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object(Timber\Post)#3711 (44) { ["ImageClass"]=> string(12) "Timber\Image" ["PostClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Post" ["TermClass"]=> string(11) "Timber\Term" ["object_type"]=> string(4) "post" ["custom"]=> array(5) { ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(14) "FF_903TRFF.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "539645" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(148543) "Public Policy Institute of California FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Education Programs for Disabled Children Tim Ransdell The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) is a private operating foundation established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Institute is dedicated to improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research. PPIC’s research agenda focuses on three program areas: population, economy, and governance and public finance. Studies within these programs are examining the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including education, health care, immigration, income distribution, welfare, urban growth, and state and local finance. PPIC was created because three concerned citizens—William R. Hewlett, Roger W. Heyns, and Arjay Miller—recognized the need for linking objective research to the realities of California public policy. Their goal was to help the state’s leaders better understand the intricacies and implications of contemporary issues and make informed public policy decisions when confronted with challenges in the future. David W. Lyon is founding President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Raymond L. Watson is Chairman of the Board of Directors. Copyright © 2003 by Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the above copyright notice is included. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. Research publications reflect the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the staff, officers, or Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. About This Series Federal Formula Grants and California The federal government uses formula grants to distribute nearly $300 billion annually to state and local governments to help them implement federal policies in such areas as health, transportation, and education. How much each government receives is determined by complex formulas that consist of many factors such as state population growth and per capita income. This series of reports provides detailed information on California’s current and historical funding under the major federal grants and on the formulas used to determine California’s share of funding under various specific grants. All reports are posted on the PPIC website at www.ppic.org. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Education Programs for Disabled Children Tim Ransdell September 2003 Overview In 1975, Congress enacted the Education of All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142), establishing the federal government as an important player in, and a significant funding source for, the education of disabled children. Congress changed the name of the law governing special education to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) with the passage of P.L. 101-476 in 1990. The first substantial revisions to the law came when Congress passed the IDEA Amendments of 1997, and that law is due to expire on September 30, 2003. California received 10.4 percent of IDEA grant funding in 2002, and the state will receive 10.5 percent in 2003. This report first examines the structure of the three grants used to allocate the bulk of federal IDEA funding to states and school districts. It then reviews recent program funding history. Finally, it discusses the operation of funding formulas and applies various funding-change scenarios to illustrate alternative state allocations. Program Structure The IDEA formula grant programs assist states in educating children ages 3 through 21 who have disabilities, and they support early intervention services for infants and toddlers (birth through age 2) and their families. To qualify for funds, states and school districts must certify that they will locate and evaluate children with disabilities, design an appropriately tailored “individualized education program” (IEP) for each, and provide “free appropriate public education” (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment possible (i.e., to the “maximum extent appropriate” with children without disabilities). States and school districts currently serve more than six million disabled children with the help of IDEA funds. IDEA comprises three formula grant programs. The largest of these by nearly twentyfold is the Grants to States program, funded at $7.5 billion nationwide in fiscal year 2002.1 Authorized by Part B, Section 611, of IDEA, the program helps states provide educational and other services to disabled children ages 3 through 21. The Preschool Grants program, authorized by Part B, Section 619, helps states serve children ages 3 through 5. Congress appropriated $390 million for the Preschool Grants program for fiscal year 2002. The Grants for Infants and Toddlers program, authorized by Part C of IDEA, helps states provide early intervention services for infants and toddlers (from birth through age 2) and their families. Congress appropriated $417 million for Part C grants in fiscal year 2002. The Office of Special Education Programs at the U.S. Department of Education (USDE) administers and allocates the funds for these three programs. In addition to the three grant programs, IDEA authorizes and provides funding for several national programs administered by USDE. Program Funding The funding history of the three formula grant programs varies considerably. Congress has consistently and significantly increased funding for the IDEA Grants to States program, whereas the two smaller programs have increased at a slower rate, if at all. After six years of relatively flat spending, with total expenditures remaining around $2 billion per year, Congress began to sharply increase spending for the primary grant program. As shown in Appendix B, between 1997 and 2001, Congress doubled appropriations for Grants to States, from $3.1 billion to $6.3 billion.2 Then, in just one year, Congress boosted funding by $1.2 billion, to $7.5 billion in 2002. As shown in Appendixes B and C, funding for the Preschool Grants program rose from $292 million in 1991 to $360 million in 1995. It remained at that amount for three years before beginning a climb to $390 million in 1999, and that amount has remained unchanged since. Federal funding for Grants for Infants and Toddlers increased sharply during the early 1990s, and growth has been slower but steady since then. From 1991 1In this document, unless otherwise specified, the term fiscal year refers to the federal fiscal year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. 2In an effort to reach that year’s budget targets through changes in federal accounting practices, Congress appropriated level funding in fiscal year 2000 but required that most of the funds come from fiscal year 2001 accounts. As with a number of programs funded by the Labor–Health and Human Services–Education appropriations bill, special education programs had traditionally been “forward-funded,” meaning that the appropriation from one fiscal year would be used by the school district in the school year starting the following July 1. The change curtailed most forward-funding for the special education grant programs. In this report, we control for the accounting change and examine funding only at the expenditure level. 2 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California to 1995, funding rose from $117 million to $316 million. Spending then remained flat for two years before beginning another steady climb to $417 million in 2002. Combined appropriations for the three programs increased from $3.8 billion in 1997 to $8.3 billion in 2002. The 40 Percent Debate There has been a longstanding dispute regarding whether the federal government made a commitment to underwrite 40 percent of state and school district expenditures for educating disabled children. The initial 1975 law imposed upon states and school districts a variety of minimum requirements for educating disabled students, regardless of whether federal funds were adequate to pay for increased services. The IDEA formula limits authorized funding to a maximum of 40 percent of average per pupil spending, and many both inside and outside of Congress argue that the setting of that 40 percent limit evidenced Congressional intent to fund IDEA grants at that level. For more than two decades, federal funds have paid for less than 10 percent of state and school district expenditures. Although that share has risen sharply in recent years, it nevertheless remained below 20 percent in 2002. Many observers consider the extent to which federal funds fall short of the 40 percent threshold, which they term “full funding,” to constitute an unfunded mandate.3 For several years, many members of Congress have sought to increase the federal share of the nation’s expenditures on education for disabled children to or toward the 40 percent level. Some have fought to convert the grant from an annual discretionary appropriation to a mandatory entitlement program. The 40 percent IDEA debate once played a pivotal role in the shifting party leadership in the U.S. Senate. In May 2001, Republican Senator James Jeffords (VT) announced that he would side with Democrats to select the chamber’s Majority Leader, thereby tipping the narrow balance in the Senate from majority Republican to majority Democrat. In explaining his switch, he cited a number of instances in which he felt a lack of support from his own party leadership, but a primary reason was his perception of a lack of active support for mandatory IDEA funding.4 3Opinions vary regarding the actual cost of providing educational services to a disabled child, but IDEA drafters apparently assumed that the cost was twice that for a non-disabled child. Thus, the selection of 40 percent of average per pupil expenditure as a funding threshold would allow the federal government to underwrite 40 percent of excess expenditures paid by a state or school district per child served. 4Senator Jeffords had conditioned his vote for President Bush’s 2001 budget and tax cut plan on the Administration and Congressional leadership supporting IDEA “full funding.” In a 2001 book entitled My Declaration of Independence, FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 3 Under- and Overidentification of Children as Disabled Another longstanding issue is the over- and underidentification of disabled students and the subjective nature of the identification process. In addition to social issues, such as some jurisdictions’ alleged overidentification of African American students as disabled, the identification question also has proven significant for formula discussions. Before the 1997 amendments, all IDEA formula funds were allocated according to state-reported counts of disabled students served. There was wide variation in the percentage of students identified as disabled, and some states and school districts complained that overidentification allowed other jurisdictions to garner excess IDEA funding. A 1993 article in the Boston Globe spotlighted Massachusetts’ high rate of identifying children as disabled, noting that one child was so identified solely because he was having difficulty understanding the Pythagorean theorem. As shown in Appendix D, Colorado identified less than 10 percent of students as disabled during the 2001–2002 school year, whereas Rhode Island reported more than 20 percent. With IEPs for only 10.6 percent of its students, California identified as disabled only a slightly greater percentage than last-place Colorado, ranking California 50th out of 51 (the states plus the District of Columbia). California Funding and Share California funding levels for the three IDEA formula grant programs have likewise increased in recent years, and the state’s increase has slightly exceeded the pace of increase experienced by the other states. As shown in Table 1, California’s allocation pursuant to the Grants to States program remained near the $200 million mark during the early 1990s. Then, between 1996 and 2002, the state’s receipts rose from $229 million to $782 million. During the 11 years between 1991 and 2002, expenditures per capita in California rose from $6 to $22. California’s share of the nation’s Grants to States formula allocations increased from 10 percent in 1991 to 10.4 percent in 2002. Throughout all of these years, California’s per capita receipts from the program remained approximately 15 percent below the national average, although the percentage Jeffords calls Senate Republicans’ refusal to fully fund IDEA the precipitating event of his decision to change parties, commenting, “I decided to winnow down my list of spending priorities to this one.” 4 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Table 1 Special Education—Grants to States Under IDEA, Part B, Section 611—Expenditures for California and All States, Fiscal Years 1991–2002 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 California Total ($) 185,459,999 200,622,009 209,353,847 219,215,317 228,623,290 228,758,683 307,776,487 378,734,568 431,237,374 505,630,798 650,017,799 781,662,507 U.S. Total ($) 1,854,155,895 1,976,095,000 2,052,729,728 2,149,686,000 2,322,915,000 2,323,837,000 3,107,522,000 3,807,700,000 4,310,700,000 4,989,685,000 6,339,685,000 7,528,533,000 California as a % of U.S. 10.00 10.15 10.20 10.20 9.84 9.84 9.90 9.95 10.00 10.13 10.25 10.38 Per Capita California ($) 6.09 6.48 6.69 6.96 7.21 7.14 9.47 11.48 12.87 14.87 18.79 22.26 Per Capita U.S. ($) 7.33 7.70 7.90 8.17 8.72 8.63 11.40 13.80 15.45 17.68 22.22 26.11 California Per Capita as a % of U.S. 83.05 84.08 84.76 85.23 82.68 82.83 83.12 83.18 83.33 84.09 84.55 85.26 5 has risen very slightly. The state’s per capita receipts were 83 percent of the U.S. per capita average in 1991 and 85 percent in 2002. For Preschool Grants, California’s receipts rose from $31 million in 1991 to $36 million in 1994, then increased slowly to $40 million in 2002, as shown in Table 2. Throughout the period, California received between 10 and 11 percent of the nation’s grants. As a result of the program’s slow growth, California received approximately the same amount per capita in 2002 ($1.13) as it did in 1992 ($1.12). The state’s per capita receipts from the Preschool Grants program declined from a peak of 90 percent of the U.S. average in 1992 to 84 percent in 2002. From the Grants for Infants and Toddlers program, California’s receipts grew rapidly from $15 million in 1991 to $40 million in 1995, as shown in Table 3. A more gradual increase since that year lifted the state’s funding to $50 million in 2002. The state’s share of the nation’s total grants grew from 12.7 percent in 1991 to 13.8 percent in 1994 before beginning a decline to slightly less than 12 percent in 2002. In contrast to the other two grants, California’s per capita receipts from the Grants for Infants and Toddlers program exceeded the national average in each of the past 11 years, except 2002. The state received 49 cents per capita in 1991 and $1.42 per capita in 2002. Grant expenditures per capita in California reached 115 percent of the national average in 1994 but then fell to 98 percent in 2002. With all three formula programs totaled, California’s receipts increased from $232 million in 1991 to $871 million in 2002. California’s receipts throughout the period fluctuated between 10.2 percent and 10.6 percent of the nation’s total grant appropriations, as shown in Table 4. The state received $7.60 per capita from the three programs in 1991, and $24.82 per capita in 2002. The state’s per capita receipts as a percentage of the U.S. average remained relatively stable throughout the 11-year period, standing at 85 percent in 1991 and 86 percent in 2002. Formula Provisions This section describes the operation of the funding formulas that determine state allocations from the three IDEA grant programs. Because the Grants to States program is by far the largest of the three, we focus primarily on it. 5 5The methodology used in this paper to calculate funding levels by state is described in Appendix A. 6 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Table 2 Special Education—Preschool Grants Under IDEA, Part B, Section 619—Expenditures for California and All States, Fiscal Years 1991–2002 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 California Total ($) 31,446,463 34,813,572 34,437,799 36,119,473 36,991,756 36,129,071 36,074,288 37,945,640 37,945,640 39,848,701 39,848,701 39,848,701 U.S. Total ($) 291,861,031 319,992,770 325,763,937 339,257,000 360,265,000 360,409,000 360,409,000 373,985,000 373,985,000 390,000,000 390,000,000 390,000,000 California as a % of U.S. 10.77 10.88 10.57 10.65 10.27 10.02 10.01 10.15 10.15 10.22 10.22 10.22 Per Capita California ($) 1.03 1.12 1.10 1.15 1.17 1.13 1.11 1.15 1.13 1.17 1.15 1.13 Per Capita U.S. ($) 1.15 1.25 1.25 1.29 1.35 1.34 1.32 1.36 1.34 1.38 1.37 1.35 California Per Capita as a % of U.S. 89.46 90.10 87.86 88.98 86.26 84.34 84.01 84.85 84.52 84.79 84.26 83.91 7 8 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Table 3 Special Education—Grants for Infants and Toddlers Under IDEA, Part C, Section 631—Expenditures for California and All States, Fiscal Years 1991–2002 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 California Total ($) 14,817,016 21,710,996 29,207,477 34,996,612 40,347,086 41,438,233 40,850,169 46,131,788 46,249,616 45,929,796 46,979,082 49,954,044 U.S. Total ($) 117,060,811 174,934,693 213,200,407 253,152,000 315,632,000 315,754,000 315,754,000 350,000,000 370,000,000 375,000,000 383,567,000 417,000,000 California as a % of U.S. 12.66 12.41 13.70 13.82 12.78 13.12 12.94 13.18 12.50 12.25 12.25 11.98 Per Capita California ($) 0.49 0.70 0.93 1.11 1.27 1.29 1.26 1.40 1.38 1.35 1.36 1.42 Per Capita U.S. ($) 0.46 0.68 0.82 0.96 1.19 1.17 1.16 1.27 1.33 1.33 1.34 1.45 California per Capita as a % of U.S. 105.09 102.78 113.86 115.54 107.39 110.42 108.58 110.22 104.12 101.64 101.00 98.37 FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Table 4 All IDEA Formula Grants—Grants to States, Preschool Grants, and Grants for Infants and Toddlers Under Parts B and C—Expenditures for California and All States, Fiscal Years 1991–2002 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 California Total ($) 231,723,478 257,146,577 272,999,123 290,331,402 305,962,132 306,325,987 384,700,944 462,811,996 515,432,630 591,409,295 736,845,582 871,465,252 U.S. Total ($) 2,263,077,737 2,471,022,463 2,591,694,072 2,742,095,000 2,998,812,000 3,000,000,000 3,783,685,000 4,531,685,000 5,054,685,000 5,754,685,000 7,113,252,000 8,335,533,000 California as a % of U.S. 10.24 10.41 10.53 10.59 10.20 10.21 10.17 10.21 10.20 10.28 10.36 10.45 Per Capita California ($) 7.60 8.30 8.73 9.22 9.65 9.57 11.84 14.03 15.39 17.39 21.30 24.82 Per Capita U.S. ($) 8.95 9.63 9.97 10.42 11.26 11.14 13.88 16.43 18.11 20.39 24.93 28.91 California per Capita as a % of U.S. 85.01 86.18 87.54 88.49 85.71 85.91 85.33 85.40 84.94 85.28 85.42 85.85 9 Grants to States Formula—Basic Formula Allocation Provisions IDEA Part B requires that USDE allocate funds to the states, and states are in turn required to allocate most of that funding to each Local Education Agency (LEA). Before 1997, the formula for calculating the funds that each state and LEA would receive was based on the total number of children with disabilities. With the IDEA Amendments of 1997, Congress changed the formula, requiring that allocations be based on total student population (regardless of disability) and the number of such students living in poverty. The new formula was slated to take effect when the Grants to States program exceeded a specified aggregate trigger level of $4.925 billion. This trigger figure was reached in fiscal year 2000, making it the first year under the new formula; and by statutory language, fiscal year 1999 became the base year for future formula calculations. As a result, USDE first allocates to each state the same amount received from the Grants to States program in fiscal year 1999. (The national total that year was $4.3 billion, and California’s share was $431 million, or almost exactly 10 percent.) Then, after numerous set-asides6 and several caveats, any amount above that level is allocated as follows: 85 percent based on each state’s population share of the nation’s children ages 3 through 21 for which the state guarantees a free and appropriate public education to all disabled children, and 15 percent based on the share of such children living in poverty. By specifying that states receive credit only for the number of children in the state’s FAPE-guaranteed age group, the formula rewards states for providing the guarantee to a larger cohort of children. In 2002, all states covered children from age 3, but there was considerable variation at the top of the age range, with 21 states guaranteeing FAPE through age 21, 27 states guaranteeing it through age 20, two states guaranteeing it through age 19, and two states guaranteeing it through age 18.7 California and Montana were the two states at the low end of the spectrum, guaranteeing FAPE only to children ages 3 through 18.8 6The formula first requires that USDE set aside up to 1 percent of total funding for competitive grants to territories (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Virgin Islands received a total of $31 million in 2002) and 1.226 percent to transfer to the U.S. Department of the Interior for grants to Indian tribes and tribal organizations. Despite the explicit percentage outlined in the law, USDE recently began providing only inflation-rate increases for Indian tribes and tribal organizations; the 2002 total was $79 million. Finally, the formula provides for limited national program funding set-asides, including $7 million for a Pacific Basin competition and $16 million for program evaluation. 7For fiscal year 2003 allotments, New Jersey was redesignated as guaranteeing FAPE through age 20. For previous years’ allotments, that state had been deemed to guarantee FAPE through age 21. 8As a result, California’s population count number for purposes of the Grants to States 2002 formula allocation was 8.3 million (11 percent of the nation) instead of the 9.7 million number (13 percent of the nation) the state would have used if California guaranteed FAPE through age 21. 10 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Although it has not occurred in recent years, should total appropriated funds for the Grants to States formula decline from one year to the next, each state’s funding would be reduced pro rata. Assuming that funds for the program grow from one year to the next, four provisos set funding growth floors for each state and a fifth sets a funding growth cap. Grants to States Formula—Minimum Allocations As a restraint on major funding shifts from year to year, the Grants to States formula imposes several limitations on how much funding may increase during years of program growth. First, every state must receive at least one-third of 1 percent of the increase in total program funding since the 1999 base year. For 2002, no state could receive less than $10.7 million more than the state received in 1999. This formula language increased the 2002 funding level of nine small states, including the District of Columbia.9 Second, every state’s allocation must increase by at least the rate of increase in the nation’s total grant level from the prior year, less 1.5 percent. Total program funding increased by 18.75 percent from 2001 to 2002, so this minimum growth formula language required that each state’s funding grow by at least 17.25 percent from that of the prior year. As a result the funding level for 22 states, California not among them, rose in 2002 because of this provision. Third, every state’s allocation must increase by at least 90 percent of the nation’s total percentage increase from the prior year. However, depending on the rate of growth in the program, either the second or the third provison is in effect in any given year, but not both. Ninety percent of 18.75 percent is 16.88 percent, which is less than the 17.25 percent growth minimum described in the preceding paragraph. Thus, this provision was not effective for any state in 2002. If total program funding grows by less than 15 percent from one year to the next, this third proviso becomes effective and the second proviso ineffective. Finally, no state may receive less than it received in the preceding year. The rapid growth in IDEA funding has obviated any need for this provision to operate in recent years. 9However, the funding level for most of these small states would be later limited by the maximum growth provision, discussed below. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 11 Grants to States Formula—Maximum Allocations In addition to minimum growth floors, the Grants to States formula sets a maximum amount by which any state’s grant may grow from one year to the next, as well as a separate (and so far unused) maximum amount of grant funding per disabled child. The provision limits any state’s percentage growth to the percentage growth in the program nationwide, plus 1.5 percent. Thus, an 18.75 percent national funding growth rate in 2002 limited the growth of all states’ formula allocations to no more than 20.25 percent between 2001 and 2002. The maximum growth provision resulted in reduced formula allocations for 25 states—eight of the nine slated for increases under the small state growth minimum (discussed above) and 17 other states, including California. Without the growth maximum, California’s initial allocation would have been higher by $14 million (although that amount would have been later reduced pro rata, along with that of other states, to equalize funding). Along with Arizona, Georgia, and Louisiana, California was among the states with the largest numeric reductions in funding because of the growth maximum. In addition to the maximum growth percentage, the formula also provides that no state may receive more funding than the number of disabled children in the state multiplied by 40 percent of the nation’s average per pupil expenditure (APPE) in public schools. (As discussed above, this limitation leads some to argue that Congress intended to provide to states 40 percent of the cost of educating disabled children.) The APPE limitation has never reduced funding to any state because federal spending on education for the disabled has never exceeded 20 percent of the nation’s APPE. If funding for fiscal year 2004 rose above $14 billion, and the formula employed 2001–2002 school year counts for disabled children, one state (Wyoming) would reach the 40 percent limit. Moreover, if funding continues to increase at a rapid pace, many states could reach the 40 percent level within a few years. At that point, the problem of overand underidentification will return as a significant formula funding issue. States that identify a larger percentage of their students as disabled will be eligible to receive proportionally more IDEA grant funding than will states that identify fewer students as disabled. If current identification practices continue and the funding formula is left unchanged, California could find itself receiving as little as half as much Grants to States funding per capita as a state (such as Rhode Island at present) that identifies twice as many of its children as disabled. Grants to States Formula—Pro Rata Redistribution After raising some states to a minimum grant amount and lowering others to a maximum grant amount, it is improbable that the new total funding amount 12 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California would match the original amount. For this reason, excess funding is distributed on a pro rata basis (in the event of an overage) or any shortfall is recovered through pro rata reductions. Following the first redistribution or reduction, each state’s total is again run through the formula to ensure that funding does not exceed the maximums or fall below the minimums. This process must be repeated numerous times to reach a final total where all states fall within the limits of the formula language. Grants to States Formula—Funding Results for Fiscal Year 2003 As discussed above, the constraints exercised by the formula’s funding rules resulted in most states receiving either minimum or maximum allocations for 2002. For 2003, the results will be somewhat similar. In January 2003, Congress appropriated $8,874,397,536 for the Grants to States program for fiscal year 2003, a 17.9 percent increase from 2002 (see Appendix E). The operative growth guidelines are thus a maximum of 19.4 percent and a minimum of 16.4 percent and, again, as in 2002, a total of 25 states are at the maximum growth percentage and 12 are at the minimum. With the slightly slower rate of increase in funding compared to the prior year, New Mexico’s funding moves above the minimum to the midrange for 2003, North Carolina’s falls from the midrange to the minimum, Pennsylvania’s and South Carolina’s climb from the midrange to the maximum, and Tennessee’s and Oklahoma’s fall from the maximum to the midrange. As was the case in 2002, California remains at the maximum level, receiving $933 million for 2003 (10.5 percent of the nation’s total). However, 2003 will be the first year in which California’s funding is altered upward by the formula. Without the formula’s combination of maximums and minimums, the state would have received slightly less funding, $931 million, from the initial allocation. Once the formula reduced funding for other states, including some with initial allocations far above the maximum percentage, a national total of $34 million remained to be distributed to other eligible states. Only via the redistribution of this overage did California’s allocation climb by the $2 million needed to reach the 19.4 percent growth maximum. As a result, the 2003 funding level of $8.9 billion was nearly “ideal” on a percentage basis for California—maximizing the state’s receipts and doing the same for relatively few other states. Grants to States Formula—Funding Alternatives for Fiscal Year 2004 In the near future, Congress will set a fiscal year 2004 funding level for Grants to States in an appropriations bill for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. Appendix F illustrates state funding under FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 13 alternative funding scenarios. Assuming that the grant formula remains unchanged by any IDEA reauthorization bill that might be enacted before the allocation, the following analysis will apply. If there is no funding increase from one year to the next, the operative function requires that no state receive less than it did in the prior year—and thus the allocation would be identical to that of the prior year. If total expenditures decline, every state’s allotment would decline pro rata. Neither scenario has occurred recently, as total spending for IDEA Grants to States has increased steadily. In a period of program growth, the extent of a state’s increase depends largely upon the extent of the nation’s growth from one year to the next. If total spending grows by a large amount from one year to the next, as has been the case in recent years, more states rise above the minimum and more states reach the maximum. Conversely, if funds were to grow more slowly, the opposite is true. However, which states grow by how much is not entirely intuitive. If program funding grows only slightly from one year to the next, small states are the first to experience funding increases. Because the small state growth minimum sets a funding floor relative to the base year (fiscal year 1999) rather than to the year prior, the formula favors small states before others when funding growth following the base year has been rapid. For example, if funding were to grow only 1.4 percent, from $8.9 billion in 2003 to $9 billion in 2004, the minimum growth percentages would fund 38 states (including California, at $945 million), and the maximum would fund 11 states, including seven small states, plus Arizona, Georgia, Nevada, and Puerto Rico. Only three states—Colorado, Louisiana, and Montana—would receive formula funding between the maximum and the minimum. If funding rose to the $9.5 billion level recommended in President Bush’s fiscal year 2004 budget, a 7.4 percent increase from the prior year, 11 states would receive minimum funding, whereas 17 states would receive maximum funding. This scenario is explored in Appendix Table F.1. In the midrange between minimum and maximum would be 24 states, including California, which would receive $1.009 billion.10 This total for California would represent 10.6 percent of the nation’s total expenditures—an increase of 8.2 percent from 2003. Should Congress elect to appropriate $9.9 billion—as was approved by the House of Representatives in July 2003—the amount would constitute an 11.3 percent increase from fiscal year 2003. At that total, ten states would receive the 10California would cross the $1 billion grant threshold if total 2004 program funding reached $9,448,438,766. 14 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California minimum and 17 states the maximum.11 California’s $1.05 billion allotment would represent a 12.4 percent increase above that of the prior year, nearer the national maximum growth percentage of 12.8 percent. In fact, for 2004, California would reach its maximum growth percentage when total program funding exceeds $10.3 billion. Above that amount, California’s $1.1 billion allotment would represent an increase of 17.6 percent from 2003 and a 10.7 percent share of total national expenditures. Should funding so expand, California would become the 18th state to reach the growth maximum. Above the $10.3 billion spending threshold, California’s allotment would continue to rise, but growth would be constrained by the growth maximum. In addition, more states would continue to reach the maximum. At $11 billion nationwide, California would receive $1.171 billion, and 22 states would receive funding at the maximum. At $12 billion nationwide, the state total would rise to $1.275 billion, and 25 states would be funded at the maximum. At $13 billion, the state would receive $1.380 billion, and 30 states would be at the maximum. At $14 billion, California’s allotment would increase to $1.486 billion, and 31 states would receive maximum funding. If funding were to rise above $14 billion, states would begin to be constrained by the language, discussed above, limiting any state’s receipts to 40 percent of average per pupil expenditures multiplied by the total number of disabled children in the state. Wyoming would reach the limitation at total spending of $14.1 billion. Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, and Ohio would join Wyoming at the 40 percent APPE limit if spending rose to $16 billion. California would not be constrained by the 40 percent APPE limit until total federal spending reached $17 billion, or nearly double the 2003 expenditure level.12 Grants to States Formula—Funding Alternatives for Multiple Years As is apparent, the pace of annual funding increases affects funding growth differently from one state to the next. 11On July 10, 2003, the House approved H.R. 2660, a fiscal year 2004 appropriations bill for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. For Grants to States, the bill included total funding of $9,874,398,000. On July 26, 2003, the Senate Appropriations Committee marked up and approved a Senate version of the spending bill, S. 1356, which includes Grants to States funding of $9,858,533,000. At press time for this paper, the Senate had not yet acted on the bill. 12The trigger level at which California begins to be affected by the 40 percent APPE limitation is $17,070,208,058. By the time expenditures reached that amount, 19 states would have reached the limit and $235 million would be made available to be distributed to other states. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 15 To demonstrate, if it is assumed that the federal government will spend a total of $22 billion for the Grants to States program in fiscal years 2004 and 2005, how that funding total is spread between the two years alters the combined two-year grant amount for every state. For example, if Congress were to appropriate $9.5 billion in 2004 and $12.5 billion in 2005 (a combined total of $22 billion), California would receive a total of $2.344 billion for the two years combined. If Congress instead were to appropriate $10 billion in 2004 and $12 billion in 2005, California’s combined grant sum would be $5 million more. (This scenario is shown in Appendix Table F.2.) However, if Congress instead were to appropriate $10.5 billion in 2004 and $11.5 billion in 2005, California’s two-year receipts would begin to decline again. Thus, steady funding growth from one year to the next is a more lucrative funding scenario for California than is uneven growth. At larger funding levels, the scenario yields a similar result. If the two-year national funding total were to be $24 billion, California would receive approximately $2.5 billion, but the state would fare better if the funds were to grow evenly than if growth were uneven. At $10.5 billion in 2004 and $13.5 billion in 2005, California would receive somewhat more than at either a wider funding split ($10 billion in 2004 and $14 billion in 2005) or a narrower split ($11 billion in 2004 and $13 billion in 2005). A scenario whereby total funding grew negligibly in 2004 (by just $126 million, to $9 billion) and then very substantially in 2005 (to $15 billion) would provide California a two-year grant total of nearly $40 million less than under a more even growth profile. It is interesting to note that sharp growth in 2004 and flat growth in 2005 would prove a more lucrative scenario than flat growth in 2004 and sharp growth in 2005, providing the state a two-year sum that is larger by more than $12 million. In addition, with respect to California’s share of total funds, no growth from one year to the next is slightly preferable to minimal growth. In light of the structure of growth minimums—in particular, the priority of states (especially small states) that are first eligible to take greatest advantage of them—California’s share of the nation’s expenditures initially begins to decline as total funding growth from one year to the next leaves zero. As growth rises further, California’s share halts its decline and then begins to increase again. Grants to States—Effect of Increasing California’s FAPE Age As discussed above, California is one of only two states to guarantee FAPE to all disabled children through only age 18—the youngest maximum age among states. In 2003, 49 other states guarantee FAPE to children through ages 19, 20, or 21. 16 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California The basic provisions of the Grants to States formula base both population and poverty counts—and thus eligibility for funding—on the age for which a state guarantees FAPE. Therefore, the formula counts California’s total number of persons ages 3 through 18, but it counts persons ages 3 through 20 in Alabama and in 27 other states. For allocation of 2003 funding, California represented 11 percent of the nation’s children-living-in-poverty/population count. If the state were to increase the age through which it guaranteed FAPE, the state’s share of the nation’s count would increase. If the state covered children to age 19, the state’s percentage of counted children would rise to 11.6 percent.13 Including children to age 20 would further increase that share to 12.2 percent. And if the state’s maximum FAPE age increased to the national maximum of 21, the state’s share of counted children would rise to 12.8 percent. Because California has received maximum funding for several years, the state’s low FAPE age has not limited its IDEA grant receipts to date. However, depending on future appropriations, 2003 may be the last year for which California receives funding at the maximum ceiling, and the state’s choice to guarantee FAPE to relatively fewer children will begin to reduce the state’s share of funding in 2004 and beyond. For example, if Congress were to appropriate $9.5 billion in total Grants to States funding for 2004, as proposed by President Bush, California’s grant allocation would be $6.7 million less than if the state guaranteed FAPE through age 19 or more. (The state’s receipts would not grow further by increasing the FAPE age to 20 or 21, because the change would return the state to the growth maximum.) If the nation’s total appropriation for 2004 is significantly higher ($10.3 billion or more) and California thereby remains at the maximum growth cap, a FAPE age change would not make a difference. Nevertheless, the state’s relatively low FAPE age is likely to reduce state funding at some point in the near future. Grants for Infants and Toddlers—Allocation Formula Provisions The formula for allocating Grants for Infants and Toddlers under IDEA, Part C, is relatively simple. Following set-asides for U.S. territories and for Indian tribes and tribal organizations, the formula requires that funds be distributed according to states’ relative population of children from birth through 13This hypothetical example assumes that California is the only state to change its FAPE age. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 17 age 2, provided that no state receives less than one-half of 1 percent of total funding. As shown in Appendix G, the small-state minimum reduced California’s grant by $2 million in 2003, to $52 million. Without the minimum, California would have received 12.4 percent of the nation’s grant funding; with the minimum, the state share was 12 percent. Preschool Grants—Allocation Formula Provisions The formula for allocating Preschool Grants14 to states under IDEA, Part B, Section 619, requires that every state receive at least the same amount received in 1997, and any increase since that date is allocated as follows: 85 percent to states on the basis of their relative populations of children ages 3 through 5, and 15 percent to states on the basis of their relative populations of such children who are living in poverty.15 In a manner similar to the Grants to States formula, the Preschool Grants formula includes four complicated provisos that in some instances require numerous recalculations of state grant amounts. First, every state must receive at least one-third of 1 percent of the increase in total program funding since 1997. Second, every state’s allocation must increase by at least the rate of increase in the nation’s total grant level from the prior year, less 1.5 percent. Third, every state’s allocation must increase by at least 90 percent of the nation’s total percentage increase from that of the prior year. Fourth, if funding does not decline from one year to the next, no state’s grant may decline from the prior year’s amount. Finally, if funds do decline from one year to the next, each state’s funding is reduced pro rata. Congress maintained level funding at $390 million for the Preschool Grants program for several years, resulting in no change in state funding totals. Because of an across-the-board funding cut applied to nearly all domestic discretionary programs in the fiscal year 2003 omnibus appropriations bill, nationwide Preschool Grants funding declined by two-thirds of 1 percent, to $387 million, and state grant funding was reduced on a pro rata basis (see Appendix H). For fiscal year 2004, the President, the House, and the Senate Appropriations Committee all would provide $390 million. 14 The preschool grant is allocated only to the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. No funds are provided to territories or to Indian tribes or tribal organizations. 15As with the Grants to States formula, the Preschool Grants formula counts only children ages 3 through 5 by state for ages for which the state guarantees FAPE. At present, all states guarantee FAPE to all children with disabilities in that age range, so the formula counts all children ages 3, 4, and 5 (as well as all such children living in poverty) in every state. 18 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California The formula requires that any state’s pro rata reduction be applied relative to what if any funding growth that state had enjoyed since 1997. Because California’s share of funding for Preschool Grants had risen from 10 percent of the nation’s total in 1997 to 10.2 percent in 2002, the state bore a larger burden of the 2003 across-the-board reduction. Whereas the national average reduction in Preschool Grants funding was 0.65 percent, California’s reduction was 0.8 percent. The funding shares of only six other states were reduced by a greater proportion than California’s. Reauthorization of IDEA On April 30, 2003, the House of Representatives approved H.R. 1350 (entitled the Improving Education Results for Children with Disabilities Act), a bill to reauthorize IDEA programs. The House Committee on Education and Workforce had reported the bill on April 10. As passed by the House, the bill makes no change to the primary IDEA funding formulas, but it adds one limitation that, if enacted, will affect future funding allotments. The bill would limit a state’s total funding if the state identifies more than 13.5 percent of its children ages 3 through 17, as disabled.16 At present, only three states—New Mexico, Rhode Island, and West Virginia—would be affected by the provision. During committee markup, the limitation was altered upward from 12 percent, a level that would have affected nine states.17 Among the states, California identifies one of the lowest percentages of children as disabled, so this provision is unlikely to reduce the state’s funding in the foreseeable future. In fact, California may stand to gain funds as excess funds are redistributed from states that reach the limit. During floor consideration, the House adopted a rule preventing consideration of an amendment that would have converted the grant from a discretionary program to a mandatory entitlement, thereby avoiding annual appropriations. Amendment proponents sought mandatory status to force the federal share of education spending for disabled children to rise to the 40 percent level in the near future; opponents argued that the same goal could be achieved with increased discretionary spending, and that periodic reauthorization forces 16The language states that, notwithstanding the 40 percent APPE limitation, “the maximum amount of the grant a State may receive under [the formula] for a fiscal year may not be based on the number of children ages 3 through 17, inclusive, in excess of 13.5 percent of the number of all children in that age range in the State.” H.R. 1350, 108th Congress, Improving Education Results for Children with Disabilities Act of 2003. 17Representatives Rob Andrews (NJ) and Rush Holt (NJ) promoted the change to 13.5 percent after they failed in their attempt to strip the limitation entirely. New Jersey would have been one of the states limited by the 12 percent threshold. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 19 Congress to regularly assess the program and its efficiency. Representative Lynn Woolsey (Petaluma) had unsuccessfully offered a similar amendment during committee markup. During subcommittee and full committee markup, supporters of H.R. 1350 expressed their commitment to move toward the 40 percent level. The bill authorizes an IDEA funding increase of $2.2 billion for fiscal year 2004 and $2.7 billion for fiscal year 2005. If enacted and if funding is appropriated, the 2004 federal spending level would represent 21 percent of the nation’s expenditures on education for disabled children, and the funding levels for the future would increase IDEA spending to represent a 40 percent federal share within seven years. As this report goes to press, the Senate has begun considering a reauthorization bill as well, and allocation change proposals are possible during that process and in conference. On June 25, 2003, the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions marked up and unanimously passed S.B. 1248, which, like the House bill, would not significantly change the formula for allocating funds among states. The Senate Committee bill would alter the IDEA law’s 40 percent APPE limitation by adjusting limit amounts by a weighted rate of change in the nation’s population and poverty totals in FAPE age ranges.18 Conclusion Congress has made education for disabled children a spending priority in recent years. The $8.9 billion in total U.S. funding for the Grants to States program in fiscal year 2003 is nearly three times the $3.1 billion total appropriated in 1997. From 1975 to 1999, all grant funds were allocated to states according to state-reported counts of disabled children, which resulted in wide variation among states and led to charges that states had a financial incentive to identify more children as disabled. In 1997, Congress created a new allocation formula (which took effect in 2000) to distribute future funding according to population and poverty factors. To dampen sharp funding changes from one year to the next, the new formula included minimum growth floors and maximum growth caps. Primarily because of this formula change, California’s share of grant spending has risen slowly but steadily since the new formula took effect, from 10 percent 18The Senate provision reads that each state’s limit should be “adjusted by the rate of change in the sum of—(i) 85 percent of the change in the nationwide total of the population described in subsection (d)(3)(A)(i)(II); and (ii) 15 percent of the change in the nationwide total of the adjacent child poverty provision.” 20 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California in 1999 to 10.5 percent in 2003. California identifies the second-lowest percentage of its children as disabled, so the pre-1999 formula’s use of disabledchild counts as its primary factor substantially shifted past funding toward other states. With every year of total U.S. funding growth, California’s share has risen. California received maximum funding from the formula in every year that the 1997 formula has operated to date. California maximizes its grant funding with steady, even increases in the program total. However, under some funding scenarios, the state will soon reach the point where its percentage funding growth begins to slow relative to that of other states. California is one of only two states that guarantees education services for disabled children through only age 18. A provision of the Grants to States formula, designed to provide an incentive for states to revise that age level upward, sets California’s base formula share far lower than it would be if the state guaranteed FAPE to more children. In the long run, California’s share of the nation’s Grants to States funding will be considerably less (11 percent) than it would be if the state extended that guarantee to, say, age 21 (12.8 percent). FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 21 Appendix A Methodology All funding calculations in this report pertain to state grants. Payments distributed by USDE to the Secretary of the Interior for Indian tribes and tribal organizations for the Grants to States program and the Grants for Infants and Toddlers program result in additional federal dollars for educating disabled children within states. However, these amounts are not included in our state grant calculations for the states in which the tribe or tribal organization is located. For most federal policy on education for disabled children, the law treats states and territories equally. However, for formula allocation purposes, IDEA treats the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia as states, although not the four territories. Population counts are derived from the 2000 decennial Census for individual year of age by state. Poverty counts are derived from the Current Population Survey’s March Supplement, also published by the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for FAPE age guarantees by state are published by USDE. (The top FAPE guarantee age for New Jersey was revised downward from 21 for 2002 to 20 for 2003.) To estimate future allocations, we assume that the amount of payments for tribes and tribal organizations, as well as grants to territories, will each rise by the rate of inflation. For the period from 2003 to 2004, USDE assumes that rate to be approximately 1.9 percent, and we use that rate for our calculations for all future years. We assume no change in funding for national programs, which in 2002 included $16 million for evaluation and $6 million for a competitive grant. In addition, we assume no change in future-year population and poverty count proportions. To calculate funding levels for future years, we employ a spreadsheet-based program to calculate state totals for grant funding. Starting from a selected funding total for all states, the model applies the aforementioned funding assumptions, then the basic formula provisions, growth minimums, and growth maximums. It then performs pro rata operations to reduce funding (in the event of an overage above the target funding total) or to redistribute excess funding (in the event that the formula result falls short of the target). The minimum, maximum, and pro rata reduction operations must be repeated a number of times, because each iteration causes changes that may push state totals above the maximum or below the minimum. The program repeats the operation through 170 formula iterations. Finally, the state totals are compared to the 40 percent APPE limitation to ensure that no state exceeds that maximum. The allotment under the Grants to States program for a state in any year (GSY) may be expressed by the following equation: ( )∑ ∑ ∑ ∑GSY = GSB + GY − GB  × 0.85 × TFS TF + 0.15 × PFS × TFS  IFS  subject to the constraint that  ∑ ∑ ∑1.015 × G SY −1 ×     GY DS −G G Y −1 × 0.4 × Y −1   EN      ≥ GSY ≥  ∑ ∑ ∑   0.985 × GSY −1 ×   GY − G Y G −1 Y −1        ∑ ∑  ∑  0.9 × GSY −1 ×   G Y − G Y −1 G Y −1          G SB +    ∑GY − ∑GB 300 × ∑GB        where G is the grant amount, S is the state, Y is the current year, Y–1 is the year immediately preceding the current year, B is the base year, T is total population, P is population living below the poverty line, I is the total number of persons for whom income status is determined, F is the age range for which a state guarantees FAPE, D is the number of disabled children ages 3 through 21 receiving education services, and EN is the average rate of per pupil expenditure in public schools nationwide. 24 Appendix B Funding Allocation: Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State Table B.1 Special Education—Grants to States Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1997 51,491,342 9,270,792 41,816,326 29,225,314 307,776,487 37,659,727 40,296,930 8,263,659 3,519,960 170,127,018 74,375,036 8,923,486 13,279,299 139,400,226 72,880,410 35,850,998 29,172,085 44,816,646 48,892,611 17,160,794 55,142,003 83,808,150 102,005,063 53,346,976 34,494,547 66,212,565 9,802,564 21,016,992 15,795,815 13,923,843 106,666,547 25,889,284 217,531,327 80,968,571 6,698,412 119,083,642 38,883,465 33,595,356 113,545,199 13,242,935 47,832,775 7,932,164 66,069,215 243,257,042 28,393,678 6,201,960 76,203,265 56,399,997 23,902,422 58,182,903 6,785,370 3,492,174 8,437,038 2,153,536 24,274,497 6,396,519 368,334 0 0 38,018,284 7,368,425 1998 62,130,954 11,173,803 52,481,933 35,821,419 378,734,568 45,732,816 48,210,039 10,039,140 4,806,664 209,709,817 92,475,056 11,578,324 16,413,793 170,803,141 89,431,754 43,662,619 35,477,639 53,835,138 59,015,014 20,405,779 68,307,731 100,822,220 125,354,617 65,109,758 39,812,779 80,825,972 11,731,742 25,866,816 19,887,291 16,861,522 129,050,413 31,492,541 264,648,309 99,943,670 8,079,153 142,534,245 48,454,881 42,149,735 140,124,025 15,741,261 59,584,850 9,651,526 80,976,258 299,062,045 34,223,373 7,665,239 93,127,550 69,216,964 28,457,380 71,190,727 8,188,737 4,270,929 10,318,497 2,633,775 31,761,179 7,822,943 184,167 0 0 46,682,402 13,943,368 1999 69,017,922 12,247,357 61,263,060 40,872,926 431,237,374 51,886,005 53,060,125 11,224,669 5,643,797 238,676,175 107,699,572 14,156,512 19,052,135 194,398,440 101,341,485 49,065,489 40,399,267 60,830,890 65,859,276 21,991,584 77,229,155 114,086,702 143,898,146 73,410,154 42,676,977 90,973,549 12,997,604 30,009,897 23,039,165 19,016,870 145,270,027 36,034,694 298,798,306 114,312,121 9,114,296 159,145,801 55,517,617 48,323,540 156,534,110 17,575,151 68,478,573 10,857,498 88,697,223 336,565,139 37,843,586 8,787,921 106,290,352 78,927,411 30,522,278 80,406,470 9,219,400 4,832,745 11,675,837 2,980,233 37,448,755 8,852,007 0 0 0 52,849,182 17,577,448 2000 79,372,913 14,360,167 71,831,645 46,925,276 505,630,798 60,836,940 60,621,805 13,161,054 6,617,417 274,310,784 126,278,991 16,598,674 22,338,848 222,970,401 115,783,816 56,057,887 46,805,142 69,988,093 77,220,761 25,125,639 88,552,235 130,345,374 168,624,335 85,579,363 49,937,502 103,938,330 15,239,841 34,286,654 27,013,687 21,791,090 165,972,682 41,240,344 342,212,717 132,570,043 10,686,617 186,600,288 64,473,544 56,238,461 183,436,695 20,079,813 78,237,560 12,730,542 101,635,101 393,361,010 44,372,041 10,303,939 121,999,520 92,258,094 34,872,055 92,662,516 10,809,853 4,956,510 11,974,852 3,056,556 43,909,097 9,078,705 0 0 0 61,173,538 20,636,845 2001 100,426,123 18,460,830 92,343,757 59,842,674 650,017,799 78,209,425 76,114,202 16,919,300 8,507,074 344,413,144 162,338,988 21,338,561 28,717,888 283,066,424 145,373,315 70,383,938 60,170,732 88,537,364 99,271,780 31,546,701 111,365,477 163,656,198 216,776,390 109,440,436 64,197,563 130,959,742 19,591,702 43,048,888 34,727,666 27,359,981 208,388,355 52,531,899 429,667,970 169,440,174 13,738,268 239,885,523 81,913,464 72,297,813 235,280,772 25,211,373 98,231,807 16,365,852 128,733,463 505,688,457 57,042,839 13,246,313 153,996,278 118,603,146 43,783,893 117,131,369 13,896,695 5,127,424 12,387,778 3,161,954 56,447,698 9,391,764 0 0 0 77,724,538 23,244,059 2002 119,960,334 22,199,605 111,045,656 71,962,298 781,662,507 94,048,771 89,245,788 20,345,877 10,229,967 405,878,306 195,216,655 25,660,148 34,533,972 336,446,325 170,853,119 82,526,911 70,893,325 104,503,321 119,376,775 36,989,288 131,443,233 191,890,947 260,135,764 128,321,623 77,199,160 153,553,541 23,559,507 50,475,888 41,760,879 32,080,256 244,340,509 61,594,953 509,305,853 202,724,229 16,520,608 288,468,284 98,502,970 86,394,113 281,508,625 29,560,959 115,429,949 19,680,342 154,805,179 608,102,898 68,595,427 15,929,020 181,253,563 142,623,221 51,337,699 140,599,055 16,711,120 5,705,650 12,629,887 4,372,921 67,879,755 7,999,858 0 0 0 79,377,301 22,579,306 Total States total 3,107,522,000 3,807,700,000 4,310,700,000 4,989,685,000 6,339,685,000 7,528,533,000 3,041,287,690 3,721,843,919 4,211,932,548 4,878,807,994 6,208,647,483 7,395,868,077 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 26 Table B.2 Special Education—Preschool Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1997 5,308,013 1,195,743 5,008,915 5,102,788 36,074,288 4,692,338 4,665,794 1,189,269 224,647 17,510,810 9,250,017 927,721 2,080,088 16,776,014 8,464,723 3,796,987 4,122,628 9,715,496 6,147,040 2,390,839 6,338,022 9,409,924 11,916,000 7,066,345 4,018,513 5,660,844 1,116,795 2,143,533 2,111,164 1,481,893 10,823,193 3,032,410 32,104,446 10,761,043 748,392 11,833,780 3,422,144 3,647,438 13,268,414 1,590,008 6,792,495 1,393,847 6,533,536 21,349,912 3,377,473 798,889 8,682,896 7,770,713 3,314,028 9,010,480 991,813 27,838 110,705 29,780 2,896,457 112,000 3,413 0 0 0 74,266 1998 5,506,321 1,240,996 5,234,835 5,275,780 37,945,640 4,856,958 4,823,971 1,234,522 236,479 18,166,520 9,602,719 976,583 2,150,606 17,371,793 8,751,690 3,925,710 4,262,391 10,044,866 6,382,405 2,471,892 6,570,944 9,728,934 12,368,808 7,305,905 4,160,974 5,894,391 1,162,014 2,216,202 2,187,001 1,532,131 11,190,115 3,135,213 33,194,656 11,125,858 787,809 12,325,761 3,577,925 3,779,324 13,763,543 1,643,912 7,022,771 1,441,100 6,776,149 22,381,975 3,491,974 840,965 8,977,259 8,034,152 3,426,378 9,315,949 1,037,066 0 0 0 3,049,009 0 1,706 0 0 0 74,450 1999 5,506,321 1,240,996 5,241,962 5,275,780 37,945,640 4,856,958 4,823,971 1,234,522 240,026 18,166,520 9,602,719 979,916 2,150,606 17,371,793 8,751,690 3,925,710 4,262,391 10,044,866 6,382,405 2,471,892 6,570,944 9,728,934 12,368,808 7,305,905 4,160,974 5,894,391 1,162,014 2,216,202 2,194,131 1,532,131 11,190,115 3,135,213 33,194,656 11,125,858 793,645 12,325,761 3,577,925 3,779,595 13,763,543 1,643,912 7,022,771 1,441,100 6,776,149 22,381,975 3,491,974 844,142 8,977,259 8,034,152 3,426,378 9,315,949 1,037,066 0 0 0 3,094,744 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total States total 360,409,000 360,050,998 373,985,000 373,908,844 373,985,000 373,985,000 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 2000 5,730,375 1,294,380 5,545,066 5,479,110 39,848,701 5,073,769 5,009,888 1,287,906 253,905 18,917,454 10,077,250 1,036,577 2,233,491 18,041,307 9,088,983 4,077,008 4,426,665 10,431,998 6,628,385 2,567,159 6,824,190 10,103,890 12,853,643 7,587,477 4,321,339 6,171,495 1,215,398 2,306,907 2,312,229 1,591,180 11,621,386 3,256,045 34,473,989 11,554,652 839,536 12,874,725 3,760,076 3,960,512 14,293,994 1,707,269 7,293,431 1,496,640 7,049,034 23,676,158 3,647,879 892,952 9,323,245 8,343,791 3,558,432 9,674,989 1,090,450 0 0 0 3,273,690 0 0 0 0 0 0 390,000,000 390,000,000 2001 5,730,375 1,294,380 5,545,066 5,479,110 39,848,701 5,073,769 5,009,888 1,287,906 253,905 18,917,454 10,077,250 1,036,577 2,233,491 18,041,307 9,088,983 4,077,008 4,426,665 10,431,998 6,628,385 2,567,159 6,824,190 10,103,890 12,853,643 7,587,477 4,321,339 6,171,495 1,215,398 2,306,907 2,312,229 1,591,180 11,621,386 3,256,045 34,473,989 11,554,652 839,536 12,874,725 3,760,076 3,960,512 14,293,994 1,707,269 7,293,431 1,496,640 7,049,034 23,676,158 3,647,879 892,952 9,323,245 8,343,791 3,558,432 9,674,989 1,090,450 0 0 0 3,273,690 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 5,730,375 1,294,380 5,545,066 5,479,110 39,848,701 5,073,769 5,009,888 1,287,906 253,905 18,917,454 10,077,250 1,036,577 2,233,491 18,041,307 9,088,983 4,077,008 4,426,665 10,431,998 6,628,385 2,567,159 6,824,190 10,103,890 12,853,643 7,587,477 4,321,339 6,171,495 1,215,398 2,306,907 2,312,229 1,591,180 11,621,386 3,256,045 34,473,989 11,554,652 839,536 12,874,725 3,760,076 3,960,512 14,293,994 1,707,269 7,293,431 1,496,640 7,049,034 23,676,158 3,647,879 892,952 9,323,245 8,343,791 3,558,432 9,674,989 1,090,450 0 0 0 3,273,690 0 0 0 0 0 0 390,000,000 390,000,000 390,000,000 390,000,000 27 Table B.3 Special Education—Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1997 4,451,153 1,545,710 5,281,199 2,643,862 40,850,169 4,069,358 3,378,163 1,545,710 1,545,710 14,722,619 8,342,876 1,569,551 1,545,710 13,792,826 6,177,116 2,728,821 2,734,507 3,889,895 4,898,566 1,545,710 6,148,806 8,621,533 9,990,962 4,873,116 3,065,154 5,465,155 1,545,710 1,719,997 1,903,065 1,545,710 8,527,086 2,022,495 19,656,530 7,655,537 1,545,710 11,364,015 3,394,025 3,203,673 12,702,122 1,568,805 3,760,591 1,545,710 5,473,582 24,061,384 2,904,730 1,545,710 6,814,652 5,775,775 1,798,698 5,553,755 1,545,710 514,925 1,140,327 342,733 4,609,319 671,647 52,039 0 0 3,864,276 0 1998 5,026,654 1,713,659 5,964,019 2,985,693 46,131,788 4,595,495 3,775,344 1,713,659 1,713,659 16,118,402 9,421,547 1,713,659 1,713,659 15,576,135 6,975,771 3,081,637 3,088,058 4,392,829 5,531,914 1,713,659 6,054,659 7,826,512 11,282,718 5,345,043 3,461,456 6,171,758 1,713,659 1,942,380 2,149,117 1,713,659 9,629,574 2,283,988 22,197,971 8,645,341 1,713,659 12,833,297 3,832,847 3,617,884 12,737,869 1,713,659 4,246,807 1,713,659 6,181,275 27,172,340 3,280,289 1,713,659 7,695,736 6,522,539 1,799,482 5,672,891 1,713,659 570,537 1,263,482 379,748 5,205,269 744,185 26,004 0 0 4,284,149 0 1999 5,401,820 1,812,075 6,790,748 3,224,319 46,249,616 5,125,020 3,831,379 1,812,075 1,812,075 17,360,485 10,497,445 1,812,075 1,812,075 16,098,291 7,501,701 3,315,411 3,335,406 4,795,769 5,747,605 1,812,075 6,237,516 8,115,297 11,896,386 5,792,064 3,688,050 6,630,914 1,812,075 2,098,289 2,488,044 1,812,075 9,865,491 2,415,047 22,590,621 9,652,685 1,812,075 13,495,119 4,236,413 3,969,749 12,889,527 1,812,075 4,638,845 1,812,075 6,622,525 29,847,674 3,832,145 1,812,075 8,150,863 7,047,124 1,812,075 6,010,473 1,812,075 581,948 1,288,752 387,343 5,560,061 759,069 0 0 0 4,567,901 0 Total States total 315,754,000 350,000,000 370,000,000 309,168,053 342,731,895 362,414,987 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 2000 5,442,925 1,836,562 7,163,113 3,300,402 45,929,796 5,377,332 3,992,165 1,836,562 1,836,562 17,645,688 10,918,523 1,836,562 1,836,562 16,151,859 7,655,126 3,369,461 3,433,291 4,812,022 5,894,220 1,836,562 6,413,677 7,269,022 12,028,661 5,931,008 3,786,753 6,722,152 1,836,562 2,120,927 2,652,976 1,836,562 9,965,995 2,442,953 22,320,520 9,991,552 1,836,562 13,648,077 4,398,814 4,068,712 13,016,152 1,836,562 4,752,400 1,836,562 6,863,518 30,671,586 3,997,116 1,836,562 8,373,127 7,217,290 1,836,562 6,078,934 1,836,562 589,812 1,306,168 392,577 5,782,773 769,327 0 0 0 4,629,630 0 375,000,000 367,312,486 2001 5,567,271 1,878,520 7,326,758 3,375,801 46,979,082 5,500,179 4,083,368 1,878,520 1,878,520 18,048,811 11,167,962 1,878,520 1,878,520 16,520,855 7,830,010 3,446,438 3,511,726 4,921,954 6,028,876 1,878,520 6,560,200 7,435,086 12,303,461 6,066,505 3,873,263 6,875,722 1,878,520 2,169,380 2,713,585 1,878,520 10,193,673 2,498,764 22,830,440 10,219,813 1,878,520 13,959,873 4,499,306 4,161,663 13,313,512 1,878,520 4,860,970 1,878,520 7,020,318 31,372,291 4,088,432 1,878,520 8,564,414 7,382,172 1,878,520 6,217,810 1,878,520 603,278 1,335,989 401,540 5,914,883 786,891 0 0 0 4,735,395 0 383,567,000 375,703,907 2002 6,063,339 2,043,288 7,868,896 3,716,598 49,954,044 6,132,874 4,478,645 2,043,288 2,043,288 19,235,683 12,265,577 2,043,288 2,043,288 17,822,071 8,666,617 3,851,252 3,884,393 5,461,452 6,549,059 2,043,288 7,162,997 8,078,494 13,646,869 6,710,076 4,213,822 7,568,706 2,043,288 2,400,219 2,970,642 2,043,288 11,405,544 2,682,058 25,063,710 11,179,579 2,043,288 15,361,800 4,901,951 4,544,414 14,662,818 2,043,288 5,456,933 2,043,288 7,697,334 33,464,547 4,423,421 2,043,288 9,470,434 8,061,958 2,068,052 6,961,718 2,043,288 603,278 1,341,222 462,815 5,986,306 786,891 0 0 0 5,148,148 0 417,000,000 408,657,646 28 Table B.4 Special Education—Total Funding from All IDEA Formula Grant Programs, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1997 61,250,508 12,012,245 52,106,440 36,971,964 384,700,944 46,421,423 48,340,887 10,998,638 5,290,317 202,360,447 91,967,929 11,420,758 16,905,097 169,969,066 87,522,249 42,376,806 36,029,220 58,422,037 59,938,217 21,097,343 67,628,831 101,839,607 123,912,025 65,286,437 41,578,214 77,338,564 12,465,069 24,880,522 19,810,044 16,951,446 126,016,826 30,944,189 269,292,303 99,385,151 8,992,514 142,281,437 45,699,634 40,446,467 139,515,735 16,401,748 58,385,861 10,871,721 78,076,333 288,668,338 34,675,881 8,546,559 91,700,813 69,946,485 29,015,148 72,747,138 9,322,893 4,034,937 9,688,070 2,526,049 31,780,273 7,180,166 423,786 0 0 41,882,560 7,442,691 1998 72,663,929 14,128,458 63,680,787 44,082,892 462,811,996 55,185,269 56,809,354 12,987,321 6,756,802 243,994,739 111,499,322 14,268,566 20,278,058 203,751,069 105,159,215 50,669,966 42,828,088 68,272,833 70,929,333 24,591,330 80,933,334 118,377,666 149,006,143 77,760,706 47,435,209 92,892,121 14,607,415 30,025,398 24,223,409 20,107,312 149,870,102 36,911,742 320,040,936 119,714,869 10,580,621 167,693,303 55,865,653 49,546,943 166,625,437 19,098,832 70,854,428 12,806,285 93,933,682 348,616,360 40,995,636 10,219,863 109,800,545 83,773,655 33,683,240 86,179,567 10,939,462 4,841,466 11,581,979 3,013,523 40,015,457 8,567,128 211,877 0 0 50,966,551 14,017,818 1999 79,926,063 15,300,428 73,295,770 49,373,025 515,432,630 61,867,983 61,715,475 14,271,266 7,695,898 274,203,180 127,799,736 16,948,503 23,014,816 227,868,524 117,594,876 56,306,610 47,997,064 75,671,525 77,989,286 26,275,551 90,037,615 131,930,933 168,163,340 86,508,123 50,526,001 103,498,854 15,971,693 34,324,388 27,721,340 22,361,076 166,325,633 41,584,954 354,583,583 135,090,664 11,720,016 184,966,681 63,331,955 56,072,884 183,187,180 21,031,138 80,140,189 14,110,673 102,095,897 388,794,788 45,167,705 11,444,138 123,418,474 94,008,687 35,760,731 95,732,892 12,068,541 5,414,693 12,964,589 3,367,576 46,103,560 9,611,076 0 0 0 57,417,083 17,577,448 Total States total 3,783,685,000 4,531,685,000 5,054,685,000 3,710,506,741 4,438,484,658 4,948,332,535 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 2000 90,546,213 17,491,109 84,539,824 55,704,788 591,409,295 71,288,041 69,623,858 16,285,522 8,707,884 310,873,926 147,274,764 19,471,813 26,408,901 257,163,567 132,527,925 