Julian Betts is an adjunct fellow at the Public Policy Institute of California and professor and former chair of the Department of Economics at the University of California, San Diego. He is also executive director of the San Diego Education Research Alliance. In addition, he serves as a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and UCSD campus director of the UC Educational Evaluation Center. He has published dozens of articles and reports on the link between student outcomes and measures of school spending and has studied the role that educational standards, accountability, teacher qualifications, and school choice play in student achievement. He is principal investigator for a federally mandated study of conversion magnet schools and also co-principal investigator of the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program. He holds a PhD in economics from Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.