Donate
PPIC Logo Independent, objective, nonpartisan research

Search Results

Filters Sort by:
blog post

Video: The Impact of Realignment on Recidivism

By Linda Strean

Public safety realignment has had a modest effect on recidivism, varying across counties and groups of offenders. These are the findings of a new PPIC report presented in Sacramento.

Report

Realignment and Recidivism in California

By Mia Bird, Ryken Grattet, Viet Nguyen

California has experienced significant changes in its criminal justice landscape since the 2011 implementation of public safety realignment—which shifted the management of lower-level offenders from the state prison and parole system to county jail and probation systems. The prison population has dropped dramatically, and though jail populations rose, overall incarceration levels have declined.

blog post

New Laws Expand Criminal Justice Reforms

By Brandon Martin, Justin Goss

The governor recently signed a number of bills that extend the state’s efforts to reform its adult and juvenile criminal justice system.

Report

California Probation in the Era of Reform

By Viet Nguyen, Ryken Grattet, Mia Bird

Recent reforms significantly altered the role of probation in California. In 2011, the state enacted public safety realignment, which shifted the management of lower-level felons from state prison and parole to...

Report

Pretrial Release in California

By Sonya Tafoya, Mia Bird, Ryken Grattet, Viet Nguyen

About 42% of individuals booked on misdemeanors or felonies are released pretrial. For less serious offenses, the most common form of release is cite and release; for more serious offenses, bail is predominant. Our analysis suggests there is room to improve California's pretrial system in a way that could lower incarceration without affecting public safety.

This research was supported with funding from the National Institute of Justice.

Report

Anticipating Changes in Regional Demand for Nursing Homes

By Laurel Beck, Landon Gibson

California’s nursing homes provide a major source of personal and medical care for the state’s most vulnerable residents—the elderly and the disabled. By 2030 the state’s 65-and-over population will grow by 87 percent. The number of people requiring skilled nursing care could increase by 32,000, far outstripping current capacities. We find that there will be significant disparities in regional growth rates across racial/ethnic groups and in regions’ abilities to absorb higher numbers of patients. Specifically:

  • The Bay Area and the Inland Empire have the largest discrepancies between existing nursing home capacity and projected demand in 2030; Los Angeles and Northern California (excluding the Bay Area) have the smallest.
  • Regional growth rates in the 65-and-over population vary widely within racial/ethnic groups. For example, rates among Latinos range from 159 percent on the state’s Southern Border (Imperial and San Diego Counties) to 193 percent in the Inland Empire; among Asians they range from 93 percent in the Central Coast to 212 percent in Northern California (excluding the Bay Area).

In order to meet the growing and changing demands for senior care at the statewide and regional levels, policymakers will need to address ways to increase nursing home capacity. These solutions must also include recruiting and training health workers who can provide effective, culturally competent care, whether in skilled nursing facilities or home- and community-based settings.

Report

California’s County Jails in the Era of Reform

By Sonya Tafoya, Mia Bird, Ryken Grattet, Viet Nguyen

California’s county jails have been profoundly affected by several reforms over the last decade. Most importantly, in 2011, public safety realignment shifted responsibility for large numbers of non-serious, non-violent, and non-sexual offenders from state prisons to county correctional systems. This lowered the state prison population—allowing prisons to prioritize beds for more serious offenders—but increased county jail populations. Three years later, Proposition 47 downgraded a range of drug and property offenses from potential felonies to misdemeanors. The reduced population pressure has allowed jails to prioritize beds for more serious drug and property offenders who are no longer eligible for prison.

Despite the growing importance of jails, little is known about the basic characteristics of jail populations. In this report, we analyze state and local data on individuals moving through county correctional systems. Using data from 11 counties, we find that:

  • Reforms altered the offender composition of the jail population, especially among those held on drug and property crimes. After three years under realignment, the number of drug and property offenders in jails increased by 55 percent and 40 percent, respectively. One year after the passage of Proposition 47, the number of drug and property offenders fell by 35 percent and 13 percent, respectively.
  • Length of stay for felony drug and property offenders increased after realignment. For example, median time served for felony drug offenders released in October 2011 was 45 days, compared to 98 days for those released in October 2015. However, length of stay for people who served time for misdemeanors and felony crimes against persons has remained stable.
  • Releases due to overcapacity rose under realignment and dropped after Proposition 47, when jail population pressure eased.
  • The demographic composition of jails has largely remained stable. But the age distribution does show modest signs of change: the share of those ages 18–21 in jail has decreased slightly, as the share of those in their 30s has increased.

As jail populations shift toward more serious drug and property offenders, counties and the state will need to consider how jail security and rehabilitative programs might be made more effective. While researchers and policymakers continue to examine the longer-term effects of realignment and Proposition 47, it is also important to keep in mind that the recent reprioritization of jail beds may have implications for crime and recidivism.

Report

Expanding Health Coverage in California: County Jails as Enrollment Sites

By Shannon McConville, Mia Bird

In 2014, the first year of Affordable Care Act (ACA) implementation, the number of Californians with health insurance increased substantially. However, millions of state residents continue to lack comprehensive health coverage, and those who remain uninsured are likely more difficult to enroll through traditional strategies.

In this report, we find that uninsured rates are highest for young men and for those with low levels of education, income, and employment. The prevalence of these same characteristics among correctional populations suggests that the justice system—and, in particular, county jails—may offer points of contact for many uninsured individuals who would otherwise be hard to reach.

Outreach and enrollment efforts aimed at local jail populations are set within the policy context of California’s 2011 Public Safety Realignment, which created incentives and resources for local corrections agencies to improve reentry outcomes. With expansions in access to health insurance coverage under the ACA, nearly all counties are establishing programs to provide enrollment assistance to jail inmates as part of a more comprehensive reentry strategy. But resources and capacity are limited, so it is important to identify effective models to maximize the potential of county correctional systems as sites of insurance enrollment.

Search results are limited to 100 items. Please use the Refine Results tool if you are not finding what you are looking for.