63,504,356 54,665,098 85,232,113 89,743,366 29,529,360 101,790,102 147,718,286 193,506,639 99,097,848 58,045,594 116,831,977 18,291,801 38,714,488 31,978,892 25,218,832 187,560,063 46,939,342 399,007,226 154,116,247 13,362,715 213,123,090 72,632,434 64,267,685 210,746,841 23,623,644 90,283,391 16,063,744 115,547,653 447,708,754 52,017,036 13,033,453 139,695,892 107,819,175 40,267,049 108,416,439 13,736,865 5,546,322 13,281,020 3,449,133 52,965,560 9,848,032 0 0 0 65,803,168 20,636,845 5,754,685,000 5,636,120,480 2001 111,723,769 21,633,730 105,215,581 68,697,585 736,845,582 88,783,373 85,207,458 20,085,726 10,639,499 381,379,409 183,584,200 24,253,658 32,829,899 317,628,586 162,292,308 77,907,384 68,109,123 103,891,316 111,929,041 35,992,380 124,749,867 181,195,174 241,933,494 123,094,418 72,392,165 144,006,959 22,685,620 47,525,175 39,753,480 30,829,681 230,203,414 58,286,708 486,972,399 191,214,639 16,456,324 266,720,121 90,172,846 80,419,988 262,888,278 28,797,162 110,386,208 19,741,012 142,802,815 560,736,906 64,779,150 16,017,785 171,883,937 134,329,109 49,220,845 133,024,168 16,865,665 5,730,702 13,723,767 3,563,494 65,636,271 10,178,655 0 0 0 82,459,933 23,244,059 7,113,252,000 6,974,351,390 2002 131,754,048 25,537,273 124,459,618 81,158,006 871,465,252 105,255,414 98,734,321 23,677,071 12,527,160 444,031,443 217,559,482 28,740,013 38,810,751 372,309,703 188,608,719 90,455,171 79,204,383 120,396,771 132,554,219 41,599,735 145,430,420 210,073,331 286,636,276 142,619,176 85,734,321 167,293,742 26,818,193 55,183,014 47,043,750 35,714,724 267,367,439 67,533,056 568,843,552 225,458,460 19,403,432 316,704,809 107,164,997 94,899,039 310,465,437 33,311,516 128,180,313 23,220,270 169,551,547 665,243,603 76,666,727 18,865,260 200,047,242 159,028,970 56,964,183 157,235,762 19,844,858 6,308,928 13,971,109 4,835,736 77,139,751 8,786,749 0 0 0 84,525,449 22,579,306 8,335,533,000 8,194,525,723 29 Table B.5 Special Education—Percentage of Grants to States and Total IDEA Grant Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other Total States total 1997 1.66 0.30 1.35 0.94 9.90 1.21 1.30 0.27 0.11 5.47 2.39 0.29 0.43 4.49 2.35 1.15 0.94 1.44 1.57 0.55 1.77 2.70 3.28 1.72 1.11 2.13 0.32 0.68 0.51 0.45 3.43 0.83 7.00 2.61 0.22 3.83 1.25 1.08 3.65 0.43 1.54 0.26 2.13 7.83 0.91 0.20 2.45 1.81 0.77 1.87 0.22 0.11 0.27 0.07 0.78 0.21 0.01 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.24 100.00 97.87 % of Grants to States Funding 1998 1999 2000 2001 1.63 1.60 1.59 1.58 0.29 0.28 0.29 0.29 1.38 1.42 1.44 1.46 0.94 0.95 0.94 0.94 9.95 10.00 10.13 10.25 1.20 1.20 1.22 1.23 1.27 1.23 1.21 1.20 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 5.51 5.54 5.50 5.43 2.43 2.50 2.53 2.56 0.30 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.45 4.49 4.51 4.47 4.46 2.35 2.35 2.32 2.29 1.15 1.14 1.12 1.11 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.95 1.41 1.41 1.40 1.40 1.55 1.53 1.55 1.57 0.54 0.51 0.50 0.50 1.79 1.79 1.77 1.76 2.65 2.65 2.61 2.58 3.29 3.34 3.38 3.42 1.71 1.70 1.72 1.73 1.05 0.99 1.00 1.01 2.12 2.11 2.08 2.07 0.31 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.68 0.70 0.69 0.68 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.43 3.39 3.37 3.33 3.29 0.83 0.84 0.83 0.83 6.95 6.93 6.86 6.78 2.62 2.65 2.66 2.67 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 3.74 3.69 3.74 3.78 1.27 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 3.68 3.63 3.68 3.71 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40 1.56 1.59 1.57 1.55 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.26 2.13 2.06 2.04 2.03 7.85 7.81 7.88 7.98 0.90 0.88 0.89 0.90 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.21 2.45 2.47 2.45 2.43 1.82 1.83 1.85 1.87 0.75 0.71 0.70 0.69 1.87 1.87 1.86 1.85 0.22 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.08 0.27 0.27 0.24 0.20 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.83 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.21 0.21 0.18 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 0.37 0.41 0.41 0.37 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 97.75 97.71 97.78 97.93 2002 1.59 0.29 1.47 0.96 10.38 1.25 1.19 0.27 0.14 5.39 2.59 0.34 0.46 4.47 2.27 1.10 0.94 1.39 1.59 0.49 1.75 2.55 3.46 1.70 1.03 2.04 0.31 0.67 0.55 0.43 3.25 0.82 6.77 2.69 0.22 3.83 1.31 1.15 3.74 0.39 1.53 0.26 2.06 8.08 0.91 0.21 2.41 1.89 0.68 1.87 0.22 0.08 0.17 0.06 0.90 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.05 0.30 100.00 98.24 1997 1.62 0.32 1.38 0.98 10.17 1.23 1.28 0.29 0.14 5.35 2.43 0.30 0.45 4.49 2.31 1.12 0.95 1.54 1.58 0.56 1.79 2.69 3.27 1.73 1.10 2.04 0.33 0.66 0.52 0.45 3.33 0.82 7.12 2.63 0.24 3.76 1.21 1.07 3.69 0.43 1.54 0.29 2.06 7.63 0.92 0.23 2.42 1.85 0.77 1.92 0.25 0.11 0.26 0.07 0.84 0.19 0.01 0.00 0.00 1.11 0.20 % of Funding from All IDEA Grants 1998 1999 2000 2001 1.60 1.58 1.57 1.57 0.31 1.41 0.97 10.21 1.22 0.30 1.45 0.98 10.20 1.22 0.30 1.47 0.97 10.28 1.24 0.30 1.48 0.97 10.36 1.25 1.25 1.22 1.21 1.20 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.15 0.15 5.38 5.42 2.46 2.53 0.31 0.34 0.45 0.46 0.15 0.15 5.40 5.36 2.56 2.58 0.34 0.34 0.46 0.46 4.50 4.51 4.47 4.47 2.32 2.33 2.30 2.28 1.12 1.11 0.95 0.95 1.51 1.50 1.57 1.54 0.54 0.52 1.10 1.10 0.95 0.96 1.48 1.46 1.56 1.57 0.51 0.51 1.79 1.78 1.77 1.75 2.61 2.61 2.57 2.55 3.29 3.33 1.72 1.71 1.05 1.00 2.05 2.05 0.32 0.32 3.36 3.40 1.72 1.73 1.01 1.02 2.03 2.02 0.32 0.32 0.66 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.53 0.55 0.56 0.56 0.44 0.44 3.31 3.29 0.81 0.82 7.06 7.01 2.64 2.67 0.44 0.43 3.26 3.24 0.82 0.82 6.93 6.85 2.68 2.69 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 3.70 3.66 3.70 3.75 1.23 1.25 1.09 1.11 3.68 3.62 0.42 0.42 1.56 1.59 1.26 1.27 1.12 1.13 3.66 3.70 0.41 0.40 1.57 1.55 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 2.07 2.02 2.01 2.01 7.69 7.69 7.78 7.88 0.90 0.89 0.23 0.23 2.42 2.44 1.85 1.86 0.90 0.91 0.23 0.23 2.43 2.42 1.87 1.89 0.74 0.71 0.70 0.69 1.90 1.89 1.88 1.87 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.11 0.11 0.26 0.26 0.07 0.07 0.88 0.91 0.10 0.08 0.23 0.19 0.06 0.05 0.92 0.92 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.12 1.14 0.31 0.35 0.00 0.00 1.14 1.16 0.36 0.33 2002 1.58 0.31 1.49 0.97 10.45 1.26 1.18 0.28 0.15 5.33 2.61 0.34 0.47 4.47 2.26 1.09 0.95 1.44 1.59 0.50 1.74 2.52 3.44 1.71 1.03 2.01 0.32 0.66 0.56 0.43 3.21 0.81 6.82 2.70 0.23 3.80 1.29 1.14 3.72 0.40 1.54 0.28 2.03 7.98 0.92 0.23 2.40 1.91 0.68 1.89 0.24 0.08 0.17 0.06 0.93 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.01 0.27 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 98.07 97.94 97.90 97.94 98.05 98.31 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 30 Table B.6 Special Education—Percentage of Preschool Grants and Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other Total States total 1997 1.47 0.33 1.39 1.42 10.01 1.30 1.29 0.33 0.06 4.86 2.57 0.26 0.58 4.65 2.35 1.05 1.14 2.70 1.71 0.66 1.76 2.61 3.31 1.96 1.11 1.57 0.31 0.59 0.59 0.41 3.00 0.84 8.91 2.99 0.21 3.28 0.95 1.01 3.68 0.44 1.88 0.39 1.81 5.92 0.94 0.22 2.41 2.16 0.92 2.50 0.28 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.80 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 100.00 99.90 % of Preschool Grants Funding 1998 1999 2000 2001 1.47 1.47 1.47 1.47 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 1.40 1.40 1.42 1.42 1.41 1.41 1.40 1.40 10.15 10.15 10.22 10.22 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.29 1.29 1.28 1.28 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 4.86 4.86 4.85 4.85 2.57 2.57 2.58 2.58 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.57 4.65 4.65 4.63 4.63 2.34 2.34 2.33 2.33 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 2.69 2.69 2.67 2.67 1.71 1.71 1.70 1.70 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 1.76 1.76 1.75 1.75 2.60 2.60 2.59 2.59 3.31 3.31 3.30 3.30 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 2.99 2.99 2.98 2.98 0.84 0.84 0.83 0.83 8.88 8.88 8.84 8.84 2.97 2.97 2.96 2.96 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.22 3.30 3.30 3.30 3.30 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.02 3.68 3.68 3.67 3.67 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 1.88 1.88 1.87 1.87 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 1.81 1.81 1.81 1.81 5.98 5.98 6.07 6.07 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.23 2.40 2.40 2.39 2.39 2.15 2.15 2.14 2.14 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.91 2.49 2.49 2.48 2.48 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.98 100.00 100.00 100.00 2002 1.47 0.33 1.42 1.40 10.22 1.30 1.28 0.33 0.07 4.85 2.58 0.27 0.57 4.63 2.33 1.05 1.14 2.67 1.70 0.66 1.75 2.59 3.30 1.95 1.11 1.58 0.31 0.59 0.59 0.41 2.98 0.83 8.84 2.96 0.22 3.30 0.96 1.02 3.67 0.44 1.87 0.38 1.81 6.07 0.94 0.23 2.39 2.14 0.91 2.48 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 % of Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 1.41 1.44 1.46 1.45 1.45 1.45 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 1.67 1.70 1.84 1.91 1.91 1.89 0.84 0.85 0.87 0.88 0.88 0.89 12.94 13.18 12.50 12.25 12.25 11.98 1.29 1.31 1.39 1.43 1.43 1.47 1.07 1.08 1.04 1.06 1.06 1.07 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 4.66 4.61 4.69 4.71 4.71 4.61 2.64 2.69 2.84 2.91 2.91 2.94 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 4.37 4.45 4.35 4.31 4.31 4.27 1.96 1.99 2.03 2.04 2.04 2.08 0.86 0.88 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.92 0.87 0.88 0.90 0.92 0.92 0.93 1.23 1.26 1.30 1.28 1.28 1.31 1.55 1.58 1.55 1.57 1.57 1.57 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 1.95 1.73 1.69 1.71 1.71 1.72 2.73 2.24 2.19 1.94 1.94 1.94 3.16 3.22 3.22 3.21 3.21 3.27 1.54 1.53 1.57 1.58 1.58 1.61 0.97 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.73 1.76 1.79 1.79 1.79 1.82 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.54 0.55 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.61 0.67 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 2.70 2.75 2.67 2.66 2.66 2.74 0.64 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.64 6.23 6.34 6.11 5.95 5.95 6.01 2.42 2.47 2.61 2.66 2.66 2.68 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 3.60 3.67 3.65 3.64 3.64 3.68 1.07 1.10 1.14 1.17 1.17 1.18 1.01 1.03 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.09 4.02 3.64 3.48 3.47 3.47 3.52 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 1.19 1.21 1.25 1.27 1.27 1.31 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 1.73 1.77 1.79 1.83 1.83 1.85 7.62 7.76 8.07 8.18 8.18 8.03 0.92 0.94 1.04 1.07 1.07 1.06 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 2.16 2.20 2.20 2.23 2.23 2.27 1.83 1.86 1.90 1.92 1.92 1.93 0.57 0.51 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 1.76 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.67 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.32 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.11 1.46 1.49 1.50 1.54 1.54 1.44 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.19 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.22 1.22 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 97.91 97.92 97.95 97.95 97.95 98.00 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 31 Appendix C Funding Allocation: Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State Table C.1 Special Education—Grants to States Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1991 37,178,754 4,552,208 22,070,512 17,676,583 185,459,999 20,830,995 24,801,917 4,474,065 965,221 91,032,192 39,538,981 4,905,046 8,413,491 81,134,390 41,825,451 23,603,464 17,112,043 30,380,743 27,800,043 10,713,516 34,664,236 54,260,896 63,336,605 31,345,167 23,987,399 39,432,133 6,855,821 12,783,100 7,199,489 7,120,549 69,814,471 14,252,261 115,740,417 48,224,775 4,678,591 78,479,533 25,789,863 18,423,324 77,985,959 8,027,960 30,591,649 5,700,027 41,366,562 133,837,216 18,048,957 4,453,732 45,626,931 32,202,344 16,548,299 33,221,786 4,285,486 1,961,348 5,630,419 957,583 14,005,474 5,210,366 744,369 0 0 22,891,184 0 1992 40,121,862 5,148,324 24,285,654 18,751,830 200,622,009 22,708,014 25,387,257 4,737,016 1,137,654 99,773,518 43,099,754 5,415,839 8,873,864 82,748,038 45,450,032 24,586,762 18,187,305 32,350,420 30,494,614 11,023,403 36,079,237 55,977,325 64,287,893 32,950,587 24,737,520 41,904,337 7,197,085 14,406,869 8,175,786 7,896,801 73,054,014 15,529,365 125,568,396 51,397,213 4,869,339 82,817,272 27,533,519 19,295,872 78,161,371 8,431,830 32,227,929 5,989,377 44,210,780 144,662,710 19,384,361 4,141,765 48,688,884 35,424,175 17,508,072 35,942,408 4,689,084 2,218,768 5,360,508 1,368,258 14,330,670 4,064,056 624,802 1,702,661 3,984,697 24,396,235 0 1993 39,318,893 5,725,985 26,143,705 19,783,737 209,353,847 24,489,103 27,952,797 4,776,037 945,018 104,592,488 46,625,933 5,563,277 9,082,030 82,807,368 47,531,918 25,136,645 18,881,451 32,460,531 31,975,285 11,505,794 37,256,290 56,209,644 66,435,966 34,337,829 25,525,335 43,544,354 7,551,512 14,836,365 9,204,471 8,429,146 74,901,680 16,691,475 130,780,157 53,614,133 4,906,695 86,845,058 28,672,243 21,907,150 76,765,830 8,719,636 32,494,223 6,121,659 46,191,225 154,128,665 20,284,596 3,810,064 50,967,673 37,610,466 17,932,324 38,469,610 4,816,302 2,304,814 5,568,393 1,421,321 12,700,625 4,221,664 649,032 1,768,692 4,139,227 25,342,342 0 Total States total 1,854,155,895 1,976,095,000 2,052,729,728 1,816,760,626 1,932,375,015 2,007,314,243 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 1994 40,555,188 5,941,481 28,117,375 20,623,963 219,215,317 25,886,784 27,781,565 5,142,327 850,913 111,909,677 50,009,633 5,848,729 9,209,728 86,646,897 49,534,695 25,621,779 19,660,424 32,925,133 35,135,021 11,783,998 38,606,164 57,197,874 68,755,790 36,455,902 26,256,547 45,634,990 7,404,387 15,005,043 10,196,042 8,944,725 76,813,993 17,878,683 143,625,313 55,819,852 4,944,816 89,062,163 29,468,897 20,906,772 77,564,700 9,149,275 33,087,449 6,297,166 47,866,823 164,033,132 20,697,253 3,780,453 53,114,323 40,026,835 17,629,828 40,390,803 4,980,840 2,413,677 5,831,404 1,488,454 18,127,953 4,421,064 679,688 1,852,232 4,334,735 26,539,333 0 2,149,686,000 2,102,125,413 1995 41,676,563 7,445,561 30,444,134 22,120,673 228,623,290 28,592,515 31,011,051 6,481,928 3,133,152 123,808,863 54,301,278 6,361,317 9,604,382 105,282,584 54,033,999 26,907,735 21,710,509 33,908,671 37,280,753 12,843,665 40,667,964 65,840,488 76,835,476 39,492,946 27,522,139 49,096,067 7,447,163 15,980,407 11,079,037 9,982,607 80,650,921 19,064,198 157,325,021 58,630,268 5,116,958 93,984,597 29,757,446 24,947,271 86,942,476 9,956,971 34,723,535 6,621,031 52,007,136 176,717,434 21,524,339 4,505,075 57,223,693 43,908,928 19,043,606 42,955,802 5,106,031 2,616,028 6,320,281 1,613,239 18,127,953 4,791,706 736,669 0 0 28,479,470 0 2,322,915,000 2,278,357,607 1996 40,895,889 7,445,561 30,754,449 21,789,237 228,758,683 28,194,577 30,784,375 6,415,559 3,133,152 125,396,899 54,609,781 6,482,177 9,605,786 103,488,767 54,174,644 26,671,191 21,676,813 33,519,757 36,824,539 12,888,326 40,789,307 64,529,602 76,251,412 39,739,072 26,974,089 49,095,746 7,447,163 15,853,005 11,404,975 10,170,737 79,692,477 19,240,689 159,376,867 59,435,523 5,044,365 92,013,426 29,633,498 24,747,446 86,078,620 10,139,194 34,989,762 6,432,855 51,141,216 178,234,586 21,216,198 4,547,917 57,327,775 43,033,744 18,396,296 43,010,693 5,074,854 2,546,094 6,151,324 1,570,112 18,127,953 4,663,611 552502 0 0 28,408,765 7,243,368 2,323,837,000 2,272,701,224 34 Table C.2 Special Education—Preschool Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1991 5,525,003 902,773 3,121,061 3,048,552 31,446,463 2,478,044 4,185,584 1,189,621 168,921 10,773,517 5,190,347 623,097 1,988,013 19,131,140 3,874,036 4,306,698 2,774,453 7,816,596 5,061,266 2,279,641 5,684,363 7,694,686 11,092,236 6,881,951 4,381,597 3,135,403 1,383,243 1,990,403 1,109,144 979,266 11,465,935 1,741,005 20,727,129 8,352,842 772,895 7,776,756 4,090,765 0 11,499,401 1,294,001 6,327,379 1,654,154 5,896,311 18,244,303 2,517,087 591,225 7,372,779 7,038,921 2,018,291 8,226,948 971,298 38,246 149,001 168,125 2,665,292 43,824 0 0 0 0 0 1992 5,885,805 1,043,491 3,943,417 3,563,455 34,813,572 3,048,537 4,476,008 1,310,188 208,859 11,740,282 6,329,229 721,367 1,914,272 18,516,148 6,040,040 4,339,446 3,246,953 9,782,631 5,506,646 1,961,667 6,245,685 8,101,317 11,646,295 7,224,912 3,667,081 4,118,537 1,433,897 2,220,331 1,460,406 1,011,359 11,824,629 2,081,360 23,287,771 8,976,918 796,877 8,804,207 4,255,099 966,374 11,096,836 1,397,748 6,965,445 1,761,645 6,851,376 19,919,519 2,748,905 708,514 8,639,530 7,759,109 2,613,950 8,711,827 1,071,607 28,116 150,218 20,083 2,969,010 64,264 0 0 0 0 0 1993 5,695,812 1,100,462 4,387,813 3,593,118 34,437,799 3,955,753 4,507,461 1,307,998 187,595 12,757,968 7,353,890 664,708 1,898,850 17,072,663 6,566,579 4,020,008 3,389,274 9,329,550 5,868,636 1,940,948 5,816,198 7,590,969 11,087,334 7,114,595 3,706,118 4,540,696 1,375,946 2,180,982 1,706,085 1,019,958 11,062,223 2,265,178 23,973,074 9,382,727 724,532 11,527,519 4,069,492 3,618,967 11,541,552 1,386,286 6,328,762 1,669,156 6,728,325 19,509,927 2,837,566 691,297 8,310,331 7,851,682 2,649,232 8,991,288 1,022,174 25,111 123,340 11,078 3,231,221 56,131 0 0 0 0 0 Total States total 291,861,031 319,992,770 291,461,835 319,730,089 325,763,937 325,548,277 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 1994 5,840,375 1,213,290 4,710,003 3,666,800 36,119,473 4,258,563 5,537,762 1,355,738 168,670 14,031,500 8,113,877 761,141 1,846,865 17,545,222 7,127,370 3,999,180 3,809,957 8,993,370 6,381,820 2,006,322 6,099,759 7,822,602 10,959,297 7,288,244 4,035,323 4,950,960 1,282,742 2,127,510 1,856,079 1,230,299 11,023,080 2,504,537 28,368,449 9,999,012 752,637 11,585,077 3,645,540 2,450,676 10,840,236 1,460,625 6,429,303 1,560,552 6,850,269 20,060,389 2,759,668 703,737 8,618,469 8,324,360 2,726,359 8,959,353 1,051,707 22,678 97,092 16,300 3,248,669 46,065 12,048 0 0 0 0 339,257,000 339,062,817 1995 5,820,469 1,411,602 4,977,467 4,739,242 36,991,756 4,614,328 4,961,085 1,372,012 230,716 17,597,926 8,731,045 818,429 2,030,031 17,077,108 7,552,890 3,872,349 3,997,264 9,562,443 6,592,482 2,230,713 6,178,831 9,738,552 12,062,781 7,343,334 4,403,407 5,443,678 1,174,742 2,261,430 1,979,519 1,362,455 10,883,943 2,809,552 30,722,822 10,335,138 763,821 12,418,412 3,392,486 3,855,284 13,488,035 1,454,605 6,760,400 1,520,134 6,706,475 20,919,424 3,118,084 890,784 8,819,782 8,757,666 3,045,047 8,922,854 1,020,476 35,495 118,089 15,017 2,273,717 80,546 6,826 0 0 0 0 360,265,000 360,009,027 1996 5,666,452 1,328,590 5,173,258 4,958,310 36,129,071 4,711,713 4,838,309 1,256,061 255,168 17,775,410 8,778,583 861,111 2,020,907 16,461,986 8,084,288 3,848,625 4,045,111 9,681,233 6,321,846 2,342,670 6,254,592 9,389,800 12,009,397 7,105,812 4,349,730 5,535,241 1,195,401 2,178,492 2,087,501 1,427,492 10,970,921 3,008,613 31,630,327 10,980,811 770,780 12,002,803 3,502,466 3,444,443 13,573,374 1,538,263 6,803,830 1,434,745 6,693,059 21,226,447 3,205,099 801,110 8,716,604 8,277,477 3,192,572 8,924,958 1,025,948 34,946 123,298 23,737 2,337,395 87,694 5,120 0 0 0 0 360,409,000 360,134,205 35 Table C.3 Special Education—Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1991 1,714,125 572,521 1,840,021 997,485 14,817,016 1,510,754 1,346,121 572,521 572,521 5,219,850 2,992,456 572,521 572,521 5,074,585 2,285,500 1,065,276 1,094,329 1,442,964 2,062,761 572,521 2,120,867 2,450,134 3,980,257 1,898,127 1,162,119 2,140,235 572,521 677,903 572,521 572,521 3,263,617 765,062 7,766,827 2,730,979 572,521 4,532,263 1,317,068 1,123,381 4,667,844 572,521 1,539,807 572,521 1,985,286 8,522,204 1,007,170 572,521 2,624,452 2,072,445 629,481 2,043,392 572,521 177,694 473,852 118,463 2,004,655 355,389 0 0 0 1,431,301 0 1992 2,514,499 855,556 2,617,743 1,461,652 21,710,996 2,226,280 2,065,015 855,556 855,556 7,611,429 4,459,870 855,556 855,556 7,626,080 3,553,592 1,705,171 1,663,102 2,223,604 2,938,957 855,556 3,231,212 3,730,987 6,302,266 2,980,248 1,729,046 3,268,138 855,556 1,055,762 855,556 855,556 4,831,689 1,102,824 11,325,359 4,142,304 855,556 6,989,364 1,992,104 1,783,733 7,092,114 855,556 2,299,998 855,556 2,979,366 12,341,503 1,516,578 855,556 3,995,496 3,257,061 929,181 3,164,311 855,556 328,582 722,787 204,735 2,714,693 428,589 0 0 0 2,138,889 0 1993 3,046,905 1,042,702 3,312,138 1,736,776 29,207,477 2,642,716 2,426,424 1,042,702 1,042,702 9,650,350 5,417,361 1,042,702 1,042,702 9,265,029 4,124,608 1,934,501 1,869,241 2,620,544 3,458,507 1,042,702 3,926,195 4,451,846 7,359,225 3,334,075 2,078,640 3,808,036 1,042,702 1,191,819 1,082,919 1,042,702 5,884,344 1,352,764 14,117,157 5,011,663 1,042,702 8,016,235 2,344,879 2,121,710 8,210,103 1,042,702 2,796,532 1,042,702 3,619,468 15,327,041 1,778,806 1,042,702 4,789,719 3,943,587 1,098,617 3,581,798 1,042,702 400,457 880,891 249,519 3,045,563 522,340 0 0 0 2,606,756 0 Total States total 117,060,811 174,934,693 114,504,112 171,111,111 213,200,407 208,540,444 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 1994 3,636,547 1,237,632 3,922,215 2,054,731 34,996,612 3,207,936 2,754,255 1,237,632 1,237,632 11,385,994 6,504,198 1,237,632 1,237,632 11,106,525 4,855,347 2,232,081 2,180,341 3,138,084 4,130,713 1,237,632 4,494,909 5,090,115 8,232,797 3,877,592 2,520,647 4,442,070 1,237,632 1,352,447 1,320,760 1,237,632 6,994,924 1,654,768 16,637,446 6,033,463 1,237,632 9,708,755 2,811,532 2,483,462 9,633,345 1,237,632 3,296,241 1,237,632 4,346,068 18,816,567 2,160,609 1,237,632 5,660,050 4,704,307 1,291,991 4,136,450 1,237,632 475,322 1,045,571 296,165 3,630,290 619,990 94,472 0 0 3,094,080 0 253,152,000 247,526,400 1995 4,367,917 1,524,910 5,040,920 2,511,863 40,347,086 3,893,981 4,095,944 1,374,985 1,383,883 15,212,617 7,438,660 1,590,820 1,479,484 13,736,885 6,442,058 2,809,586 2,802,012 3,928,148 5,275,752 1,374,985 6,239,596 8,492,708 10,176,247 5,094,610 2,836,013 5,724,039 1,395,819 1,758,114 1,759,009 1,522,232 8,552,266 1,890,168 21,361,708 6,809,052 1,374,985 10,460,369 3,722,478 3,142,903 12,590,173 1,564,797 4,103,199 1,374,985 5,624,612 24,258,785 2,826,559 1,374,985 7,329,204 5,946,345 1,878,151 5,649,829 1,423,267 514,726 1,139,887 342,601 4,107,217 671,387 104,018 0 0 3,862,461 0 315,632,000 308,996,920 1996 4,483,470 1,545,710 5,306,409 2,549,297 41,438,233 3,972,753 3,378,163 1,545,710 1,545,710 14,722,619 8,226,009 1,569,551 1,545,710 13,785,909 6,065,530 2,712,211 2,716,195 3,876,538 5,023,051 1,545,710 6,148,806 8,621,533 10,017,913 4,873,116 3,120,649 5,422,619 1,545,710 1,689,626 1,783,636 1,545,710 8,497,315 2,045,597 20,119,188 7,582,020 1,545,710 11,402,583 3,381,056 3,086,097 12,702,122 1,568,805 3,852,059 1,545,710 5,414,050 23,718,333 2,768,788 1,545,710 6,930,714 5,664,434 1,798,698 5,553,755 1,545,710 514,925 1,140,327 342,733 4,549,818 671,647 78,014 0 0 3,864,276 0 315,754,000 309,142,078 36 Table C.4 Special Education—Total Funding from All IDEA Formula Grant Programs, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1991 44,417,882 6,027,502 27,031,594 21,722,620 231,723,478 24,819,793 30,333,622 6,236,207 1,706,663 107,025,559 47,721,784 6,100,664 10,974,025 105,340,115 47,984,987 28,975,438 20,980,825 39,640,303 34,924,070 13,565,678 42,469,466 64,405,716 78,409,098 40,125,245 29,531,115 44,707,771 8,811,585 15,451,406 8,881,154 8,672,336 84,544,023 16,758,328 144,234,373 59,308,596 6,024,007 90,788,552 31,197,696 19,546,705 94,153,204 9,894,482 38,458,835 7,926,702 49,248,159 160,603,723 21,573,214 5,617,478 55,624,162 41,313,710 19,196,071 43,492,126 5,829,305 2,177,288 6,253,272 1,244,171 18,675,421 5,609,579 744,369 0 0 24,322,485 0 1992 48,522,166 7,047,371 30,846,814 23,776,937 257,146,577 27,982,831 31,928,280 6,902,760 2,202,069 119,125,229 53,888,853 6,992,762 11,643,692 108,890,266 55,043,664 30,631,379 23,097,360 44,356,655 38,940,217 13,840,626 45,556,134 67,809,629 82,236,454 43,155,747 30,133,647 49,291,012 9,486,538 17,682,962 10,491,748 9,763,716 89,710,332 18,713,549 160,181,526 64,516,435 6,521,772 98,610,843 33,780,722 22,045,979 96,350,321 10,685,134 41,493,372 8,606,578 54,041,522 176,923,732 23,649,844 5,705,835 61,323,910 46,440,345 21,051,203 47,818,546 6,616,247 2,575,466 6,233,513 1,593,076 20,014,373 4,556,909 624,802 1,702,661 3,984,697 26,535,124 0 1993 48,061,610 7,869,149 33,843,656 25,113,631 272,999,123 31,087,572 34,886,682 7,126,737 2,175,315 127,000,806 59,397,184 7,270,687 12,023,582 109,145,060 58,223,105 31,091,154 24,139,966 44,410,625 41,302,428 14,489,444 46,998,683 68,252,459 84,882,525 44,786,499 31,310,093 51,893,086 9,970,160 18,209,166 11,993,475 10,491,806 91,848,247 20,309,417 168,870,388 68,008,523 6,673,929 106,388,812 35,086,614 27,647,827 96,517,485 11,148,624 41,619,517 8,833,517 56,539,018 188,965,633 24,900,968 5,544,063 64,067,723 49,405,735 21,680,173 51,042,696 6,881,178 2,730,382 6,572,624 1,681,918 18,977,409 4,800,135 649,032 1,768,692 4,139,227 27,949,098 0 Total 2,263,077,737 2,471,022,463 2,591,694,072 States total 2,222,726,573 2,423,216,215 2,541,402,964 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 1994 50,032,110 8,392,403 36,749,593 26,345,494 290,331,402 33,353,283 36,073,582 7,735,697 2,257,215 137,327,171 64,627,708 7,847,502 12,294,225 115,298,644 61,517,412 31,853,040 25,650,722 45,056,587 45,647,554 15,027,952 49,200,832 70,110,591 87,947,884 47,621,738 32,812,517 55,028,020 9,924,761 18,485,000 13,372,881 11,412,656 94,831,997 22,037,988 188,631,208 71,852,327 6,935,085 110,355,995 35,925,969 25,840,910 98,038,281 11,847,532 42,812,993 9,095,350 59,063,160 202,910,088 25,617,530 5,721,822 67,392,842 53,055,502 21,648,178 53,486,606 7,270,179 2,911,677 6,974,067 1,800,919 25,006,912 5,087,119 786,208 1,852,232 4,334,735 29,633,413 0 2,742,095,000 2,688,714,630 1995 51,864,949 10,382,073 40,462,521 29,371,778 305,962,132 37,100,824 40,068,080 9,228,925 4,747,751 156,619,406 70,470,983 8,770,566 13,113,897 136,096,577 68,028,947 33,589,670 28,509,785 47,399,262 49,148,987 16,449,363 53,086,391 84,071,748 99,074,504 51,930,890 34,761,559 60,263,784 10,017,724 19,999,951 14,817,565 12,867,294 100,087,130 23,763,918 209,409,551 75,774,458 7,255,764 116,863,378 36,872,410 31,945,458 113,020,684 12,976,373 45,587,134 9,516,150 64,338,223 221,895,643 27,468,982 6,770,844 73,372,679 58,612,939 23,966,804 57,528,485 7,549,774 3,166,249 7,578,257 1,970,857 24,508,887 5,543,639 847,513 0 0 32,341,931 0 2,998,812,000 2,947,363,554 1996 51,045,811 10,319,861 41,234,116 29,296,844 306,325,987 36,879,043 39,000,847 9,217,330 4,934,030 157,894,928 71,614,373 8,912,839 13,172,403 133,736,662 68,324,462 33,232,027 28,438,119 47,077,528 48,169,436 16,776,706 53,192,705 82,540,935 98,278,722 51,718,000 34,444,468 60,053,606 10,188,274 19,721,123 15,276,112 13,143,939 99,160,713 24,294,899 211,126,382 77,998,354 7,360,855 115,418,812 36,517,020 31,277,986 112,354,116 13,246,262 45,645,651 9,413,310 63,248,325 223,179,366 27,190,085 6,894,737 72,975,093 56,975,655 23,387,566 57,489,406 7,646,512 3,095,965 7,414,949 1,936,582 25,015,166 5,422,952 635,636 0 0 32,273,041 7,243,368 3,000,000,000 2,941,977,507 37 Table C.5 Special Education—Percentage of Grants to States and Total IDEA Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other Total States total 1991 2.01 0.25 1.19 0.95 10.00 1.12 1.34 0.24 0.05 4.91 2.13 0.26 0.45 4.38 2.26 1.27 0.92 1.64 1.50 0.58 1.87 2.93 3.42 1.69 1.29 2.13 0.37 0.69 0.39 0.38 3.77 0.77 6.24 2.60 0.25 4.23 1.39 0.99 4.21 0.43 1.65 0.31 2.23 7.22 0.97 0.24 2.46 1.74 0.89 1.79 0.23 0.11 0.30 0.05 0.76 0.28 0.04 0.00 0.00 1.23 0.00 % of Grants to States Funding 1992 1993 1994 1995 2.03 1.92 1.89 1.79 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.32 1.23 1.27 1.31 1.31 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.95 10.15 10.20 10.20 9.84 1.15 1.19 1.20 1.23 1.28 1.36 1.29 1.34 0.24 0.23 0.24 0.28 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.13 5.05 5.10 5.21 5.33 2.18 2.27 2.33 2.34 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.41 4.19 4.03 4.03 4.53 2.30 2.32 2.30 2.33 1.24 1.22 1.19 1.16 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.93 1.64 1.58 1.53 1.46 1.54 1.56 1.63 1.60 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 1.83 1.81 1.80 1.75 2.83 2.74 2.66 2.83 3.25 3.24 3.20 3.31 1.67 1.67 1.70 1.70 1.25 1.24 1.22 1.18 2.12 2.12 2.12 2.11 0.36 0.37 0.34 0.32 0.73 0.72 0.70 0.69 0.41 0.45 0.47 0.48 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 3.70 3.65 3.57 3.47 0.79 0.81 0.83 0.82 6.35 6.37 6.68 6.77 2.60 2.61 2.60 2.52 0.25 0.24 0.23 0.22 4.19 4.23 4.14 4.05 1.39 1.40 1.37 1.28 0.98 1.07 0.97 1.07 3.96 3.74 3.61 3.74 0.43 0.42 0.43 0.43 1.63 1.58 1.54 1.49 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.29 2.24 2.25 2.23 2.24 7.32 7.51 7.63 7.61 0.98 0.99 0.96 0.93 0.21 0.19 0.18 0.19 2.46 2.48 2.47 2.46 1.79 1.83 1.86 1.89 0.89 0.87 0.82 0.82 1.82 1.87 1.88 1.85 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.73 0.62 0.84 0.78 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.00 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.00 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 97.98 97.79 97.79 97.79 98.08 1996 1.76 0.32 1.32 0.94 9.84 1.21 1.32 0.28 0.13 5.40 2.35 0.28 0.41 4.45 2.33 1.15 0.93 1.44 1.58 0.55 1.76 2.78 3.28 1.71 1.16 2.11 0.32 0.68 0.49 0.44 3.43 0.83 6.86 2.56 0.22 3.96 1.28 1.06 3.70 0.44 1.51 0.28 2.20 7.67 0.91 0.20 2.47 1.85 0.79 1.85 0.22 0.11 0.26 0.07 0.78 0.20 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.31 100.00 97.80 1991 1.96 0.27 1.19 0.96 10.24 1.10 1.34 0.28 0.08 4.73 2.11 0.27 0.48 4.65 2.12 1.28 0.93 1.75 1.54 0.60 1.88 2.85 3.46 1.77 1.30 1.98 0.39 0.68 0.39 0.38 3.74 0.74 6.37 2.62 0.27 4.01 1.38 0.86 4.16 0.44 1.70 0.35 2.18 7.10 0.95 0.25 2.46 1.83 0.85 1.92 0.26 0.10 0.28 0.05 0.83 0.25 0.03 0.00 0.00 1.07 0.00 100.00 98.22 % of Funding from All IDEA Grants 1992 1993 1994 1995 1.96 1.85 1.82 1.73 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.35 1.25 1.31 1.34 1.35 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.98 10.41 10.53 10.59 10.20 1.13 1.20 1.22 1.24 1.29 1.35 1.32 1.34 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.16 4.82 4.90 5.01 5.22 2.18 2.29 2.36 2.35 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 4.41 4.21 4.20 4.54 2.23 2.25 2.24 2.27 1.24 1.20 1.16 1.12 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.95 1.80 1.71 1.64 1.58 1.58 1.59 1.66 1.64 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 1.84 1.81 1.79 1.77 2.74 2.63 2.56 2.80 3.33 3.28 3.21 3.30 1.75 1.73 1.74 1.73 1.22 1.21 1.20 1.16 1.99 2.00 2.01 2.01 0.38 0.38 0.36 0.33 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.67 0.42 0.46 0.49 0.49 0.40 0.40 0.42 0.43 3.63 3.54 3.46 3.34 0.76 0.78 0.80 0.79 6.48 6.52 6.88 6.98 2.61 2.62 2.62 2.53 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.24 3.99 4.10 4.02 3.90 1.37 1.35 1.31 1.23 0.89 1.07 0.94 1.07 3.90 3.72 3.58 3.77 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 1.68 1.61 1.56 1.52 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.32 2.19 2.18 2.15 2.15 7.16 7.29 7.40 7.40 0.96 0.96 0.93 0.92 0.23 0.21 0.21 0.23 2.48 2.47 2.46 2.45 1.88 1.91 1.93 1.95 0.85 0.84 0.79 0.80 1.94 1.97 1.95 1.92 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.81 0.73 0.91 0.82 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.00 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.00 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 98.07 98.06 98.05 98.28 1996 1.70 0.34 1.37 0.98 10.21 1.23 1.30 0.31 0.16 5.26 2.39 0.30 0.44 4.46 2.28 1.11 0.95 1.57 1.61 0.56 1.77 2.75 3.28 1.72 1.15 2.00 0.34 0.66 0.51 0.44 3.31 0.81 7.04 2.60 0.25 3.85 1.22 1.04 3.75 0.44 1.52 0.31 2.11 7.44 0.91 0.23 2.43 1.90 0.78 1.92 0.25 0.10 0.25 0.06 0.83 0.18 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.08 0.24 100.00 98.07 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 38 Table C.6 Special Education—Percentage of Preschool Grants and Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other Total States total 1991 1.89 0.31 1.07 1.04 10.77 0.85 1.43 0.41 0.06 3.69 1.78 0.21 0.68 6.55 1.33 1.48 0.95 2.68 1.73 0.78 1.95 2.64 3.80 2.36 1.50 1.07 0.47 0.68 0.38 0.34 3.93 0.60 7.10 2.86 0.26 2.66 1.40 0.00 3.94 0.44 2.17 0.57 2.02 6.25 0.86 0.20 2.53 2.41 0.69 2.82 0.33 0.01 0.05 0.06 0.91 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 99.86 % of Preschool Grants Funding 1992 1993 1994 1995 1.84 1.75 1.72 1.62 0.33 0.34 0.36 0.39 1.23 1.35 1.39 1.38 1.11 1.10 1.08 1.32 10.88 10.57 10.65 10.27 0.95 1.21 1.26 1.28 1.40 1.38 1.63 1.38 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.38 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.06 3.67 3.92 4.14 4.88 1.98 2.26 2.39 2.42 0.23 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.60 0.58 0.54 0.56 5.79 5.24 5.17 4.74 1.89 2.02 2.10 2.10 1.36 1.23 1.18 1.07 1.01 1.04 1.12 1.11 3.06 2.86 2.65 2.65 1.72 1.80 1.88 1.83 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.62 1.95 1.79 1.80 1.72 2.53 2.33 2.31 2.70 3.64 3.40 3.23 3.35 2.26 2.18 2.15 2.04 1.15 1.14 1.19 1.22 1.29 1.39 1.46 1.51 0.45 0.42 0.38 0.33 0.69 0.67 0.63 0.63 0.46 0.52 0.55 0.55 0.32 0.31 0.36 0.38 3.70 3.40 3.25 3.02 0.65 0.70 0.74 0.78 7.28 7.36 8.36 8.53 2.81 2.88 2.95 2.87 0.25 0.22 0.22 0.21 2.75 3.54 3.41 3.45 1.33 1.25 1.07 0.94 0.30 1.11 0.72 1.07 3.47 3.54 3.20 3.74 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.40 2.18 1.94 1.90 1.88 0.55 0.51 0.46 0.42 2.14 2.07 2.02 1.86 6.22 5.99 5.91 5.81 0.86 0.87 0.81 0.87 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.25 2.70 2.55 2.54 2.45 2.42 2.41 2.45 2.43 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.85 2.72 2.76 2.64 2.48 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.28 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.99 0.96 0.63 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.92 99.93 99.94 99.93 1996 1.57 0.37 1.44 1.38 10.02 1.31 1.34 0.35 0.07 4.93 2.44 0.24 0.56 4.57 2.24 1.07 1.12 2.69 1.75 0.65 1.74 2.61 3.33 1.97 1.21 1.54 0.33 0.60 0.58 0.40 3.04 0.83 8.78 3.05 0.21 3.33 0.97 0.96 3.77 0.43 1.89 0.40 1.86 5.89 0.89 0.22 2.42 2.30 0.89 2.48 0.28 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.65 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 99.92 1991 1.46 0.49 1.57 0.85 12.66 1.29 1.15 0.49 0.49 4.46 2.56 0.49 0.49 4.33 1.95 0.91 0.93 1.23 1.76 0.49 1.81 2.09 3.40 1.62 0.99 1.83 0.49 0.58 0.49 0.49 2.79 0.65 6.63 2.33 0.49 3.87 1.13 0.96 3.99 0.49 1.32 0.49 1.70 7.28 0.86 0.49 2.24 1.77 0.54 1.75 0.49 0.15 0.40 0.10 1.71 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.00 % of Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding 1992 1993 1994 1995 1.44 1.43 1.44 1.38 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 1.50 1.55 1.55 1.60 0.84 0.81 0.81 0.80 12.41 13.70 13.82 12.78 1.27 1.24 1.27 1.23 1.18 1.14 1.09 1.30 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 4.35 4.53 4.50 4.82 2.55 2.54 2.57 2.36 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.47 4.36 4.35 4.39 4.35 2.03 1.93 1.92 2.04 0.97 0.91 0.88 0.89 0.95 0.88 0.86 0.89 1.27 1.23 1.24 1.24 1.68 1.62 1.63 1.67 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 1.85 1.84 1.78 1.98 2.13 2.09 2.01 2.69 3.60 3.45 3.25 3.22 1.70 1.56 1.53 1.61 0.99 0.97 1.00 0.90 1.87 1.79 1.75 1.81 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 0.60 0.56 0.53 0.56 0.49 0.51 0.52 0.56 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 2.76 2.76 2.76 2.71 0.63 0.63 0.65 0.60 6.47 6.62 6.57 6.77 2.37 2.35 2.38 2.16 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 4.00 3.76 3.84 3.31 1.14 1.10 1.11 1.18 1.02 1.00 0.98 1.00 4.05 3.85 3.81 3.99 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 1.31 1.31 1.30 1.30 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 1.70 1.70 1.72 1.78 7.05 7.19 7.43 7.69 0.87 0.83 0.85 0.90 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 2.28 2.25 2.24 2.32 1.86 1.85 1.86 1.88 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.60 1.81 1.68 1.63 1.79 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.45 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.16 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.36 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11 1.55 1.43 1.43 1.30 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1996 1.42 0.49 1.68 0.81 13.12 1.26 1.07 0.49 0.49 4.66 2.61 0.50 0.49 4.37 1.92 0.86 0.86 1.23 1.59 0.49 1.95 2.73 3.17 1.54 0.99 1.72 0.49 0.54 0.56 0.49 2.69 0.65 6.37 2.40 0.49 3.61 1.07 0.98 4.02 0.50 1.22 0.49 1.71 7.51 0.88 0.49 2.19 1.79 0.57 1.76 0.49 0.16 0.36 0.11 1.44 0.21 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 97.82 97.81 97.81 97.78 97.90 97.91 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 39 Appendix D State Variation in Identification of Children as Disabled: School Year 2001–2002 Table D.1 Students with Individualized Education Programs, School Year 2001–2002, by State State Name Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Individualized Education Total Students Program (School (State) District) 737,294 95,708 134,358 17,814 922,180 97,654 449,805 56,165 6,248,610 661,575 742,145 73,887 570,228 74,016 115,555 16,068 75,392 12,594 2,500,478 378,251 1,470,634 170,106 184,546 22,848 246,521 28,932 2,071,391 297,307 996,133 160,344 485,932 72,305 470,205 61,402 654,363 98,146 731,328 98,145 205,586 33,413 860,640 111,511 973,140 150,003 1,730,668 232,592 851,384 110,307 493,507 62,117 909,792 140,676 151,947 19,176 285,095 44,227 356,814 40,216 206,847 28,675 1,341,656 218,364 320,260 62,738 2,872,132 424,722 1,315,363 186,255 106,047 13,401 1,830,985 224,986 622,139 87,672 551,480 70,309 1,821,627 232,056 158,046 31,616 691,078 98,423 127,542 16,764 925,030 143,116 4,163,447 495,493 484,677 54,571 101,179 13,430 1,163,091 164,523 1,009,200 120,775 282,885 50,080 879,361 126,152 88,128 11,716 % of Students 12.98 13.26 10.59 12.49 10.59 9.96 12.98 13.91 16.70 15.13 11.57 12.38 11.74 14.35 16.10 14.88 13.06 15.00 13.42 16.25 12.96 15.41 13.44 12.96 12.59 15.46 12.62 15.51 11.27 13.86 16.28 19.59 14.79 14.16 12.64 12.29 14.09 12.75 12.74 20.00 14.24 13.14 15.47 11.90 11.26 13.27 14.15 11.97 17.70 14.35 13.29 Rank by % of Students 31 28 49 40 50 51 32 22 4 12 46 41 45 16 7 14 30 13 25 6 33 11 24 34 39 10 38 8 47 23 5 2 15 19 37 42 21 35 36 1 18 29 9 44 48 27 20 43 3 17 26 States total 47,687,871 6,313,342 13.24 SOURCE: Common Core of Data, Build A Table extraction, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. 