploymentOperationsManual/attachments /GainfulEmploymentOperationsManualMasterFile.pdf. U.S. Department of Education. 2011. “Obama Administration Announces New Steps to Protect Students from Inefective Career College Programs.” June 2. Available at www.ed.gov /news/press-releases/gainful-employment-regulations. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 1995–96, 1999–2000, 2003–04, and 2007–08. National Postsecondary Student Aid Studies NPSAS:96, NPSAS:2000, NPSAS:04, and NPSAS:08. Available at http://nces.ed.gov /pubs2011/2011218.pdf. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2011. “Education Management Corporation. Form 10-Q.” Available at w w w.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/880059/000119312512046933 /d 277693d10q.ht m. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2012. “An Introduc- tion to 529 Plans.” Available at www.sec.gov/investor/pubs /intro529.htm. WA S C . See Te Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Te Western Association of Schools and Colleges. 2008. “Hand- book for Accreditation 2008.” Available at www.wascsenior.org /fles/Handbook _of_Accreditation.pdf. Student Debt and the Value of a College Degree 18 www.ppic.org About the Authors Hans Johnson is co-director of research and a Bren fellow at the Public Policy Institute of Califor- nia. His work focuses on the dynamics of population change in California and policy implications of the state’s changing demography, with a focus on higher education. At PPIC, he has conducted research on education projections and workforce skills, population projections, international and domestic migration, and housing. Before joining PPIC as a research fellow, he was senior demogra- pher at the California Research Bureau, where he conducted research on population issues for the state legislature and the governor’s ofce. He has also worked as a demographer at the California Department of Finance, specializing in population projections. He holds a Ph.D. in demography from the University of California, Berkeley. Marisol Cuellar Mejia is a research associate at the Public Policy Institute of California’s Sacramento Center, where her work focuses on tracking economic and demographic trends that shape policy issues in the state. Her research interests include labor markets, housing, business climate, workforce skills, and higher education. Before joining PPIC, she worked at Colombia’s National Association of Financial Institutions as an economic analyst, concentrating on issues related to the manufacturing sector and small business. She has also conducted agricultural and commodity market research for the Colombian National Federation of Cofee Growers and the National Federation of Palm Oil Growers of Colombia. She holds an M.S. in agricultural and resource economics from the Univer- sity of California, Davis. David Ezekiel is a research associate at the Public Policy Institute of California. In 2010, he worked as a summer intern with PPIC’s survey team as part of a project sponsored by the California Endowment. Before joining PPIC, David worked as an intern at the City of Berkeley Public Health Division, where he worked on Latino health issues and the Heart 2 Heart community health survey. He holds a B.A. in public health from the University of California, Berkeley. Betsey Zeiger is a Ph.D. student in school organization and education policy at the University of California, Davis. Her research primarily focuses on higher education policy, particularly at Cali- fornia community colleges. She also teaches in the Hospitality, Recreation and Leisure Department at California State University, East Bay. Betsey holds a B.A. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley, and an M.A. in education from California State University, East Bay. Acknowledgments Te authors would like to acknowledge the helpful comments and reviews of Sandy Baum, Steve Boilard, Debbie Cochrane, Bob Gleeson, Eric McGhee, Patrick Murphy, and Robert Shireman of an earlier draf of this report. Lynette Ubois and Janet DeLand provided excellent editorial contributions. www.ppic.org Board of Directors GAR Y K . H ART, CHAIRFormer State Senator and Secretary of Education State of California MARK BALDASSAREPresident and CEO Public Policy Institute of California RUBEN BARRALESPresident and CEO GROW Elect MAR ÍA BLANCOVice President, Civic Engagement California Community Foundation BRIGITTE BRENAttorney ROBERT M. HERTZBERGPartner Mayer Brown, LLP W A LT E R B. HEWLETTChair, Board of Directors William and Flora Hewlett Foundation DONNA LUCASChief Executive Ofcer Lucas Public Afairs M AS MASUMOTOAuthor and farmer STEVEN A. MERKSAMERSenior Partner Nielsen, Merksamer, Parrinello, Gross & Leoni, LLP KIM POLESEChairman ClearStreet, Inc. THOMAS C. SUT TONRetired Chairman and CEO Pacifc Life Insurance Company PPIC is a private operating foundation. It does not take or support positions on any ballot measures or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public ofce. PPIC was established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. © 2013 Public Policy Institute of California. All rights reserved. San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the above copyright notice is included. Research publications refect the views of the authors and do not necessarily refect the views of the staf, ofcers, or Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data are available for this publication. I S B N 978 -1-5 8213 -15 4 -2 PUBLIC POLIC Y INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA 500 Washington Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone 415.291.4400 Fa x 415 . 2 91. 4 4 01 PPIC S ACRAMENTO CENTER Senator Ofce Building 1121 L Street, Suite 801 Sacramento, California 95814 Telephone 916.440.1120 Fax 916.440.1121 Additional resources related to education policy are available at www.ppic.org. The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research." 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