42 Appendix E Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), Funding Allocation: Fiscal Year 2003, by State Table E.1 Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), 2003 State Allocations U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal Other Funding in FY 1999 ($) 4,310,700,000 4,211,932,548 69,017,922 12,247,357 61,263,060 40,872,926 431,237,374 51,886,005 53,060,125 11,224,669 5,643,797 238,676,175 107,699,572 14,156,512 19,052,135 194,398,440 101,341,485 49,065,489 40,399,267 60,830,890 65,859,276 21,991,584 77,229,155 114,086,702 143,898,146 73,410,154 42,676,977 90,973,549 12,997,604 30,009,897 23,039,165 19,016,870 145,270,027 36,034,694 298,798,306 114,312,121 9,114,296 159,145,801 55,517,617 48,323,540 156,534,110 17,575,151 68,478,573 10,857,498 88,697,223 336,565,139 37,843,586 8,787,921 106,290,352 78,927,411 30,522,278 80,406,470 9,219,400 37,448,755 52,849,182 17,577,448 Funding in FY 2002 ($) 7,528,533,000 7,395,868,077 119,960,334 22,199,605 111,045,656 71,962,298 781,662,507 94,048,771 89,245,788 20,345,877 10,229,967 405,878,306 195,216,655 25,660,148 34,533,972 336,446,325 170,853,119 82,526,911 70,893,325 104,503,321 119,376,775 36,989,288 131,443,233 191,890,947 260,135,764 128,321,623 77,199,160 153,553,541 23,559,507 50,475,888 41,760,879 32,080,256 244,340,509 61,594,953 509,305,853 202,724,229 16,520,608 288,468,284 98,502,970 86,394,113 281,508,625 29,560,959 115,429,949 19,680,342 154,805,179 608,102,898 68,595,427 15,929,020 181,253,563 142,623,221 51,337,699 140,599,055 16,711,120 67,879,755 79,377,301 22,579,306 FAPE Age Guaranteed by State 20 21 21 20 18 20 20 20 21 21 21 19 20 20 21 20 20 20 21 19 20 21 21 20 20 20 18 20 21 20 20 21 20 20 20 21 21 20 20 20 21 20 21 21 21 21 21 20 20 20 20 21 Resulting New Funding Level ($) 8,874,397,536 8,740,028,808 143,066,186 26,501,189 132,562,806 85,906,324 933,124,077 112,272,460 103,861,437 24,288,267 12,212,212 479,524,894 233,043,493 30,632,276 41,225,568 393,133,924 200,791,461 96,042,219 84,072,280 122,827,403 142,508,233 43,046,968 153,621,503 223,316,639 308,119,147 149,336,662 92,157,925 178,700,774 28,124,597 58,742,248 49,852,822 37,333,991 284,355,787 71,699,436 597,207,572 235,924,072 19,721,781 344,364,350 116,368,204 100,990,583 336,056,128 34,402,113 137,796,637 23,493,772 181,996,495 725,934,083 81,887,060 19,015,562 214,098,538 170,259,108 59,745,197 163,780,419 19,949,209 81,032,713 80,458,990 22,579,306 % of U.S. Total 100.00 98.49 1.61 0.30 1.49 0.97 10.51 1.27 1.17 0.27 0.14 5.40 2.63 0.35 0.46 4.43 2.26 1.08 0.95 1.38 1.61 0.49 1.73 2.52 3.47 1.68 1.04 2.01 0.32 0.66 0.56 0.42 3.20 0.81 6.73 2.66 0.22 3.88 1.31 1.14 3.79 0.39 1.55 0.26 2.05 8.18 0.92 0.21 2.41 1.92 0.67 1.85 0.22 0.91 0.91 0.25 % Change from Prior Year 17.88 18.17 19.26 19.38 19.38 19.38 19.38 19.38 16.38 19.38 19.38 18.14 19.38 19.38 19.38 16.85 17.52 16.38 18.59 17.53 19.38 16.38 16.87 16.38 18.45 16.38 19.38 16.38 19.38 16.38 19.38 16.38 16.38 16.40 17.26 16.38 19.38 19.38 18.14 16.90 19.38 16.38 19.38 19.38 17.56 19.38 19.38 19.38 18.12 19.38 16.38 16.49 19.38 19.38 1.36 0.00 American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands 4,832,745 11,675,837 2,980,233 8,852,007 5,705,650 12,629,887 4,372,921 7,999,858 5,816,515 12,896,899 4,419,970 8,197,048 0.07 1.94 0.15 2.11 0.05 1.08 0.09 2.46 SOURCES: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Current Population Survey, March 2002 Supplement, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 300, Subpart G, Allocation of Funds. In 2002, USDE provided less than the required 1.226 percent of funds to the Interior Department for tribes and tribal organizations. USDE awards grants to territories on a competitive basis, rather than by formula. FAPE age is from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Policy/2q2002pl/osep0206_2Q2002.pdf . 44 Appendix F Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), Funding Allocations: Administration Budget and House Appropriation for Fiscal Year 2004, Hypothetical Alternative for Fiscal Year 2005, by State Table F.1 Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), 2004 State Allocations: Administration Budget and House Appropriation 46 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico Funding in FY 1999 ($) 4,310,700,000 4,211,932,548 69,017,922 12,247,357 61,263,060 40,872,926 431,237,374 51,886,005 53,060,125 11,224,669 5,643,797 238,676,175 107,699,572 14,156,512 19,052,135 194,398,440 101,341,485 49,065,489 40,399,267 60,830,890 65,859,276 21,991,584 77,229,155 114,086,702 143,898,146 73,410,154 42,676,977 90,973,549 12,997,604 30,009,897 23,039,165 19,016,870 145,270,027 36,034,694 Funding in FY 2003 ($) 8,874,397,536 8,740,028,808 143,066,181 26,501,189 132,562,806 85,906,324 933,124,077 112,272,460 103,861,437 24,288,267 12,212,212 479,524,885 233,043,493 30,632,276 41,225,568 393,133,924 200,791,461 96,042,219 84,072,314 122,827,410 142,508,233 43,046,968 153,621,502 223,316,639 308,119,146 149,336,662 92,157,925 178,700,774 28,124,597 58,742,248 49,852,822 37,333,991 284,355,787 71,699,432 President’s Budget Request: 9,528,533,000 House Appropriations Bill: 9,874,398,000 FAPE Age Administration % Change House-Passed % Change Guaranteed FY 2004 Budget % of U.S. from Prior Appropriations Bill % of U.S. from Prior by State Request ($) Total Year for FY 2004 ($) Total Year 9,528,533,000 100.00 7.37 9,874,398,000 100.00 11.27 9,392,006,177 98.57 7.46 9,737,871,177 98.62 11.42 20 153,218,358 1.61 7.10 158,969,095 1.61 11.12 21 28,852,120 0.30 8.87 29,884,960 0.30 12.77 21 144,322,507 1.51 8.87 149,488,923 1.51 12.77 20 92,257,852 0.97 7.39 95,767,348 0.97 11.48 18 1,009,183,378 10.59 8.15 1,048,656,038 10.62 12.38 20 122,232,196 1.28 8.87 126,607,830 1.28 12.77 20 110,751,539 1.16 6.63 114,394,584 1.16 10.14 20 26,442,889 0.28 8.87 27,389,484 0.28 12.77 21 13,295,562 0.14 8.87 13,771,513 0.14 12.77 21 512,545,759 5.38 6.89 531,250,553 5.38 10.79 21 253,716,876 2.66 8.87 262,799,362 2.66 12.77 19 33,349,678 0.35 8.87 34,543,520 0.35 12.77 20 44,882,705 0.47 8.87 46,489,403 0.47 12.77 20 420,380,976 4.41 6.93 435,815,172 4.41 10.86 21 214,426,262 2.25 6.79 222,149,746 2.25 10.64 20 102,413,599 1.07 6.63 105,782,377 1.07 10.14 20 90,059,942 0.95 7.12 93,451,675 0.95 11.16 20 131,327,256 1.38 6.92 136,142,029 1.38 10.84 21 155,150,197 1.63 8.87 160,704,220 1.63 12.77 19 45,902,677 0.48 6.63 47,412,593 0.48 10.14 20 164,095,055 1.72 6.82 170,027,838 1.72 10.68 21 238,131,324 2.50 6.63 245,964,381 2.49 10.14 21 330,634,191 3.47 7.31 343,387,923 3.48 11.45 20 159,243,562 1.67 6.63 164,803,137 1.67 10.36 20 100,333,292 1.05 8.87 103,924,995 1.05 12.77 20 190,555,670 2.00 6.63 196,823,781 1.99 10.14 18 30,390,381 0.32 8.06 31,543,264 0.32 12.16 20 62,639,172 0.66 6.63 64,699,616 0.66 10.14 21 54,275,286 0.57 8.87 56,218,218 0.57 12.77 20 39,810,704 0.42 6.63 41,120,232 0.42 10.14 20 303,219,770 3.18 6.63 313,193,838 3.17 10.14 21 76,589,147 0.80 6.82 79,358,942 0.80 10.68 Table F.1 (continued) 47 New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal Other American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands Funding in FY 1999 ($) 298,798,306 114,312,121 9,114,296 159,145,801 55,517,617 48,323,540 156,534,110 17,575,151 68,478,573 10,857,498 88,697,223 336,565,139 37,843,586 8,787,921 106,290,352 78,927,411 30,522,278 80,406,470 9,219,400 37,448,755 52,849,182 17,577,448 4,832,745 11,675,837 2,980,233 8,852,007 Funding in FY 2003 ($) 597,207,574 235,924,071 19,721,781 344,364,350 116,368,189 100,990,582 336,056,128 34,402,113 137,796,637 23,493,772 181,996,487 725,934,083 81,887,060 19,015,562 214,098,545 170,259,108 59,745,197 163,780,418 19,949,209 81,032,713 80,458,990 22,579,306 5,816,515 12,896,899 President’s Budget Request: 9,528,533,000 House Appropriations Bill: 9,874,398,000 FAPE Age Administration % Change House-Passed % Change Guaranteed FY 2004 Budget % of U.S. from Prior Appropriations Bill % of U.S. from Prior by State Request ($) Total Year for FY 2004 ($) Total Year 20 638,120,109 6.70 6.85 661,295,170 6.70 10.73 20 251,624,525 2.64 6.65 261,002,712 2.64 10.63 20 21,471,308 0.23 8.87 22,239,932 0.23 12.77 21 372,227,827 3.91 8.09 386,780,941 3.92 12.32 21 124,710,948 1.31 7.17 129,436,726 1.31 11.23 20 108,211,345 1.14 7.15 112,301,573 1.14 11.20 20 361,558,631 3.79 7.59 375,561,432 3.80 11.76 20 36,684,327 0.38 6.63 37,891,016 0.38 10.14 21 148,498,503 1.56 7.77 153,963,719 1.56 11.73 20 25,577,914 0.27 8.87 26,493,545 0.27 12.77 21 194,788,021 2.04 7.03 202,033,829 2.05 11.01 21 782,556,212 8.21 7.80 813,016,590 8.23 12.00 21 89,151,295 0.94 8.87 92,342,708 0.94 12.77 21 20,702,440 0.22 8.87 21,443,540 0.22 12.77 21 228,879,267 2.40 6.90 237,251,867 2.40 10.81 20 183,753,736 1.93 7.93 190,913,183 1.93 12.13 20 63,708,656 0.67 6.63 65,804,279 0.67 10.14 20 175,211,163 1.84 6.98 181,686,151 1.84 10.93 20 21,718,911 0.23 8.87 22,496,399 0.23 12.77 21 88,221,158 0.93 8.87 91,379,274 0.93 12.77 82,012,251 0.86 1.93 82,012,251 0.83 1.93 22,579,306 0.24 0.00 22,579,306 0.23 0.00 5,928,803 0.06 1.93 5,928,803 0.06 1.93 13,145,874 0.14 1.93 13,145,874 0.13 1.93 4,419,970 8,197,048 4,505,298 8,355,292 0.05 1.93 0.09 1.93 4,505,298 8,355,292 0.05 0.08 1.93 1.93 SOURCES: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100 percent data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Current Population Survey, March 2002 Supplement, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 300, Subpart G, Allocation of Funds. In 2002, USDE provided less than the required 1.226 percent of funds to the Interior Department for tribes and tribal organizations. USDE awards grants to territories on a competitive basis, rather than by formula. FAPE age is from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Policy/2q2002pl/osep0206_2Q2002.pdf . New Jersey's top FAPE age was reduced from 21 to 20 years for formula calculations beginning in 2003. Table F.2 Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), 2004 and 2005 State Allocations—Hypothetical Funding Totals 48 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2004: 10,000,000,000 Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2005: 12,000,000,000 Resulting % Change Resulting New % Change FY 1999 FY 2003 Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Sum of 2004 and Funding ($) Funding ($) for FY 2004 ($) Total Year for FY 2005 ($) Total Year 2005 Funding 4,310,700,000 8,874,397,536 10,000,000,000 100.00 12.68 12,000,000,000 100.00 20.00 22,000,000,000 4,211,932,548 8,740,028,808 9,863,473,177 98.63 12.85 11,861,273,420 98.84 20.25 21,724,746,598 69,017,922 143,066,181 161,055,228 1.61 12.57 193,620,703 1.61 20.22 354,675,931 12,247,357 26,501,189 30,260,040 0.30 14.18 36,765,948 0.31 21.50 67,025,988 61,263,060 132,562,806 151,365,124 1.51 14.18 183,908,626 1.53 21.50 335,273,750 40,872,926 85,906,324 97,040,451 0.97 12.96 116,914,155 0.97 20.48 213,954,606 431,237,374 933,124,077 1,062,975,113 10.63 13.92 1,286,502,295 10.72 21.03 2,349,477,408 51,886,005 112,272,460 128,196,855 1.28 14.18 155,759,179 1.30 21.50 283,956,034 53,060,125 103,861,437 115,717,568 1.16 11.42 11,224,669 24,288,267 27,733,243 0.28 14.18 137,125,318 33,695,891 1.14 0.28 18.50 21.50 252,842,886 61,429,134 5,643,797 12,212,212 13,944,356 0.14 14.18 16,942,393 0.14 21.50 30,886,749 238,676,175 479,524,885 538,035,891 5.38 12.20 643,958,064 5.37 19.69 1,181,993,955 107,699,572 233,043,493 266,097,696 2.66 14.18 323,308,701 2.69 21.50 589,406,397 14,156,512 30,632,276 34,977,068 0.35 14.18 42,497,137 0.35 21.50 77,474,205 19,052,135 41,225,568 47,072,881 0.47 14.18 57,193,551 0.48 21.50 104,266,432 194,398,440 393,133,924 441,414,070 4.41 12.28 528,815,383 4.41 19.80 970,229,453 101,341,485 200,791,461 224,951,512 2.25 12.03 268,688,334 2.24 19.44 493,639,846 49,065,489 96,042,219 107,005,760 1.07 11.42 40,399,267 84,072,314 94,682,058 0.95 12.62 126,801,826 113,888,888 1.06 0.95 18.50 20.29 233,807,586 208,570,947 60,830,890 122,827,410 137,888,633 1.38 12.26 165,153,903 1.38 19.77 303,042,536 65,859,276 142,508,233 162,721,181 1.63 14.18 197,706,235 1.65 21.50 360,427,417 21,991,584 43,046,968 47,960,924 0.48 11.42 56,833,695 0.47 18.50 104,794,618 77,229,155 153,621,502 172,180,010 1.72 12.08 205,776,383 1.71 19.51 377,956,393 114,086,702 223,316,639 248,808,982 2.49 11.42 294,838,643 2.46 18.50 543,647,625 143,898,146 308,119,146 348,014,458 3.48 12.95 420,236,745 3.50 20.75 768,251,203 73,410,154 149,336,662 166,922,709 1.67 11.78 200,010,170 1.67 19.82 366,932,879 42,676,977 92,157,925 105,229,334 1.05 14.18 90,973,549 178,700,774 199,100,066 1.99 11.42 127,853,641 236,705,595 1.07 1.97 21.50 18.89 233,082,974 435,805,661 12,997,604 28,124,597 31,961,937 0.32 13.64 38,628,604 0.32 20.86 70,590,541 30,009,897 58,742,248 65,447,872 0.65 11.42 77,555,729 0.65 18.50 143,003,601 23,039,165 49,852,822 56,923,800 0.57 14.18 69,162,416 0.58 21.50 126,086,216 19,016,870 37,333,991 41,595,791 0.42 11.42 49,291,013 0.41 18.50 90,886,804 145,270,027 284,355,787 316,815,953 3.17 11.42 375,426,904 3.13 18.50 692,242,857 36,034,694 71,699,432 80,363,711 0.80 12.08 96,048,607 0.80 19.52 176,412,318 Table F.2 (continued) 49 New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal Other American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2004: 10,000,000,000 Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2005: 12,000,000,000 Resulting % Change Resulting New % Change FY 1999 FY 2003 Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Sum of 2004 and Funding ($) Funding ($) for FY 2004 ($) Total Year for FY 2005 ($) Total Year 2005 Funding 298,798,306 597,207,574 669,702,140 6.70 12.14 800,938,701 6.67 19.60 1,470,640,841 114,312,121 235,924,071 264,404,737 2.64 12.07 317,511,868 2.65 20.09 581,916,605 9,114,296 19,721,781 22,519,060 0.23 14.18 27,360,658 0.23 21.50 49,879,719 159,145,801 344,364,350 392,060,219 3.92 13.85 474,472,113 3.95 21.02 866,532,332 55,517,617 116,368,189 131,151,047 1.31 12.70 157,912,353 1.32 20.40 289,063,400 48,323,540 100,990,582 113,785,341 1.14 12.67 136,947,630 1.14 20.36 250,732,971 156,534,110 336,056,128 380,641,079 3.81 13.27 459,936,641 3.83 20.83 840,577,721 17,575,151 34,402,113 38,329,229 0.38 11.42 45,420,137 0.38 18.50 83,749,366 68,478,573 137,796,637 10,857,498 23,493,772 155,946,276 1.56 13.17 26,826,059 0.27 14.18 186,894,893 32,593,662 1.56 0.27 19.85 21.50 342,841,170 59,419,722 88,697,223 181,996,487 204,662,314 2.05 12.45 245,694,135 2.05 20.05 450,356,449 336,565,139 725,934,083 824,066,376 8.24 13.52 996,558,490 8.30 20.93 1,820,624,866 37,843,586 81,887,060 93,501,680 0.94 14.18 113,604,541 0.95 21.50 207,106,220 8,787,921 19,015,562 21,712,673 0.22 14.18 26,380,898 0.22 21.50 48,093,571 106,290,352 214,098,545 240,289,105 2.40 12.23 287,701,761 2.40 19.73 527,990,866 78,927,411 170,259,108 193,510,339 1.94 13.66 234,053,111 1.95 20.95 427,563,449 30,522,278 59,745,197 66,565,311 0.67 11.42 78,879,894 0.66 18.50 145,445,206 80,406,470 163,780,418 9,219,400 19,949,209 184,035,013 1.84 12.37 22,778,746 0.23 14.18 220,701,805 27,676,176 1.84 0.23 19.92 21.50 404,736,818 50,454,923 37,448,755 81,032,713 92,526,155 0.93 14.18 112,419,278 0.94 21.50 204,945,432 52,849,182 80,458,990 82,012,251 0.82 1.93 83,595,497 0.70 1.93 165,607,748 17,577,448 22,579,306 22,579,306 0.23 0.00 22,579,306 0.19 0.00 45,158,612 4,832,745 5,816,515 5,928,803 0.06 1.93 6,043,258 0.05 1.93 11,972,061 11,675,837 12,896,899 13,145,874 0.13 1.93 13,399,655 0.11 1.93 26,545,528 2,980,233 8,852,007 4,419,970 8,197,048 4,505,298 8,355,292 0.05 0.08 1.93 1.93 4,592,272 8,516,591 0.04 0.07 1.93 1.93 9,097,570 16,871,883 SOURCES: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Current Population Survey, March 2002 Supplement, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 300, Subpart G, Allocation of Funds. In 2002, USDE provided less than the required 1.226 percent of funds to the Interior Department for tribes and tribal organizations. USDE awards grants to territories on a competitive basis, rather than by formula. FAPE age is from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Policy/2q2002pl/osep0206_2Q2002.pdf. New Jersey’s top FAPE age was reduced from 21 to 20 years for formula calculations beginning in 2003. Appendix G Grants for Infants and Toddlers, Funding Allocations: Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004, by State Table G.1 Special Education—Infants and Toddlers Grants (Part C), State Allocations, Fiscal Year 2003 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands Total Population Ages 0–2 Persons % of States 11,615,286 11,591,525 100.00 177,099 1.53 28,231 0.24 229,836 1.98 108,555 0.94 1,459,066 12.59 179,130 1.55 130,813 1.13 30,867 0.27 19,276 0.17 561,839 4.85 358,255 3.09 46,412 0.40 58,550 0.51 520,550 4.49 253,136 2.18 112,488 0.97 113,456 0.98 159,519 1.38 191,286 1.65 41,453 0.36 209,218 1.80 235,958 2.04 398,600 3.44 195,989 1.69 123,078 1.06 221,068 1.91 32,532 0.28 70,106 0.60 86,767 0.75 43,897 0.38 333,135 2.87 78,338 0.68 732,065 6.32 326,535 2.82 23,357 0.20 448,690 3.87 143,177 1.24 132,734 1.15 428,274 3.69 37,775 0.33 159,387 1.38 30,516 0.26 224,825 1.94 977,438 8.43 129,200 1.11 19,807 0.17 276,614 2.39 235,475 2.03 60,404 0.52 203,339 1.75 18,561 0.16 174,849 1.51 Hypothetical Allocation (with No Small State Minimum) Dollars % 434,159,500 100.00 428,732,506 98.75 6,550,311 1.51 1,044,172 0.24 8,500,880 1.96 4,015,094 0.92 53,966,068 12.43 6,625,431 1.53 4,838,344 1.11 1,141,669 0.26 712,956 0.16 20,780,583 4.79 13,250,678 3.05 1,716,628 0.40 2,165,573 0.50 19,253,438 4.43 9,362,671 2.16 4,160,562 0.96 4,196,365 0.97 5,900,085 1.36 7,075,042 1.63 1,533,211 0.35 7,738,288 1.78 8,727,313 2.01 14,742,907 3.40 7,248,991 1.67 4,552,252 1.05 8,176,581 1.88 1,203,252 0.28 2,592,991 0.60 3,209,227 0.74 1,623,606 0.37 12,321,571 2.84 2,897,466 0.67 27,076,684 6.24 12,077,459 2.78 863,899 0.20 16,595,572 3.82 5,295,648 1.22 4,909,395 1.13 15,840,451 3.65 1,397,173 0.32 5,895,203 1.36 1,128,687 0.26 8,315,540 1.92 36,152,227 8.33 4,778,684 1.10 732,596 0.17 10,231,045 2.36 8,709,448 2.01 2,234,146 0.51 7,520,843 1.73 686,511 0.16 6,467,091 1.49 4,856 10,218 3,600 5,087 603,278 1,341,222 462,815 786,891 0.14 0.31 0.11 0.18 Actual Allocation (Includes 0.5% Small State Minimum Dollars % 434,159,500 100.00 425,533,399 98.01 6,313,728 1.45 2,127,667 0.49 8,193,846 1.89 3,870,077 0.89 52,016,926 11.98 6,386,135 1.47 4,663,593 1.07 2,127,667 0.49 2,127,667 0.49 20,030,031 4.61 12,772,091 2.94 2,127,667 0.49 2,127,667 0.49 18,558,044 4.27 9,024,511 2.08 4,010,291 0.92 4,044,801 0.93 5,686,986 1.31 6,819,506 1.57 2,127,667 0.49 7,458,797 1.72 8,412,100 1.94 14,210,424 3.27 6,987,172 1.61 4,387,834 1.01 7,881,259 1.82 2,127,667 0.49 2,499,338 0.58 3,093,316 0.71 2,127,667 0.49 11,876,542 2.74 2,792,815 0.64 26,098,731 6.01 11,641,246 2.68 2,127,667 0.49 15,996,175 3.68 5,104,380 1.18 4,732,078 1.09 15,268,327 3.52 2,127,667 0.49 5,682,280 1.31 2,127,667 0.49 8,015,200 1.85 34,846,484 8.03 4,606,088 1.06 2,127,667 0.49 9,861,521 2.27 8,394,881 1.93 2,153,453 0.50 7,249,206 1.67 2,127,667 0.49 6,233,513 1.44 5,359,994 1.23 603,278 0.14 1,413,123 0.33 462,815 0.11 786,891 0.18 SOURCE: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 303, Subpart C, Sec. 200, Procedures for Making Grants to States. 52 Table G.2 Infants and Toddlers Grants (Part C), State Allocations, Fiscal Year 2004 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands Total Population Ages 0–2 Persons % of States 11,615,286 11,591,525 100.00 177,099 1.53 28,231 0.24 229,836 1.98 108,555 0.94 1,459,066 12.59 179,130 1.55 130,813 1.13 30,867 0.27 19,276 0.17 561,839 4.85 358,255 3.09 46,412 0.40 58,550 0.51 520,550 4.49 253,136 2.18 112,488 0.97 113,456 0.98 159,519 1.38 191,286 1.65 41,453 0.36 209,218 1.80 235,958 2.04 398,600 3.44 195,989 1.69 123,078 1.06 221,068 1.91 32,532 0.28 70,106 0.60 86,767 0.75 43,897 0.38 333,135 2.87 78,338 0.68 732,065 6.32 326,535 2.82 23,357 0.20 448,690 3.87 143,177 1.24 132,734 1.15 428,274 3.69 37,775 0.33 159,387 1.38 30,516 0.26 224,825 1.94 977,438 8.43 129,200 1.11 19,807 0.17 276,614 2.39 235,475 2.03 60,404 0.52 203,339 1.75 18,561 0.16 174,849 1.51 5,518,519 1.23 4,856 10,218 3,600 5,087 Hypothetical Allocation (with No Small State Minimum) Dollars % 447,000,000 100.00 441,412,500 98.75 6,744,040 1.51 1,075,054 0.24 8,752,298 1.96 4,133,842 0.92 55,562,143 12.43 6,821,382 1.53 4,981,441 1.11 1,175,435 0.26 734,042 0.16 21,395,179 4.79 13,642,574 3.05 1,767,398 0.40 2,229,621 0.50 19,822,869 4.43 9,639,577 2.16 4,283,613 0.96 4,320,475 0.97 6,074,583 1.36 7,284,290 1.63 1,578,556 0.35 7,967,152 1.78 8,985,428 2.01 15,178,937 3.40 7,463,383 1.67 4,686,887 1.05 8,418,407 1.88 1,238,839 0.28 2,669,680 0.60 3,304,141 0.74 1,671,625 0.37 12,685,989 2.84 2,983,160 0.67 27,877,492 6.24 12,434,656 2.78 889,449 0.20 17,086,395 3.82 5,452,269 1.22 5,054,593 1.13 16,308,941 3.65 1,438,496 0.32 6,069,556 1.36 1,162,068 0.26 8,561,476 1.92 37,221,449 8.33 4,920,017 1.10 754,263 0.17 10,533,634 2.36 8,967,035 2.01 2,300,222 0.51 7,743,276 1.73 706,814 0.16 6,658,359 1.49 603,278 1,476,175 462,815 786,891 0.13 0.33 0.10 0.18 Actual Allocation (Includes 0.5% Small State Minimum Dollars % 447,000,000 100.00 438,152,322 98.02 6,500,957 1.45 2,190,762 0.49 8,436,829 1.89 3,984,841 0.89 53,559,455 11.98 6,575,511 1.47 4,801,889 1.07 2,190,762 0.49 2,190,762 0.49 20,624,009 4.61 13,150,839 2.94 2,190,762 0.49 2,190,762 0.49 19,108,371 4.27 9,292,127 2.08 4,129,214 0.92 4,164,748 0.93 5,855,630 1.31 7,021,734 1.57 2,190,762 0.49 7,679,983 1.72 8,661,556 1.94 14,631,825 3.27 7,194,372 1.61 4,517,952 1.01 8,114,973 1.82 2,190,762 0.49 2,573,454 0.58 3,185,047 0.71 2,190,762 0.49 12,228,733 2.74 2,875,635 0.64 26,872,672 6.01 11,986,460 2.68 2,190,762 0.49 16,470,531 3.68 5,255,747 1.18 4,872,405 1.09 15,721,100 3.52 2,190,762 0.49 5,850,785 1.31 2,190,762 0.49 8,252,885 1.85 35,879,834 8.03 4,742,679 1.06 2,190,762 0.49 10,153,958 2.27 8,643,826 1.93 2,217,313 0.50 7,464,176 1.67 2,190,762 0.49 6,418,364 1.44 603,278 1,476,175 462,815 786,891 0.13 0.33 0.10 0.18 SOURCE: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Total 2004 appropriation of $447 million appears in the President’s Budget, House-passed bill, and Senate Committee bill. Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 303, Subpart C, Sec. 200, Procedures for Making Grants to States. 53 Appendix H Preschool Grants, Funding Allocation: Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004, Hypothetical Alternative for Fiscal Year 2005, by State 56 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York Table H.1 Special Education—Preschool Grants (Part B), 2004 and 2005 State Allocations: Hypothetical Funding Totals Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2004: 390,000,000 Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2005: 450,000,000 FY 1997 Resulting New % Change Resulting New % Change Sum of 2004 (Base Year) FY 2003 Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior and 2005 Funding ($) Funding ($) for FY 2004 ($) Total Year for FY 2005 ($) Total Year Funding ($) 377,912,182 387,465,000 390,000,000 100.00 0.65 450,000,000 100.00 15.38 840,000,000 360,050,998 387,465,000 390,000,000 100.00 0.65 450,000,000 100.00 15.38 840,000,000 5,308,013 5,694,625 5,748,487 1.47 0.95 6,719,097 1.49 16.88 12,467,585 1,195,743 1,286,031 1,293,604 0.33 0.59 1,473,215 0.33 13.88 2,766,819 5,008,915 5,499,684 5,546,000 1.42 0.84 6,482,421 1.44 16.88 12,028,421 5,102,788 5,447,257 5,479,332 1.40 0.59 6,240,116 1.39 13.88 11,719,448 36,074,288 39,529,222 39,761,981 10.20 0.59 46,475,638 10.33 16.88 86,237,619 4,692,338 5,041,483 5,074,546 1.30 0.66 5,931,364 1.32 16.88 11,005,911 4,665,794 4,980,763 5,010,091 1.28 0.59 5,705,723 1.27 13.88 10,715,814 1,189,269 1,279,557 1,287,091 0.33 0.59 1,465,799 0.33 13.88 2,752,890 224,647 251,429 256,845 0.07 2.15 300,213 0.07 16.88 557,058 17,510,810 18,798,391 18,909,081 4.85 0.59 21,898,214 4.87 15.81 40,807,296 9,250,017 10,007,230 10,085,052 2.59 0.78 11,787,875 2.62 16.88 21,872,927 927,721 1,027,363 1,036,058 0.27 0.85 1,210,993 0.27 16.88 2,247,051 2,080,088 2,220,506 2,233,581 0.57 0.59 2,543,705 0.57 13.88 4,777,286 16,776,014 17,934,208 18,039,810 4.63 0.59 20,804,356 4.62 15.32 38,844,166 8,464,723 9,036,144 9,089,351 2.33 0.59 10,351,373 2.30 13.88 19,440,724 3,796,987 4,053,306 4,077,173 1.05 0.59 4,643,273 1.03 13.88 8,720,446 4,122,628 4,400,930 4,426,844 1.14 0.59 5,041,494 1.12 13.88 9,468,338 9,715,496 10,371,351 10,432,420 2.67 0.59 11,880,922 2.64 13.88 22,313,342 6,147,040 6,587,642 6,636,688 1.70 0.74 7,757,268 1.72 16.88 14,393,956 2,390,839 2,552,235 2,567,263 0.66 0.59 2,923,718 0.65 13.88 5,490,981 6,338,022 6,783,039 6,822,979 1.75 0.59 7,865,218 1.75 15.28 14,688,198 9,409,924 10,045,150 10,104,299 2.59 0.59 11,507,242 2.56 13.88 21,611,540 11,916,000 12,774,278 12,849,496 3.29 0.59 14,908,706 3.31 16.03 27,758,202 7,066,345 7,543,367 7,587,784 1.95 0.59 8,641,319 1.92 13.88 16,229,104 4,018,513 4,295,697 4,320,991 1.11 0.59 4,951,433 1.10 14.59 9,272,424 5,660,844 6,128,272 6,179,893 1.58 0.84 7,223,344 1.61 16.88 13,403,236 1,116,795 1,207,049 1,214,156 0.31 0.59 1,382,737 0.31 13.88 2,596,894 2,143,533 2,293,078 2,306,580 0.59 0.59 2,662,302 0.59 15.42 4,968,882 2,111,164 2,295,210 2,308,725 0.59 0.59 2,698,544 0.60 16.88 5,007,269 1,481,893 1,581,930 1,591,245 0.41 0.59 1,812,183 0.40 13.88 3,403,428 10,823,193 11,553,824 11,621,856 2.98 0.59 13,246,841 2.94 13.98 24,868,697 3,032,410 3,237,116 3,256,177 0.83 0.59 3,708,285 0.82 13.88 6,964,462 32,104,446 34,273,423 34,475,234 8.84 0.59 39,261,988 8.72 13.88 73,737,222 Table H.1 (continued) 57 North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal Other Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2004: 390,000,000 Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2005: 450,000,000 FY 1997 Resulting New % Change Resulting New % Change Sum of 2004 (Base Year) FY 2003 Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior and 2005 Funding ($) Funding ($) for FY 2004 ($) Total Year for FY 2005 ($) Total Year Funding ($) 10,761,043 11,487,478 11,555,119 2.96 0.59 13,159,503 2.92 13.88 24,714,623 748,392 831,821 836,719 0.21 0.59 977,996 0.22 16.88 1,814,715 11,833,780 12,786,616 12,890,911 3.31 0.82 15,067,492 3.35 16.88 27,958,403 3,422,144 3,731,472 3,753,444 0.96 0.59 4,387,198 0.97 16.88 8,140,642 3,647,438 3,934,012 3,957,177 1.01 0.59 4,625,331 1.03 16.88 8,582,507 13,268,414 14,207,185 14,290,841 3.66 0.59 16,628,657 3.70 16.36 30,919,497 1,590,008 1,697,344 1,707,338 0.44 0.59 1,944,396 0.43 13.88 3,651,734 6,792,495 7,251,030 7,293,726 1.87 0.59 8,306,432 1.85 13.88 15,600,158 1,393,847 1,487,939 1,496,700 0.38 0.59 1,704,511 0.38 13.88 3,201,212 6,533,536 7,005,401 7,099,507 1.82 1.34 8,298,231 1.84 16.88 15,397,738 21,349,912 23,479,254 23,649,487 6.06 0.73 27,642,612 6.14 16.88 51,292,099 3,377,473 3,624,991 3,646,336 0.93 0.59 4,243,938 0.94 16.39 7,890,274 798,889 884,990 890,201 0.23 0.59 1,039,182 0.23 16.74 1,929,383 8,682,896 9,269,044 9,323,623 2.39 0.59 10,744,859 2.39 15.24 20,068,482 7,770,713 8,295,284 8,344,129 2.14 0.59 9,540,954 2.12 14.34 17,885,083 3,314,028 3,537,745 3,558,576 0.91 0.59 4,052,671 0.90 13.88 7,611,247 9,010,480 9,618,743 9,675,381 2.48 0.59 11,018,770 2.45 13.88 20,694,151 991,813 1,082,101 1,088,473 0.28 0.59 1,239,603 0.28 13.88 2,328,076 2,896,457 3,241,760 3,311,596 0.85 2.15 3,870,746 0.86 16.88 7,182,342 00 0 0 0 17,580,861 0 0 0 0 American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands 27,838 110,705 29,780 112,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SOURCES: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Current Population Survey, March 2002 Supplement, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 301, Subpart C, Allocation of Funds to States. Total 2004 appropriation of $390 million appears in the President’s Budget, House-passed bill, and Senate Committee bill. Board of Directors Raymond L. Watson, Chairman Vice Chairman of the Board The Irvine Company William K. Coblentz Senior Partner Coblentz, Patch, Duffy & Bass, LLP Edward K. Hamilton Chairman Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities David W. Lyon President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Cheryl White Mason Chief, Civil Liability Management Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office Arjay Miller Dean Emeritus Graduate School of Business Stanford University Ki Suh Park Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates A. Alan Post Former State Legislative Analyst State of California Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Thomas C. Sutton Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company Cynthia A. Telles Department of Psychiatry UCLA School of Medicine Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center Harold M. Williams President Emeritus The J. Paul Getty Trust and Of Counsel Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP Advisory Council Clifford W. Graves Vice Chancellor, Physical Planning University of California, Merced Elizabeth G. Hill Legislative Analyst State of California Hilary W. Hoynes Associate Professor Department of Economics University of California, Davis Andrés E. Jiménez Director, California Policy Research Center University of California, Berkeley, Office of the President Rudolf Nothenberg Chief Administrative Officer (Retired) City and County of San Francisco Manuel Pastor Professor of Latin American & Latino Studies University of California, Santa Cruz Peter Schrag Contributing Editor The Sacramento Bee James P. Smith Senior Economist RAND California Institute for Federal Policy Research 419 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Basement Level Washington, DC 20003 Tel: 202/546-3700 Fax: 202/546-2390 www.calinst.org Public Policy Institute of California 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: 415/291-4400 Fax: 415/291-4401 www.ppic.org" } ["___content":protected]=> string(106) "

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" ["_permalink":protected]=> string(108) "https://www.ppic.org/publication/federal-formula-grants-education-programs-for-disabled-children/ff_903trff/" ["_next":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_prev":protected]=> array(0) { } ["_css_class":protected]=> NULL ["id"]=> int(8365) ["ID"]=> int(8365) ["post_author"]=> string(1) "1" ["post_content"]=> string(0) "" ["post_date"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:37:00" ["post_excerpt"]=> string(0) "" ["post_parent"]=> int(3555) ["post_status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["post_title"]=> string(10) "FF 903TRFF" ["post_type"]=> string(10) "attachment" ["slug"]=> string(10) "ff_903trff" ["__type":protected]=> NULL ["_wp_attached_file"]=> string(14) "FF_903TRFF.pdf" ["wpmf_size"]=> string(6) "539645" ["wpmf_filetype"]=> string(3) "pdf" ["wpmf_order"]=> string(1) "0" ["searchwp_content"]=> string(148543) "Public Policy Institute of California FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Education Programs for Disabled Children Tim Ransdell The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) is a private operating foundation established in 1994 with an endowment from William R. Hewlett. The Institute is dedicated to improving public policy in California through independent, objective, nonpartisan research. PPIC’s research agenda focuses on three program areas: population, economy, and governance and public finance. Studies within these programs are examining the underlying forces shaping California’s future, cutting across a wide range of public policy concerns, including education, health care, immigration, income distribution, welfare, urban growth, and state and local finance. PPIC was created because three concerned citizens—William R. Hewlett, Roger W. Heyns, and Arjay Miller—recognized the need for linking objective research to the realities of California public policy. Their goal was to help the state’s leaders better understand the intricacies and implications of contemporary issues and make informed public policy decisions when confronted with challenges in the future. David W. Lyon is founding President and Chief Executive Officer of PPIC. Raymond L. Watson is Chairman of the Board of Directors. Copyright © 2003 by Public Policy Institute of California All rights reserved San Francisco, CA Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the above copyright notice is included. PPIC does not take or support positions on any ballot measure or on any local, state, or federal legislation, nor does it endorse, support, or oppose any political parties or candidates for public office. Research publications reflect the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the staff, officers, or Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. About This Series Federal Formula Grants and California The federal government uses formula grants to distribute nearly $300 billion annually to state and local governments to help them implement federal policies in such areas as health, transportation, and education. How much each government receives is determined by complex formulas that consist of many factors such as state population growth and per capita income. This series of reports provides detailed information on California’s current and historical funding under the major federal grants and on the formulas used to determine California’s share of funding under various specific grants. All reports are posted on the PPIC website at www.ppic.org. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Education Programs for Disabled Children Tim Ransdell September 2003 Overview In 1975, Congress enacted the Education of All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142), establishing the federal government as an important player in, and a significant funding source for, the education of disabled children. Congress changed the name of the law governing special education to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) with the passage of P.L. 101-476 in 1990. The first substantial revisions to the law came when Congress passed the IDEA Amendments of 1997, and that law is due to expire on September 30, 2003. California received 10.4 percent of IDEA grant funding in 2002, and the state will receive 10.5 percent in 2003. This report first examines the structure of the three grants used to allocate the bulk of federal IDEA funding to states and school districts. It then reviews recent program funding history. Finally, it discusses the operation of funding formulas and applies various funding-change scenarios to illustrate alternative state allocations. Program Structure The IDEA formula grant programs assist states in educating children ages 3 through 21 who have disabilities, and they support early intervention services for infants and toddlers (birth through age 2) and their families. To qualify for funds, states and school districts must certify that they will locate and evaluate children with disabilities, design an appropriately tailored “individualized education program” (IEP) for each, and provide “free appropriate public education” (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment possible (i.e., to the “maximum extent appropriate” with children without disabilities). States and school districts currently serve more than six million disabled children with the help of IDEA funds. IDEA comprises three formula grant programs. The largest of these by nearly twentyfold is the Grants to States program, funded at $7.5 billion nationwide in fiscal year 2002.1 Authorized by Part B, Section 611, of IDEA, the program helps states provide educational and other services to disabled children ages 3 through 21. The Preschool Grants program, authorized by Part B, Section 619, helps states serve children ages 3 through 5. Congress appropriated $390 million for the Preschool Grants program for fiscal year 2002. The Grants for Infants and Toddlers program, authorized by Part C of IDEA, helps states provide early intervention services for infants and toddlers (from birth through age 2) and their families. Congress appropriated $417 million for Part C grants in fiscal year 2002. The Office of Special Education Programs at the U.S. Department of Education (USDE) administers and allocates the funds for these three programs. In addition to the three grant programs, IDEA authorizes and provides funding for several national programs administered by USDE. Program Funding The funding history of the three formula grant programs varies considerably. Congress has consistently and significantly increased funding for the IDEA Grants to States program, whereas the two smaller programs have increased at a slower rate, if at all. After six years of relatively flat spending, with total expenditures remaining around $2 billion per year, Congress began to sharply increase spending for the primary grant program. As shown in Appendix B, between 1997 and 2001, Congress doubled appropriations for Grants to States, from $3.1 billion to $6.3 billion.2 Then, in just one year, Congress boosted funding by $1.2 billion, to $7.5 billion in 2002. As shown in Appendixes B and C, funding for the Preschool Grants program rose from $292 million in 1991 to $360 million in 1995. It remained at that amount for three years before beginning a climb to $390 million in 1999, and that amount has remained unchanged since. Federal funding for Grants for Infants and Toddlers increased sharply during the early 1990s, and growth has been slower but steady since then. From 1991 1In this document, unless otherwise specified, the term fiscal year refers to the federal fiscal year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. 2In an effort to reach that year’s budget targets through changes in federal accounting practices, Congress appropriated level funding in fiscal year 2000 but required that most of the funds come from fiscal year 2001 accounts. As with a number of programs funded by the Labor–Health and Human Services–Education appropriations bill, special education programs had traditionally been “forward-funded,” meaning that the appropriation from one fiscal year would be used by the school district in the school year starting the following July 1. The change curtailed most forward-funding for the special education grant programs. In this report, we control for the accounting change and examine funding only at the expenditure level. 2 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California to 1995, funding rose from $117 million to $316 million. Spending then remained flat for two years before beginning another steady climb to $417 million in 2002. Combined appropriations for the three programs increased from $3.8 billion in 1997 to $8.3 billion in 2002. The 40 Percent Debate There has been a longstanding dispute regarding whether the federal government made a commitment to underwrite 40 percent of state and school district expenditures for educating disabled children. The initial 1975 law imposed upon states and school districts a variety of minimum requirements for educating disabled students, regardless of whether federal funds were adequate to pay for increased services. The IDEA formula limits authorized funding to a maximum of 40 percent of average per pupil spending, and many both inside and outside of Congress argue that the setting of that 40 percent limit evidenced Congressional intent to fund IDEA grants at that level. For more than two decades, federal funds have paid for less than 10 percent of state and school district expenditures. Although that share has risen sharply in recent years, it nevertheless remained below 20 percent in 2002. Many observers consider the extent to which federal funds fall short of the 40 percent threshold, which they term “full funding,” to constitute an unfunded mandate.3 For several years, many members of Congress have sought to increase the federal share of the nation’s expenditures on education for disabled children to or toward the 40 percent level. Some have fought to convert the grant from an annual discretionary appropriation to a mandatory entitlement program. The 40 percent IDEA debate once played a pivotal role in the shifting party leadership in the U.S. Senate. In May 2001, Republican Senator James Jeffords (VT) announced that he would side with Democrats to select the chamber’s Majority Leader, thereby tipping the narrow balance in the Senate from majority Republican to majority Democrat. In explaining his switch, he cited a number of instances in which he felt a lack of support from his own party leadership, but a primary reason was his perception of a lack of active support for mandatory IDEA funding.4 3Opinions vary regarding the actual cost of providing educational services to a disabled child, but IDEA drafters apparently assumed that the cost was twice that for a non-disabled child. Thus, the selection of 40 percent of average per pupil expenditure as a funding threshold would allow the federal government to underwrite 40 percent of excess expenditures paid by a state or school district per child served. 4Senator Jeffords had conditioned his vote for President Bush’s 2001 budget and tax cut plan on the Administration and Congressional leadership supporting IDEA “full funding.” In a 2001 book entitled My Declaration of Independence, FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 3 Under- and Overidentification of Children as Disabled Another longstanding issue is the over- and underidentification of disabled students and the subjective nature of the identification process. In addition to social issues, such as some jurisdictions’ alleged overidentification of African American students as disabled, the identification question also has proven significant for formula discussions. Before the 1997 amendments, all IDEA formula funds were allocated according to state-reported counts of disabled students served. There was wide variation in the percentage of students identified as disabled, and some states and school districts complained that overidentification allowed other jurisdictions to garner excess IDEA funding. A 1993 article in the Boston Globe spotlighted Massachusetts’ high rate of identifying children as disabled, noting that one child was so identified solely because he was having difficulty understanding the Pythagorean theorem. As shown in Appendix D, Colorado identified less than 10 percent of students as disabled during the 2001–2002 school year, whereas Rhode Island reported more than 20 percent. With IEPs for only 10.6 percent of its students, California identified as disabled only a slightly greater percentage than last-place Colorado, ranking California 50th out of 51 (the states plus the District of Columbia). California Funding and Share California funding levels for the three IDEA formula grant programs have likewise increased in recent years, and the state’s increase has slightly exceeded the pace of increase experienced by the other states. As shown in Table 1, California’s allocation pursuant to the Grants to States program remained near the $200 million mark during the early 1990s. Then, between 1996 and 2002, the state’s receipts rose from $229 million to $782 million. During the 11 years between 1991 and 2002, expenditures per capita in California rose from $6 to $22. California’s share of the nation’s Grants to States formula allocations increased from 10 percent in 1991 to 10.4 percent in 2002. Throughout all of these years, California’s per capita receipts from the program remained approximately 15 percent below the national average, although the percentage Jeffords calls Senate Republicans’ refusal to fully fund IDEA the precipitating event of his decision to change parties, commenting, “I decided to winnow down my list of spending priorities to this one.” 4 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Table 1 Special Education—Grants to States Under IDEA, Part B, Section 611—Expenditures for California and All States, Fiscal Years 1991–2002 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 California Total ($) 185,459,999 200,622,009 209,353,847 219,215,317 228,623,290 228,758,683 307,776,487 378,734,568 431,237,374 505,630,798 650,017,799 781,662,507 U.S. Total ($) 1,854,155,895 1,976,095,000 2,052,729,728 2,149,686,000 2,322,915,000 2,323,837,000 3,107,522,000 3,807,700,000 4,310,700,000 4,989,685,000 6,339,685,000 7,528,533,000 California as a % of U.S. 10.00 10.15 10.20 10.20 9.84 9.84 9.90 9.95 10.00 10.13 10.25 10.38 Per Capita California ($) 6.09 6.48 6.69 6.96 7.21 7.14 9.47 11.48 12.87 14.87 18.79 22.26 Per Capita U.S. ($) 7.33 7.70 7.90 8.17 8.72 8.63 11.40 13.80 15.45 17.68 22.22 26.11 California Per Capita as a % of U.S. 83.05 84.08 84.76 85.23 82.68 82.83 83.12 83.18 83.33 84.09 84.55 85.26 5 has risen very slightly. The state’s per capita receipts were 83 percent of the U.S. per capita average in 1991 and 85 percent in 2002. For Preschool Grants, California’s receipts rose from $31 million in 1991 to $36 million in 1994, then increased slowly to $40 million in 2002, as shown in Table 2. Throughout the period, California received between 10 and 11 percent of the nation’s grants. As a result of the program’s slow growth, California received approximately the same amount per capita in 2002 ($1.13) as it did in 1992 ($1.12). The state’s per capita receipts from the Preschool Grants program declined from a peak of 90 percent of the U.S. average in 1992 to 84 percent in 2002. From the Grants for Infants and Toddlers program, California’s receipts grew rapidly from $15 million in 1991 to $40 million in 1995, as shown in Table 3. A more gradual increase since that year lifted the state’s funding to $50 million in 2002. The state’s share of the nation’s total grants grew from 12.7 percent in 1991 to 13.8 percent in 1994 before beginning a decline to slightly less than 12 percent in 2002. In contrast to the other two grants, California’s per capita receipts from the Grants for Infants and Toddlers program exceeded the national average in each of the past 11 years, except 2002. The state received 49 cents per capita in 1991 and $1.42 per capita in 2002. Grant expenditures per capita in California reached 115 percent of the national average in 1994 but then fell to 98 percent in 2002. With all three formula programs totaled, California’s receipts increased from $232 million in 1991 to $871 million in 2002. California’s receipts throughout the period fluctuated between 10.2 percent and 10.6 percent of the nation’s total grant appropriations, as shown in Table 4. The state received $7.60 per capita from the three programs in 1991, and $24.82 per capita in 2002. The state’s per capita receipts as a percentage of the U.S. average remained relatively stable throughout the 11-year period, standing at 85 percent in 1991 and 86 percent in 2002. Formula Provisions This section describes the operation of the funding formulas that determine state allocations from the three IDEA grant programs. Because the Grants to States program is by far the largest of the three, we focus primarily on it. 5 5The methodology used in this paper to calculate funding levels by state is described in Appendix A. 6 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Table 2 Special Education—Preschool Grants Under IDEA, Part B, Section 619—Expenditures for California and All States, Fiscal Years 1991–2002 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 California Total ($) 31,446,463 34,813,572 34,437,799 36,119,473 36,991,756 36,129,071 36,074,288 37,945,640 37,945,640 39,848,701 39,848,701 39,848,701 U.S. Total ($) 291,861,031 319,992,770 325,763,937 339,257,000 360,265,000 360,409,000 360,409,000 373,985,000 373,985,000 390,000,000 390,000,000 390,000,000 California as a % of U.S. 10.77 10.88 10.57 10.65 10.27 10.02 10.01 10.15 10.15 10.22 10.22 10.22 Per Capita California ($) 1.03 1.12 1.10 1.15 1.17 1.13 1.11 1.15 1.13 1.17 1.15 1.13 Per Capita U.S. ($) 1.15 1.25 1.25 1.29 1.35 1.34 1.32 1.36 1.34 1.38 1.37 1.35 California Per Capita as a % of U.S. 89.46 90.10 87.86 88.98 86.26 84.34 84.01 84.85 84.52 84.79 84.26 83.91 7 8 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Table 3 Special Education—Grants for Infants and Toddlers Under IDEA, Part C, Section 631—Expenditures for California and All States, Fiscal Years 1991–2002 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 California Total ($) 14,817,016 21,710,996 29,207,477 34,996,612 40,347,086 41,438,233 40,850,169 46,131,788 46,249,616 45,929,796 46,979,082 49,954,044 U.S. Total ($) 117,060,811 174,934,693 213,200,407 253,152,000 315,632,000 315,754,000 315,754,000 350,000,000 370,000,000 375,000,000 383,567,000 417,000,000 California as a % of U.S. 12.66 12.41 13.70 13.82 12.78 13.12 12.94 13.18 12.50 12.25 12.25 11.98 Per Capita California ($) 0.49 0.70 0.93 1.11 1.27 1.29 1.26 1.40 1.38 1.35 1.36 1.42 Per Capita U.S. ($) 0.46 0.68 0.82 0.96 1.19 1.17 1.16 1.27 1.33 1.33 1.34 1.45 California per Capita as a % of U.S. 105.09 102.78 113.86 115.54 107.39 110.42 108.58 110.22 104.12 101.64 101.00 98.37 FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA Table 4 All IDEA Formula Grants—Grants to States, Preschool Grants, and Grants for Infants and Toddlers Under Parts B and C—Expenditures for California and All States, Fiscal Years 1991–2002 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 California Total ($) 231,723,478 257,146,577 272,999,123 290,331,402 305,962,132 306,325,987 384,700,944 462,811,996 515,432,630 591,409,295 736,845,582 871,465,252 U.S. Total ($) 2,263,077,737 2,471,022,463 2,591,694,072 2,742,095,000 2,998,812,000 3,000,000,000 3,783,685,000 4,531,685,000 5,054,685,000 5,754,685,000 7,113,252,000 8,335,533,000 California as a % of U.S. 10.24 10.41 10.53 10.59 10.20 10.21 10.17 10.21 10.20 10.28 10.36 10.45 Per Capita California ($) 7.60 8.30 8.73 9.22 9.65 9.57 11.84 14.03 15.39 17.39 21.30 24.82 Per Capita U.S. ($) 8.95 9.63 9.97 10.42 11.26 11.14 13.88 16.43 18.11 20.39 24.93 28.91 California per Capita as a % of U.S. 85.01 86.18 87.54 88.49 85.71 85.91 85.33 85.40 84.94 85.28 85.42 85.85 9 Grants to States Formula—Basic Formula Allocation Provisions IDEA Part B requires that USDE allocate funds to the states, and states are in turn required to allocate most of that funding to each Local Education Agency (LEA). Before 1997, the formula for calculating the funds that each state and LEA would receive was based on the total number of children with disabilities. With the IDEA Amendments of 1997, Congress changed the formula, requiring that allocations be based on total student population (regardless of disability) and the number of such students living in poverty. The new formula was slated to take effect when the Grants to States program exceeded a specified aggregate trigger level of $4.925 billion. This trigger figure was reached in fiscal year 2000, making it the first year under the new formula; and by statutory language, fiscal year 1999 became the base year for future formula calculations. As a result, USDE first allocates to each state the same amount received from the Grants to States program in fiscal year 1999. (The national total that year was $4.3 billion, and California’s share was $431 million, or almost exactly 10 percent.) Then, after numerous set-asides6 and several caveats, any amount above that level is allocated as follows: 85 percent based on each state’s population share of the nation’s children ages 3 through 21 for which the state guarantees a free and appropriate public education to all disabled children, and 15 percent based on the share of such children living in poverty. By specifying that states receive credit only for the number of children in the state’s FAPE-guaranteed age group, the formula rewards states for providing the guarantee to a larger cohort of children. In 2002, all states covered children from age 3, but there was considerable variation at the top of the age range, with 21 states guaranteeing FAPE through age 21, 27 states guaranteeing it through age 20, two states guaranteeing it through age 19, and two states guaranteeing it through age 18.7 California and Montana were the two states at the low end of the spectrum, guaranteeing FAPE only to children ages 3 through 18.8 6The formula first requires that USDE set aside up to 1 percent of total funding for competitive grants to territories (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and Virgin Islands received a total of $31 million in 2002) and 1.226 percent to transfer to the U.S. Department of the Interior for grants to Indian tribes and tribal organizations. Despite the explicit percentage outlined in the law, USDE recently began providing only inflation-rate increases for Indian tribes and tribal organizations; the 2002 total was $79 million. Finally, the formula provides for limited national program funding set-asides, including $7 million for a Pacific Basin competition and $16 million for program evaluation. 7For fiscal year 2003 allotments, New Jersey was redesignated as guaranteeing FAPE through age 20. For previous years’ allotments, that state had been deemed to guarantee FAPE through age 21. 8As a result, California’s population count number for purposes of the Grants to States 2002 formula allocation was 8.3 million (11 percent of the nation) instead of the 9.7 million number (13 percent of the nation) the state would have used if California guaranteed FAPE through age 21. 10 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California Although it has not occurred in recent years, should total appropriated funds for the Grants to States formula decline from one year to the next, each state’s funding would be reduced pro rata. Assuming that funds for the program grow from one year to the next, four provisos set funding growth floors for each state and a fifth sets a funding growth cap. Grants to States Formula—Minimum Allocations As a restraint on major funding shifts from year to year, the Grants to States formula imposes several limitations on how much funding may increase during years of program growth. First, every state must receive at least one-third of 1 percent of the increase in total program funding since the 1999 base year. For 2002, no state could receive less than $10.7 million more than the state received in 1999. This formula language increased the 2002 funding level of nine small states, including the District of Columbia.9 Second, every state’s allocation must increase by at least the rate of increase in the nation’s total grant level from the prior year, less 1.5 percent. Total program funding increased by 18.75 percent from 2001 to 2002, so this minimum growth formula language required that each state’s funding grow by at least 17.25 percent from that of the prior year. As a result the funding level for 22 states, California not among them, rose in 2002 because of this provision. Third, every state’s allocation must increase by at least 90 percent of the nation’s total percentage increase from the prior year. However, depending on the rate of growth in the program, either the second or the third provison is in effect in any given year, but not both. Ninety percent of 18.75 percent is 16.88 percent, which is less than the 17.25 percent growth minimum described in the preceding paragraph. Thus, this provision was not effective for any state in 2002. If total program funding grows by less than 15 percent from one year to the next, this third proviso becomes effective and the second proviso ineffective. Finally, no state may receive less than it received in the preceding year. The rapid growth in IDEA funding has obviated any need for this provision to operate in recent years. 9However, the funding level for most of these small states would be later limited by the maximum growth provision, discussed below. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 11 Grants to States Formula—Maximum Allocations In addition to minimum growth floors, the Grants to States formula sets a maximum amount by which any state’s grant may grow from one year to the next, as well as a separate (and so far unused) maximum amount of grant funding per disabled child. The provision limits any state’s percentage growth to the percentage growth in the program nationwide, plus 1.5 percent. Thus, an 18.75 percent national funding growth rate in 2002 limited the growth of all states’ formula allocations to no more than 20.25 percent between 2001 and 2002. The maximum growth provision resulted in reduced formula allocations for 25 states—eight of the nine slated for increases under the small state growth minimum (discussed above) and 17 other states, including California. Without the growth maximum, California’s initial allocation would have been higher by $14 million (although that amount would have been later reduced pro rata, along with that of other states, to equalize funding). Along with Arizona, Georgia, and Louisiana, California was among the states with the largest numeric reductions in funding because of the growth maximum. In addition to the maximum growth percentage, the formula also provides that no state may receive more funding than the number of disabled children in the state multiplied by 40 percent of the nation’s average per pupil expenditure (APPE) in public schools. (As discussed above, this limitation leads some to argue that Congress intended to provide to states 40 percent of the cost of educating disabled children.) The APPE limitation has never reduced funding to any state because federal spending on education for the disabled has never exceeded 20 percent of the nation’s APPE. If funding for fiscal year 2004 rose above $14 billion, and the formula employed 2001–2002 school year counts for disabled children, one state (Wyoming) would reach the 40 percent limit. Moreover, if funding continues to increase at a rapid pace, many states could reach the 40 percent level within a few years. At that point, the problem of overand underidentification will return as a significant formula funding issue. States that identify a larger percentage of their students as disabled will be eligible to receive proportionally more IDEA grant funding than will states that identify fewer students as disabled. If current identification practices continue and the funding formula is left unchanged, California could find itself receiving as little as half as much Grants to States funding per capita as a state (such as Rhode Island at present) that identifies twice as many of its children as disabled. Grants to States Formula—Pro Rata Redistribution After raising some states to a minimum grant amount and lowering others to a maximum grant amount, it is improbable that the new total funding amount 12 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California would match the original amount. For this reason, excess funding is distributed on a pro rata basis (in the event of an overage) or any shortfall is recovered through pro rata reductions. Following the first redistribution or reduction, each state’s total is again run through the formula to ensure that funding does not exceed the maximums or fall below the minimums. This process must be repeated numerous times to reach a final total where all states fall within the limits of the formula language. Grants to States Formula—Funding Results for Fiscal Year 2003 As discussed above, the constraints exercised by the formula’s funding rules resulted in most states receiving either minimum or maximum allocations for 2002. For 2003, the results will be somewhat similar. In January 2003, Congress appropriated $8,874,397,536 for the Grants to States program for fiscal year 2003, a 17.9 percent increase from 2002 (see Appendix E). The operative growth guidelines are thus a maximum of 19.4 percent and a minimum of 16.4 percent and, again, as in 2002, a total of 25 states are at the maximum growth percentage and 12 are at the minimum. With the slightly slower rate of increase in funding compared to the prior year, New Mexico’s funding moves above the minimum to the midrange for 2003, North Carolina’s falls from the midrange to the minimum, Pennsylvania’s and South Carolina’s climb from the midrange to the maximum, and Tennessee’s and Oklahoma’s fall from the maximum to the midrange. As was the case in 2002, California remains at the maximum level, receiving $933 million for 2003 (10.5 percent of the nation’s total). However, 2003 will be the first year in which California’s funding is altered upward by the formula. Without the formula’s combination of maximums and minimums, the state would have received slightly less funding, $931 million, from the initial allocation. Once the formula reduced funding for other states, including some with initial allocations far above the maximum percentage, a national total of $34 million remained to be distributed to other eligible states. Only via the redistribution of this overage did California’s allocation climb by the $2 million needed to reach the 19.4 percent growth maximum. As a result, the 2003 funding level of $8.9 billion was nearly “ideal” on a percentage basis for California—maximizing the state’s receipts and doing the same for relatively few other states. Grants to States Formula—Funding Alternatives for Fiscal Year 2004 In the near future, Congress will set a fiscal year 2004 funding level for Grants to States in an appropriations bill for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. Appendix F illustrates state funding under FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 13 alternative funding scenarios. Assuming that the grant formula remains unchanged by any IDEA reauthorization bill that might be enacted before the allocation, the following analysis will apply. If there is no funding increase from one year to the next, the operative function requires that no state receive less than it did in the prior year—and thus the allocation would be identical to that of the prior year. If total expenditures decline, every state’s allotment would decline pro rata. Neither scenario has occurred recently, as total spending for IDEA Grants to States has increased steadily. In a period of program growth, the extent of a state’s increase depends largely upon the extent of the nation’s growth from one year to the next. If total spending grows by a large amount from one year to the next, as has been the case in recent years, more states rise above the minimum and more states reach the maximum. Conversely, if funds were to grow more slowly, the opposite is true. However, which states grow by how much is not entirely intuitive. If program funding grows only slightly from one year to the next, small states are the first to experience funding increases. Because the small state growth minimum sets a funding floor relative to the base year (fiscal year 1999) rather than to the year prior, the formula favors small states before others when funding growth following the base year has been rapid. For example, if funding were to grow only 1.4 percent, from $8.9 billion in 2003 to $9 billion in 2004, the minimum growth percentages would fund 38 states (including California, at $945 million), and the maximum would fund 11 states, including seven small states, plus Arizona, Georgia, Nevada, and Puerto Rico. Only three states—Colorado, Louisiana, and Montana—would receive formula funding between the maximum and the minimum. If funding rose to the $9.5 billion level recommended in President Bush’s fiscal year 2004 budget, a 7.4 percent increase from the prior year, 11 states would receive minimum funding, whereas 17 states would receive maximum funding. This scenario is explored in Appendix Table F.1. In the midrange between minimum and maximum would be 24 states, including California, which would receive $1.009 billion.10 This total for California would represent 10.6 percent of the nation’s total expenditures—an increase of 8.2 percent from 2003. Should Congress elect to appropriate $9.9 billion—as was approved by the House of Representatives in July 2003—the amount would constitute an 11.3 percent increase from fiscal year 2003. At that total, ten states would receive the 10California would cross the $1 billion grant threshold if total 2004 program funding reached $9,448,438,766. 14 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California minimum and 17 states the maximum.11 California’s $1.05 billion allotment would represent a 12.4 percent increase above that of the prior year, nearer the national maximum growth percentage of 12.8 percent. In fact, for 2004, California would reach its maximum growth percentage when total program funding exceeds $10.3 billion. Above that amount, California’s $1.1 billion allotment would represent an increase of 17.6 percent from 2003 and a 10.7 percent share of total national expenditures. Should funding so expand, California would become the 18th state to reach the growth maximum. Above the $10.3 billion spending threshold, California’s allotment would continue to rise, but growth would be constrained by the growth maximum. In addition, more states would continue to reach the maximum. At $11 billion nationwide, California would receive $1.171 billion, and 22 states would receive funding at the maximum. At $12 billion nationwide, the state total would rise to $1.275 billion, and 25 states would be funded at the maximum. At $13 billion, the state would receive $1.380 billion, and 30 states would be at the maximum. At $14 billion, California’s allotment would increase to $1.486 billion, and 31 states would receive maximum funding. If funding were to rise above $14 billion, states would begin to be constrained by the language, discussed above, limiting any state’s receipts to 40 percent of average per pupil expenditures multiplied by the total number of disabled children in the state. Wyoming would reach the limitation at total spending of $14.1 billion. Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, and Ohio would join Wyoming at the 40 percent APPE limit if spending rose to $16 billion. California would not be constrained by the 40 percent APPE limit until total federal spending reached $17 billion, or nearly double the 2003 expenditure level.12 Grants to States Formula—Funding Alternatives for Multiple Years As is apparent, the pace of annual funding increases affects funding growth differently from one state to the next. 11On July 10, 2003, the House approved H.R. 2660, a fiscal year 2004 appropriations bill for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. For Grants to States, the bill included total funding of $9,874,398,000. On July 26, 2003, the Senate Appropriations Committee marked up and approved a Senate version of the spending bill, S. 1356, which includes Grants to States funding of $9,858,533,000. At press time for this paper, the Senate had not yet acted on the bill. 12The trigger level at which California begins to be affected by the 40 percent APPE limitation is $17,070,208,058. By the time expenditures reached that amount, 19 states would have reached the limit and $235 million would be made available to be distributed to other states. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 15 To demonstrate, if it is assumed that the federal government will spend a total of $22 billion for the Grants to States program in fiscal years 2004 and 2005, how that funding total is spread between the two years alters the combined two-year grant amount for every state. For example, if Congress were to appropriate $9.5 billion in 2004 and $12.5 billion in 2005 (a combined total of $22 billion), California would receive a total of $2.344 billion for the two years combined. If Congress instead were to appropriate $10 billion in 2004 and $12 billion in 2005, California’s combined grant sum would be $5 million more. (This scenario is shown in Appendix Table F.2.) However, if Congress instead were to appropriate $10.5 billion in 2004 and $11.5 billion in 2005, California’s two-year receipts would begin to decline again. Thus, steady funding growth from one year to the next is a more lucrative funding scenario for California than is uneven growth. At larger funding levels, the scenario yields a similar result. If the two-year national funding total were to be $24 billion, California would receive approximately $2.5 billion, but the state would fare better if the funds were to grow evenly than if growth were uneven. At $10.5 billion in 2004 and $13.5 billion in 2005, California would receive somewhat more than at either a wider funding split ($10 billion in 2004 and $14 billion in 2005) or a narrower split ($11 billion in 2004 and $13 billion in 2005). A scenario whereby total funding grew negligibly in 2004 (by just $126 million, to $9 billion) and then very substantially in 2005 (to $15 billion) would provide California a two-year grant total of nearly $40 million less than under a more even growth profile. It is interesting to note that sharp growth in 2004 and flat growth in 2005 would prove a more lucrative scenario than flat growth in 2004 and sharp growth in 2005, providing the state a two-year sum that is larger by more than $12 million. In addition, with respect to California’s share of total funds, no growth from one year to the next is slightly preferable to minimal growth. In light of the structure of growth minimums—in particular, the priority of states (especially small states) that are first eligible to take greatest advantage of them—California’s share of the nation’s expenditures initially begins to decline as total funding growth from one year to the next leaves zero. As growth rises further, California’s share halts its decline and then begins to increase again. Grants to States—Effect of Increasing California’s FAPE Age As discussed above, California is one of only two states to guarantee FAPE to all disabled children through only age 18—the youngest maximum age among states. In 2003, 49 other states guarantee FAPE to children through ages 19, 20, or 21. 16 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California The basic provisions of the Grants to States formula base both population and poverty counts—and thus eligibility for funding—on the age for which a state guarantees FAPE. Therefore, the formula counts California’s total number of persons ages 3 through 18, but it counts persons ages 3 through 20 in Alabama and in 27 other states. For allocation of 2003 funding, California represented 11 percent of the nation’s children-living-in-poverty/population count. If the state were to increase the age through which it guaranteed FAPE, the state’s share of the nation’s count would increase. If the state covered children to age 19, the state’s percentage of counted children would rise to 11.6 percent.13 Including children to age 20 would further increase that share to 12.2 percent. And if the state’s maximum FAPE age increased to the national maximum of 21, the state’s share of counted children would rise to 12.8 percent. Because California has received maximum funding for several years, the state’s low FAPE age has not limited its IDEA grant receipts to date. However, depending on future appropriations, 2003 may be the last year for which California receives funding at the maximum ceiling, and the state’s choice to guarantee FAPE to relatively fewer children will begin to reduce the state’s share of funding in 2004 and beyond. For example, if Congress were to appropriate $9.5 billion in total Grants to States funding for 2004, as proposed by President Bush, California’s grant allocation would be $6.7 million less than if the state guaranteed FAPE through age 19 or more. (The state’s receipts would not grow further by increasing the FAPE age to 20 or 21, because the change would return the state to the growth maximum.) If the nation’s total appropriation for 2004 is significantly higher ($10.3 billion or more) and California thereby remains at the maximum growth cap, a FAPE age change would not make a difference. Nevertheless, the state’s relatively low FAPE age is likely to reduce state funding at some point in the near future. Grants for Infants and Toddlers—Allocation Formula Provisions The formula for allocating Grants for Infants and Toddlers under IDEA, Part C, is relatively simple. Following set-asides for U.S. territories and for Indian tribes and tribal organizations, the formula requires that funds be distributed according to states’ relative population of children from birth through 13This hypothetical example assumes that California is the only state to change its FAPE age. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 17 age 2, provided that no state receives less than one-half of 1 percent of total funding. As shown in Appendix G, the small-state minimum reduced California’s grant by $2 million in 2003, to $52 million. Without the minimum, California would have received 12.4 percent of the nation’s grant funding; with the minimum, the state share was 12 percent. Preschool Grants—Allocation Formula Provisions The formula for allocating Preschool Grants14 to states under IDEA, Part B, Section 619, requires that every state receive at least the same amount received in 1997, and any increase since that date is allocated as follows: 85 percent to states on the basis of their relative populations of children ages 3 through 5, and 15 percent to states on the basis of their relative populations of such children who are living in poverty.15 In a manner similar to the Grants to States formula, the Preschool Grants formula includes four complicated provisos that in some instances require numerous recalculations of state grant amounts. First, every state must receive at least one-third of 1 percent of the increase in total program funding since 1997. Second, every state’s allocation must increase by at least the rate of increase in the nation’s total grant level from the prior year, less 1.5 percent. Third, every state’s allocation must increase by at least 90 percent of the nation’s total percentage increase from that of the prior year. Fourth, if funding does not decline from one year to the next, no state’s grant may decline from the prior year’s amount. Finally, if funds do decline from one year to the next, each state’s funding is reduced pro rata. Congress maintained level funding at $390 million for the Preschool Grants program for several years, resulting in no change in state funding totals. Because of an across-the-board funding cut applied to nearly all domestic discretionary programs in the fiscal year 2003 omnibus appropriations bill, nationwide Preschool Grants funding declined by two-thirds of 1 percent, to $387 million, and state grant funding was reduced on a pro rata basis (see Appendix H). For fiscal year 2004, the President, the House, and the Senate Appropriations Committee all would provide $390 million. 14 The preschool grant is allocated only to the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. No funds are provided to territories or to Indian tribes or tribal organizations. 15As with the Grants to States formula, the Preschool Grants formula counts only children ages 3 through 5 by state for ages for which the state guarantees FAPE. At present, all states guarantee FAPE to all children with disabilities in that age range, so the formula counts all children ages 3, 4, and 5 (as well as all such children living in poverty) in every state. 18 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California The formula requires that any state’s pro rata reduction be applied relative to what if any funding growth that state had enjoyed since 1997. Because California’s share of funding for Preschool Grants had risen from 10 percent of the nation’s total in 1997 to 10.2 percent in 2002, the state bore a larger burden of the 2003 across-the-board reduction. Whereas the national average reduction in Preschool Grants funding was 0.65 percent, California’s reduction was 0.8 percent. The funding shares of only six other states were reduced by a greater proportion than California’s. Reauthorization of IDEA On April 30, 2003, the House of Representatives approved H.R. 1350 (entitled the Improving Education Results for Children with Disabilities Act), a bill to reauthorize IDEA programs. The House Committee on Education and Workforce had reported the bill on April 10. As passed by the House, the bill makes no change to the primary IDEA funding formulas, but it adds one limitation that, if enacted, will affect future funding allotments. The bill would limit a state’s total funding if the state identifies more than 13.5 percent of its children ages 3 through 17, as disabled.16 At present, only three states—New Mexico, Rhode Island, and West Virginia—would be affected by the provision. During committee markup, the limitation was altered upward from 12 percent, a level that would have affected nine states.17 Among the states, California identifies one of the lowest percentages of children as disabled, so this provision is unlikely to reduce the state’s funding in the foreseeable future. In fact, California may stand to gain funds as excess funds are redistributed from states that reach the limit. During floor consideration, the House adopted a rule preventing consideration of an amendment that would have converted the grant from a discretionary program to a mandatory entitlement, thereby avoiding annual appropriations. Amendment proponents sought mandatory status to force the federal share of education spending for disabled children to rise to the 40 percent level in the near future; opponents argued that the same goal could be achieved with increased discretionary spending, and that periodic reauthorization forces 16The language states that, notwithstanding the 40 percent APPE limitation, “the maximum amount of the grant a State may receive under [the formula] for a fiscal year may not be based on the number of children ages 3 through 17, inclusive, in excess of 13.5 percent of the number of all children in that age range in the State.” H.R. 1350, 108th Congress, Improving Education Results for Children with Disabilities Act of 2003. 17Representatives Rob Andrews (NJ) and Rush Holt (NJ) promoted the change to 13.5 percent after they failed in their attempt to strip the limitation entirely. New Jersey would have been one of the states limited by the 12 percent threshold. FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 19 Congress to regularly assess the program and its efficiency. Representative Lynn Woolsey (Petaluma) had unsuccessfully offered a similar amendment during committee markup. During subcommittee and full committee markup, supporters of H.R. 1350 expressed their commitment to move toward the 40 percent level. The bill authorizes an IDEA funding increase of $2.2 billion for fiscal year 2004 and $2.7 billion for fiscal year 2005. If enacted and if funding is appropriated, the 2004 federal spending level would represent 21 percent of the nation’s expenditures on education for disabled children, and the funding levels for the future would increase IDEA spending to represent a 40 percent federal share within seven years. As this report goes to press, the Senate has begun considering a reauthorization bill as well, and allocation change proposals are possible during that process and in conference. On June 25, 2003, the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions marked up and unanimously passed S.B. 1248, which, like the House bill, would not significantly change the formula for allocating funds among states. The Senate Committee bill would alter the IDEA law’s 40 percent APPE limitation by adjusting limit amounts by a weighted rate of change in the nation’s population and poverty totals in FAPE age ranges.18 Conclusion Congress has made education for disabled children a spending priority in recent years. The $8.9 billion in total U.S. funding for the Grants to States program in fiscal year 2003 is nearly three times the $3.1 billion total appropriated in 1997. From 1975 to 1999, all grant funds were allocated to states according to state-reported counts of disabled children, which resulted in wide variation among states and led to charges that states had a financial incentive to identify more children as disabled. In 1997, Congress created a new allocation formula (which took effect in 2000) to distribute future funding according to population and poverty factors. To dampen sharp funding changes from one year to the next, the new formula included minimum growth floors and maximum growth caps. Primarily because of this formula change, California’s share of grant spending has risen slowly but steadily since the new formula took effect, from 10 percent 18The Senate provision reads that each state’s limit should be “adjusted by the rate of change in the sum of—(i) 85 percent of the change in the nationwide total of the population described in subsection (d)(3)(A)(i)(II); and (ii) 15 percent of the change in the nationwide total of the adjacent child poverty provision.” 20 California Institute for Federal Policy Research • Public Policy Institute of California in 1999 to 10.5 percent in 2003. California identifies the second-lowest percentage of its children as disabled, so the pre-1999 formula’s use of disabledchild counts as its primary factor substantially shifted past funding toward other states. With every year of total U.S. funding growth, California’s share has risen. California received maximum funding from the formula in every year that the 1997 formula has operated to date. California maximizes its grant funding with steady, even increases in the program total. However, under some funding scenarios, the state will soon reach the point where its percentage funding growth begins to slow relative to that of other states. California is one of only two states that guarantees education services for disabled children through only age 18. A provision of the Grants to States formula, designed to provide an incentive for states to revise that age level upward, sets California’s base formula share far lower than it would be if the state guaranteed FAPE to more children. In the long run, California’s share of the nation’s Grants to States funding will be considerably less (11 percent) than it would be if the state extended that guarantee to, say, age 21 (12.8 percent). FEDERAL FORMULA GRANTS AND CALIFORNIA 21 Appendix A Methodology All funding calculations in this report pertain to state grants. Payments distributed by USDE to the Secretary of the Interior for Indian tribes and tribal organizations for the Grants to States program and the Grants for Infants and Toddlers program result in additional federal dollars for educating disabled children within states. However, these amounts are not included in our state grant calculations for the states in which the tribe or tribal organization is located. For most federal policy on education for disabled children, the law treats states and territories equally. However, for formula allocation purposes, IDEA treats the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia as states, although not the four territories. Population counts are derived from the 2000 decennial Census for individual year of age by state. Poverty counts are derived from the Current Population Survey’s March Supplement, also published by the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for FAPE age guarantees by state are published by USDE. (The top FAPE guarantee age for New Jersey was revised downward from 21 for 2002 to 20 for 2003.) To estimate future allocations, we assume that the amount of payments for tribes and tribal organizations, as well as grants to territories, will each rise by the rate of inflation. For the period from 2003 to 2004, USDE assumes that rate to be approximately 1.9 percent, and we use that rate for our calculations for all future years. We assume no change in funding for national programs, which in 2002 included $16 million for evaluation and $6 million for a competitive grant. In addition, we assume no change in future-year population and poverty count proportions. To calculate funding levels for future years, we employ a spreadsheet-based program to calculate state totals for grant funding. Starting from a selected funding total for all states, the model applies the aforementioned funding assumptions, then the basic formula provisions, growth minimums, and growth maximums. It then performs pro rata operations to reduce funding (in the event of an overage above the target funding total) or to redistribute excess funding (in the event that the formula result falls short of the target). The minimum, maximum, and pro rata reduction operations must be repeated a number of times, because each iteration causes changes that may push state totals above the maximum or below the minimum. The program repeats the operation through 170 formula iterations. Finally, the state totals are compared to the 40 percent APPE limitation to ensure that no state exceeds that maximum. The allotment under the Grants to States program for a state in any year (GSY) may be expressed by the following equation: ( )∑ ∑ ∑ ∑GSY = GSB + GY − GB  × 0.85 × TFS TF + 0.15 × PFS × TFS  IFS  subject to the constraint that  ∑ ∑ ∑1.015 × G SY −1 ×     GY DS −G G Y −1 × 0.4 × Y −1   EN      ≥ GSY ≥  ∑ ∑ ∑   0.985 × GSY −1 ×   GY − G Y G −1 Y −1        ∑ ∑  ∑  0.9 × GSY −1 ×   G Y − G Y −1 G Y −1          G SB +    ∑GY − ∑GB 300 × ∑GB        where G is the grant amount, S is the state, Y is the current year, Y–1 is the year immediately preceding the current year, B is the base year, T is total population, P is population living below the poverty line, I is the total number of persons for whom income status is determined, F is the age range for which a state guarantees FAPE, D is the number of disabled children ages 3 through 21 receiving education services, and EN is the average rate of per pupil expenditure in public schools nationwide. 24 Appendix B Funding Allocation: Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State Table B.1 Special Education—Grants to States Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1997 51,491,342 9,270,792 41,816,326 29,225,314 307,776,487 37,659,727 40,296,930 8,263,659 3,519,960 170,127,018 74,375,036 8,923,486 13,279,299 139,400,226 72,880,410 35,850,998 29,172,085 44,816,646 48,892,611 17,160,794 55,142,003 83,808,150 102,005,063 53,346,976 34,494,547 66,212,565 9,802,564 21,016,992 15,795,815 13,923,843 106,666,547 25,889,284 217,531,327 80,968,571 6,698,412 119,083,642 38,883,465 33,595,356 113,545,199 13,242,935 47,832,775 7,932,164 66,069,215 243,257,042 28,393,678 6,201,960 76,203,265 56,399,997 23,902,422 58,182,903 6,785,370 3,492,174 8,437,038 2,153,536 24,274,497 6,396,519 368,334 0 0 38,018,284 7,368,425 1998 62,130,954 11,173,803 52,481,933 35,821,419 378,734,568 45,732,816 48,210,039 10,039,140 4,806,664 209,709,817 92,475,056 11,578,324 16,413,793 170,803,141 89,431,754 43,662,619 35,477,639 53,835,138 59,015,014 20,405,779 68,307,731 100,822,220 125,354,617 65,109,758 39,812,779 80,825,972 11,731,742 25,866,816 19,887,291 16,861,522 129,050,413 31,492,541 264,648,309 99,943,670 8,079,153 142,534,245 48,454,881 42,149,735 140,124,025 15,741,261 59,584,850 9,651,526 80,976,258 299,062,045 34,223,373 7,665,239 93,127,550 69,216,964 28,457,380 71,190,727 8,188,737 4,270,929 10,318,497 2,633,775 31,761,179 7,822,943 184,167 0 0 46,682,402 13,943,368 1999 69,017,922 12,247,357 61,263,060 40,872,926 431,237,374 51,886,005 53,060,125 11,224,669 5,643,797 238,676,175 107,699,572 14,156,512 19,052,135 194,398,440 101,341,485 49,065,489 40,399,267 60,830,890 65,859,276 21,991,584 77,229,155 114,086,702 143,898,146 73,410,154 42,676,977 90,973,549 12,997,604 30,009,897 23,039,165 19,016,870 145,270,027 36,034,694 298,798,306 114,312,121 9,114,296 159,145,801 55,517,617 48,323,540 156,534,110 17,575,151 68,478,573 10,857,498 88,697,223 336,565,139 37,843,586 8,787,921 106,290,352 78,927,411 30,522,278 80,406,470 9,219,400 4,832,745 11,675,837 2,980,233 37,448,755 8,852,007 0 0 0 52,849,182 17,577,448 2000 79,372,913 14,360,167 71,831,645 46,925,276 505,630,798 60,836,940 60,621,805 13,161,054 6,617,417 274,310,784 126,278,991 16,598,674 22,338,848 222,970,401 115,783,816 56,057,887 46,805,142 69,988,093 77,220,761 25,125,639 88,552,235 130,345,374 168,624,335 85,579,363 49,937,502 103,938,330 15,239,841 34,286,654 27,013,687 21,791,090 165,972,682 41,240,344 342,212,717 132,570,043 10,686,617 186,600,288 64,473,544 56,238,461 183,436,695 20,079,813 78,237,560 12,730,542 101,635,101 393,361,010 44,372,041 10,303,939 121,999,520 92,258,094 34,872,055 92,662,516 10,809,853 4,956,510 11,974,852 3,056,556 43,909,097 9,078,705 0 0 0 61,173,538 20,636,845 2001 100,426,123 18,460,830 92,343,757 59,842,674 650,017,799 78,209,425 76,114,202 16,919,300 8,507,074 344,413,144 162,338,988 21,338,561 28,717,888 283,066,424 145,373,315 70,383,938 60,170,732 88,537,364 99,271,780 31,546,701 111,365,477 163,656,198 216,776,390 109,440,436 64,197,563 130,959,742 19,591,702 43,048,888 34,727,666 27,359,981 208,388,355 52,531,899 429,667,970 169,440,174 13,738,268 239,885,523 81,913,464 72,297,813 235,280,772 25,211,373 98,231,807 16,365,852 128,733,463 505,688,457 57,042,839 13,246,313 153,996,278 118,603,146 43,783,893 117,131,369 13,896,695 5,127,424 12,387,778 3,161,954 56,447,698 9,391,764 0 0 0 77,724,538 23,244,059 2002 119,960,334 22,199,605 111,045,656 71,962,298 781,662,507 94,048,771 89,245,788 20,345,877 10,229,967 405,878,306 195,216,655 25,660,148 34,533,972 336,446,325 170,853,119 82,526,911 70,893,325 104,503,321 119,376,775 36,989,288 131,443,233 191,890,947 260,135,764 128,321,623 77,199,160 153,553,541 23,559,507 50,475,888 41,760,879 32,080,256 244,340,509 61,594,953 509,305,853 202,724,229 16,520,608 288,468,284 98,502,970 86,394,113 281,508,625 29,560,959 115,429,949 19,680,342 154,805,179 608,102,898 68,595,427 15,929,020 181,253,563 142,623,221 51,337,699 140,599,055 16,711,120 5,705,650 12,629,887 4,372,921 67,879,755 7,999,858 0 0 0 79,377,301 22,579,306 Total States total 3,107,522,000 3,807,700,000 4,310,700,000 4,989,685,000 6,339,685,000 7,528,533,000 3,041,287,690 3,721,843,919 4,211,932,548 4,878,807,994 6,208,647,483 7,395,868,077 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 26 Table B.2 Special Education—Preschool Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1997 5,308,013 1,195,743 5,008,915 5,102,788 36,074,288 4,692,338 4,665,794 1,189,269 224,647 17,510,810 9,250,017 927,721 2,080,088 16,776,014 8,464,723 3,796,987 4,122,628 9,715,496 6,147,040 2,390,839 6,338,022 9,409,924 11,916,000 7,066,345 4,018,513 5,660,844 1,116,795 2,143,533 2,111,164 1,481,893 10,823,193 3,032,410 32,104,446 10,761,043 748,392 11,833,780 3,422,144 3,647,438 13,268,414 1,590,008 6,792,495 1,393,847 6,533,536 21,349,912 3,377,473 798,889 8,682,896 7,770,713 3,314,028 9,010,480 991,813 27,838 110,705 29,780 2,896,457 112,000 3,413 0 0 0 74,266 1998 5,506,321 1,240,996 5,234,835 5,275,780 37,945,640 4,856,958 4,823,971 1,234,522 236,479 18,166,520 9,602,719 976,583 2,150,606 17,371,793 8,751,690 3,925,710 4,262,391 10,044,866 6,382,405 2,471,892 6,570,944 9,728,934 12,368,808 7,305,905 4,160,974 5,894,391 1,162,014 2,216,202 2,187,001 1,532,131 11,190,115 3,135,213 33,194,656 11,125,858 787,809 12,325,761 3,577,925 3,779,324 13,763,543 1,643,912 7,022,771 1,441,100 6,776,149 22,381,975 3,491,974 840,965 8,977,259 8,034,152 3,426,378 9,315,949 1,037,066 0 0 0 3,049,009 0 1,706 0 0 0 74,450 1999 5,506,321 1,240,996 5,241,962 5,275,780 37,945,640 4,856,958 4,823,971 1,234,522 240,026 18,166,520 9,602,719 979,916 2,150,606 17,371,793 8,751,690 3,925,710 4,262,391 10,044,866 6,382,405 2,471,892 6,570,944 9,728,934 12,368,808 7,305,905 4,160,974 5,894,391 1,162,014 2,216,202 2,194,131 1,532,131 11,190,115 3,135,213 33,194,656 11,125,858 793,645 12,325,761 3,577,925 3,779,595 13,763,543 1,643,912 7,022,771 1,441,100 6,776,149 22,381,975 3,491,974 844,142 8,977,259 8,034,152 3,426,378 9,315,949 1,037,066 0 0 0 3,094,744 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total States total 360,409,000 360,050,998 373,985,000 373,908,844 373,985,000 373,985,000 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 2000 5,730,375 1,294,380 5,545,066 5,479,110 39,848,701 5,073,769 5,009,888 1,287,906 253,905 18,917,454 10,077,250 1,036,577 2,233,491 18,041,307 9,088,983 4,077,008 4,426,665 10,431,998 6,628,385 2,567,159 6,824,190 10,103,890 12,853,643 7,587,477 4,321,339 6,171,495 1,215,398 2,306,907 2,312,229 1,591,180 11,621,386 3,256,045 34,473,989 11,554,652 839,536 12,874,725 3,760,076 3,960,512 14,293,994 1,707,269 7,293,431 1,496,640 7,049,034 23,676,158 3,647,879 892,952 9,323,245 8,343,791 3,558,432 9,674,989 1,090,450 0 0 0 3,273,690 0 0 0 0 0 0 390,000,000 390,000,000 2001 5,730,375 1,294,380 5,545,066 5,479,110 39,848,701 5,073,769 5,009,888 1,287,906 253,905 18,917,454 10,077,250 1,036,577 2,233,491 18,041,307 9,088,983 4,077,008 4,426,665 10,431,998 6,628,385 2,567,159 6,824,190 10,103,890 12,853,643 7,587,477 4,321,339 6,171,495 1,215,398 2,306,907 2,312,229 1,591,180 11,621,386 3,256,045 34,473,989 11,554,652 839,536 12,874,725 3,760,076 3,960,512 14,293,994 1,707,269 7,293,431 1,496,640 7,049,034 23,676,158 3,647,879 892,952 9,323,245 8,343,791 3,558,432 9,674,989 1,090,450 0 0 0 3,273,690 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 5,730,375 1,294,380 5,545,066 5,479,110 39,848,701 5,073,769 5,009,888 1,287,906 253,905 18,917,454 10,077,250 1,036,577 2,233,491 18,041,307 9,088,983 4,077,008 4,426,665 10,431,998 6,628,385 2,567,159 6,824,190 10,103,890 12,853,643 7,587,477 4,321,339 6,171,495 1,215,398 2,306,907 2,312,229 1,591,180 11,621,386 3,256,045 34,473,989 11,554,652 839,536 12,874,725 3,760,076 3,960,512 14,293,994 1,707,269 7,293,431 1,496,640 7,049,034 23,676,158 3,647,879 892,952 9,323,245 8,343,791 3,558,432 9,674,989 1,090,450 0 0 0 3,273,690 0 0 0 0 0 0 390,000,000 390,000,000 390,000,000 390,000,000 27 Table B.3 Special Education—Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1997 4,451,153 1,545,710 5,281,199 2,643,862 40,850,169 4,069,358 3,378,163 1,545,710 1,545,710 14,722,619 8,342,876 1,569,551 1,545,710 13,792,826 6,177,116 2,728,821 2,734,507 3,889,895 4,898,566 1,545,710 6,148,806 8,621,533 9,990,962 4,873,116 3,065,154 5,465,155 1,545,710 1,719,997 1,903,065 1,545,710 8,527,086 2,022,495 19,656,530 7,655,537 1,545,710 11,364,015 3,394,025 3,203,673 12,702,122 1,568,805 3,760,591 1,545,710 5,473,582 24,061,384 2,904,730 1,545,710 6,814,652 5,775,775 1,798,698 5,553,755 1,545,710 514,925 1,140,327 342,733 4,609,319 671,647 52,039 0 0 3,864,276 0 1998 5,026,654 1,713,659 5,964,019 2,985,693 46,131,788 4,595,495 3,775,344 1,713,659 1,713,659 16,118,402 9,421,547 1,713,659 1,713,659 15,576,135 6,975,771 3,081,637 3,088,058 4,392,829 5,531,914 1,713,659 6,054,659 7,826,512 11,282,718 5,345,043 3,461,456 6,171,758 1,713,659 1,942,380 2,149,117 1,713,659 9,629,574 2,283,988 22,197,971 8,645,341 1,713,659 12,833,297 3,832,847 3,617,884 12,737,869 1,713,659 4,246,807 1,713,659 6,181,275 27,172,340 3,280,289 1,713,659 7,695,736 6,522,539 1,799,482 5,672,891 1,713,659 570,537 1,263,482 379,748 5,205,269 744,185 26,004 0 0 4,284,149 0 1999 5,401,820 1,812,075 6,790,748 3,224,319 46,249,616 5,125,020 3,831,379 1,812,075 1,812,075 17,360,485 10,497,445 1,812,075 1,812,075 16,098,291 7,501,701 3,315,411 3,335,406 4,795,769 5,747,605 1,812,075 6,237,516 8,115,297 11,896,386 5,792,064 3,688,050 6,630,914 1,812,075 2,098,289 2,488,044 1,812,075 9,865,491 2,415,047 22,590,621 9,652,685 1,812,075 13,495,119 4,236,413 3,969,749 12,889,527 1,812,075 4,638,845 1,812,075 6,622,525 29,847,674 3,832,145 1,812,075 8,150,863 7,047,124 1,812,075 6,010,473 1,812,075 581,948 1,288,752 387,343 5,560,061 759,069 0 0 0 4,567,901 0 Total States total 315,754,000 350,000,000 370,000,000 309,168,053 342,731,895 362,414,987 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 2000 5,442,925 1,836,562 7,163,113 3,300,402 45,929,796 5,377,332 3,992,165 1,836,562 1,836,562 17,645,688 10,918,523 1,836,562 1,836,562 16,151,859 7,655,126 3,369,461 3,433,291 4,812,022 5,894,220 1,836,562 6,413,677 7,269,022 12,028,661 5,931,008 3,786,753 6,722,152 1,836,562 2,120,927 2,652,976 1,836,562 9,965,995 2,442,953 22,320,520 9,991,552 1,836,562 13,648,077 4,398,814 4,068,712 13,016,152 1,836,562 4,752,400 1,836,562 6,863,518 30,671,586 3,997,116 1,836,562 8,373,127 7,217,290 1,836,562 6,078,934 1,836,562 589,812 1,306,168 392,577 5,782,773 769,327 0 0 0 4,629,630 0 375,000,000 367,312,486 2001 5,567,271 1,878,520 7,326,758 3,375,801 46,979,082 5,500,179 4,083,368 1,878,520 1,878,520 18,048,811 11,167,962 1,878,520 1,878,520 16,520,855 7,830,010 3,446,438 3,511,726 4,921,954 6,028,876 1,878,520 6,560,200 7,435,086 12,303,461 6,066,505 3,873,263 6,875,722 1,878,520 2,169,380 2,713,585 1,878,520 10,193,673 2,498,764 22,830,440 10,219,813 1,878,520 13,959,873 4,499,306 4,161,663 13,313,512 1,878,520 4,860,970 1,878,520 7,020,318 31,372,291 4,088,432 1,878,520 8,564,414 7,382,172 1,878,520 6,217,810 1,878,520 603,278 1,335,989 401,540 5,914,883 786,891 0 0 0 4,735,395 0 383,567,000 375,703,907 2002 6,063,339 2,043,288 7,868,896 3,716,598 49,954,044 6,132,874 4,478,645 2,043,288 2,043,288 19,235,683 12,265,577 2,043,288 2,043,288 17,822,071 8,666,617 3,851,252 3,884,393 5,461,452 6,549,059 2,043,288 7,162,997 8,078,494 13,646,869 6,710,076 4,213,822 7,568,706 2,043,288 2,400,219 2,970,642 2,043,288 11,405,544 2,682,058 25,063,710 11,179,579 2,043,288 15,361,800 4,901,951 4,544,414 14,662,818 2,043,288 5,456,933 2,043,288 7,697,334 33,464,547 4,423,421 2,043,288 9,470,434 8,061,958 2,068,052 6,961,718 2,043,288 603,278 1,341,222 462,815 5,986,306 786,891 0 0 0 5,148,148 0 417,000,000 408,657,646 28 Table B.4 Special Education—Total Funding from All IDEA Formula Grant Programs, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1997 61,250,508 12,012,245 52,106,440 36,971,964 384,700,944 46,421,423 48,340,887 10,998,638 5,290,317 202,360,447 91,967,929 11,420,758 16,905,097 169,969,066 87,522,249 42,376,806 36,029,220 58,422,037 59,938,217 21,097,343 67,628,831 101,839,607 123,912,025 65,286,437 41,578,214 77,338,564 12,465,069 24,880,522 19,810,044 16,951,446 126,016,826 30,944,189 269,292,303 99,385,151 8,992,514 142,281,437 45,699,634 40,446,467 139,515,735 16,401,748 58,385,861 10,871,721 78,076,333 288,668,338 34,675,881 8,546,559 91,700,813 69,946,485 29,015,148 72,747,138 9,322,893 4,034,937 9,688,070 2,526,049 31,780,273 7,180,166 423,786 0 0 41,882,560 7,442,691 1998 72,663,929 14,128,458 63,680,787 44,082,892 462,811,996 55,185,269 56,809,354 12,987,321 6,756,802 243,994,739 111,499,322 14,268,566 20,278,058 203,751,069 105,159,215 50,669,966 42,828,088 68,272,833 70,929,333 24,591,330 80,933,334 118,377,666 149,006,143 77,760,706 47,435,209 92,892,121 14,607,415 30,025,398 24,223,409 20,107,312 149,870,102 36,911,742 320,040,936 119,714,869 10,580,621 167,693,303 55,865,653 49,546,943 166,625,437 19,098,832 70,854,428 12,806,285 93,933,682 348,616,360 40,995,636 10,219,863 109,800,545 83,773,655 33,683,240 86,179,567 10,939,462 4,841,466 11,581,979 3,013,523 40,015,457 8,567,128 211,877 0 0 50,966,551 14,017,818 1999 79,926,063 15,300,428 73,295,770 49,373,025 515,432,630 61,867,983 61,715,475 14,271,266 7,695,898 274,203,180 127,799,736 16,948,503 23,014,816 227,868,524 117,594,876 56,306,610 47,997,064 75,671,525 77,989,286 26,275,551 90,037,615 131,930,933 168,163,340 86,508,123 50,526,001 103,498,854 15,971,693 34,324,388 27,721,340 22,361,076 166,325,633 41,584,954 354,583,583 135,090,664 11,720,016 184,966,681 63,331,955 56,072,884 183,187,180 21,031,138 80,140,189 14,110,673 102,095,897 388,794,788 45,167,705 11,444,138 123,418,474 94,008,687 35,760,731 95,732,892 12,068,541 5,414,693 12,964,589 3,367,576 46,103,560 9,611,076 0 0 0 57,417,083 17,577,448 Total States total 3,783,685,000 4,531,685,000 5,054,685,000 3,710,506,741 4,438,484,658 4,948,332,535 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 2000 90,546,213 17,491,109 84,539,824 55,704,788 591,409,295 71,288,041 69,623,858 16,285,522 8,707,884 310,873,926 147,274,764 19,471,813 26,408,901 257,163,567 132,527,925 63,504,356 54,665,098 85,232,113 89,743,366 29,529,360 101,790,102 147,718,286 193,506,639 99,097,848 58,045,594 116,831,977 18,291,801 38,714,488 31,978,892 25,218,832 187,560,063 46,939,342 399,007,226 154,116,247 13,362,715 213,123,090 72,632,434 64,267,685 210,746,841 23,623,644 90,283,391 16,063,744 115,547,653 447,708,754 52,017,036 13,033,453 139,695,892 107,819,175 40,267,049 108,416,439 13,736,865 5,546,322 13,281,020 3,449,133 52,965,560 9,848,032 0 0 0 65,803,168 20,636,845 5,754,685,000 5,636,120,480 2001 111,723,769 21,633,730 105,215,581 68,697,585 736,845,582 88,783,373 85,207,458 20,085,726 10,639,499 381,379,409 183,584,200 24,253,658 32,829,899 317,628,586 162,292,308 77,907,384 68,109,123 103,891,316 111,929,041 35,992,380 124,749,867 181,195,174 241,933,494 123,094,418 72,392,165 144,006,959 22,685,620 47,525,175 39,753,480 30,829,681 230,203,414 58,286,708 486,972,399 191,214,639 16,456,324 266,720,121 90,172,846 80,419,988 262,888,278 28,797,162 110,386,208 19,741,012 142,802,815 560,736,906 64,779,150 16,017,785 171,883,937 134,329,109 49,220,845 133,024,168 16,865,665 5,730,702 13,723,767 3,563,494 65,636,271 10,178,655 0 0 0 82,459,933 23,244,059 7,113,252,000 6,974,351,390 2002 131,754,048 25,537,273 124,459,618 81,158,006 871,465,252 105,255,414 98,734,321 23,677,071 12,527,160 444,031,443 217,559,482 28,740,013 38,810,751 372,309,703 188,608,719 90,455,171 79,204,383 120,396,771 132,554,219 41,599,735 145,430,420 210,073,331 286,636,276 142,619,176 85,734,321 167,293,742 26,818,193 55,183,014 47,043,750 35,714,724 267,367,439 67,533,056 568,843,552 225,458,460 19,403,432 316,704,809 107,164,997 94,899,039 310,465,437 33,311,516 128,180,313 23,220,270 169,551,547 665,243,603 76,666,727 18,865,260 200,047,242 159,028,970 56,964,183 157,235,762 19,844,858 6,308,928 13,971,109 4,835,736 77,139,751 8,786,749 0 0 0 84,525,449 22,579,306 8,335,533,000 8,194,525,723 29 Table B.5 Special Education—Percentage of Grants to States and Total IDEA Grant Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other Total States total 1997 1.66 0.30 1.35 0.94 9.90 1.21 1.30 0.27 0.11 5.47 2.39 0.29 0.43 4.49 2.35 1.15 0.94 1.44 1.57 0.55 1.77 2.70 3.28 1.72 1.11 2.13 0.32 0.68 0.51 0.45 3.43 0.83 7.00 2.61 0.22 3.83 1.25 1.08 3.65 0.43 1.54 0.26 2.13 7.83 0.91 0.20 2.45 1.81 0.77 1.87 0.22 0.11 0.27 0.07 0.78 0.21 0.01 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.24 100.00 97.87 % of Grants to States Funding 1998 1999 2000 2001 1.63 1.60 1.59 1.58 0.29 0.28 0.29 0.29 1.38 1.42 1.44 1.46 0.94 0.95 0.94 0.94 9.95 10.00 10.13 10.25 1.20 1.20 1.22 1.23 1.27 1.23 1.21 1.20 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 5.51 5.54 5.50 5.43 2.43 2.50 2.53 2.56 0.30 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.45 4.49 4.51 4.47 4.46 2.35 2.35 2.32 2.29 1.15 1.14 1.12 1.11 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.95 1.41 1.41 1.40 1.40 1.55 1.53 1.55 1.57 0.54 0.51 0.50 0.50 1.79 1.79 1.77 1.76 2.65 2.65 2.61 2.58 3.29 3.34 3.38 3.42 1.71 1.70 1.72 1.73 1.05 0.99 1.00 1.01 2.12 2.11 2.08 2.07 0.31 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.68 0.70 0.69 0.68 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.43 3.39 3.37 3.33 3.29 0.83 0.84 0.83 0.83 6.95 6.93 6.86 6.78 2.62 2.65 2.66 2.67 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 3.74 3.69 3.74 3.78 1.27 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 3.68 3.63 3.68 3.71 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40 1.56 1.59 1.57 1.55 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.26 2.13 2.06 2.04 2.03 7.85 7.81 7.88 7.98 0.90 0.88 0.89 0.90 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.21 2.45 2.47 2.45 2.43 1.82 1.83 1.85 1.87 0.75 0.71 0.70 0.69 1.87 1.87 1.86 1.85 0.22 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.08 0.27 0.27 0.24 0.20 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.83 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.21 0.21 0.18 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 0.37 0.41 0.41 0.37 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 97.75 97.71 97.78 97.93 2002 1.59 0.29 1.47 0.96 10.38 1.25 1.19 0.27 0.14 5.39 2.59 0.34 0.46 4.47 2.27 1.10 0.94 1.39 1.59 0.49 1.75 2.55 3.46 1.70 1.03 2.04 0.31 0.67 0.55 0.43 3.25 0.82 6.77 2.69 0.22 3.83 1.31 1.15 3.74 0.39 1.53 0.26 2.06 8.08 0.91 0.21 2.41 1.89 0.68 1.87 0.22 0.08 0.17 0.06 0.90 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.05 0.30 100.00 98.24 1997 1.62 0.32 1.38 0.98 10.17 1.23 1.28 0.29 0.14 5.35 2.43 0.30 0.45 4.49 2.31 1.12 0.95 1.54 1.58 0.56 1.79 2.69 3.27 1.73 1.10 2.04 0.33 0.66 0.52 0.45 3.33 0.82 7.12 2.63 0.24 3.76 1.21 1.07 3.69 0.43 1.54 0.29 2.06 7.63 0.92 0.23 2.42 1.85 0.77 1.92 0.25 0.11 0.26 0.07 0.84 0.19 0.01 0.00 0.00 1.11 0.20 % of Funding from All IDEA Grants 1998 1999 2000 2001 1.60 1.58 1.57 1.57 0.31 1.41 0.97 10.21 1.22 0.30 1.45 0.98 10.20 1.22 0.30 1.47 0.97 10.28 1.24 0.30 1.48 0.97 10.36 1.25 1.25 1.22 1.21 1.20 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.15 0.15 5.38 5.42 2.46 2.53 0.31 0.34 0.45 0.46 0.15 0.15 5.40 5.36 2.56 2.58 0.34 0.34 0.46 0.46 4.50 4.51 4.47 4.47 2.32 2.33 2.30 2.28 1.12 1.11 0.95 0.95 1.51 1.50 1.57 1.54 0.54 0.52 1.10 1.10 0.95 0.96 1.48 1.46 1.56 1.57 0.51 0.51 1.79 1.78 1.77 1.75 2.61 2.61 2.57 2.55 3.29 3.33 1.72 1.71 1.05 1.00 2.05 2.05 0.32 0.32 3.36 3.40 1.72 1.73 1.01 1.02 2.03 2.02 0.32 0.32 0.66 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.53 0.55 0.56 0.56 0.44 0.44 3.31 3.29 0.81 0.82 7.06 7.01 2.64 2.67 0.44 0.43 3.26 3.24 0.82 0.82 6.93 6.85 2.68 2.69 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 3.70 3.66 3.70 3.75 1.23 1.25 1.09 1.11 3.68 3.62 0.42 0.42 1.56 1.59 1.26 1.27 1.12 1.13 3.66 3.70 0.41 0.40 1.57 1.55 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 2.07 2.02 2.01 2.01 7.69 7.69 7.78 7.88 0.90 0.89 0.23 0.23 2.42 2.44 1.85 1.86 0.90 0.91 0.23 0.23 2.43 2.42 1.87 1.89 0.74 0.71 0.70 0.69 1.90 1.89 1.88 1.87 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.11 0.11 0.26 0.26 0.07 0.07 0.88 0.91 0.10 0.08 0.23 0.19 0.06 0.05 0.92 0.92 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.12 1.14 0.31 0.35 0.00 0.00 1.14 1.16 0.36 0.33 2002 1.58 0.31 1.49 0.97 10.45 1.26 1.18 0.28 0.15 5.33 2.61 0.34 0.47 4.47 2.26 1.09 0.95 1.44 1.59 0.50 1.74 2.52 3.44 1.71 1.03 2.01 0.32 0.66 0.56 0.43 3.21 0.81 6.82 2.70 0.23 3.80 1.29 1.14 3.72 0.40 1.54 0.28 2.03 7.98 0.92 0.23 2.40 1.91 0.68 1.89 0.24 0.08 0.17 0.06 0.93 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.01 0.27 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 98.07 97.94 97.90 97.94 98.05 98.31 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 30 Table B.6 Special Education—Percentage of Preschool Grants and Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1997–2002, by State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other Total States total 1997 1.47 0.33 1.39 1.42 10.01 1.30 1.29 0.33 0.06 4.86 2.57 0.26 0.58 4.65 2.35 1.05 1.14 2.70 1.71 0.66 1.76 2.61 3.31 1.96 1.11 1.57 0.31 0.59 0.59 0.41 3.00 0.84 8.91 2.99 0.21 3.28 0.95 1.01 3.68 0.44 1.88 0.39 1.81 5.92 0.94 0.22 2.41 2.16 0.92 2.50 0.28 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.80 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 100.00 99.90 % of Preschool Grants Funding 1998 1999 2000 2001 1.47 1.47 1.47 1.47 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 1.40 1.40 1.42 1.42 1.41 1.41 1.40 1.40 10.15 10.15 10.22 10.22 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.29 1.29 1.28 1.28 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 4.86 4.86 4.85 4.85 2.57 2.57 2.58 2.58 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.57 4.65 4.65 4.63 4.63 2.34 2.34 2.33 2.33 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 2.69 2.69 2.67 2.67 1.71 1.71 1.70 1.70 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 1.76 1.76 1.75 1.75 2.60 2.60 2.59 2.59 3.31 3.31 3.30 3.30 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 2.99 2.99 2.98 2.98 0.84 0.84 0.83 0.83 8.88 8.88 8.84 8.84 2.97 2.97 2.96 2.96 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.22 3.30 3.30 3.30 3.30 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.02 3.68 3.68 3.67 3.67 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 1.88 1.88 1.87 1.87 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 1.81 1.81 1.81 1.81 5.98 5.98 6.07 6.07 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.23 2.40 2.40 2.39 2.39 2.15 2.15 2.14 2.14 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.91 2.49 2.49 2.48 2.48 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.98 100.00 100.00 100.00 2002 1.47 0.33 1.42 1.40 10.22 1.30 1.28 0.33 0.07 4.85 2.58 0.27 0.57 4.63 2.33 1.05 1.14 2.67 1.70 0.66 1.75 2.59 3.30 1.95 1.11 1.58 0.31 0.59 0.59 0.41 2.98 0.83 8.84 2.96 0.22 3.30 0.96 1.02 3.67 0.44 1.87 0.38 1.81 6.07 0.94 0.23 2.39 2.14 0.91 2.48 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 % of Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 1.41 1.44 1.46 1.45 1.45 1.45 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 1.67 1.70 1.84 1.91 1.91 1.89 0.84 0.85 0.87 0.88 0.88 0.89 12.94 13.18 12.50 12.25 12.25 11.98 1.29 1.31 1.39 1.43 1.43 1.47 1.07 1.08 1.04 1.06 1.06 1.07 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 4.66 4.61 4.69 4.71 4.71 4.61 2.64 2.69 2.84 2.91 2.91 2.94 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 4.37 4.45 4.35 4.31 4.31 4.27 1.96 1.99 2.03 2.04 2.04 2.08 0.86 0.88 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.92 0.87 0.88 0.90 0.92 0.92 0.93 1.23 1.26 1.30 1.28 1.28 1.31 1.55 1.58 1.55 1.57 1.57 1.57 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 1.95 1.73 1.69 1.71 1.71 1.72 2.73 2.24 2.19 1.94 1.94 1.94 3.16 3.22 3.22 3.21 3.21 3.27 1.54 1.53 1.57 1.58 1.58 1.61 0.97 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.73 1.76 1.79 1.79 1.79 1.82 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.54 0.55 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.61 0.67 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 2.70 2.75 2.67 2.66 2.66 2.74 0.64 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.64 6.23 6.34 6.11 5.95 5.95 6.01 2.42 2.47 2.61 2.66 2.66 2.68 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 3.60 3.67 3.65 3.64 3.64 3.68 1.07 1.10 1.14 1.17 1.17 1.18 1.01 1.03 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.09 4.02 3.64 3.48 3.47 3.47 3.52 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 1.19 1.21 1.25 1.27 1.27 1.31 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 1.73 1.77 1.79 1.83 1.83 1.85 7.62 7.76 8.07 8.18 8.18 8.03 0.92 0.94 1.04 1.07 1.07 1.06 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 2.16 2.20 2.20 2.23 2.23 2.27 1.83 1.86 1.90 1.92 1.92 1.93 0.57 0.51 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 1.76 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.67 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.32 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.11 1.46 1.49 1.50 1.54 1.54 1.44 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.19 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.22 1.22 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 97.91 97.92 97.95 97.95 97.95 98.00 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 31 Appendix C Funding Allocation: Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State Table C.1 Special Education—Grants to States Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1991 37,178,754 4,552,208 22,070,512 17,676,583 185,459,999 20,830,995 24,801,917 4,474,065 965,221 91,032,192 39,538,981 4,905,046 8,413,491 81,134,390 41,825,451 23,603,464 17,112,043 30,380,743 27,800,043 10,713,516 34,664,236 54,260,896 63,336,605 31,345,167 23,987,399 39,432,133 6,855,821 12,783,100 7,199,489 7,120,549 69,814,471 14,252,261 115,740,417 48,224,775 4,678,591 78,479,533 25,789,863 18,423,324 77,985,959 8,027,960 30,591,649 5,700,027 41,366,562 133,837,216 18,048,957 4,453,732 45,626,931 32,202,344 16,548,299 33,221,786 4,285,486 1,961,348 5,630,419 957,583 14,005,474 5,210,366 744,369 0 0 22,891,184 0 1992 40,121,862 5,148,324 24,285,654 18,751,830 200,622,009 22,708,014 25,387,257 4,737,016 1,137,654 99,773,518 43,099,754 5,415,839 8,873,864 82,748,038 45,450,032 24,586,762 18,187,305 32,350,420 30,494,614 11,023,403 36,079,237 55,977,325 64,287,893 32,950,587 24,737,520 41,904,337 7,197,085 14,406,869 8,175,786 7,896,801 73,054,014 15,529,365 125,568,396 51,397,213 4,869,339 82,817,272 27,533,519 19,295,872 78,161,371 8,431,830 32,227,929 5,989,377 44,210,780 144,662,710 19,384,361 4,141,765 48,688,884 35,424,175 17,508,072 35,942,408 4,689,084 2,218,768 5,360,508 1,368,258 14,330,670 4,064,056 624,802 1,702,661 3,984,697 24,396,235 0 1993 39,318,893 5,725,985 26,143,705 19,783,737 209,353,847 24,489,103 27,952,797 4,776,037 945,018 104,592,488 46,625,933 5,563,277 9,082,030 82,807,368 47,531,918 25,136,645 18,881,451 32,460,531 31,975,285 11,505,794 37,256,290 56,209,644 66,435,966 34,337,829 25,525,335 43,544,354 7,551,512 14,836,365 9,204,471 8,429,146 74,901,680 16,691,475 130,780,157 53,614,133 4,906,695 86,845,058 28,672,243 21,907,150 76,765,830 8,719,636 32,494,223 6,121,659 46,191,225 154,128,665 20,284,596 3,810,064 50,967,673 37,610,466 17,932,324 38,469,610 4,816,302 2,304,814 5,568,393 1,421,321 12,700,625 4,221,664 649,032 1,768,692 4,139,227 25,342,342 0 Total States total 1,854,155,895 1,976,095,000 2,052,729,728 1,816,760,626 1,932,375,015 2,007,314,243 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 1994 40,555,188 5,941,481 28,117,375 20,623,963 219,215,317 25,886,784 27,781,565 5,142,327 850,913 111,909,677 50,009,633 5,848,729 9,209,728 86,646,897 49,534,695 25,621,779 19,660,424 32,925,133 35,135,021 11,783,998 38,606,164 57,197,874 68,755,790 36,455,902 26,256,547 45,634,990 7,404,387 15,005,043 10,196,042 8,944,725 76,813,993 17,878,683 143,625,313 55,819,852 4,944,816 89,062,163 29,468,897 20,906,772 77,564,700 9,149,275 33,087,449 6,297,166 47,866,823 164,033,132 20,697,253 3,780,453 53,114,323 40,026,835 17,629,828 40,390,803 4,980,840 2,413,677 5,831,404 1,488,454 18,127,953 4,421,064 679,688 1,852,232 4,334,735 26,539,333 0 2,149,686,000 2,102,125,413 1995 41,676,563 7,445,561 30,444,134 22,120,673 228,623,290 28,592,515 31,011,051 6,481,928 3,133,152 123,808,863 54,301,278 6,361,317 9,604,382 105,282,584 54,033,999 26,907,735 21,710,509 33,908,671 37,280,753 12,843,665 40,667,964 65,840,488 76,835,476 39,492,946 27,522,139 49,096,067 7,447,163 15,980,407 11,079,037 9,982,607 80,650,921 19,064,198 157,325,021 58,630,268 5,116,958 93,984,597 29,757,446 24,947,271 86,942,476 9,956,971 34,723,535 6,621,031 52,007,136 176,717,434 21,524,339 4,505,075 57,223,693 43,908,928 19,043,606 42,955,802 5,106,031 2,616,028 6,320,281 1,613,239 18,127,953 4,791,706 736,669 0 0 28,479,470 0 2,322,915,000 2,278,357,607 1996 40,895,889 7,445,561 30,754,449 21,789,237 228,758,683 28,194,577 30,784,375 6,415,559 3,133,152 125,396,899 54,609,781 6,482,177 9,605,786 103,488,767 54,174,644 26,671,191 21,676,813 33,519,757 36,824,539 12,888,326 40,789,307 64,529,602 76,251,412 39,739,072 26,974,089 49,095,746 7,447,163 15,853,005 11,404,975 10,170,737 79,692,477 19,240,689 159,376,867 59,435,523 5,044,365 92,013,426 29,633,498 24,747,446 86,078,620 10,139,194 34,989,762 6,432,855 51,141,216 178,234,586 21,216,198 4,547,917 57,327,775 43,033,744 18,396,296 43,010,693 5,074,854 2,546,094 6,151,324 1,570,112 18,127,953 4,663,611 552502 0 0 28,408,765 7,243,368 2,323,837,000 2,272,701,224 34 Table C.2 Special Education—Preschool Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1991 5,525,003 902,773 3,121,061 3,048,552 31,446,463 2,478,044 4,185,584 1,189,621 168,921 10,773,517 5,190,347 623,097 1,988,013 19,131,140 3,874,036 4,306,698 2,774,453 7,816,596 5,061,266 2,279,641 5,684,363 7,694,686 11,092,236 6,881,951 4,381,597 3,135,403 1,383,243 1,990,403 1,109,144 979,266 11,465,935 1,741,005 20,727,129 8,352,842 772,895 7,776,756 4,090,765 0 11,499,401 1,294,001 6,327,379 1,654,154 5,896,311 18,244,303 2,517,087 591,225 7,372,779 7,038,921 2,018,291 8,226,948 971,298 38,246 149,001 168,125 2,665,292 43,824 0 0 0 0 0 1992 5,885,805 1,043,491 3,943,417 3,563,455 34,813,572 3,048,537 4,476,008 1,310,188 208,859 11,740,282 6,329,229 721,367 1,914,272 18,516,148 6,040,040 4,339,446 3,246,953 9,782,631 5,506,646 1,961,667 6,245,685 8,101,317 11,646,295 7,224,912 3,667,081 4,118,537 1,433,897 2,220,331 1,460,406 1,011,359 11,824,629 2,081,360 23,287,771 8,976,918 796,877 8,804,207 4,255,099 966,374 11,096,836 1,397,748 6,965,445 1,761,645 6,851,376 19,919,519 2,748,905 708,514 8,639,530 7,759,109 2,613,950 8,711,827 1,071,607 28,116 150,218 20,083 2,969,010 64,264 0 0 0 0 0 1993 5,695,812 1,100,462 4,387,813 3,593,118 34,437,799 3,955,753 4,507,461 1,307,998 187,595 12,757,968 7,353,890 664,708 1,898,850 17,072,663 6,566,579 4,020,008 3,389,274 9,329,550 5,868,636 1,940,948 5,816,198 7,590,969 11,087,334 7,114,595 3,706,118 4,540,696 1,375,946 2,180,982 1,706,085 1,019,958 11,062,223 2,265,178 23,973,074 9,382,727 724,532 11,527,519 4,069,492 3,618,967 11,541,552 1,386,286 6,328,762 1,669,156 6,728,325 19,509,927 2,837,566 691,297 8,310,331 7,851,682 2,649,232 8,991,288 1,022,174 25,111 123,340 11,078 3,231,221 56,131 0 0 0 0 0 Total States total 291,861,031 319,992,770 291,461,835 319,730,089 325,763,937 325,548,277 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 1994 5,840,375 1,213,290 4,710,003 3,666,800 36,119,473 4,258,563 5,537,762 1,355,738 168,670 14,031,500 8,113,877 761,141 1,846,865 17,545,222 7,127,370 3,999,180 3,809,957 8,993,370 6,381,820 2,006,322 6,099,759 7,822,602 10,959,297 7,288,244 4,035,323 4,950,960 1,282,742 2,127,510 1,856,079 1,230,299 11,023,080 2,504,537 28,368,449 9,999,012 752,637 11,585,077 3,645,540 2,450,676 10,840,236 1,460,625 6,429,303 1,560,552 6,850,269 20,060,389 2,759,668 703,737 8,618,469 8,324,360 2,726,359 8,959,353 1,051,707 22,678 97,092 16,300 3,248,669 46,065 12,048 0 0 0 0 339,257,000 339,062,817 1995 5,820,469 1,411,602 4,977,467 4,739,242 36,991,756 4,614,328 4,961,085 1,372,012 230,716 17,597,926 8,731,045 818,429 2,030,031 17,077,108 7,552,890 3,872,349 3,997,264 9,562,443 6,592,482 2,230,713 6,178,831 9,738,552 12,062,781 7,343,334 4,403,407 5,443,678 1,174,742 2,261,430 1,979,519 1,362,455 10,883,943 2,809,552 30,722,822 10,335,138 763,821 12,418,412 3,392,486 3,855,284 13,488,035 1,454,605 6,760,400 1,520,134 6,706,475 20,919,424 3,118,084 890,784 8,819,782 8,757,666 3,045,047 8,922,854 1,020,476 35,495 118,089 15,017 2,273,717 80,546 6,826 0 0 0 0 360,265,000 360,009,027 1996 5,666,452 1,328,590 5,173,258 4,958,310 36,129,071 4,711,713 4,838,309 1,256,061 255,168 17,775,410 8,778,583 861,111 2,020,907 16,461,986 8,084,288 3,848,625 4,045,111 9,681,233 6,321,846 2,342,670 6,254,592 9,389,800 12,009,397 7,105,812 4,349,730 5,535,241 1,195,401 2,178,492 2,087,501 1,427,492 10,970,921 3,008,613 31,630,327 10,980,811 770,780 12,002,803 3,502,466 3,444,443 13,573,374 1,538,263 6,803,830 1,434,745 6,693,059 21,226,447 3,205,099 801,110 8,716,604 8,277,477 3,192,572 8,924,958 1,025,948 34,946 123,298 23,737 2,337,395 87,694 5,120 0 0 0 0 360,409,000 360,134,205 35 Table C.3 Special Education—Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1991 1,714,125 572,521 1,840,021 997,485 14,817,016 1,510,754 1,346,121 572,521 572,521 5,219,850 2,992,456 572,521 572,521 5,074,585 2,285,500 1,065,276 1,094,329 1,442,964 2,062,761 572,521 2,120,867 2,450,134 3,980,257 1,898,127 1,162,119 2,140,235 572,521 677,903 572,521 572,521 3,263,617 765,062 7,766,827 2,730,979 572,521 4,532,263 1,317,068 1,123,381 4,667,844 572,521 1,539,807 572,521 1,985,286 8,522,204 1,007,170 572,521 2,624,452 2,072,445 629,481 2,043,392 572,521 177,694 473,852 118,463 2,004,655 355,389 0 0 0 1,431,301 0 1992 2,514,499 855,556 2,617,743 1,461,652 21,710,996 2,226,280 2,065,015 855,556 855,556 7,611,429 4,459,870 855,556 855,556 7,626,080 3,553,592 1,705,171 1,663,102 2,223,604 2,938,957 855,556 3,231,212 3,730,987 6,302,266 2,980,248 1,729,046 3,268,138 855,556 1,055,762 855,556 855,556 4,831,689 1,102,824 11,325,359 4,142,304 855,556 6,989,364 1,992,104 1,783,733 7,092,114 855,556 2,299,998 855,556 2,979,366 12,341,503 1,516,578 855,556 3,995,496 3,257,061 929,181 3,164,311 855,556 328,582 722,787 204,735 2,714,693 428,589 0 0 0 2,138,889 0 1993 3,046,905 1,042,702 3,312,138 1,736,776 29,207,477 2,642,716 2,426,424 1,042,702 1,042,702 9,650,350 5,417,361 1,042,702 1,042,702 9,265,029 4,124,608 1,934,501 1,869,241 2,620,544 3,458,507 1,042,702 3,926,195 4,451,846 7,359,225 3,334,075 2,078,640 3,808,036 1,042,702 1,191,819 1,082,919 1,042,702 5,884,344 1,352,764 14,117,157 5,011,663 1,042,702 8,016,235 2,344,879 2,121,710 8,210,103 1,042,702 2,796,532 1,042,702 3,619,468 15,327,041 1,778,806 1,042,702 4,789,719 3,943,587 1,098,617 3,581,798 1,042,702 400,457 880,891 249,519 3,045,563 522,340 0 0 0 2,606,756 0 Total States total 117,060,811 174,934,693 114,504,112 171,111,111 213,200,407 208,540,444 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 1994 3,636,547 1,237,632 3,922,215 2,054,731 34,996,612 3,207,936 2,754,255 1,237,632 1,237,632 11,385,994 6,504,198 1,237,632 1,237,632 11,106,525 4,855,347 2,232,081 2,180,341 3,138,084 4,130,713 1,237,632 4,494,909 5,090,115 8,232,797 3,877,592 2,520,647 4,442,070 1,237,632 1,352,447 1,320,760 1,237,632 6,994,924 1,654,768 16,637,446 6,033,463 1,237,632 9,708,755 2,811,532 2,483,462 9,633,345 1,237,632 3,296,241 1,237,632 4,346,068 18,816,567 2,160,609 1,237,632 5,660,050 4,704,307 1,291,991 4,136,450 1,237,632 475,322 1,045,571 296,165 3,630,290 619,990 94,472 0 0 3,094,080 0 253,152,000 247,526,400 1995 4,367,917 1,524,910 5,040,920 2,511,863 40,347,086 3,893,981 4,095,944 1,374,985 1,383,883 15,212,617 7,438,660 1,590,820 1,479,484 13,736,885 6,442,058 2,809,586 2,802,012 3,928,148 5,275,752 1,374,985 6,239,596 8,492,708 10,176,247 5,094,610 2,836,013 5,724,039 1,395,819 1,758,114 1,759,009 1,522,232 8,552,266 1,890,168 21,361,708 6,809,052 1,374,985 10,460,369 3,722,478 3,142,903 12,590,173 1,564,797 4,103,199 1,374,985 5,624,612 24,258,785 2,826,559 1,374,985 7,329,204 5,946,345 1,878,151 5,649,829 1,423,267 514,726 1,139,887 342,601 4,107,217 671,387 104,018 0 0 3,862,461 0 315,632,000 308,996,920 1996 4,483,470 1,545,710 5,306,409 2,549,297 41,438,233 3,972,753 3,378,163 1,545,710 1,545,710 14,722,619 8,226,009 1,569,551 1,545,710 13,785,909 6,065,530 2,712,211 2,716,195 3,876,538 5,023,051 1,545,710 6,148,806 8,621,533 10,017,913 4,873,116 3,120,649 5,422,619 1,545,710 1,689,626 1,783,636 1,545,710 8,497,315 2,045,597 20,119,188 7,582,020 1,545,710 11,402,583 3,381,056 3,086,097 12,702,122 1,568,805 3,852,059 1,545,710 5,414,050 23,718,333 2,768,788 1,545,710 6,930,714 5,664,434 1,798,698 5,553,755 1,545,710 514,925 1,140,327 342,733 4,549,818 671,647 78,014 0 0 3,864,276 0 315,754,000 309,142,078 36 Table C.4 Special Education—Total Funding from All IDEA Formula Grant Programs, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State (in dollars) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other 1991 44,417,882 6,027,502 27,031,594 21,722,620 231,723,478 24,819,793 30,333,622 6,236,207 1,706,663 107,025,559 47,721,784 6,100,664 10,974,025 105,340,115 47,984,987 28,975,438 20,980,825 39,640,303 34,924,070 13,565,678 42,469,466 64,405,716 78,409,098 40,125,245 29,531,115 44,707,771 8,811,585 15,451,406 8,881,154 8,672,336 84,544,023 16,758,328 144,234,373 59,308,596 6,024,007 90,788,552 31,197,696 19,546,705 94,153,204 9,894,482 38,458,835 7,926,702 49,248,159 160,603,723 21,573,214 5,617,478 55,624,162 41,313,710 19,196,071 43,492,126 5,829,305 2,177,288 6,253,272 1,244,171 18,675,421 5,609,579 744,369 0 0 24,322,485 0 1992 48,522,166 7,047,371 30,846,814 23,776,937 257,146,577 27,982,831 31,928,280 6,902,760 2,202,069 119,125,229 53,888,853 6,992,762 11,643,692 108,890,266 55,043,664 30,631,379 23,097,360 44,356,655 38,940,217 13,840,626 45,556,134 67,809,629 82,236,454 43,155,747 30,133,647 49,291,012 9,486,538 17,682,962 10,491,748 9,763,716 89,710,332 18,713,549 160,181,526 64,516,435 6,521,772 98,610,843 33,780,722 22,045,979 96,350,321 10,685,134 41,493,372 8,606,578 54,041,522 176,923,732 23,649,844 5,705,835 61,323,910 46,440,345 21,051,203 47,818,546 6,616,247 2,575,466 6,233,513 1,593,076 20,014,373 4,556,909 624,802 1,702,661 3,984,697 26,535,124 0 1993 48,061,610 7,869,149 33,843,656 25,113,631 272,999,123 31,087,572 34,886,682 7,126,737 2,175,315 127,000,806 59,397,184 7,270,687 12,023,582 109,145,060 58,223,105 31,091,154 24,139,966 44,410,625 41,302,428 14,489,444 46,998,683 68,252,459 84,882,525 44,786,499 31,310,093 51,893,086 9,970,160 18,209,166 11,993,475 10,491,806 91,848,247 20,309,417 168,870,388 68,008,523 6,673,929 106,388,812 35,086,614 27,647,827 96,517,485 11,148,624 41,619,517 8,833,517 56,539,018 188,965,633 24,900,968 5,544,063 64,067,723 49,405,735 21,680,173 51,042,696 6,881,178 2,730,382 6,572,624 1,681,918 18,977,409 4,800,135 649,032 1,768,692 4,139,227 27,949,098 0 Total 2,263,077,737 2,471,022,463 2,591,694,072 States total 2,222,726,573 2,423,216,215 2,541,402,964 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 1994 50,032,110 8,392,403 36,749,593 26,345,494 290,331,402 33,353,283 36,073,582 7,735,697 2,257,215 137,327,171 64,627,708 7,847,502 12,294,225 115,298,644 61,517,412 31,853,040 25,650,722 45,056,587 45,647,554 15,027,952 49,200,832 70,110,591 87,947,884 47,621,738 32,812,517 55,028,020 9,924,761 18,485,000 13,372,881 11,412,656 94,831,997 22,037,988 188,631,208 71,852,327 6,935,085 110,355,995 35,925,969 25,840,910 98,038,281 11,847,532 42,812,993 9,095,350 59,063,160 202,910,088 25,617,530 5,721,822 67,392,842 53,055,502 21,648,178 53,486,606 7,270,179 2,911,677 6,974,067 1,800,919 25,006,912 5,087,119 786,208 1,852,232 4,334,735 29,633,413 0 2,742,095,000 2,688,714,630 1995 51,864,949 10,382,073 40,462,521 29,371,778 305,962,132 37,100,824 40,068,080 9,228,925 4,747,751 156,619,406 70,470,983 8,770,566 13,113,897 136,096,577 68,028,947 33,589,670 28,509,785 47,399,262 49,148,987 16,449,363 53,086,391 84,071,748 99,074,504 51,930,890 34,761,559 60,263,784 10,017,724 19,999,951 14,817,565 12,867,294 100,087,130 23,763,918 209,409,551 75,774,458 7,255,764 116,863,378 36,872,410 31,945,458 113,020,684 12,976,373 45,587,134 9,516,150 64,338,223 221,895,643 27,468,982 6,770,844 73,372,679 58,612,939 23,966,804 57,528,485 7,549,774 3,166,249 7,578,257 1,970,857 24,508,887 5,543,639 847,513 0 0 32,341,931 0 2,998,812,000 2,947,363,554 1996 51,045,811 10,319,861 41,234,116 29,296,844 306,325,987 36,879,043 39,000,847 9,217,330 4,934,030 157,894,928 71,614,373 8,912,839 13,172,403 133,736,662 68,324,462 33,232,027 28,438,119 47,077,528 48,169,436 16,776,706 53,192,705 82,540,935 98,278,722 51,718,000 34,444,468 60,053,606 10,188,274 19,721,123 15,276,112 13,143,939 99,160,713 24,294,899 211,126,382 77,998,354 7,360,855 115,418,812 36,517,020 31,277,986 112,354,116 13,246,262 45,645,651 9,413,310 63,248,325 223,179,366 27,190,085 6,894,737 72,975,093 56,975,655 23,387,566 57,489,406 7,646,512 3,095,965 7,414,949 1,936,582 25,015,166 5,422,952 635,636 0 0 32,273,041 7,243,368 3,000,000,000 2,941,977,507 37 Table C.5 Special Education—Percentage of Grants to States and Total IDEA Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other Total States total 1991 2.01 0.25 1.19 0.95 10.00 1.12 1.34 0.24 0.05 4.91 2.13 0.26 0.45 4.38 2.26 1.27 0.92 1.64 1.50 0.58 1.87 2.93 3.42 1.69 1.29 2.13 0.37 0.69 0.39 0.38 3.77 0.77 6.24 2.60 0.25 4.23 1.39 0.99 4.21 0.43 1.65 0.31 2.23 7.22 0.97 0.24 2.46 1.74 0.89 1.79 0.23 0.11 0.30 0.05 0.76 0.28 0.04 0.00 0.00 1.23 0.00 % of Grants to States Funding 1992 1993 1994 1995 2.03 1.92 1.89 1.79 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.32 1.23 1.27 1.31 1.31 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.95 10.15 10.20 10.20 9.84 1.15 1.19 1.20 1.23 1.28 1.36 1.29 1.34 0.24 0.23 0.24 0.28 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.13 5.05 5.10 5.21 5.33 2.18 2.27 2.33 2.34 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.41 4.19 4.03 4.03 4.53 2.30 2.32 2.30 2.33 1.24 1.22 1.19 1.16 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.93 1.64 1.58 1.53 1.46 1.54 1.56 1.63 1.60 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 1.83 1.81 1.80 1.75 2.83 2.74 2.66 2.83 3.25 3.24 3.20 3.31 1.67 1.67 1.70 1.70 1.25 1.24 1.22 1.18 2.12 2.12 2.12 2.11 0.36 0.37 0.34 0.32 0.73 0.72 0.70 0.69 0.41 0.45 0.47 0.48 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 3.70 3.65 3.57 3.47 0.79 0.81 0.83 0.82 6.35 6.37 6.68 6.77 2.60 2.61 2.60 2.52 0.25 0.24 0.23 0.22 4.19 4.23 4.14 4.05 1.39 1.40 1.37 1.28 0.98 1.07 0.97 1.07 3.96 3.74 3.61 3.74 0.43 0.42 0.43 0.43 1.63 1.58 1.54 1.49 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.29 2.24 2.25 2.23 2.24 7.32 7.51 7.63 7.61 0.98 0.99 0.96 0.93 0.21 0.19 0.18 0.19 2.46 2.48 2.47 2.46 1.79 1.83 1.86 1.89 0.89 0.87 0.82 0.82 1.82 1.87 1.88 1.85 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.73 0.62 0.84 0.78 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.00 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.00 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 97.98 97.79 97.79 97.79 98.08 1996 1.76 0.32 1.32 0.94 9.84 1.21 1.32 0.28 0.13 5.40 2.35 0.28 0.41 4.45 2.33 1.15 0.93 1.44 1.58 0.55 1.76 2.78 3.28 1.71 1.16 2.11 0.32 0.68 0.49 0.44 3.43 0.83 6.86 2.56 0.22 3.96 1.28 1.06 3.70 0.44 1.51 0.28 2.20 7.67 0.91 0.20 2.47 1.85 0.79 1.85 0.22 0.11 0.26 0.07 0.78 0.20 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.31 100.00 97.80 1991 1.96 0.27 1.19 0.96 10.24 1.10 1.34 0.28 0.08 4.73 2.11 0.27 0.48 4.65 2.12 1.28 0.93 1.75 1.54 0.60 1.88 2.85 3.46 1.77 1.30 1.98 0.39 0.68 0.39 0.38 3.74 0.74 6.37 2.62 0.27 4.01 1.38 0.86 4.16 0.44 1.70 0.35 2.18 7.10 0.95 0.25 2.46 1.83 0.85 1.92 0.26 0.10 0.28 0.05 0.83 0.25 0.03 0.00 0.00 1.07 0.00 100.00 98.22 % of Funding from All IDEA Grants 1992 1993 1994 1995 1.96 1.85 1.82 1.73 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.35 1.25 1.31 1.34 1.35 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.98 10.41 10.53 10.59 10.20 1.13 1.20 1.22 1.24 1.29 1.35 1.32 1.34 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.16 4.82 4.90 5.01 5.22 2.18 2.29 2.36 2.35 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 4.41 4.21 4.20 4.54 2.23 2.25 2.24 2.27 1.24 1.20 1.16 1.12 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.95 1.80 1.71 1.64 1.58 1.58 1.59 1.66 1.64 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 1.84 1.81 1.79 1.77 2.74 2.63 2.56 2.80 3.33 3.28 3.21 3.30 1.75 1.73 1.74 1.73 1.22 1.21 1.20 1.16 1.99 2.00 2.01 2.01 0.38 0.38 0.36 0.33 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.67 0.42 0.46 0.49 0.49 0.40 0.40 0.42 0.43 3.63 3.54 3.46 3.34 0.76 0.78 0.80 0.79 6.48 6.52 6.88 6.98 2.61 2.62 2.62 2.53 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.24 3.99 4.10 4.02 3.90 1.37 1.35 1.31 1.23 0.89 1.07 0.94 1.07 3.90 3.72 3.58 3.77 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 1.68 1.61 1.56 1.52 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.32 2.19 2.18 2.15 2.15 7.16 7.29 7.40 7.40 0.96 0.96 0.93 0.92 0.23 0.21 0.21 0.23 2.48 2.47 2.46 2.45 1.88 1.91 1.93 1.95 0.85 0.84 0.79 0.80 1.94 1.97 1.95 1.92 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.81 0.73 0.91 0.82 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.00 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.00 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 98.07 98.06 98.05 98.28 1996 1.70 0.34 1.37 0.98 10.21 1.23 1.30 0.31 0.16 5.26 2.39 0.30 0.44 4.46 2.28 1.11 0.95 1.57 1.61 0.56 1.77 2.75 3.28 1.72 1.15 2.00 0.34 0.66 0.51 0.44 3.31 0.81 7.04 2.60 0.25 3.85 1.22 1.04 3.75 0.44 1.52 0.31 2.11 7.44 0.91 0.23 2.43 1.90 0.78 1.92 0.25 0.10 0.25 0.06 0.83 0.18 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.08 0.24 100.00 98.07 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 38 Table C.6 Special Education—Percentage of Preschool Grants and Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding, Fiscal Years 1991–1996, by State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Palau Marshall Islands Micronesia Indian Tribe set-aside Other Total States total 1991 1.89 0.31 1.07 1.04 10.77 0.85 1.43 0.41 0.06 3.69 1.78 0.21 0.68 6.55 1.33 1.48 0.95 2.68 1.73 0.78 1.95 2.64 3.80 2.36 1.50 1.07 0.47 0.68 0.38 0.34 3.93 0.60 7.10 2.86 0.26 2.66 1.40 0.00 3.94 0.44 2.17 0.57 2.02 6.25 0.86 0.20 2.53 2.41 0.69 2.82 0.33 0.01 0.05 0.06 0.91 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 99.86 % of Preschool Grants Funding 1992 1993 1994 1995 1.84 1.75 1.72 1.62 0.33 0.34 0.36 0.39 1.23 1.35 1.39 1.38 1.11 1.10 1.08 1.32 10.88 10.57 10.65 10.27 0.95 1.21 1.26 1.28 1.40 1.38 1.63 1.38 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.38 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.06 3.67 3.92 4.14 4.88 1.98 2.26 2.39 2.42 0.23 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.60 0.58 0.54 0.56 5.79 5.24 5.17 4.74 1.89 2.02 2.10 2.10 1.36 1.23 1.18 1.07 1.01 1.04 1.12 1.11 3.06 2.86 2.65 2.65 1.72 1.80 1.88 1.83 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.62 1.95 1.79 1.80 1.72 2.53 2.33 2.31 2.70 3.64 3.40 3.23 3.35 2.26 2.18 2.15 2.04 1.15 1.14 1.19 1.22 1.29 1.39 1.46 1.51 0.45 0.42 0.38 0.33 0.69 0.67 0.63 0.63 0.46 0.52 0.55 0.55 0.32 0.31 0.36 0.38 3.70 3.40 3.25 3.02 0.65 0.70 0.74 0.78 7.28 7.36 8.36 8.53 2.81 2.88 2.95 2.87 0.25 0.22 0.22 0.21 2.75 3.54 3.41 3.45 1.33 1.25 1.07 0.94 0.30 1.11 0.72 1.07 3.47 3.54 3.20 3.74 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.40 2.18 1.94 1.90 1.88 0.55 0.51 0.46 0.42 2.14 2.07 2.02 1.86 6.22 5.99 5.91 5.81 0.86 0.87 0.81 0.87 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.25 2.70 2.55 2.54 2.45 2.42 2.41 2.45 2.43 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.85 2.72 2.76 2.64 2.48 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.28 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.99 0.96 0.63 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.92 99.93 99.94 99.93 1996 1.57 0.37 1.44 1.38 10.02 1.31 1.34 0.35 0.07 4.93 2.44 0.24 0.56 4.57 2.24 1.07 1.12 2.69 1.75 0.65 1.74 2.61 3.33 1.97 1.21 1.54 0.33 0.60 0.58 0.40 3.04 0.83 8.78 3.05 0.21 3.33 0.97 0.96 3.77 0.43 1.89 0.40 1.86 5.89 0.89 0.22 2.42 2.30 0.89 2.48 0.28 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.65 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 99.92 1991 1.46 0.49 1.57 0.85 12.66 1.29 1.15 0.49 0.49 4.46 2.56 0.49 0.49 4.33 1.95 0.91 0.93 1.23 1.76 0.49 1.81 2.09 3.40 1.62 0.99 1.83 0.49 0.58 0.49 0.49 2.79 0.65 6.63 2.33 0.49 3.87 1.13 0.96 3.99 0.49 1.32 0.49 1.70 7.28 0.86 0.49 2.24 1.77 0.54 1.75 0.49 0.15 0.40 0.10 1.71 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.00 % of Infants and Toddlers Grants Funding 1992 1993 1994 1995 1.44 1.43 1.44 1.38 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 1.50 1.55 1.55 1.60 0.84 0.81 0.81 0.80 12.41 13.70 13.82 12.78 1.27 1.24 1.27 1.23 1.18 1.14 1.09 1.30 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 4.35 4.53 4.50 4.82 2.55 2.54 2.57 2.36 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.47 4.36 4.35 4.39 4.35 2.03 1.93 1.92 2.04 0.97 0.91 0.88 0.89 0.95 0.88 0.86 0.89 1.27 1.23 1.24 1.24 1.68 1.62 1.63 1.67 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 1.85 1.84 1.78 1.98 2.13 2.09 2.01 2.69 3.60 3.45 3.25 3.22 1.70 1.56 1.53 1.61 0.99 0.97 1.00 0.90 1.87 1.79 1.75 1.81 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 0.60 0.56 0.53 0.56 0.49 0.51 0.52 0.56 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 2.76 2.76 2.76 2.71 0.63 0.63 0.65 0.60 6.47 6.62 6.57 6.77 2.37 2.35 2.38 2.16 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 4.00 3.76 3.84 3.31 1.14 1.10 1.11 1.18 1.02 1.00 0.98 1.00 4.05 3.85 3.81 3.99 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 1.31 1.31 1.30 1.30 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 1.70 1.70 1.72 1.78 7.05 7.19 7.43 7.69 0.87 0.83 0.85 0.90 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.44 2.28 2.25 2.24 2.32 1.86 1.85 1.86 1.88 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.60 1.81 1.68 1.63 1.79 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.45 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.16 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.36 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11 1.55 1.43 1.43 1.30 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1996 1.42 0.49 1.68 0.81 13.12 1.26 1.07 0.49 0.49 4.66 2.61 0.50 0.49 4.37 1.92 0.86 0.86 1.23 1.59 0.49 1.95 2.73 3.17 1.54 0.99 1.72 0.49 0.54 0.56 0.49 2.69 0.65 6.37 2.40 0.49 3.61 1.07 0.98 4.02 0.50 1.22 0.49 1.71 7.51 0.88 0.49 2.19 1.79 0.57 1.76 0.49 0.16 0.36 0.11 1.44 0.21 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 97.82 97.81 97.81 97.78 97.90 97.91 SOURCE: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/BudgetHistory/index.html. 39 Appendix D State Variation in Identification of Children as Disabled: School Year 2001–2002 Table D.1 Students with Individualized Education Programs, School Year 2001–2002, by State State Name Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Individualized Education Total Students Program (School (State) District) 737,294 95,708 134,358 17,814 922,180 97,654 449,805 56,165 6,248,610 661,575 742,145 73,887 570,228 74,016 115,555 16,068 75,392 12,594 2,500,478 378,251 1,470,634 170,106 184,546 22,848 246,521 28,932 2,071,391 297,307 996,133 160,344 485,932 72,305 470,205 61,402 654,363 98,146 731,328 98,145 205,586 33,413 860,640 111,511 973,140 150,003 1,730,668 232,592 851,384 110,307 493,507 62,117 909,792 140,676 151,947 19,176 285,095 44,227 356,814 40,216 206,847 28,675 1,341,656 218,364 320,260 62,738 2,872,132 424,722 1,315,363 186,255 106,047 13,401 1,830,985 224,986 622,139 87,672 551,480 70,309 1,821,627 232,056 158,046 31,616 691,078 98,423 127,542 16,764 925,030 143,116 4,163,447 495,493 484,677 54,571 101,179 13,430 1,163,091 164,523 1,009,200 120,775 282,885 50,080 879,361 126,152 88,128 11,716 % of Students 12.98 13.26 10.59 12.49 10.59 9.96 12.98 13.91 16.70 15.13 11.57 12.38 11.74 14.35 16.10 14.88 13.06 15.00 13.42 16.25 12.96 15.41 13.44 12.96 12.59 15.46 12.62 15.51 11.27 13.86 16.28 19.59 14.79 14.16 12.64 12.29 14.09 12.75 12.74 20.00 14.24 13.14 15.47 11.90 11.26 13.27 14.15 11.97 17.70 14.35 13.29 Rank by % of Students 31 28 49 40 50 51 32 22 4 12 46 41 45 16 7 14 30 13 25 6 33 11 24 34 39 10 38 8 47 23 5 2 15 19 37 42 21 35 36 1 18 29 9 44 48 27 20 43 3 17 26 States total 47,687,871 6,313,342 13.24 SOURCE: Common Core of Data, Build A Table extraction, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. 42 Appendix E Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), Funding Allocation: Fiscal Year 2003, by State Table E.1 Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), 2003 State Allocations U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal Other Funding in FY 1999 ($) 4,310,700,000 4,211,932,548 69,017,922 12,247,357 61,263,060 40,872,926 431,237,374 51,886,005 53,060,125 11,224,669 5,643,797 238,676,175 107,699,572 14,156,512 19,052,135 194,398,440 101,341,485 49,065,489 40,399,267 60,830,890 65,859,276 21,991,584 77,229,155 114,086,702 143,898,146 73,410,154 42,676,977 90,973,549 12,997,604 30,009,897 23,039,165 19,016,870 145,270,027 36,034,694 298,798,306 114,312,121 9,114,296 159,145,801 55,517,617 48,323,540 156,534,110 17,575,151 68,478,573 10,857,498 88,697,223 336,565,139 37,843,586 8,787,921 106,290,352 78,927,411 30,522,278 80,406,470 9,219,400 37,448,755 52,849,182 17,577,448 Funding in FY 2002 ($) 7,528,533,000 7,395,868,077 119,960,334 22,199,605 111,045,656 71,962,298 781,662,507 94,048,771 89,245,788 20,345,877 10,229,967 405,878,306 195,216,655 25,660,148 34,533,972 336,446,325 170,853,119 82,526,911 70,893,325 104,503,321 119,376,775 36,989,288 131,443,233 191,890,947 260,135,764 128,321,623 77,199,160 153,553,541 23,559,507 50,475,888 41,760,879 32,080,256 244,340,509 61,594,953 509,305,853 202,724,229 16,520,608 288,468,284 98,502,970 86,394,113 281,508,625 29,560,959 115,429,949 19,680,342 154,805,179 608,102,898 68,595,427 15,929,020 181,253,563 142,623,221 51,337,699 140,599,055 16,711,120 67,879,755 79,377,301 22,579,306 FAPE Age Guaranteed by State 20 21 21 20 18 20 20 20 21 21 21 19 20 20 21 20 20 20 21 19 20 21 21 20 20 20 18 20 21 20 20 21 20 20 20 21 21 20 20 20 21 20 21 21 21 21 21 20 20 20 20 21 Resulting New Funding Level ($) 8,874,397,536 8,740,028,808 143,066,186 26,501,189 132,562,806 85,906,324 933,124,077 112,272,460 103,861,437 24,288,267 12,212,212 479,524,894 233,043,493 30,632,276 41,225,568 393,133,924 200,791,461 96,042,219 84,072,280 122,827,403 142,508,233 43,046,968 153,621,503 223,316,639 308,119,147 149,336,662 92,157,925 178,700,774 28,124,597 58,742,248 49,852,822 37,333,991 284,355,787 71,699,436 597,207,572 235,924,072 19,721,781 344,364,350 116,368,204 100,990,583 336,056,128 34,402,113 137,796,637 23,493,772 181,996,495 725,934,083 81,887,060 19,015,562 214,098,538 170,259,108 59,745,197 163,780,419 19,949,209 81,032,713 80,458,990 22,579,306 % of U.S. Total 100.00 98.49 1.61 0.30 1.49 0.97 10.51 1.27 1.17 0.27 0.14 5.40 2.63 0.35 0.46 4.43 2.26 1.08 0.95 1.38 1.61 0.49 1.73 2.52 3.47 1.68 1.04 2.01 0.32 0.66 0.56 0.42 3.20 0.81 6.73 2.66 0.22 3.88 1.31 1.14 3.79 0.39 1.55 0.26 2.05 8.18 0.92 0.21 2.41 1.92 0.67 1.85 0.22 0.91 0.91 0.25 % Change from Prior Year 17.88 18.17 19.26 19.38 19.38 19.38 19.38 19.38 16.38 19.38 19.38 18.14 19.38 19.38 19.38 16.85 17.52 16.38 18.59 17.53 19.38 16.38 16.87 16.38 18.45 16.38 19.38 16.38 19.38 16.38 19.38 16.38 16.38 16.40 17.26 16.38 19.38 19.38 18.14 16.90 19.38 16.38 19.38 19.38 17.56 19.38 19.38 19.38 18.12 19.38 16.38 16.49 19.38 19.38 1.36 0.00 American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands 4,832,745 11,675,837 2,980,233 8,852,007 5,705,650 12,629,887 4,372,921 7,999,858 5,816,515 12,896,899 4,419,970 8,197,048 0.07 1.94 0.15 2.11 0.05 1.08 0.09 2.46 SOURCES: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Current Population Survey, March 2002 Supplement, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 300, Subpart G, Allocation of Funds. In 2002, USDE provided less than the required 1.226 percent of funds to the Interior Department for tribes and tribal organizations. USDE awards grants to territories on a competitive basis, rather than by formula. FAPE age is from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Policy/2q2002pl/osep0206_2Q2002.pdf . 44 Appendix F Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), Funding Allocations: Administration Budget and House Appropriation for Fiscal Year 2004, Hypothetical Alternative for Fiscal Year 2005, by State Table F.1 Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), 2004 State Allocations: Administration Budget and House Appropriation 46 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico Funding in FY 1999 ($) 4,310,700,000 4,211,932,548 69,017,922 12,247,357 61,263,060 40,872,926 431,237,374 51,886,005 53,060,125 11,224,669 5,643,797 238,676,175 107,699,572 14,156,512 19,052,135 194,398,440 101,341,485 49,065,489 40,399,267 60,830,890 65,859,276 21,991,584 77,229,155 114,086,702 143,898,146 73,410,154 42,676,977 90,973,549 12,997,604 30,009,897 23,039,165 19,016,870 145,270,027 36,034,694 Funding in FY 2003 ($) 8,874,397,536 8,740,028,808 143,066,181 26,501,189 132,562,806 85,906,324 933,124,077 112,272,460 103,861,437 24,288,267 12,212,212 479,524,885 233,043,493 30,632,276 41,225,568 393,133,924 200,791,461 96,042,219 84,072,314 122,827,410 142,508,233 43,046,968 153,621,502 223,316,639 308,119,146 149,336,662 92,157,925 178,700,774 28,124,597 58,742,248 49,852,822 37,333,991 284,355,787 71,699,432 President’s Budget Request: 9,528,533,000 House Appropriations Bill: 9,874,398,000 FAPE Age Administration % Change House-Passed % Change Guaranteed FY 2004 Budget % of U.S. from Prior Appropriations Bill % of U.S. from Prior by State Request ($) Total Year for FY 2004 ($) Total Year 9,528,533,000 100.00 7.37 9,874,398,000 100.00 11.27 9,392,006,177 98.57 7.46 9,737,871,177 98.62 11.42 20 153,218,358 1.61 7.10 158,969,095 1.61 11.12 21 28,852,120 0.30 8.87 29,884,960 0.30 12.77 21 144,322,507 1.51 8.87 149,488,923 1.51 12.77 20 92,257,852 0.97 7.39 95,767,348 0.97 11.48 18 1,009,183,378 10.59 8.15 1,048,656,038 10.62 12.38 20 122,232,196 1.28 8.87 126,607,830 1.28 12.77 20 110,751,539 1.16 6.63 114,394,584 1.16 10.14 20 26,442,889 0.28 8.87 27,389,484 0.28 12.77 21 13,295,562 0.14 8.87 13,771,513 0.14 12.77 21 512,545,759 5.38 6.89 531,250,553 5.38 10.79 21 253,716,876 2.66 8.87 262,799,362 2.66 12.77 19 33,349,678 0.35 8.87 34,543,520 0.35 12.77 20 44,882,705 0.47 8.87 46,489,403 0.47 12.77 20 420,380,976 4.41 6.93 435,815,172 4.41 10.86 21 214,426,262 2.25 6.79 222,149,746 2.25 10.64 20 102,413,599 1.07 6.63 105,782,377 1.07 10.14 20 90,059,942 0.95 7.12 93,451,675 0.95 11.16 20 131,327,256 1.38 6.92 136,142,029 1.38 10.84 21 155,150,197 1.63 8.87 160,704,220 1.63 12.77 19 45,902,677 0.48 6.63 47,412,593 0.48 10.14 20 164,095,055 1.72 6.82 170,027,838 1.72 10.68 21 238,131,324 2.50 6.63 245,964,381 2.49 10.14 21 330,634,191 3.47 7.31 343,387,923 3.48 11.45 20 159,243,562 1.67 6.63 164,803,137 1.67 10.36 20 100,333,292 1.05 8.87 103,924,995 1.05 12.77 20 190,555,670 2.00 6.63 196,823,781 1.99 10.14 18 30,390,381 0.32 8.06 31,543,264 0.32 12.16 20 62,639,172 0.66 6.63 64,699,616 0.66 10.14 21 54,275,286 0.57 8.87 56,218,218 0.57 12.77 20 39,810,704 0.42 6.63 41,120,232 0.42 10.14 20 303,219,770 3.18 6.63 313,193,838 3.17 10.14 21 76,589,147 0.80 6.82 79,358,942 0.80 10.68 Table F.1 (continued) 47 New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal Other American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands Funding in FY 1999 ($) 298,798,306 114,312,121 9,114,296 159,145,801 55,517,617 48,323,540 156,534,110 17,575,151 68,478,573 10,857,498 88,697,223 336,565,139 37,843,586 8,787,921 106,290,352 78,927,411 30,522,278 80,406,470 9,219,400 37,448,755 52,849,182 17,577,448 4,832,745 11,675,837 2,980,233 8,852,007 Funding in FY 2003 ($) 597,207,574 235,924,071 19,721,781 344,364,350 116,368,189 100,990,582 336,056,128 34,402,113 137,796,637 23,493,772 181,996,487 725,934,083 81,887,060 19,015,562 214,098,545 170,259,108 59,745,197 163,780,418 19,949,209 81,032,713 80,458,990 22,579,306 5,816,515 12,896,899 President’s Budget Request: 9,528,533,000 House Appropriations Bill: 9,874,398,000 FAPE Age Administration % Change House-Passed % Change Guaranteed FY 2004 Budget % of U.S. from Prior Appropriations Bill % of U.S. from Prior by State Request ($) Total Year for FY 2004 ($) Total Year 20 638,120,109 6.70 6.85 661,295,170 6.70 10.73 20 251,624,525 2.64 6.65 261,002,712 2.64 10.63 20 21,471,308 0.23 8.87 22,239,932 0.23 12.77 21 372,227,827 3.91 8.09 386,780,941 3.92 12.32 21 124,710,948 1.31 7.17 129,436,726 1.31 11.23 20 108,211,345 1.14 7.15 112,301,573 1.14 11.20 20 361,558,631 3.79 7.59 375,561,432 3.80 11.76 20 36,684,327 0.38 6.63 37,891,016 0.38 10.14 21 148,498,503 1.56 7.77 153,963,719 1.56 11.73 20 25,577,914 0.27 8.87 26,493,545 0.27 12.77 21 194,788,021 2.04 7.03 202,033,829 2.05 11.01 21 782,556,212 8.21 7.80 813,016,590 8.23 12.00 21 89,151,295 0.94 8.87 92,342,708 0.94 12.77 21 20,702,440 0.22 8.87 21,443,540 0.22 12.77 21 228,879,267 2.40 6.90 237,251,867 2.40 10.81 20 183,753,736 1.93 7.93 190,913,183 1.93 12.13 20 63,708,656 0.67 6.63 65,804,279 0.67 10.14 20 175,211,163 1.84 6.98 181,686,151 1.84 10.93 20 21,718,911 0.23 8.87 22,496,399 0.23 12.77 21 88,221,158 0.93 8.87 91,379,274 0.93 12.77 82,012,251 0.86 1.93 82,012,251 0.83 1.93 22,579,306 0.24 0.00 22,579,306 0.23 0.00 5,928,803 0.06 1.93 5,928,803 0.06 1.93 13,145,874 0.14 1.93 13,145,874 0.13 1.93 4,419,970 8,197,048 4,505,298 8,355,292 0.05 1.93 0.09 1.93 4,505,298 8,355,292 0.05 0.08 1.93 1.93 SOURCES: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100 percent data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Current Population Survey, March 2002 Supplement, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 300, Subpart G, Allocation of Funds. In 2002, USDE provided less than the required 1.226 percent of funds to the Interior Department for tribes and tribal organizations. USDE awards grants to territories on a competitive basis, rather than by formula. FAPE age is from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Policy/2q2002pl/osep0206_2Q2002.pdf . New Jersey's top FAPE age was reduced from 21 to 20 years for formula calculations beginning in 2003. Table F.2 Special Education—Grants to States (Part B), 2004 and 2005 State Allocations—Hypothetical Funding Totals 48 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2004: 10,000,000,000 Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2005: 12,000,000,000 Resulting % Change Resulting New % Change FY 1999 FY 2003 Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Sum of 2004 and Funding ($) Funding ($) for FY 2004 ($) Total Year for FY 2005 ($) Total Year 2005 Funding 4,310,700,000 8,874,397,536 10,000,000,000 100.00 12.68 12,000,000,000 100.00 20.00 22,000,000,000 4,211,932,548 8,740,028,808 9,863,473,177 98.63 12.85 11,861,273,420 98.84 20.25 21,724,746,598 69,017,922 143,066,181 161,055,228 1.61 12.57 193,620,703 1.61 20.22 354,675,931 12,247,357 26,501,189 30,260,040 0.30 14.18 36,765,948 0.31 21.50 67,025,988 61,263,060 132,562,806 151,365,124 1.51 14.18 183,908,626 1.53 21.50 335,273,750 40,872,926 85,906,324 97,040,451 0.97 12.96 116,914,155 0.97 20.48 213,954,606 431,237,374 933,124,077 1,062,975,113 10.63 13.92 1,286,502,295 10.72 21.03 2,349,477,408 51,886,005 112,272,460 128,196,855 1.28 14.18 155,759,179 1.30 21.50 283,956,034 53,060,125 103,861,437 115,717,568 1.16 11.42 11,224,669 24,288,267 27,733,243 0.28 14.18 137,125,318 33,695,891 1.14 0.28 18.50 21.50 252,842,886 61,429,134 5,643,797 12,212,212 13,944,356 0.14 14.18 16,942,393 0.14 21.50 30,886,749 238,676,175 479,524,885 538,035,891 5.38 12.20 643,958,064 5.37 19.69 1,181,993,955 107,699,572 233,043,493 266,097,696 2.66 14.18 323,308,701 2.69 21.50 589,406,397 14,156,512 30,632,276 34,977,068 0.35 14.18 42,497,137 0.35 21.50 77,474,205 19,052,135 41,225,568 47,072,881 0.47 14.18 57,193,551 0.48 21.50 104,266,432 194,398,440 393,133,924 441,414,070 4.41 12.28 528,815,383 4.41 19.80 970,229,453 101,341,485 200,791,461 224,951,512 2.25 12.03 268,688,334 2.24 19.44 493,639,846 49,065,489 96,042,219 107,005,760 1.07 11.42 40,399,267 84,072,314 94,682,058 0.95 12.62 126,801,826 113,888,888 1.06 0.95 18.50 20.29 233,807,586 208,570,947 60,830,890 122,827,410 137,888,633 1.38 12.26 165,153,903 1.38 19.77 303,042,536 65,859,276 142,508,233 162,721,181 1.63 14.18 197,706,235 1.65 21.50 360,427,417 21,991,584 43,046,968 47,960,924 0.48 11.42 56,833,695 0.47 18.50 104,794,618 77,229,155 153,621,502 172,180,010 1.72 12.08 205,776,383 1.71 19.51 377,956,393 114,086,702 223,316,639 248,808,982 2.49 11.42 294,838,643 2.46 18.50 543,647,625 143,898,146 308,119,146 348,014,458 3.48 12.95 420,236,745 3.50 20.75 768,251,203 73,410,154 149,336,662 166,922,709 1.67 11.78 200,010,170 1.67 19.82 366,932,879 42,676,977 92,157,925 105,229,334 1.05 14.18 90,973,549 178,700,774 199,100,066 1.99 11.42 127,853,641 236,705,595 1.07 1.97 21.50 18.89 233,082,974 435,805,661 12,997,604 28,124,597 31,961,937 0.32 13.64 38,628,604 0.32 20.86 70,590,541 30,009,897 58,742,248 65,447,872 0.65 11.42 77,555,729 0.65 18.50 143,003,601 23,039,165 49,852,822 56,923,800 0.57 14.18 69,162,416 0.58 21.50 126,086,216 19,016,870 37,333,991 41,595,791 0.42 11.42 49,291,013 0.41 18.50 90,886,804 145,270,027 284,355,787 316,815,953 3.17 11.42 375,426,904 3.13 18.50 692,242,857 36,034,694 71,699,432 80,363,711 0.80 12.08 96,048,607 0.80 19.52 176,412,318 Table F.2 (continued) 49 New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal Other American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2004: 10,000,000,000 Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2005: 12,000,000,000 Resulting % Change Resulting New % Change FY 1999 FY 2003 Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Sum of 2004 and Funding ($) Funding ($) for FY 2004 ($) Total Year for FY 2005 ($) Total Year 2005 Funding 298,798,306 597,207,574 669,702,140 6.70 12.14 800,938,701 6.67 19.60 1,470,640,841 114,312,121 235,924,071 264,404,737 2.64 12.07 317,511,868 2.65 20.09 581,916,605 9,114,296 19,721,781 22,519,060 0.23 14.18 27,360,658 0.23 21.50 49,879,719 159,145,801 344,364,350 392,060,219 3.92 13.85 474,472,113 3.95 21.02 866,532,332 55,517,617 116,368,189 131,151,047 1.31 12.70 157,912,353 1.32 20.40 289,063,400 48,323,540 100,990,582 113,785,341 1.14 12.67 136,947,630 1.14 20.36 250,732,971 156,534,110 336,056,128 380,641,079 3.81 13.27 459,936,641 3.83 20.83 840,577,721 17,575,151 34,402,113 38,329,229 0.38 11.42 45,420,137 0.38 18.50 83,749,366 68,478,573 137,796,637 10,857,498 23,493,772 155,946,276 1.56 13.17 26,826,059 0.27 14.18 186,894,893 32,593,662 1.56 0.27 19.85 21.50 342,841,170 59,419,722 88,697,223 181,996,487 204,662,314 2.05 12.45 245,694,135 2.05 20.05 450,356,449 336,565,139 725,934,083 824,066,376 8.24 13.52 996,558,490 8.30 20.93 1,820,624,866 37,843,586 81,887,060 93,501,680 0.94 14.18 113,604,541 0.95 21.50 207,106,220 8,787,921 19,015,562 21,712,673 0.22 14.18 26,380,898 0.22 21.50 48,093,571 106,290,352 214,098,545 240,289,105 2.40 12.23 287,701,761 2.40 19.73 527,990,866 78,927,411 170,259,108 193,510,339 1.94 13.66 234,053,111 1.95 20.95 427,563,449 30,522,278 59,745,197 66,565,311 0.67 11.42 78,879,894 0.66 18.50 145,445,206 80,406,470 163,780,418 9,219,400 19,949,209 184,035,013 1.84 12.37 22,778,746 0.23 14.18 220,701,805 27,676,176 1.84 0.23 19.92 21.50 404,736,818 50,454,923 37,448,755 81,032,713 92,526,155 0.93 14.18 112,419,278 0.94 21.50 204,945,432 52,849,182 80,458,990 82,012,251 0.82 1.93 83,595,497 0.70 1.93 165,607,748 17,577,448 22,579,306 22,579,306 0.23 0.00 22,579,306 0.19 0.00 45,158,612 4,832,745 5,816,515 5,928,803 0.06 1.93 6,043,258 0.05 1.93 11,972,061 11,675,837 12,896,899 13,145,874 0.13 1.93 13,399,655 0.11 1.93 26,545,528 2,980,233 8,852,007 4,419,970 8,197,048 4,505,298 8,355,292 0.05 0.08 1.93 1.93 4,592,272 8,516,591 0.04 0.07 1.93 1.93 9,097,570 16,871,883 SOURCES: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Current Population Survey, March 2002 Supplement, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 300, Subpart G, Allocation of Funds. In 2002, USDE provided less than the required 1.226 percent of funds to the Interior Department for tribes and tribal organizations. USDE awards grants to territories on a competitive basis, rather than by formula. FAPE age is from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Policy/2q2002pl/osep0206_2Q2002.pdf. New Jersey’s top FAPE age was reduced from 21 to 20 years for formula calculations beginning in 2003. Appendix G Grants for Infants and Toddlers, Funding Allocations: Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004, by State Table G.1 Special Education—Infants and Toddlers Grants (Part C), State Allocations, Fiscal Year 2003 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands Total Population Ages 0–2 Persons % of States 11,615,286 11,591,525 100.00 177,099 1.53 28,231 0.24 229,836 1.98 108,555 0.94 1,459,066 12.59 179,130 1.55 130,813 1.13 30,867 0.27 19,276 0.17 561,839 4.85 358,255 3.09 46,412 0.40 58,550 0.51 520,550 4.49 253,136 2.18 112,488 0.97 113,456 0.98 159,519 1.38 191,286 1.65 41,453 0.36 209,218 1.80 235,958 2.04 398,600 3.44 195,989 1.69 123,078 1.06 221,068 1.91 32,532 0.28 70,106 0.60 86,767 0.75 43,897 0.38 333,135 2.87 78,338 0.68 732,065 6.32 326,535 2.82 23,357 0.20 448,690 3.87 143,177 1.24 132,734 1.15 428,274 3.69 37,775 0.33 159,387 1.38 30,516 0.26 224,825 1.94 977,438 8.43 129,200 1.11 19,807 0.17 276,614 2.39 235,475 2.03 60,404 0.52 203,339 1.75 18,561 0.16 174,849 1.51 Hypothetical Allocation (with No Small State Minimum) Dollars % 434,159,500 100.00 428,732,506 98.75 6,550,311 1.51 1,044,172 0.24 8,500,880 1.96 4,015,094 0.92 53,966,068 12.43 6,625,431 1.53 4,838,344 1.11 1,141,669 0.26 712,956 0.16 20,780,583 4.79 13,250,678 3.05 1,716,628 0.40 2,165,573 0.50 19,253,438 4.43 9,362,671 2.16 4,160,562 0.96 4,196,365 0.97 5,900,085 1.36 7,075,042 1.63 1,533,211 0.35 7,738,288 1.78 8,727,313 2.01 14,742,907 3.40 7,248,991 1.67 4,552,252 1.05 8,176,581 1.88 1,203,252 0.28 2,592,991 0.60 3,209,227 0.74 1,623,606 0.37 12,321,571 2.84 2,897,466 0.67 27,076,684 6.24 12,077,459 2.78 863,899 0.20 16,595,572 3.82 5,295,648 1.22 4,909,395 1.13 15,840,451 3.65 1,397,173 0.32 5,895,203 1.36 1,128,687 0.26 8,315,540 1.92 36,152,227 8.33 4,778,684 1.10 732,596 0.17 10,231,045 2.36 8,709,448 2.01 2,234,146 0.51 7,520,843 1.73 686,511 0.16 6,467,091 1.49 4,856 10,218 3,600 5,087 603,278 1,341,222 462,815 786,891 0.14 0.31 0.11 0.18 Actual Allocation (Includes 0.5% Small State Minimum Dollars % 434,159,500 100.00 425,533,399 98.01 6,313,728 1.45 2,127,667 0.49 8,193,846 1.89 3,870,077 0.89 52,016,926 11.98 6,386,135 1.47 4,663,593 1.07 2,127,667 0.49 2,127,667 0.49 20,030,031 4.61 12,772,091 2.94 2,127,667 0.49 2,127,667 0.49 18,558,044 4.27 9,024,511 2.08 4,010,291 0.92 4,044,801 0.93 5,686,986 1.31 6,819,506 1.57 2,127,667 0.49 7,458,797 1.72 8,412,100 1.94 14,210,424 3.27 6,987,172 1.61 4,387,834 1.01 7,881,259 1.82 2,127,667 0.49 2,499,338 0.58 3,093,316 0.71 2,127,667 0.49 11,876,542 2.74 2,792,815 0.64 26,098,731 6.01 11,641,246 2.68 2,127,667 0.49 15,996,175 3.68 5,104,380 1.18 4,732,078 1.09 15,268,327 3.52 2,127,667 0.49 5,682,280 1.31 2,127,667 0.49 8,015,200 1.85 34,846,484 8.03 4,606,088 1.06 2,127,667 0.49 9,861,521 2.27 8,394,881 1.93 2,153,453 0.50 7,249,206 1.67 2,127,667 0.49 6,233,513 1.44 5,359,994 1.23 603,278 0.14 1,413,123 0.33 462,815 0.11 786,891 0.18 SOURCE: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 303, Subpart C, Sec. 200, Procedures for Making Grants to States. 52 Table G.2 Infants and Toddlers Grants (Part C), State Allocations, Fiscal Year 2004 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands Total Population Ages 0–2 Persons % of States 11,615,286 11,591,525 100.00 177,099 1.53 28,231 0.24 229,836 1.98 108,555 0.94 1,459,066 12.59 179,130 1.55 130,813 1.13 30,867 0.27 19,276 0.17 561,839 4.85 358,255 3.09 46,412 0.40 58,550 0.51 520,550 4.49 253,136 2.18 112,488 0.97 113,456 0.98 159,519 1.38 191,286 1.65 41,453 0.36 209,218 1.80 235,958 2.04 398,600 3.44 195,989 1.69 123,078 1.06 221,068 1.91 32,532 0.28 70,106 0.60 86,767 0.75 43,897 0.38 333,135 2.87 78,338 0.68 732,065 6.32 326,535 2.82 23,357 0.20 448,690 3.87 143,177 1.24 132,734 1.15 428,274 3.69 37,775 0.33 159,387 1.38 30,516 0.26 224,825 1.94 977,438 8.43 129,200 1.11 19,807 0.17 276,614 2.39 235,475 2.03 60,404 0.52 203,339 1.75 18,561 0.16 174,849 1.51 5,518,519 1.23 4,856 10,218 3,600 5,087 Hypothetical Allocation (with No Small State Minimum) Dollars % 447,000,000 100.00 441,412,500 98.75 6,744,040 1.51 1,075,054 0.24 8,752,298 1.96 4,133,842 0.92 55,562,143 12.43 6,821,382 1.53 4,981,441 1.11 1,175,435 0.26 734,042 0.16 21,395,179 4.79 13,642,574 3.05 1,767,398 0.40 2,229,621 0.50 19,822,869 4.43 9,639,577 2.16 4,283,613 0.96 4,320,475 0.97 6,074,583 1.36 7,284,290 1.63 1,578,556 0.35 7,967,152 1.78 8,985,428 2.01 15,178,937 3.40 7,463,383 1.67 4,686,887 1.05 8,418,407 1.88 1,238,839 0.28 2,669,680 0.60 3,304,141 0.74 1,671,625 0.37 12,685,989 2.84 2,983,160 0.67 27,877,492 6.24 12,434,656 2.78 889,449 0.20 17,086,395 3.82 5,452,269 1.22 5,054,593 1.13 16,308,941 3.65 1,438,496 0.32 6,069,556 1.36 1,162,068 0.26 8,561,476 1.92 37,221,449 8.33 4,920,017 1.10 754,263 0.17 10,533,634 2.36 8,967,035 2.01 2,300,222 0.51 7,743,276 1.73 706,814 0.16 6,658,359 1.49 603,278 1,476,175 462,815 786,891 0.13 0.33 0.10 0.18 Actual Allocation (Includes 0.5% Small State Minimum Dollars % 447,000,000 100.00 438,152,322 98.02 6,500,957 1.45 2,190,762 0.49 8,436,829 1.89 3,984,841 0.89 53,559,455 11.98 6,575,511 1.47 4,801,889 1.07 2,190,762 0.49 2,190,762 0.49 20,624,009 4.61 13,150,839 2.94 2,190,762 0.49 2,190,762 0.49 19,108,371 4.27 9,292,127 2.08 4,129,214 0.92 4,164,748 0.93 5,855,630 1.31 7,021,734 1.57 2,190,762 0.49 7,679,983 1.72 8,661,556 1.94 14,631,825 3.27 7,194,372 1.61 4,517,952 1.01 8,114,973 1.82 2,190,762 0.49 2,573,454 0.58 3,185,047 0.71 2,190,762 0.49 12,228,733 2.74 2,875,635 0.64 26,872,672 6.01 11,986,460 2.68 2,190,762 0.49 16,470,531 3.68 5,255,747 1.18 4,872,405 1.09 15,721,100 3.52 2,190,762 0.49 5,850,785 1.31 2,190,762 0.49 8,252,885 1.85 35,879,834 8.03 4,742,679 1.06 2,190,762 0.49 10,153,958 2.27 8,643,826 1.93 2,217,313 0.50 7,464,176 1.67 2,190,762 0.49 6,418,364 1.44 603,278 1,476,175 462,815 786,891 0.13 0.33 0.10 0.18 SOURCE: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C. NOTES: Total 2004 appropriation of $447 million appears in the President’s Budget, House-passed bill, and Senate Committee bill. Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 303, Subpart C, Sec. 200, Procedures for Making Grants to States. 53 Appendix H Preschool Grants, Funding Allocation: Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004, Hypothetical Alternative for Fiscal Year 2005, by State 56 U.S. total (all) U.S. total (states) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York Table H.1 Special Education—Preschool Grants (Part B), 2004 and 2005 State Allocations: Hypothetical Funding Totals Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2004: 390,000,000 Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2005: 450,000,000 FY 1997 Resulting New % Change Resulting New % Change Sum of 2004 (Base Year) FY 2003 Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior and 2005 Funding ($) Funding ($) for FY 2004 ($) Total Year for FY 2005 ($) Total Year Funding ($) 377,912,182 387,465,000 390,000,000 100.00 0.65 450,000,000 100.00 15.38 840,000,000 360,050,998 387,465,000 390,000,000 100.00 0.65 450,000,000 100.00 15.38 840,000,000 5,308,013 5,694,625 5,748,487 1.47 0.95 6,719,097 1.49 16.88 12,467,585 1,195,743 1,286,031 1,293,604 0.33 0.59 1,473,215 0.33 13.88 2,766,819 5,008,915 5,499,684 5,546,000 1.42 0.84 6,482,421 1.44 16.88 12,028,421 5,102,788 5,447,257 5,479,332 1.40 0.59 6,240,116 1.39 13.88 11,719,448 36,074,288 39,529,222 39,761,981 10.20 0.59 46,475,638 10.33 16.88 86,237,619 4,692,338 5,041,483 5,074,546 1.30 0.66 5,931,364 1.32 16.88 11,005,911 4,665,794 4,980,763 5,010,091 1.28 0.59 5,705,723 1.27 13.88 10,715,814 1,189,269 1,279,557 1,287,091 0.33 0.59 1,465,799 0.33 13.88 2,752,890 224,647 251,429 256,845 0.07 2.15 300,213 0.07 16.88 557,058 17,510,810 18,798,391 18,909,081 4.85 0.59 21,898,214 4.87 15.81 40,807,296 9,250,017 10,007,230 10,085,052 2.59 0.78 11,787,875 2.62 16.88 21,872,927 927,721 1,027,363 1,036,058 0.27 0.85 1,210,993 0.27 16.88 2,247,051 2,080,088 2,220,506 2,233,581 0.57 0.59 2,543,705 0.57 13.88 4,777,286 16,776,014 17,934,208 18,039,810 4.63 0.59 20,804,356 4.62 15.32 38,844,166 8,464,723 9,036,144 9,089,351 2.33 0.59 10,351,373 2.30 13.88 19,440,724 3,796,987 4,053,306 4,077,173 1.05 0.59 4,643,273 1.03 13.88 8,720,446 4,122,628 4,400,930 4,426,844 1.14 0.59 5,041,494 1.12 13.88 9,468,338 9,715,496 10,371,351 10,432,420 2.67 0.59 11,880,922 2.64 13.88 22,313,342 6,147,040 6,587,642 6,636,688 1.70 0.74 7,757,268 1.72 16.88 14,393,956 2,390,839 2,552,235 2,567,263 0.66 0.59 2,923,718 0.65 13.88 5,490,981 6,338,022 6,783,039 6,822,979 1.75 0.59 7,865,218 1.75 15.28 14,688,198 9,409,924 10,045,150 10,104,299 2.59 0.59 11,507,242 2.56 13.88 21,611,540 11,916,000 12,774,278 12,849,496 3.29 0.59 14,908,706 3.31 16.03 27,758,202 7,066,345 7,543,367 7,587,784 1.95 0.59 8,641,319 1.92 13.88 16,229,104 4,018,513 4,295,697 4,320,991 1.11 0.59 4,951,433 1.10 14.59 9,272,424 5,660,844 6,128,272 6,179,893 1.58 0.84 7,223,344 1.61 16.88 13,403,236 1,116,795 1,207,049 1,214,156 0.31 0.59 1,382,737 0.31 13.88 2,596,894 2,143,533 2,293,078 2,306,580 0.59 0.59 2,662,302 0.59 15.42 4,968,882 2,111,164 2,295,210 2,308,725 0.59 0.59 2,698,544 0.60 16.88 5,007,269 1,481,893 1,581,930 1,591,245 0.41 0.59 1,812,183 0.40 13.88 3,403,428 10,823,193 11,553,824 11,621,856 2.98 0.59 13,246,841 2.94 13.98 24,868,697 3,032,410 3,237,116 3,256,177 0.83 0.59 3,708,285 0.82 13.88 6,964,462 32,104,446 34,273,423 34,475,234 8.84 0.59 39,261,988 8.72 13.88 73,737,222 Table H.1 (continued) 57 North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Interior: Tribes/Tribal Other Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2004: 390,000,000 Total U.S. Funding Assumed for FY 2005: 450,000,000 FY 1997 Resulting New % Change Resulting New % Change Sum of 2004 (Base Year) FY 2003 Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior Funding Level % of U.S. from Prior and 2005 Funding ($) Funding ($) for FY 2004 ($) Total Year for FY 2005 ($) Total Year Funding ($) 10,761,043 11,487,478 11,555,119 2.96 0.59 13,159,503 2.92 13.88 24,714,623 748,392 831,821 836,719 0.21 0.59 977,996 0.22 16.88 1,814,715 11,833,780 12,786,616 12,890,911 3.31 0.82 15,067,492 3.35 16.88 27,958,403 3,422,144 3,731,472 3,753,444 0.96 0.59 4,387,198 0.97 16.88 8,140,642 3,647,438 3,934,012 3,957,177 1.01 0.59 4,625,331 1.03 16.88 8,582,507 13,268,414 14,207,185 14,290,841 3.66 0.59 16,628,657 3.70 16.36 30,919,497 1,590,008 1,697,344 1,707,338 0.44 0.59 1,944,396 0.43 13.88 3,651,734 6,792,495 7,251,030 7,293,726 1.87 0.59 8,306,432 1.85 13.88 15,600,158 1,393,847 1,487,939 1,496,700 0.38 0.59 1,704,511 0.38 13.88 3,201,212 6,533,536 7,005,401 7,099,507 1.82 1.34 8,298,231 1.84 16.88 15,397,738 21,349,912 23,479,254 23,649,487 6.06 0.73 27,642,612 6.14 16.88 51,292,099 3,377,473 3,624,991 3,646,336 0.93 0.59 4,243,938 0.94 16.39 7,890,274 798,889 884,990 890,201 0.23 0.59 1,039,182 0.23 16.74 1,929,383 8,682,896 9,269,044 9,323,623 2.39 0.59 10,744,859 2.39 15.24 20,068,482 7,770,713 8,295,284 8,344,129 2.14 0.59 9,540,954 2.12 14.34 17,885,083 3,314,028 3,537,745 3,558,576 0.91 0.59 4,052,671 0.90 13.88 7,611,247 9,010,480 9,618,743 9,675,381 2.48 0.59 11,018,770 2.45 13.88 20,694,151 991,813 1,082,101 1,088,473 0.28 0.59 1,239,603 0.28 13.88 2,328,076 2,896,457 3,241,760 3,311,596 0.85 2.15 3,870,746 0.86 16.88 7,182,342 00 0 0 0 17,580,861 0 0 0 0 American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands 27,838 110,705 29,780 112,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SOURCES: 2000 decennial Census, Table SF-1, 100% data, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Current Population Survey, March 2002 Supplement, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.. NOTES: Formula allocation pursuant to 34 CFR Part 301, Subpart C, Allocation of Funds to States. Total 2004 appropriation of $390 million appears in the President’s Budget, House-passed bill, and Senate Committee bill. Board of Directors Raymond L. Watson, Chairman Vice Chairman of the Board The Irvine Company William K. Coblentz Senior Partner Coblentz, Patch, Duffy & Bass, LLP Edward K. Hamilton Chairman Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. Walter B. Hewlett Director Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities David W. Lyon President and CEO Public Policy Institute of California Cheryl White Mason Chief, Civil Liability Management Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office Arjay Miller Dean Emeritus Graduate School of Business Stanford University Ki Suh Park Design and Managing Partner Gruen Associates A. Alan Post Former State Legislative Analyst State of California Constance L. Rice Co-Director The Advancement Project Thomas C. Sutton Chairman and CEO Pacific Life Insurance Company Cynthia A. Telles Department of Psychiatry UCLA School of Medicine Carol Whiteside President Great Valley Center Harold M. Williams President Emeritus The J. Paul Getty Trust and Of Counsel Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP Advisory Council Clifford W. Graves Vice Chancellor, Physical Planning University of California, Merced Elizabeth G. Hill Legislative Analyst State of California Hilary W. Hoynes Associate Professor Department of Economics University of California, Davis Andrés E. Jiménez Director, California Policy Research Center University of California, Berkeley, Office of the President Rudolf Nothenberg Chief Administrative Officer (Retired) City and County of San Francisco Manuel Pastor Professor of Latin American & Latino Studies University of California, Santa Cruz Peter Schrag Contributing Editor The Sacramento Bee James P. Smith Senior Economist RAND California Institute for Federal Policy Research 419 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Basement Level Washington, DC 20003 Tel: 202/546-3700 Fax: 202/546-2390 www.calinst.org Public Policy Institute of California 500 Washington Street, Suite 800 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: 415/291-4400 Fax: 415/291-4401 www.ppic.org" ["post_date_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:37:00" ["comment_status"]=> string(4) "open" ["ping_status"]=> string(6) "closed" ["post_password"]=> string(0) "" ["post_name"]=> string(10) "ff_903trff" ["to_ping"]=> string(0) "" ["pinged"]=> string(0) "" ["post_modified"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 02:37:00" ["post_modified_gmt"]=> string(19) "2017-05-20 09:37:00" ["post_content_filtered"]=> string(0) "" ["guid"]=> string(52) "http://148.62.4.17/wp-content/uploads/FF_903TRFF.pdf" ["menu_order"]=> int(0) ["post_mime_type"]=> string(15) "application/pdf" ["comment_count"]=> string(1) "0" ["filter"]=> string(3) "raw" ["status"]=> string(7) "inherit" ["attachment_authors"]=> bool(false) }